Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1104

Search results for: optimum allocation.

1104 Exploring SSD Suitable Allocation Schemes Incompliance with Workload Patterns

Authors: Jae Young Park, Hwansu Jung, Jong Tae Kim

Abstract:

In the Solid-State-Drive (SSD) performance, whether the data has been well parallelized is an important factor. SSD parallelization is affected by allocation scheme and it is directly connected to SSD performance. There are dynamic allocation and static allocation in representative allocation schemes. Dynamic allocation is more adaptive in exploiting write operation parallelism, while static allocation is better in read operation parallelism. Therefore, it is hard to select the appropriate allocation scheme when the workload is mixed read and write operations. We simulated conditions on a few mixed data patterns and analyzed the results to help the right choice for better performance. As the results, if data arrival interval is long enough prior operations to be finished and continuous read intensive data environment static allocation is more suitable. Dynamic allocation performs the best on write performance and random data patterns.

Keywords: Dynamic allocation, NAND Flash based SSD, SSD parallelism, static allocation.

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1103 Multi-Objective Optimization of Combined System Reliability and Redundancy Allocation Problem

Authors: Vijaya K. Srivastava, Davide Spinello

Abstract:

This paper presents established 3n enumeration procedure for mixed integer optimization problems for solving multi-objective reliability and redundancy allocation problem subject to design constraints. The formulated problem is to find the optimum level of unit reliability and the number of units for each subsystem. A number of illustrative examples are provided and compared to indicate the application of the superiority of the proposed method.

Keywords: Integer programming, mixed integer programming, multi-objective optimization, reliability redundancy allocation.

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1102 Bandwidth Allocation in Mobile ATM Cellular Networks

Authors: Khaja Kamaluddin, Muhammed Yousoof

Abstract:

Bandwidth allocation in wired network is less complex and to allocate bandwidth in wireless networks is complex and challenging, due to the mobility of source end system.This paper proposes a new approach to bandwidth allocation to higher and lower priority mobile nodes.In our proposal bandwidth allocation to new mobile node is based on bandwidth utilization of existing mobile nodes.The first section of the paper focuses on introduction to bandwidth allocation in wireless networks and presents the existing solutions available for allocation of bandwidth. The second section proposes the new solution for the bandwidth allocation to higher and lower priority nodes. Finally this paper ends with the analytical evaluation of the proposed solution.

Keywords: Layered Approach, Bandwidth allocation, CBR, ABR, QOS.

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1101 Application of CPN Tools for Simulation and Analysis of Bandwidth Allocation

Authors: Julija Asmuss, Gunars Lauks, Viktors Zagorskis

Abstract:

We consider the problem of bandwidth allocation in a substrate network as an optimization problem for the aggregate utility of multiple applications with diverse requirements and describe a simulation scheme for dynamically adaptive bandwidth allocation protocols. The proposed simulation model based on Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is realized using CPN Tools.

Keywords: Bandwidth Allocation Problem, Coloured Petri Nets, CPN Tools, Simulation

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1100 Ec-A: A Task Allocation Algorithm for Energy Minimization in Multiprocessor Systems

Authors: Anju S. Pillai, T.B. Isha

Abstract:

With the necessity of increased processing capacity with less energy consumption; power aware multiprocessor system has gained more attention in the recent future. One of the additional challenges that is to be solved in a multi-processor system when compared to uni-processor system is job allocation. This paper presents a novel task dependent job allocation algorithm: Energy centric- Allocation (Ec-A) and Rate Monotonic (RM) scheduling to minimize energy consumption in a multiprocessor system. A simulation analysis is carried out to verify the performance increase with reduction in energy consumption and required number of processors in the system.

Keywords: Energy consumption, Job allocation, Multiprocessor systems, Task dependent.

