Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 213

Search results for: private veto protocol

213 A Proxy Multi-Signature Scheme with Anonymous Vetoable Delegation

Authors: Pei-yih Ting, Dream-Ming Huang, Xiao-Wei Huang

Abstract:

Frequently a group of people jointly decide and authorize a specific person as a representative in some business/poitical occasions, e.g., the board of a company authorizes the chief executive officer to close a multi-billion acquisition deal. In this paper, an integrated proxy multi-signature scheme that allows anonymously vetoable delegation is proposed. This protocol integrates mechanisms of private veto, distributed proxy key generation, secure transmission of proxy key, and existentially unforgeable proxy multi-signature scheme. First, a provably secure Guillou-Quisquater proxy signature scheme is presented, then the “zero-sharing" protocol is extended over a composite modulus multiplicative group, and finally the above two are combined to realize the GQ proxy multi-signature with anonymously vetoable delegation. As a proxy signature scheme, this protocol protects both the original signers and the proxy signer. The modular design allows simplified implementation with less communication overheads and better computation performance than a general secure multi-party protocol.

Keywords: GQ proxy signature, proxy multi-signature, zero-sharing protocol, secure multi-party protocol, private veto protocol

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212 Impact of Proposed Modal Shift from Private Users to Bus Rapid Transit System: An Indian City Case Study

Authors: Rakesh Kumar, Fatima Electricwala

Abstract:

One of the major thrusts of the Bus Rapid Transit System is to reduce the commuter’s dependency on private vehicles and increase the shares of public transport to make urban transportation system environmentally sustainable. In this study, commuter mode choice analysis is performed that examines behavioral responses to the proposed Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS) in Surat, with estimation of the probable shift from private mode to public mode. Further, evaluation of the BRTS scenarios, using Surat’s transportation ecological footprint was done. A multi-modal simulation model was developed in Biogeme environment to explicitly consider private users behaviors and non-linear environmental impact. The data of the different factors (variables) and its impact that might cause modal shift of private mode users to proposed BRTS were collected through home-interview survey using revealed and stated preference approach. A multi modal logit model of mode-choice was then calibrated using the collected data and validated using proposed sample. From this study, a set of perception factors, with reliable and predictable data base, to explain the variation in modal shift behaviour and their impact on Surat’s ecological environment has been identified. A case study of the proposed BRTS connecting the Surat Industrial Hub to the coastal area is provided to illustrate the approach.

Keywords: BRTS, Private Modes, Mode choice models, Ecological footprint.

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211 The Role of Private Equity during Global Crises

Authors: Libena Cernohorska, Veronika Linhartova, Michal Sinka, Petr Teply

Abstract:

The term private equity usually refers to any type of equity investment in an asset in which the equity is not freely tradable on a public stock market. Some researchers believe that private equity contributed to the extent of the crisis and increased the pace of its spread over the world. We do not agree with this. On the other hand, we argue that during the economic recession private equity might become an important source of funds for firms with special needs (e.g. for firms seeking buyout financing, venture capital, expansion capital or distress debt financing). However, over-regulation of private equity in both the European Union and the US can slow down this specific funding channel to the economy and deepen credit crunch during global crises.

Keywords: scredit lunch, distress debt, global crisis, private equity, regulation

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210 Kazakhstan and Hague Conference on Private International Law: The Unification of Collision of Law in International Trade

Authors: Z. Baimagambetova, Zh. Sairambaeva

Abstract:

This article discusses the prospects of participation of the Republic of Kazakhstan in Hague Conference on Private International Law on the unification of collision law in the international trade. The article analyzes some conventions on international trade. The appropriate conclusions based on the opinions of scientists and experts in this field have been made. First, all issues presented in the form of gaps or spaces in conventions should be the subject to direct negotiations in the course of the activities of Hague Conference, and have a comprehensive feature, be transparent and taken under simplified procedure. Secondly, one should not underestimate the value of conventions that do not become active due to various reasons and having a positive impact on the development and improvement of national legislation and practice in the field of private international law. Thirdly, Kazakhstan has to reconsider its attitude to Hague Conference, having become its full member and aiming at providing constructive and fruitful cooperation with both the organization itself and its member states.

