Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 948

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Electronics and Communication Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

948 Film Sensors for the Harsh Environment Application

Authors: Wenmin Qu

Abstract:

A capacitance level sensor with a segmented film electrode and a thin-film volume flow sensor with an innovative by-pass sleeve are presented as industrial products for the application in a harsh environment. The working principle of such sensors is well known; however, the traditional sensors show some limitations for certain industrial measurements. The two new sensors presented in this paper overcome this limitation and enlarge the application spectrum. The problem is analyzed, and the solution is given. The emphasis of the paper is on developing the problem-solving concepts and the realization of the corresponding measuring circuits. These should give advice and encouragement, how we can still develop new electronic measuring products in an almost saturated market.

Keywords:

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
947 Indoor Visible Light Communication Channel Characterization for User Mobility: A Use-Case Study

Authors: Pooja Sanathkumar, Srinidhi Murali, Sethuraman TV, Saravanan M, Paventhan Arumugam, Ashwin Ashok

Abstract:

The last decade has witnessed a significant interest in visible light communication (VLC) technology, as VLC can potentially achieve high data rate links and secure communication channels. However, the use of VLC under mobile settings is fundamentally limited as its a line-of-sight (LOS) technology and there has been limited breakthroughs in realizing VLC for mobile settings. In this regard, this work targets to study the VLC channel under mobility. Through a use-case study analysis with experiment data traces this paper presents an empirical VLC channel study considering the application of VLC for smart lighting in an indoor room environment. This paper contributes a calibration study of a prototype VLC smart lighting system in an indoor environment and through the inferences gained from the calibration, and considering a user is carrying a mobile device fit with a VLC receiver, this work presents recommendations for user's position adjustments, with the goal to ensure maximum connectivity across the room.

Keywords: Mobility, Visible Light Communication, empirical study, channel characterization

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
946 On Body Wearable Microstrip Patch Antenna

Authors: Anushka Mohanty, Divyanshi Nath, Jessica Sadavarte, Tazeen Shaikh

Abstract:

This paper represents an on-body wearable antenna, with co-planar wave guide (CPW) feeding mechanism. The antenna operates at two frequencies: 2.4 GHz and 3.1 GHz with a return loss of -27.4665 dB and -21.0123 dB respectively. The antenna has a good bandwidth of 240 MHz and 320 MHz for the two operating frequencies. The antenna is designed using Rogers RT Duroid 5880 as substrate material with a dielectric constant of 2.2 and a height of 1.5mm. The antenna has been mounted on a skin phantom to observe the impact of SAR field value. The antenna is designed using software tool HFSS (High Frequency Structural Simulator) (Version 15).

Keywords: Antenna, SAR, WBAN, microstrip, HFSS, on-body, Rogers RT Duroid 5880

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
945 Uplink Throughput Prediction in Cellular Mobile Networks

Authors: Engin Eyceyurt, Josko Zec

Abstract:

The current and future cellular mobile communication networks generate enormous amounts of data. Networks have become extremely complex with extensive space of parameters, features and counters. These networks are unmanageable with legacy methods and an enhanced design and optimization approach is necessary that is increasingly reliant on machine learning. This paper proposes that machine learning as a viable approach for uplink throughput prediction. LTE radio metric, such as Reference Signal Received Power (RSRP), Reference Signal Received Quality (RSRQ), and Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) are used to train models to estimate expected uplink throughput. The prediction accuracy with high determination coefficient of 91.2% is obtained from measurements collected with a simple smartphone application.

Keywords: Machine Learning, LTE, drive test, uplink throughput prediction

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
944 Performance Analysis of 5G for Low Latency Transmission Based on Universal Filtered Multi-Carrier Technique and Interleave Division Multiple Access

Authors: A. Asgharzadeh, M. Maroufi

Abstract:

5G mobile communication system has drawn more and more attention. The 5G system needs to provide three different types of services, including enhanced MBB (eMBB), massive machine-type communication (mMTC), and ultra-reliable and low-latency communication (URLLC). New waveforms with new features, such as Universal Filtered Multi-Carrier (UFMC), Filter Bank Multicarrier (FBMC), and f-OFDM (Filtered Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) are studied and proposed to be the candidate waveform for the coming 5G system. The machine-to-machine (M2M) communications are one of the essential applications in 5G, and it involves exchanging of concise messages with a very short latency. However, in UFMC systems, the subcarriers are grouped into subbands but f-OFDM only one subband covering the entire band. Furthermore, in FBMC, a subband includes only one subcarrier, and the number of subbands is the same as the number of subcarriers. This paper mainly discusses the performance of UFMC with different parameters for the UFMC system. Also, paper shows UFMC is the best choice outperforming OFDM in any case and FBMC in case of very short packets while performing similarly for long sequences with channel estimation techniques for Interleave Division Multiple Access (IDMA) systems.