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1099 A New Reliability Allocation Method Based On Fuzzy Numbers

Authors: Peng Li, Chuanri Li, Tao Li

Abstract:

Reliability allocation is quite important during early design and development stages for a system to apportion its specified reliability goal to subsystems. This paper improves the reliability fuzzy allocation method, and gives concrete processes on determining the factor and sub-factor sets, weight sets, judgment set, and multi-stage fuzzy evaluation. To determine the weight of factor and sub-factor sets, the modified trapezoidal numbers are proposed to reduce errors caused by subjective factors. To decrease the fuzziness in fuzzy division, an approximation method based on linear programming is employed. To compute the explicit values of fuzzy numbers, centroid method of defuzzification is considered. An example is provided to illustrate the application of the proposed reliability allocation method based on fuzzy arithmetic.

Keywords: Reliability allocation, fuzzy arithmetic, allocation weight.

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1098 Optimal Transmission Network Usage and Loss Allocation Using Matrices Methodology and Cooperative Game Theory

Authors: Baseem Khan, Ganga Agnihotri

Abstract:

Restructuring of Electricity supply industry introduced many issues such as transmission pricing, transmission loss allocation and congestion management. Many methodologies and algorithms were proposed for addressing these issues. In this paper a power flow tracing based method is proposed which involves Matrices methodology for the transmission usage and loss allocation for generators and demands. This method provides loss allocation in a direct way because all the computation is previously done for usage allocation. The proposed method is simple and easy to implement in a large power system. Further it is less computational because it requires matrix inversion only a single time. After usage and loss allocation cooperative game theory is applied to results for finding efficient economic signals. Nucleolus and Shapely value approach is used for optimal allocation of results. Results are shown for the IEEE 6 bus system and IEEE 14 bus system.

Keywords: Modified Kirchhoff Matrix, Power flow tracing, Transmission Pricing, Transmission Loss Allocation.

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1097 Reliability and Cost Focused Optimization Approach for a Communication Satellite Payload Redundancy Allocation Problem

Authors: Mehmet Nefes, Selman Demirel, Hasan H. Ertok, Cenk Sen

Abstract:

A typical reliability engineering problem regarding communication satellites has been considered to determine redundancy allocation scheme of power amplifiers within payload transponder module, whose dominant function is to amplify power levels of the received signals from the Earth, through maximizing reliability against mass, power, and other technical limitations. Adding each redundant power amplifier component increases not only reliability but also hardware, testing, and launch cost of a satellite. This study investigates a multi-objective approach used in order to solve Redundancy Allocation Problem (RAP) for a communication satellite payload transponder, focusing on design cost due to redundancy and reliability factors. The main purpose is to find the optimum power amplifier redundancy configuration satisfying reliability and capacity thresholds simultaneously instead of analyzing respectively or independently. A mathematical model and calculation approach are instituted including objective function definitions, and then, the problem is solved analytically with different input parameters in MATLAB environment. Example results showed that payload capacity and failure rate of power amplifiers have remarkable effects on the solution and also processing time.

Keywords: Communication satellite payload, multi-objective optimization, redundancy allocation problem, reliability, transponder.

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1096 Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation in Fiber-Wireless (FiWi) Networks

Authors: Eman I. Raslan, Haitham S. Hamza, Reda A. El-Khoribi

Abstract:

Fiber-Wireless (FiWi) networks are a promising candidate for future broadband access networks. These networks combine the optical network as the back end where different passive optical network (PON) technologies are realized and the wireless network as the front end where different wireless technologies are adopted, e.g. LTE, WiMAX, Wi-Fi, and Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs). The convergence of both optical and wireless technologies requires designing architectures with robust efficient and effective bandwidth allocation schemes. Different bandwidth allocation algorithms have been proposed in FiWi networks aiming to enhance the different segments of FiWi networks including wireless and optical subnetworks. In this survey, we focus on the differentiating between the different bandwidth allocation algorithms according to their enhancement segment of FiWi networks. We classify these techniques into wireless, optical and Hybrid bandwidth allocation techniques.

Keywords: Fiber-Wireless (FiWi), dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA), passive optical networks (PON), media access control (MAC).