Keywords: Hague Conference on Private International Law, Hague Conventions, unification, collision norms, international trade, international private law, integration.

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209 Deregulation of Turkish State Railways Based on Public-Private Partnership Approaches

Authors: S. Shakibaei, P. Alpkokin

Abstract:

The railway network is one of the major components of a transportation system in a country which may be an indicator of the country’s level of economic improvement. Since 2000s on, revival of national railways and development of High Speed Rail (HSR) lines are one of the most remarkable policies of Turkish government in railway sector. Within this trend, the railway age is to be revived and coming decades will be a golden opportunity. Indubitably, major infrastructures such as road and railway networks require sizeable investment capital, precise maintenance and reparation. Traditionally, governments are held responsible for funding, operating and maintaining these infrastructures. However, lack or shortage of financial resources, risk responsibilities (particularly cost and time overrun), and in some cases inefficacy in constructional, operational and management phases persuade governments to find alternative options. Financial power, efficient experiences and background of private sector are the factors convincing the governments to make a collaboration with private parties to develop infrastructures. Public-Private Partnerships (PPP or 3P or P3) and related regulatory issues are born considering these collaborations. In Turkey, PPP approaches have attracted attention particularly during last decade and these types of investments have been accelerated by government to overcome budget limitations and cope with inefficacy of public sector in improving transportation network and its operation. This study mainly tends to present a comprehensive overview of PPP concept, evaluate the regulatory procedure in Europe and propose a general framework for Turkish State Railways (TCDD) as an outlook on privatization, liberalization and deregulation of railway network.

Keywords: Deregulation, high-speed rail, liberalization, privatization, public-private partnership.

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208 The Relationship of Private Savings and Economic Growth: Case of Croatia

Authors: Irena Palić

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The main objective of the research in this paper is to empirically assess the causal relationship of private savings and economic growth in the Republic of Croatia. Households’ savings are approximated by household deposits in banks, while domestic income is approximated by industrial production volume indices. Vector Autoregression model and Granger causality tests are used to in order to analyse the relationship among private savings and economic growth. Since ADF unit root tests have shown that both mentioned series are non stationary at levels, series are first differenced in order to become stationary. Therefore, VAR model is estimated with percentage change in private savings and percentage change in domestic income, which can be interpreted as economic growth in case of positive percentage change in domestic income. The Granger causality test has shown that there is no causal relationship among private savings and economic growth in Croatia. The impulse response functions have shown that the impact of shock in domestic income on private savings change is stronger than the impact of private saving on growth. Variance decompositions show that both economic growth and private saving change explain the largest part of its own forecast variance. The research has shown that the link between private savings economic and growth in Croatia is weak, what is in line with relevant empirical research in small open economies.

Keywords: Economic growth, Granger causality, innovation analysis, private savings, Vector Autoregression model.

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207 A Comparative Study of Insurance Policies Worldwide in Public Private Partnerships

Authors: Guanqun Shi, Xueqing Zhang

Abstract:

The frequent occurrence of failures in PPP projects which caused great loss has raised attention from the government as well as the concessionaire. PPPs are complex arrangements for its long operation period and multiple players. Many types of risks in PPP projects may cause the project fail. The insurance is an important tool to transfer the risks. Through a comparison and analysis of international government PPP guidelines and contracts as well as the case studies worldwide, we have identified eight main insurance principles, discussed thirteen insurance types in different stages. An overall procedure would be established to improve the practices in PPP projects.

Keywords: Public-private partnerships, insurance, contract, risk.