Keywords: subband, IDMA, UFMC, universal filtered multi-carrier technique, interleave division multiple access, fifth-generation

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
943 A Low-Cost Memristor Based on Hybrid Structures of Metal-Oxide Quantum Dots and Thin Films

Authors: Amir Shariffar, Haider Salman, Tanveer Siddique, Omar Manasreh

Abstract:

According to the recent studies on metal-oxide memristors, researchers tend to improve the stability, endurance, and uniformity of resistive switching (RS) behavior in memristors. Specifically, the main challenge is to prevent abrupt ruptures in the memristor’s filament during the RS process. To address this problem, we are proposing a low-cost hybrid structure of metal oxide quantum dots (QDs) and thin films to control the formation of filaments in memristors. We aim to use metal oxide quantum dots because of their unique electronic properties and quantum confinement, which may improve the resistive switching behavior. QDs have discrete energy spectra due to electron confinement in three-dimensional space. Because of Coulomb repulsion between electrons, only a few free electrons are contained in a quantum dot. This fact might guide the growth direction for the conducting filaments in the metal oxide memristor. As a result, it is expected that QDs can improve the endurance and uniformity of RS behavior in memristors. Moreover, we use a hybrid structure of intrinsic n-type quantum dots and p-type thin films to introduce a potential barrier at the junction that can smooth the transition between high and low resistance states. A bottom-up approach is used for fabricating the proposed memristor using different types of metal-oxide QDs and thin films. We synthesize QDs including, zinc oxide, molybdenum trioxide, and nickel oxide combined with spin-coated thin films of titanium dioxide, copper oxide, and hafnium dioxide. We employ fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass as the substrate for deposition and bottom electrode. Then, the active layer composed of one type of quantum dots, and the opposite type of thin films is spin-coated onto the FTO. Lastly, circular gold electrodes are deposited with a shadow mask by using electron-beam (e-beam) evaporation at room temperature. The fabricated devices are characterized using a probe station with a semiconductor parameter analyzer. The current-voltage (I-V) characterization is analyzed for each device to determine the conduction mechanism. We evaluate the memristor’s performance in terms of stability, endurance, and retention time to identify the optimal memristive structure. Finally, we assess the proposed hypothesis before we proceed to the optimization process for fabricating the memristor.

Keywords: Quantum Dot, thin film, memristor, resistive switching

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
942 Polarization Insensitive Absorber with Increased Bandwidth Using Multilayer Metamaterial

Authors: Srilaxmi Gangula, Mahalakshmi Vinukonda, Neeraj Rao

Abstract:

A wide band polarization insensitive metamaterial absorber with bandwidth enhancement in X and C band is proposed. The structure proposed here consists of a periodic unit cell of resonator arrangements in double layer. The proposed structure shows near unity absorption at frequencies of 6.21 GHz and 10.372 GHz spreading over a bandwidth of 1 GHz and 6.21 GHz respectively in X and C bands. The proposed metamaterial absorber is designed so as to increase the bandwidth. The proposed structure is also independent for TE and TM polarization. Because of its simple implementation, near unity absorption and wide bandwidth this dual band polarization insensitive metamaterial absorber can be used for EMI/EMC applications.

Keywords: Multilayer, Metamaterial, X-Band, C-band, absorber

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
941 Experimental Demonstration of an Ultra-Low Power Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser for Optical Power Generation

Authors: S. Nazhan, Hassan K. Al-Musawi, Khalid A. Humood

Abstract:

This paper reports on an experimental investigation into the influence of current modulation on the properties of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) with a direct square wave modulation. The optical output power response, as a function of the pumping current, modulation frequency, and amplitude, is measured for an 850 nm VCSEL. We demonstrate that modulation frequency and amplitude play important roles in reducing the VCSEL's power consumption for optical generation. Indeed, even when the biasing current is below the static threshold, the VCSEL emits optical power under the square wave modulation. The power consumed by the device to generate light is significantly reduced to > 50%, which is below the threshold current, in response to both the modulation frequency and amplitude. An operating VCSEL device at low power is very desirable for less thermal effects, which are essential for a high-speed modulation bandwidth.

Keywords: Power Consumption, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, VCSELs, optical power generation, square wave modulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
940 Benefits of Hybrid Mix in Renewable Energy and Integration with E-Efficient Compositions

Authors: Ahmed Khalil

Abstract:

Increased energy demands around the world have led to the raise in power production which has resulted with more greenhouse gas emissions through fossil sources. These fossil sources and emissions cause deterioration in echo-system. Therefore, renewable energy sources come to the scene as echo-friendly and clean energy sourcing, whereas the electrical devices and energy needs decrease in the timeline. Each of these renewable energy sources contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gases and mitigate environmental deterioration. However, there are also some general and source-specific challenges, which influence the choice of the investors. The most prominent general challenge that effects end-users’ comfort and reliability is usually determined as the intermittence which derives from the diversions of source conditions, due to nature dynamics and uncontrolled periodic changes. Research and development professionals strive to mitigate intermittence challenge through material improvement for each renewable source whereas hybrid source mix stand as a solution. This solution prevails well, when single renewable technologies are upgraded further. On the other hand, integration of energy efficient devices and systems, raise the affirmative effect of such solution in means of less energy requirement in sustainability composition or scenario. This paper provides a glimpse on the advantages of composing renewable source mix versus single usage, with contribution of sampled e-efficient systems and devices. Accordingly it demonstrates the extended benefits, through planning and predictive estimation stages of Ahmadi Town Projects in Kuwait.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, e-efficient systems, hybrid source, intermittence challenge