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206 Public Private Partnership for Infrastructure Projects: Mapping the Key Risks

Authors: Julinda Keçi

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In many countries, governments have been promoting the involvement of private sector entities to enter into long-term agreements for the development and delivery of large infrastructure projects, with a focus on overcoming the limitations upon public fund of the traditional approach. The involvement of private sector through public private partnerships (PPP) brings in new capital investments, value for money and additional risks to handle. Worldwide research studies have shown that an objective, systematic, reliable and useroriented risk assessment process and an optimal allocation mechanism among different stakeholders is crucial to the successful completion. In this framework, this paper, which is the first stage of a research study, aims to identify the main risks for the delivery of PPP projects. A review of cross-countries research projects and case studies was performed to map the key risks affecting PPP infrastructure delivery. The matrix of mapping offers a summary of the frequency of factors, clustered in eleven categories: construction, design, economic, legal, market, natural, operation, political, project finance, project selection and relationship. Results will highlight the most critical risk factors, and will hopefully assist the project managers in directing the managerial attention in the further stages of risk allocation.

Keywords: Construction, infrastructure, public private partnerships, risks.

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205 Performance Comparison of AODV and Soft AODV Routing Protocol

Authors: Abhishek, Seema Devi, Jyoti Ohri

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A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) represents a system of wireless mobile nodes that can self-organize freely and dynamically into arbitrary and temporary network topology. Unlike a wired network, wireless network interface has limited transmission range. Routing is the task of forwarding data packets from source to a given destination. Ad-hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV) routing protocol creates a path for a destination only when it required. This paper describes the implementation of AODV routing protocol using MATLAB-based Truetime simulator. In MANET's node movements are not fixed while they are random in nature. Hence intelligent techniques i.e. fuzzy and ANFIS are used to optimize the transmission range. In this paper, we compared the transmission range of AODV, fuzzy AODV and ANFIS AODV. For soft computing AODV, we have taken transmitted power and received threshold as input and transmission range as output. ANFIS gives better results as compared to fuzzy AODV.

Keywords: ANFIS, AODV, fuzzy, MANET, reactive routing protocol, routing protocol, Truetime.

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204 Client Satisfaction: Does Private or Public Health Sector Make a Difference? Results from Secondary Data Analysis in Sindh, Pakistan

Authors: Wajiha Javed, Arsalan Jabbar, Nelofer Mehboob, Muhammad Tafseer, Zahid Memon

Abstract:

Introduction: Researchers globally have strived to explore diverse factors that augment the continuation and uptake of family planning methods. Clients’ satisfaction is one of the core determinants facilitating continuation of family planning methods. There is a major debate yet scanty evidence to contrast public and private sectors with respect to client satisfaction. The objective of this study is to compare quality-of-care provided by public and private sectors of Pakistan through a client satisfaction lens. Methods: We used Pakistan Demographic Heath Survey 2012-13 dataset on 3133 women. Ten different multivariate models were made. to explore the relationship between client satisfaction and dependent outcome after adjusting for all known confounding factors and results are presented as OR and AOR (95% CI). Results: Multivariate analyses showed that clients were less satisfied in contraceptive provision from private sector as compared to public sector (AOR 0.92, 95% CI 0.63-1.68) even though the result was not statistically significant. Clients were more satisfied from private sector as compared to the public sector with respect to other determinants of quality-of-care follow-up care (AOR 3.29, 95% CI 1.95-5.55), infection prevention (AOR 2.41, 95% CI 1.60-3.62), counseling services (AOR 2.01, 95% CI 1.27-3.18, timely treatment (AOR 3.37, 95% CI 2.20-5.15), attitude of staff (AOR 2.23, 95% CI 1.50-3.33), punctuality of staff (AOR 2.28, 95% CI 1.92-4.13), timely referring (AOR 2.34, 95% CI 1.63-3.35), staff cooperation (AOR 1.75, 95% CI 1.22-2.51) and complications handling (AOR 2.27, 95% CI 1.56-3.29). Discussion: Public sector has successfully attained substantial satisfaction levels with respect to provision of contraceptives, but it contrasts previous literature from a multi country studies. Our study though in is concordance with a study from Tanzania where public sector was more likely to offer family planning services to clients as compared to private facilities. Conclusion: In majority of the developing countries, public sector is more involved in FP service provision; however, in Pakistan clients’ satisfaction in private sector is more, which opens doors for public-private partnerships and collaboration in the near future. 