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
939 Jitter Based Reconstruction of Transmission Line Pulse Using On-Chip Sensor

Authors: Bhuvnesh Narayanan, Bernhard Weiss, Tvrtko Mandic, Adrijan Baric

Abstract:

This paper discusses a method to reconstruct internal high-frequency signals through subsampling techniques in an IC using an on-chip sensor. Though there are existing methods to internally probe and reconstruct high frequency signals through subsampling techniques; these methods have been applicable mainly for synchronized systems. This paper demonstrates a method for making such non-intrusive on-chip reconstructions possible also in non-synchronized systems. The TLP pulse is used to demonstrate the experimental validation of the concept. The on-chip sensor measures the voltage in an internal node. The jitter in the input pulse causes a varying pulse delay with respect to the on-chip sampling command. By measuring this pulse delay and by correlating it with the measured on-chip voltage, time domain waveforms can be reconstructed, and the influence of the pulse on the internal nodes can be better understood.

Keywords: jitter, on-chip sensor, transmission line pulse, subsampling

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
938 Efficiency Improvement of REV-Method for Calibration of Phased Array Antennas

Authors: Daniel Hristov

Abstract:

The paper describes the principle of operation, simulation and physical validation of method for simultaneous acquisition of gain and phase states of multiple antenna elements and the corresponding feed lines across a Phased Array Antenna (PAA). The derived values for gain and phase are used for PAA-calibration. The method utilizes the Rotating-Element Electric- Field Vector (REV) principle currently used for gain and phase state estimation of single antenna element across an active antenna aperture. A significant reduction of procedure execution time is achieved with simultaneous setting of different phase delays to multiple phase shifters, followed by a single power measurement. The initial gain and phase states are calculated using spectral and correlation analysis of the measured power series.

Keywords: Antenna arrays, Antenna, Calibration, Power Measurement, phase measurement

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
937 Comparative Analysis of Universal Filtered Multi Carrier and Filtered Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Systems for Wireless Communications

Authors: Raja Rajeswari K

Abstract:

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM), a multi Carrier transmission technique that has been used in implementing the majority of wireless applications like Wireless Network Protocol Standards (like IEEE 802.11a, IEEE 802.11n), in telecommunications (like LTE, LTE-Advanced) and also in Digital Audio & Video Broadcast standards. The latest research and development in the area of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing, Universal Filtered Multi Carrier (UFMC) & Filtered OFDM (F-OFDM) has attracted lots of attention for wideband wireless communications. In this paper UFMC & F-OFDM system are implemented and comparative analysis are carried out in terms of M-ary QAM modulation scheme over Dolph-chebyshev filter & rectangular window filter and to estimate Bit Error Rate (BER) over Rayleigh fading channel.

Keywords: BER, UFMC, F-OFDM, M-ary QAM

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
936 Temperature Dependence of the Optoelectronic Properties of InAs(Sb)-Based LED Heterostructures

Authors: Antonina Semakova, Nikolai Bazhenov, Anton Chernyaev, Sergei Kizhaev, Nikolai Stoyanov, Karim Mynbaev

Abstract:

At present, heterostructures are used for fabrication of almost all types of optoelectronic devices. Our research focuses on the optoelectronic properties of InAs(Sb) solid solutions that are widely used in fabrication of light emitting diodes (LEDs) operating in middle wavelength infrared range (MWIR). This spectral range (2-6 μm) is relevant for laser diode spectroscopy of gases and molecules, for systems for the detection of explosive substances, medical applications, and for environmental monitoring. The fabrication of MWIR LEDs that operate efficiently at room temperature is mainly hindered by the predominance of non-radiative Auger recombination of charge carriers over the process of radiative recombination, which makes practical application of LEDs difficult. However, non-radiative recombination can be partly suppressed in quantum-well structures. In this regard, studies of such structures are quite topical. In this work, electroluminescence (EL) of LED heterostructures based on InAs(Sb) epitaxial films with the molar fraction of InSb ranging from 0 to 0.09 and multi quantum-well (MQW) structures was studied in the temperature range 4.2-300 K. The growth of the heterostructures was performed by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition on InAs substrates. On top of the active layer, a wide-bandgap InAsSb(Ga,P) barrier was formed. At low temperatures (4.2-100 K) stimulated emission was observed. As the temperature increased, the emission became spontaneous. The transition from stimulated emission to spontaneous one occurred at different temperatures for structures with different InSb contents in the active region. The temperature-dependent carrier lifetime, limited by radiative recombination and the most probable Auger processes (for the materials under consideration, CHHS and CHCC), were calculated within the framework of the Kane model. The effect of various recombination processes on the carrier lifetime was studied, and the dominant role of Auger processes was established. For MQW structures quantization energies for electrons, light and heavy holes were calculated. A characteristic feature of the experimental EL spectra of these structures was the presence of peaks with energy different from that of calculated optical transitions between the first quantization levels for electrons and heavy holes. The obtained results showed strong effect of the specific electronic structure of InAsSb on the energy and intensity of optical transitions in nanostructures based on this material. For the structure with MQWs in the active layer, a very weak temperature dependence of EL peak was observed at high temperatures (>150 K), which makes it attractive for fabricating temperature-resistant gas sensors operating in the middle-infrared range.