Keywords: Client satisfaction, Family Planning, Public private partnership, Quality of care

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203 The Consumer Private Space: What is and How it can be Approached without Affecting the Consumer's Privacy

Authors: Calin Veghes

Abstract:

The concept of privacy, seen in connection to the consumer's private space and personalization, has recently gained a higher importance as a consequence of the increasing marketing efforts of the organizations based on the capturing, processing and usage of consumer-s personal data.Paper intends to provide a definition of the consumer-s private space based on the types of personal data the consumer is willing to disclose, to assess the attitude toward personalization and to identify the means preferred by consumers to control their personal data and defend their private space. Several implications generated through the definition of the consumer-s private space are identified and weighted from both the consumers- and organizations- perspectives.

Keywords: Consumer private space, personalization, privacy.

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202 Modelling the States of Public Client Participation in Public Private Partnership Arrangements

Authors: Eisa A. Alsafran, Francis T. Edum-Fotwe, Wayne E. Lord

Abstract:

The degree to which a public client actively participates in Public Private Partnership (PPP) schemes, is seen as a determinant of the success of the arrangement, and in particular, efficiency in the delivery of the assets of any infrastructure development. The asset delivery is often an early barometer for judging the overall performance of the PPP. Currently, there are no defined descriptors for the degree of such participation. The lack of defined descriptors makes the association between the degree of participation and efficiency of asset delivery, difficult to establish. This is particularly so if an optimum effect is desired. In addition, such an association is important for the strategic decision to embark on any PPP initiative. This paper presents a conceptual model of different levels of participation that characterise PPP schemes. The modelling was achieved by a systematic review of reported sources that address essential aspects and structures of PPP schemes, published from 2001 to 2015. As a precursor to the modelling, the common areas of Public Client Participation (PCP) were investigated. Equity and risk emerged as two dominant factors in the common areas of PCP, and were therefore adopted to form the foundation of the modelling. The resultant conceptual model defines the different states of combined PCP. The defined states provide a more rational basis for establishing how the degree of PCP affects the efficiency of asset delivery in PPP schemes.

Keywords: Asset delivery, infrastructure development, public private partnership, public client participation.

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201 Elections, Checks and Balances, and Government Expenditures: Empirical Evidence for Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan

Authors: Yuan-Hong Ho, Chiung-Ju Huang

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Previous studies on political budget cycles (PBCs) implicitly assume the executive has full discretion power over fiscal policy, neglecting the role of checks and balances of the legislature. This paper goes beyond traditional PBCs models and sheds light on the case study of Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan over the 1988-2007 periods. Based on the results, we find no evidence of electoral impacts on the public expenditures in South Korean and Taiwan's congressional elections. We also noted that PBCs are found on Taiwan-s government expenditures during our sample periods. Furthermore, the results also show that Japan-s legislature has a significant checks and balances on government-s expenditures. However, empirical results show that the legislature veto player in Taiwan neither has effect on the reduction of public expenditures, nor has the moderating effect over Taiwan-s political budget cycles, albeit that they are statistically insignificant.We suggest that the existence of PBCs in Taiwan is due to a weaker systemof checks and balances. Our conjecture is that Taiwan either has no legislative veto player or has observed low compliance to the law during the time period examined in our study.

Keywords: Checks and balances, compliance to the law, political budget cycles, veto player.

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200 The Application of Bayesian Heuristic for Scheduling in Real-Time Private Clouds

Authors: Sahar Sohrabi

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The emergence of Cloud data centers has revolutionized the IT industry. Private Clouds in specific provide Cloud services for certain group of customers/businesses. In a real-time private Cloud each task that is given to the system has a deadline that desirably should not be violated. Scheduling tasks in a real-time private CLoud determine the way available resources in the system are shared among incoming tasks. The aim of the scheduling policy is to optimize the system outcome which for a real-time private Cloud can include: energy consumption, deadline violation, execution time and the number of host switches. Different scheduling policies can be used for scheduling. Each lead to a sub-optimal outcome in a certain settings of the system. A Bayesian Scheduling strategy is proposed for scheduling to further improve the system outcome. The Bayesian strategy showed to outperform all selected policies. It also has the flexibility in dealing with complex pattern of incoming task and has the ability to adapt.