Keywords: Quantum Wells, electroluminescence, light emitting diode, InAsSb

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
935 Graphene-Based Reconfigurable Lens Antenna for 5G/6G and Satellite Networks

Authors: André Lages, Victor Dmitriev, Juliano Bazzo, Gianni Portela

Abstract:

This work evaluates the feasibility of the graphene application to perform as a wideband reconfigurable material for lens antennas in 5G/6G and satellite applications. Based on transformation optics principles, the electromagnetic waves can be efficiently guided by modifying the effective refractive index. Graphene behavior can range between a lossy dielectric and a good conductor due to the variation of its chemical potential bias, thus arising as a promising solution for electromagnetic devices. The graphene properties and a lens antenna comprising multiples layers and periodic arrangements of graphene patches were analyzed using full-wave simulations. A dipole directivity was improved from 7 to 18.5 dBi at 29 GHz. In addition, the realized gain was enhanced 7 dB across a 14 GHz bandwidth within the Ka/5G band.

Keywords: Satellite, Graphene, Reconfigurable, lens

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
934 Inverse Problem Method for Microwave Intrabody Medical Imaging

Authors: J. Chamorro-Servent, S. Tassani, J. Romeu, O. Camara, M. A. Gonzalez-Ballester, L. J. Roca

Abstract:

Electromagnetic and microwave imaging (MWI) have been used in medical imaging in the last years, being the most common applications of breast cancer and stroke detection or monitoring. In those applications, the subject or zone to observe is surrounded by a number of antennas, and the Nyquist criterium can be satisfied. Additionally, the space between the antennas (transmitting and receiving the electromagnetic fields) and the zone to study can be prepared in a homogeneous scenario. However, this may differ in other cases as could be intracardiac catheters, stomach monitoring devices, pelvic organ systems, liver ablation monitoring devices, or uterine fibroids’ ablation systems. In this work, we analyzed different MWI algorithms to find the most suitable method for dealing with an intrabody scenario. Due to the space limitations usually confronted on those applications, the device would have a cylindrical configuration of a maximum of eight transmitters and eight receiver antennas. This together with the positioning of the supposed device inside a body tract impose additional constraints in order to choose a reconstruction method; for instance, it inhabitants the use of well-known algorithms such as filtered backpropagation for diffraction tomography (due to the unusual configuration with probes enclosed by the imaging region). Finally, the difficulty of simulating a realistic non-homogeneous background inside the body (due to the incomplete knowledge of the dielectric properties of other tissues between the antennas’ position and the zone to observe), also prevents the use of Born and Rytov algorithms due to their limitations with a heterogeneous background. Instead, we decided to use a time-reversed algorithm (mostly used in geophysics) due to its characteristics of ignoring heterogeneities in the background medium, and of focusing its generated field onto the scatters. Therefore, a 2D time-reversed finite difference time domain was developed based on the time-reversed approach for microwave breast cancer detection. Simultaneously an in-silico testbed was also developed to compare ground-truth dielectric properties with corresponding microwave imaging reconstruction. Forward and inverse problems were computed varying: the frequency used related to a small zone to observe (7, 7.5 and 8 GHz); a small polyp diameter (5, 7 and 10 mm); two polyp positions with respect to the closest antenna (aligned or disaligned); and the (transmitters-to-receivers) antenna combination used for the reconstruction (1-1, 8-1, 8-8 or 8-3). Results indicate that when using the existent time-reversed method for breast cancer here for the different combinations of transmitters and receivers, we found false positives due to the high degrees of freedom and unusual configuration (and the possible violation of Nyquist criterium). Those false positives founded in 8-1 and 8-8 combinations, highly reduced with the 1-1 and 8-3 combination, being the 8-3 configuration de most suitable (three neighboring receivers at each time). The 8-3 configuration creates a region-of-interest reduced problem, decreasing the ill-posedness of the inverse problem. To conclude, the proposed algorithm solves the main limitations of the described intrabody application, successfully detecting the angular position of targets inside the body tract.