Keywords: Bayesian, cloud computing, real-time private cloud, scheduling.

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199 Impact of Government Spending on Private Consumption and on the Economy: The Case of Thailand

Authors: Paitoon Kraipornsak

Abstract:

Government spending is categorized into consumption spending and capital spending. Three categories of private consumption are used: food consumption, nonfood consumption, and services consumption. The estimated model indicates substitution effects of government consumption spending on budget shares of private nonfood consumption and of government capital spending on budget share of private food consumption. However, the results do not indicate whether the negative effects of changes in the budget shares of the nonfood and the food consumption equates to reduce total private consumption. The concept of aggregate demand comprising consumption, investment, government spending (consumption spending and capital spending), export, and import are used to estimate their relationship by using the Vector Error Correction Mechanism. The study found no effect of government capital spending on either the private consumption or the growth of GDP while the government consumption spending has negative effect on the growth of GDP.

Keywords: Complementary effect, government capital spending, government consumption spending, private consumption on food, nonfood, and services, substitution effect, vector error correction mechanism.

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198 Analysis on the Decision-Making Model of Private Sector Companies in PPP Projects

Authors: Xueqin Shan, Chuanming Wu, Wenhua Hou, Xiaosu Ye

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Successful public-private-partnership (PPP) implementation can not be achieved without the active participation of private sector companies. This paper examines the decision-making of private sector companies in public works delivered by the PPP model on the basis of social responsibility theory. It proposes that private sector companies should indentify objectives of entering into PPP projects, and shoulder relevant social responsibilities, while a minimum return should also be guaranteed in their favor, so as to compensate for their assumed risk and support them to take on responsibilities in the future. The paper also gives a calculation regarding the appropriate scale and reasonable degree of private sector involvement in PPP projects through the cost-benefit analysis in a specific case study, with the purpose to guide the private sector companies to create a cooperation environment resembling “symbiosis" and facilitate the smooth implementation of public works delivered by the PPP model.

Keywords: Social Responsibility Theory, Cost-benefit Analysis, PPP Projects, Private Sector Companies, Decision-making Modell

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197 Mechanized Proof of Resistance of Denial of Service Attacks in Voting Protocol with ProVerif

Authors: Bo Meng, Wei Wang

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Resistance of denial of service attacks is a key security requirement in voting protocols. Acquisti protocol plays an important role in development of internet voting protocols and claims its security without strong physical assumptions. In this study firstly Acquisti protocol is modeled in extended applied pi calculus, and then resistance of denial of service attacks is proved with ProVerif. The result is that it is not resistance of denial of service attacks because two denial of service attacks are found. Finally we give the method against the denial of service attacks.

Keywords: Applied pi calculus, protocol state, symbolic model, availability.

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196 Empirical Analysis of Private Listed Companies- Debt Financing and Business Performance in Jiangsu Province

Authors: Chengxuan Geng, Haitao E, Yijie Jiang

Abstract:

According to the theory of capital structure, this paper uses principal component analysis and linear regression analysis to study the relationship between the debt characteristics of the private listed companies in Jiangsu Province and their business performance. The results show that the average debt ratio of the 29 private listed companies selected from the sample is lower. And it is found that for the sample whose debt ratio is lower than 80%, its debt ratio is negatively related to corporate performance, while for the sample whose debt ratio is beyond 80%, the relationship of debt financing and enterprise performance shows the different trends. The conclusions reflect the drawbacks may exist that the debt ratio is relatively low and having not take full advantage of debt governance effect of the private listed companies in Jiangsu Province.