Keywords: Medical Imaging, Microwave Imaging, FDTD, time-reversed

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
933 Progress and Challenges of Smart Cities in India: An Exploratory Study

Authors: Sushil K. Sharma, Jeff Zhang, Saeed Tabar

Abstract:

Worldwide, several governments are utilizing the Internet of Things (IoT) and other information and communication technologies (ICTs) to create smart city infrastructures to improve both the quality of government services and citizen welfare. Over 700 cities from around the world have already started implementing their smart city projects. Smart City utilizes the network of connected things, or the Internet of Things (IoT), that interconnects devices and various components across city infrastructure, making them work together seamlessly to enhance the quality, performance, and interactivity of urban services, optimize resources, and reduce costs. Without developing smart cities, the accelerating growth of cities, and their disproportionate consumption of physical and social resources are unsustainable. In 2016, the Indian Government released a list of 100 cities with the intention of kick-starting the process of developing them into 'smart cities’ as part of the Smart Cities Mission. This study reports the progress and challenges of Smart City projects in India. The data were collected through the city/state government websites, media reports, and focus group discussions/interviews. The preliminary results indicate that smart city projects are not only behind in their implementation and scope but also lacks the sincerity for its implementation.

Keywords: Internet of Things, Digital government, Smart City, smart government

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
932 Study and Design of Novel Structure of Circularly Polarized Dual Band Microstrip Antenna Fed by Hybrid Coupler for RFID Applications

Authors: A. Sardi, Ahmed Mouhsen, M. Taouzari, J. El Aoufi

Abstract:

The purpose of this work is to design a reader antenna fed by 90° hybrid coupler that would ensure a tag which is detected regardless of its orientation for the radio frequency identification system covering the UHF and ISM bands frequencies. Based on this idea, the proposed work is dividing in two parts, first part is about study and design hybrid coupler using the resonators planar called T-and Pi networks operating in commercial bands. In the second part, the proposed antenna fed by the hybrid coupler is designed on FR4 substrate with dielectric permittivity 4.4, thickness dielectric 1.6mm and loss tangent 0.025. The T-slot is inserted in patch of the proposed antenna fed by the hybrid coupler is first designed, optimized and simulated using electromagnetic simulator ADS and then simulated in a full wave simulation software CST Microwave Studio. The simulated antenna by the both softwares achieves the expected performances in terms of matching, pattern radiation, phase shifting, gain and size.

Keywords: RFID, Polarization, radiation pattern, dual band antenna, hybrid coupler

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
931 Improving the Frequency Response of a Circular Dual-Mode Resonator with a Reconfigurable Bandwidth

Authors: Muhammad Haitham Albahnassi, Adnan Malki, Shokri Almekdad

Abstract:

In this paper, a method for reconfiguring bandwidth in a circular dual-mode resonator is presented. The method concerns the optimized geometry of a structure that may be used to host the tuning elements, which are typically RF (Radio Frequency) switches. The tuning elements themselves, and their performance during tuning, are not the focus of this paper. The designed resonator is able to reconfigure its fractional bandwidth by adjusting the inter-coupling level between the degenerate modes, while at the same time improving its response by adjusting the external-coupling level and keeping the center frequency fixed. The inter-coupling level has been adjusted by changing the dimensions of the perturbation element, while the external-coupling level has been adjusted by changing one of the feeder dimensions. The design was arrived at via optimization. Agreeing simulation and measurement results of the designed and implemented filters showed good improvements in return loss values and the stability of the center frequency.

Keywords: software defined radio, Perturbation Theory, dual-mode resonators, reconfigurable filters, cognitine radio

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
930 A Quantitative Model for Replacement of Medical Equipment Based on Technical and Environmental Factors

Authors: Ghadeer Mohammad Said El-Sheikh, Samer Mohamad Shalhoob

Abstract:

Medical equipment operation state is a valid reflection of health care organizations' performance, where such equipment highly contributes to the quality of healthcare services on several levels in which quality improvement has become an intrinsic part of the discourse and activities of health care services. In healthcare organizations, clinical and biomedical engineering departments play an essential role in maintaining the safety and efficiency of such equipment. One of the most challenging topics when it comes to such sophisticated equipment is the lifespan of medical equipment, where many factors will impact such characteristics of medical equipment through its life cycle. So far, many attempts have been made in order to address this issue where most of the approaches are kind of arbitrary approaches and one of the criticisms of existing approaches trying to estimate and understand the lifetime of a medical equipment lies under the inquiry of what are the environmental factors that can play into such a critical characteristic of a medical equipment. In an attempt to address this shortcoming, the purpose of our study rises where in addition to the standard technical factors taken into consideration through the decision-making process by a clinical engineer in case of medical equipment failure, the dimension of environmental factors shall be added. The investigations, researches and studies applied for the purpose of supporting the decision making process by a clinical engineers and assessing the lifespan of healthcare equipment’s in the Lebanese society was highly dependent on the identification of technical criteria’s that impacts the lifespan of a medical equipment where the affecting environmental factors didn’t receive the proper attention. The objective of our study is based on the need for introducing a new well-designed plan for evaluating medical equipment depending on two dimensions. According to this approach, the equipment that should be replaced or repaired will be classified based on a systematic method taking into account two essential criteria; the standard identified technical criteria and the added environmental criteria.

Keywords: Healthcare, Environmental, technical, characteristic of medical equipment

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
929 Impairments Correction of Six-Port Based Millimeter-Wave Radar

Authors: Dan Ohev Zion, Alon Cohen

Abstract:

In recent years, the presence of short range millimeter-wave radar in civil application has increased significantly. Autonomous driving, security, 3D imaging and high data rate communication systems are a few examples. The next challenge is the integration inside small form-factor devices, such as smartphones (e.g. gesture recognition). The main challenge is implementation of a truly low-power, low-complexity high resolution Radar. The most popular approach is the Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) Radar, with an analog multiplication front-end. In this paper we present a novel approach for adaptive estimation and correction of impairments of such front-end, specifically implemented using the Six-Port Device (SPD) as the multiplier element. The proposed algorithm was simulated and implemented on a 60-GHz Radar lab prototype

Keywords: Radar, FMCW Radar, IQ mismatch, six port

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
928 Smart Brain Wave Sensor for Paralyzed- a Real Time Implementation

Authors: U.B Mahadevswamy UBM, Siraj Ahmed Siraj

Abstract:

As the title of the paper indicates about brainwaves and its uses for various applications based on their frequencies and different parameters which can be implemented as real time application with the title a smart brain wave sensor system for paralyzed patients. Brain wave sensing is to detect a person's mental status. The purpose of brain wave sensing is to give exact treatment to paralyzed patients. The data or signal is obtained from the brainwaves sensing band. This data are converted as object files using Visual Basics. The processed data is further sent to Arduino which has the human's behavioral aspects like emotions, sensations, feelings, and desires. The proposed device can sense human brainwaves and detect the percentage of paralysis that the person is suffering. The advantage of this paper is to give a real-time smart sensor device for paralyzed patients with paralysis percentage for their exact treatment. Keywords:-Brainwave sensor, BMI, Brain scan, EEG, MCH.

Keywords: eeg, BMI, Keywords:-Brainwave sensor, Brain scan, MCH

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
927 Speech Intelligibility Improvement Using Variable Level Decomposition DWT

Authors: Manoj Tripathy, Samba Raju, Chiluveru

Abstract:

Intelligibility is an essential characteristic of a speech signal, which is used to help in the understanding of information in speech signal. Background noise in the environment can deteriorate the intelligibility of a recorded speech. In this paper, we presented a simple variance subtracted - variable level discrete wavelet transform, which improve the intelligibility of speech. The proposed algorithm does not require an explicit estimation of noise, i.e., prior knowledge of the noise; hence, it is easy to implement, and it reduces the computational burden. The proposed algorithm decides a separate decomposition level for each frame based on signal dominant and dominant noise criteria. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated with speech intelligibility measure (STOI), and results obtained are compared with Universal Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) thresholding and Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE) methods. The experimental results revealed that the proposed scheme outperformed competing methods

Keywords: Speech Intelligibility, discrete wavelet transform, standard deviation, STOI

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
926 Big Data in Telecom Industry: Effective Predictive Techniques on Call Detail Records

Authors: Sara ElElimy, Samir Moustafa

Abstract:

Mobile network operators start to face many challenges in the digital era, especially with high demands from customers. Since mobile network operators are considered a source of big data, traditional techniques are not effective with new era of big data, Internet of things (IoT) and 5G; as a result, handling effectively different big datasets becomes a vital task for operators with the continuous growth of data and moving from long term evolution (LTE) to 5G. So, there is an urgent need for effective Big data analytics to predict future demands, traffic, and network performance to full fill the requirements of the fifth generation of mobile network technology. In this paper, we introduce data science techniques using machine learning and deep learning algorithms: the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA), Bayesian-based curve fitting, and recurrent neural network (RNN) are employed for a data-driven application to mobile network operators. The main framework included in models are identification parameters of each model, estimation, prediction, and final data-driven application of this prediction from business and network performance applications. These models are applied to Telecom Italia Big Data challenge call detail records (CDRs) datasets. The performance of these models is found out using a specific well-known evaluation criteria shows that ARIMA (machine learning-based model) is more accurate as a predictive model in such a dataset than the RNN (deep learning model).