Keywords: private listed companies, debt financing, business performance

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195 Secure Protocol for Short Message Service

Authors: Shubat S. Ahmeda, Ashraf M. Ali Edwila

Abstract:

Short Message Service (SMS) has grown in popularity over the years and it has become a common way of communication, it is a service provided through General System for Mobile Communications (GSM) that allows users to send text messages to others. SMS is usually used to transport unclassified information, but with the rise of mobile commerce it has become a popular tool for transmitting sensitive information between the business and its clients. By default SMS does not guarantee confidentiality and integrity to the message content. In the mobile communication systems, security (encryption) offered by the network operator only applies on the wireless link. Data delivered through the mobile core network may not be protected. Existing end-to-end security mechanisms are provided at application level and typically based on public key cryptosystem. The main concern in a public-key setting is the authenticity of the public key; this issue can be resolved by identity-based (IDbased) cryptography where the public key of a user can be derived from public information that uniquely identifies the user. This paper presents an encryption mechanism based on the IDbased scheme using Elliptic curves to provide end-to-end security for SMS. This mechanism has been implemented over the standard SMS network architecture and the encryption overhead has been estimated and compared with RSA scheme. This study indicates that the ID-based mechanism has advantages over the RSA mechanism in key distribution and scalability of increasing security level for mobile service.

Keywords: Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC), End-to-end Security, Identity-based Cryptography, Public Key, RSA, SMS Protocol.

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194 Impact of Government Spending on Private Consumption and on the Economy: Case of Thailand

Authors: Paitoon Kraipornsak

Abstract:

The recent global financial problem urges government to play role in stimulating the economy due to the fact that private sector has little ability to purchase during the recession. A concerned question is whether the increased government spending crowds out private consumption and whether it helps stimulate the economy. If the government spending policy is effective; the private consumption is expected to increase and can compensate the recent extra government expense. In this study, the government spending is categorized into government consumption spending and government capital spending. The study firstly examines consumer consumption along the line with the demand function in microeconomic theory. Three categories of private consumption are used in the study. Those are food consumption, non food consumption, and services consumption. The dynamic Almost Ideal Demand System of the three categories of the private consumption is estimated using the Vector Error Correction Mechanism model. The estimated model indicates the substituting effects (negative impacts) of the government consumption spending on budget shares of private non food consumption and of the government capital spending on budget share of private food consumption, respectively. Nevertheless the result does not necessarily indicate whether the negative effects of changes in the budget shares of the non food and the food consumption means fallen total private consumption. Microeconomic consumer demand analysis clearly indicates changes in component structure of aggregate expenditure in the economy as a result of the government spending policy. The macroeconomic concept of aggregate demand comprising consumption, investment, government spending (the government consumption spending and the government capital spending), export, and import are used to estimate for their relationship using the Vector Error Correction Mechanism model. The macroeconomic study found no effect of the government capital spending on either the private consumption or the growth of GDP while the government consumption spending has negative effect on the growth of GDP. Therefore no crowding out effect of the government spending is found on the private consumption but it is ineffective and even inefficient expenditure as found reducing growth of the GDP in the context of Thailand.

Keywords: government consumption spending, governmentcapital spending, private consumption on food, non food, andservices, Vector Error Correction Mechanism, Almost Ideal DemandSystem, substitution effect, complementary effect, consumer demand, aggregate demand

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193 Consistency Model and Synchronization Primitives in SDSMS

Authors: Dalvinder Singh Dhaliwal, Parvinder S. Sandhu, S. N. Panda

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This paper is on the general discussion of memory consistency model like Strict Consistency, Sequential Consistency, Processor Consistency, Weak Consistency etc. Then the techniques for implementing distributed shared memory Systems and Synchronization Primitives in Software Distributed Shared Memory Systems are discussed. The analysis involves the performance measurement of the protocol concerned that is Multiple Writer Protocol. Each protocol has pros and cons. So, the problems that are associated with each protocol is discussed and other related things are explored.

Keywords: Distributed System, Single owner protocol, Multiple owner protocol

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192 A Study of the Costs and Benefits of Smart City Projects Including the Scenario of Public-Private Partnerships

Authors: Patrick T. I. Lam, Wenjing Yang

Abstract:

A smart city project embraces benefits and costs which can be classified under direct and indirect categories. Externalities come into the picture, but they are often difficult to quantify. Despite this barrier, policy makers need to carry out cost-benefit analysis to justify the huge investments needed to make a city smart. The recent trend is towards the engagement of the private sector to utilize their resources and expertise, especially in the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) areas, where innovations blossom. This study focuses on the identification of costs (on a life cycle basis) and benefits associated with smart city project developments based on a comprehensive literature review and case studies, where public-private partnerships would warrant consideration, the related costs and benefits are highlighted. The findings will be useful for policy makers of cities.

Keywords: Costs and benefits, identification, public-private partnerships, smart city projects.

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191 Verification of Protocol Design using UML - SMV

Authors: Prashanth C.M., K. Chandrashekar Shet

Abstract:

In recent past, the Unified Modeling Language (UML) has become the de facto industry standard for object-oriented modeling of the software systems. The syntax and semantics rich UML has encouraged industry to develop several supporting tools including those capable of generating deployable product (code) from the UML models. As a consequence, ensuring the correctness of the model/design has become challenging and extremely important task. In this paper, we present an approach for automatic verification of protocol model/design. As a case study, Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) design is verified for the property, “the CALLER will not converse with the CALLEE before the connection is established between them ". The SIP is modeled using UML statechart diagrams and the desired properties are expressed in temporal logic. Our prototype verifier “UML-SMV" is used to carry out the verification. We subjected an erroneous SIP model to the UML-SMV, the verifier could successfully detect the error (in 76.26ms) and generate the error trace.

Keywords: Unified Modeling Language, Statechart, Verification, Protocol Design, Model Checking.

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190 FPGA Implementation of the BB84 Protocol

Authors: Jaouadi Ikram, Machhout Mohsen

Abstract:

The development of a quantum key distribution (QKD) system on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) platform is the subject of this paper. A quantum cryptographic protocol is designed based on the properties of quantum information and the characteristics of FPGAs. The proposed protocol performs key extraction, reconciliation, error correction, and privacy amplification tasks to generate a perfectly secret final key. We modeled the presence of the spy in our system with a strategy to reveal some of the exchanged information without being noticed. Using an FPGA card with a 100 MHz clock frequency, we have demonstrated the evolution of the error rate as well as the amounts of mutual information (between the two interlocutors and that of the spy) passing from one step to another in the key generation process.

Keywords: QKD, BB84, protocol, cryptography, FPGA, key, security, communication.

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189 An Implementation of EURORADIO Protocol for ERTMS Systems

Authors: Gabriele Cecchetti, Anna Lina Ruscelli, Filippo Cugini, Piero Castoldi

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European Rail Traffic Management System (ERTMS) is the European reference for interoperable and safer signaling systems to efficiently manage trains running. If implemented, it allows trains cross seamlessly intra-European national borders. ERTMS has defined a secure communication protocol, EURORADIO, based on open communication networks. Its RadioInfill function can improve the reaction of the signaling system to changes in line conditions, avoiding unnecessary braking: its advantages in terms of power saving and travel time has been analyzed. In this paper a software implementation of the EURORADIO protocol with RadioInfill for ERTMS Level 1 using GSM-R is illustrated as part of the SR-Secure Italian project. In this building-blocks architecture the EURORADIO layers communicates together through modular Application Programm Interfaces. Security coding rules and railway industry requirements specified by EN 50128 standard have been respected. The proposed implementation has successfully passed conformity tests and has been tested on a computer-based simulator.

Keywords: ERTMS, ETCS signalling, EURORADIO protocol, radio infill function.

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188 Simulations of Routing Protocols of Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Kristoffer Clyde Magsino, H. Srikanth Kamath

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Wireless Sensor Network is widely used in electronics. Wireless sensor networks are now used in many applications including military, environmental, healthcare applications, home automation and traffic control. We will study one area of wireless sensor networks, which is the routing protocol. Routing protocols are needed to send data between sensor nodes and the base station. In this paper, we will discuss two routing protocols, such as datacentric and hierarchical routing protocol. We will show the output of the protocols using the NS-2 simulator. This paper will compare the simulation output of the two routing protocol using Nam. We will simulate using Xgraph to find the throughput and delay of the protocol.