Keywords: Machine Learning, Big data analytics, CDRs

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
925 Characterization of Carbazole-Based Host Material for Highly Efficient Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence Emitter

Authors: Malek Mahmoudi, Jonas Keruckas, Dmytro Volyniuk, Jurate Simokaitiene, Juozas V. Grazulevicius

Abstract:

Host materials have been discovered as one of the most appealing methods for harvesting triplet states in organic materials for application in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The ideal host-guest system for emission in thermally delayed fluorescence OLEDs with 20% guest concentration for efficient energy transfer has been demonstrated in the present investigation. In this work, 3,3'-bis[9-(4-fluorophenyl) carbazole] (bFPC) has been used as the host, which induces balanced charge carrier transport for high-efficiency OLEDs.For providing a complete characterization of the synthesized compound, photophysical, photoelectrical, charge-transporting, and electrochemical properties of the compound have been examined. Excited-state lifetimes and singlet-triplet energy gaps were measured for characterization of photophysical properties, while thermogravimetric analysis, as well as differential scanning calorimetry measurements, were performed for probing of electrochemical and thermal properties of the compound. The electrochemical properties of this compound were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) method, and ionization potential (IPCV) value of 5.68 eV was observed. UV–Vis absorption and photoluminescence spectrum of a solution of the compound in toluene (10-5 M) showed maxima at 302 and 405 nm, respectively. Photoelectron emission spectrometry was used for the characterization of charge-injection properties of the studied compound in solid. The ionization potential of this material was found to be 5.78 eV, and time-of-flight measurement was used for testing charge-transporting properties and hole mobility estimated using this technique in a vacuum-deposited layer reached 4×10-4 cm2 V-1s-1. Since the compound with high charge mobilities was tested as a host in an organic light-emitting diode. The device was fabricated by successive deposition onto a pre-cleaned indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate under a vacuum of 10-6 Torr and consisting of an indium-tin-oxide anode, hole injection and transporting layer(MoO3, NPB), emitting layer with bFPC as a host and 4CzIPN (2,4,5,6-tetra(9-carbazolyl)isophthalonitrile) which is a new highly efficient green thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) material as an emitter, an electron transporting layer(TPBi) and lithium fluoride layer topped with aluminum layer as a cathode exhibited the highest maximum current efficiency and power efficiency of 33.9 cd/A and 23.5 lm/W, respectively and the electroluminescence spectrum showed only a peak at 512nm. Furthermore, the new bicarbazole-based compound was tested as a host in thermally activated delayed fluorescence organic light-emitting diodes are reaching luminance of 25300 cd m-2 and external quantum efficiency of 10.1%. Interestingly, the turn-on voltage was low enough (3.8 V), and such a device can be used for highly efficient light sources.

Keywords: electroluminescence, thermally-activated delayed fluorescence, host material, ionization energy, charge mobility

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
924 Real-Time Pedestrian Detection Method Based on Improved YOLOv3

Authors: Yong Wang, Ying Wang, Jingting Luo

Abstract:

Pedestrian detection in image or video data is a very important and challenging task in security surveillance. The difficulty of this task is to locate and detect pedestrians of different scales in complex scenes accurately. To solve these problems, a deep neural network (RT-YOLOv3) is proposed to realize real-time pedestrian detection at different scales in security monitoring. RT-YOLOv3 improves the traditional YOLOv3 algorithm. Firstly, the deep residual network is added to extract vehicle features. Then six convolutional neural networks with different scales are designed and fused with the corresponding scale feature maps in the residual network to form the final feature pyramid to perform pedestrian detection tasks. This method can better characterize pedestrians. In order to further improve the accuracy and generalization ability of the model, a hybrid pedestrian data set training method is used to extract pedestrian data from the VOC data set and train with the INRIA pedestrian data set. Experiments show that the proposed RT-YOLOv3 method achieves 93.57% accuracy of mAP (mean average precision) and 46.52f/s (number of frames per second). In terms of accuracy, RT-YOLOv3 performs better than Fast R-CNN, Faster R-CNN, YOLO, SSD, YOLOv2, and YOLOv3. This method reduces the missed detection rate and false detection rate, improves the positioning accuracy, and meets the requirements of real-time detection of pedestrian objects.

Keywords: Pedestrian Detection, feature detection, convolutional neural network, real-time detection, YOLOv3

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
923 Automatic Adjustment of Thresholds via Closed-Loop Feedback Mechanism for Solder Paste Inspection

Authors: Chia-Chen Wei, Pack Hsieh, Jeffrey Chen

Abstract:

Surface Mount Technology (SMT) is widely used in the area of the electronic assembly in which the electronic components are mounted to the surface of the printed circuit board (PCB). Most of the defects in the SMT process are mainly related to the quality of solder paste printing. These defects lead to considerable manufacturing costs in the electronics assembly industry. Therefore, the solder paste inspection (SPI) machine for controlling and monitoring the amount of solder paste printing has become an important part of the production process. So far, the setting of the SPI threshold is based on statistical analysis and experts’ experiences to determine the appropriate threshold settings. Because the production data are not normal distribution and there are various variations in the production processes, defects related to solder paste printing still occur. In order to solve this problem, this paper proposes an online machine learning algorithm, called the automatic threshold adjustment (ATA) algorithm, and closed-loop architecture in the SMT process to determine the best threshold settings. Simulation experiments prove that our proposed threshold settings improve the accuracy from 99.85% to 100%.