Keywords: data-centric routing protocol, hierarchical routingprotocol, Nam, NS-2, Routing Protocol, sensor nodes, SPIN, throughput, Xgraph

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187 User Behavior Based Enhanced Protocol (UBEP) for Secure Near Field Communication

Authors: Vinay Gautam, Vivek Gautam

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With increase in the unauthorized users access, it is required to increase the security in the Near Field Communication (NFC). In the paper we propose a user behavior based enhanced protocol entitled ‘User Behavior based Enhanced Protocol (UBEP)’ to increase the security in NFC enabled devices. The UBEP works on the history of interaction of a user with system.The propose protocol considers four different factors (touch, time and distance & angle) of user behavior to know the authenticity or authorization of the users. These factors can be same for a user during interaction with the system. The UBEP uses two phase user verification system to authenticate a user. Firstly the acquisition phase is used to acquire and store the user interaction with NFC device and the same information is used in future to detect the authenticity of the user. The second phase (recognition) uses analysis of current and previous scenario of user interaction and digital signature verification system to finally authenticate user. The analysis of user based input makes a NFC transaction more advance and secure. This security is very tactical because it is completely depends on usage of the device.

Keywords: Security, Network Field communication, NFC Protocol.

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186 An Enhanced Fault-Tolerant Conference Key Agreement Protocol

Authors: Cheng-Chi Lee, Chun-Ta Li, Chia-Ying Wu, Shiow-Yuan Huang

Abstract:

Establishing a secure communication of Internet conferences for participants is very important. Before starting the conference, all the participants establish a common conference key to encrypt/decrypt communicated messages. It enables participants to exchange the secure messages. Nevertheless, in the conference, if there are any malicious participants who may try to upset the key generation process causing other legal participants to obtain a different conference key. In this article, we propose an improved conference key agreement with fault-tolerant capability. The proposed scheme can filter malicious participants at the beginning of the conference to ensure that all participants obtain the same conference key. Compare with other schemes, our scheme is more secure and efficient than others.

Keywords: Conference key, Diffie-Hellman protocol, key agreement, fault tolerance.

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185 Modeling and Analyzing the WAP Class 2 Wireless Transaction Protocol Using Event-B

Authors: Rajaa Filali, Mohamed Bouhdadi

Abstract:

This paper presents an incremental formal development of the Wireless Transaction Protocol (WTP) in Event-B. WTP is part of the Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) architectures and provides a reliable request-response service. To model and verify the protocol, we use the formal technique Event-B which provides an accessible and rigorous development method. This interaction between modelling and proving reduces the complexity and helps to eliminate misunderstandings, inconsistencies, and specification gaps. As result, verification of WTP allows us to find some deficiencies in the current specification.

Keywords: Event-B, wireless transaction protocol, refinement, proof obligation, Rodin, ProB.

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184 Bee Optimized Fuzzy Geographical Routing Protocol for VANET

Authors: P. Saravanan, T. Arunkumar

Abstract:

Vehicular Adhoc Network (VANET) is a new technology which aims to ensure intelligent inter-vehicle communications, seamless internet connectivity leading to improved road safety, essential alerts, and access to comfort and entertainment. VANET operations are hindered by mobile node’s (vehicles) uncertain mobility. Routing algorithms use metrics to evaluate which path is best for packets to travel. Metrics like path length (hop count), delay, reliability, bandwidth, and load determine optimal route. The proposed scheme exploits link quality, traffic density, and intersections as routing metrics to determine next hop. This study enhances Geographical Routing Protocol (GRP) using fuzzy controllers while rules are optimized with Bee Swarm Optimization (BSO). Simulations results are compared to conventional GRP.

Keywords: Bee Swarm Optimization (BSO), Geographical Routing Protocol (GRP), Vehicular Adhoc Network (VANET).

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