Keywords: Big data analytics, Surface Mount Technology, Industry 4.0, SPI threshold setting

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
922 Slice Bispectrogram Analysis-Based Classification of Environmental Sounds Using Convolutional Neural Network

Authors: Katsumi Hirata

Abstract:

Certain systems can function well only if they recognize the sound environment as humans do. In this research, we focus on sound classification by adopting a convolutional neural network and aim to develop a method that automatically classifies various environmental sounds. Although the neural network is a powerful technique, the performance depends on the type of input data. Therefore, we propose an approach via a slice bispectrogram, which is a third-order spectrogram and is a slice version of the amplitude for the short-time bispectrum. This paper explains the slice bispectrogram and discusses the effectiveness of the derived method by evaluating the experimental results using the ESC‑50 sound dataset. As a result, the proposed scheme gives high accuracy and stability. Furthermore, some relationship between the accuracy and non-Gaussianity of sound signals was confirmed.

Keywords: bispectrum, convolutional neural network, spectrogram, environmental sound, slice bispectrogram

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
921 Comparative Analysis of Dissimilarity Detection between Binary Images Based on Equivalency and Non-Equivalency of Image Inversion

Authors: Adnan A. Y. Mustafa

Abstract:

Image matching is a fundamental problem that arises frequently in many aspects of robot and computer vision. It can become a time-consuming process when matching images to a database consisting of hundreds of images, especially if the images are big. One approach to reducing the time complexity of the matching process is to reduce the search space in a pre-matching stage, by simply removing dissimilar images quickly. The Probabilistic Matching Model for Binary Images (PMMBI) showed that dissimilarity detection between binary images can be accomplished quickly by random pixel mapping and is size invariant. The model is based on the gamma binary similarity distance that recognizes an image and its inverse as containing the same scene and hence considers them to be the same image. However, in many applications, an image and its inverse are not treated as being the same but rather dissimilar. In this paper, we present a comparative analysis of dissimilarity detection between PMMBI based on the gamma binary similarity distance and a modified PMMBI model based on a similarity distance that does distinguish between an image and its inverse as being dissimilar.

Keywords: binary image, dissimilarity detection, probabilistic matching model for binary images, image mapping

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
920 Improving Fake News Detection Using K-means and Support Vector Machine Approaches

Authors: Jingyu Hou, Kasra Majbouri Yazdi, Adel Majbouri Yazdi, Saeid Khodayi, Wanlei Zhou, Saeed Saedy

Abstract:

Fake news and false information are big challenges of all types of media, especially social media. There is a lot of false information, fake likes, views and duplicated accounts as big social networks such as Facebook and Twitter admitted. Most information appearing on social media is doubtful and in some cases misleading. They need to be detected as soon as possible to avoid a negative impact on society. The dimensions of the fake news datasets are growing rapidly, so to obtain a better result of detecting false information with less computation time and complexity, the dimensions need to be reduced. One of the best techniques of reducing data size is using feature selection method. The aim of this technique is to choose a feature subset from the original set to improve the classification performance. In this paper, a feature selection method is proposed with the integration of K-means clustering and Support Vector Machine (SVM) approaches which work in four steps. First, the similarities between all features are calculated. Then, features are divided into several clusters. Next, the final feature set is selected from all clusters, and finally, fake news is classified based on the final feature subset using the SVM method. The proposed method was evaluated by comparing its performance with other state-of-the-art methods on several specific benchmark datasets and the outcome showed a better classification of false information for our work. The detection performance was improved in two aspects. On the one hand, the detection runtime process decreased, and on the other hand, the classification accuracy increased because of the elimination of redundant features and the reduction of datasets dimensions.

Keywords: Social Media, Machine Learning, Clustering, Feature selection, support vector machine, fake news detection

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
919 Magnetic Simulation of the Underground Electric Cable in the Presence of a Short Circuit and Harmonics

Authors: Farid Benhamida, Ahmed Nour El Islam Ayad, Wafa Krika, Abdelghani Ayad, Moulay Larab, Houari Boudjella

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the magnetic emission of underground electric cable of high voltage, because these power lines generate electromagnetic interaction with other objects near to it. The aim of this work shows a numerical simulation of the magnetic field of buried 400 kV line in three cases: permanent and transient states of short circuit and the last case with the presence of the harmonics at different positions as a function of time variation, with finite element resolution using Comsol Multiphysics software. The results obtained showed that the amplitude and distribution of the magnetic flux density change in the transient state and the presence of harmonics. The results of this work calculate the magnetic field generated by the underground lines in order to evaluate and know their impact on ecology and health.

Keywords: Underground, Emission, harmonic, electric power cables, cables crossing

Procedia PDF Downloads 3