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1095 Bandwidth allocation in ATM Network for different QOS Requirements

Authors: H. El-Madbouly

Abstract:

For future Broad band ISDN, Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is designed not only to support a wide range of traffic classes with diverse flow characteristics, but also to guarantee the different quality of service QOS requirements. The QOS may be measured in terms of cell loss probability and maximum cell delay. In this paper, ATM networks in which the virtual path (VP) concept is implemented are considered. By applying the Markov Deterministic process method, an efficient algorithm to compute the minimum capacity required to satisfy the QOS requirements when multiple classes of on-off are multiplexed on to a single VP. Using the result, we then proposed a simple algorithm to determine different combinations of VP to achieve the optimum of the total capacity required for satisfying the individual QOS requirements (loss- delay).

Keywords: Bandwidth allocation, Quality of services, ATMNetwork, virtual path.

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1094 Model Development for Allocation of Raw Material in Timber Processing Industry in Indonesia

Authors: Muh. Hisjam, Nancy Oktyajati, Wakhid A. Jauhari, Wahyudi Sutopo

Abstract:

This research is intended to develop a raw material allocation model in timber processing industry in Perum Perhutani Unit I, Central Java, Indonesia. The model can be used to determine the quantity of allocation of timber between chain in the supply chain to select supplier considering factors that are log price and the distance. In determining the quantity of allocation of timber between chains in the supply chain, the model considers the optimal inventory in each chain. Whilst the optimal inventory is determined based on demand forecast, the capacity and safety stock. Problem solving allocation is conducted by developing linear programming model that aims to minimize the total cost of the purchase, transportation cost and storage costs at each chain. The results of numerical examples show that the proposed model can generate savings of the purchase cost of 20.84% and select suppliers with mileage closer.

Keywords: Allocation model, linear programming, purchase costs, storage costs, suppliers, transportation costs.

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1093 Target Tracking in Sensor Networks: A Distributed Constraint Satisfaction Approach

Authors: R.Mostafaei, A.Habiboghli, M.R.Meybodi

Abstract:

In distributed resource allocation a set of agents must assign their resources to a set of tasks. This problem arises in many real-world domains such as distributed sensor networks, disaster rescue, hospital scheduling and others. Despite the variety of approaches proposed for distributed resource allocation, a systematic formalization of the problem, explaining the different sources of difficulties, and a formal explanation of the strengths and limitations of key approaches is missing. We take a step towards this goal by using a formalization of distributed resource allocation that represents both dynamic and distributed aspects of the problem. In this paper we present a new idea for target tracking in sensor networks and compare it with previous approaches. The central contribution of the paper is a generalized mapping from distributed resource allocation to DDCSP. This mapping is proven to correctly perform resource allocation problems of specific difficulty. This theoretical result is verified in practice by a simulation on a realworld distributed sensor network.

Keywords: Distributed CSP, Target Tracking, Sensor Network

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1092 Harnessing Replication in Object Allocation

Authors: H. T. Barney, G. C. Low

Abstract:

The design of distributed systems involves the partitioning of the system into components or partitions and the allocation of these components to physical nodes. Techniques have been proposed for both the partitioning and allocation process. However these techniques suffer from a number of limitations. For instance object replication has the potential to greatly improve the performance of an object orientated distributed system but can be difficult to use effectively and there are few techniques that support the developer in harnessing object replication. This paper presents a methodological technique that helps developers decide how objects should be allocated in order to improve performance in a distributed system that supports replication. The performance of the proposed technique is demonstrated and tested on an example system.

Keywords: Allocation, Distributed Systems, Replication.

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1091 Discrete Breeding Swarm for Cost Minimization of Parallel Job Shop Scheduling Problem

Authors: Tarek Aboueldah, Hanan Farag

Abstract:

Parallel Job Shop Scheduling Problem (JSSP) is a multi-objective and multi constrains NP-optimization problem. Traditional Artificial Intelligence techniques have been widely used; however, they could be trapped into the local minimum without reaching the optimum solution. Thus, we propose a hybrid Artificial Intelligence (AI) model with Discrete Breeding Swarm (DBS) added to traditional AI to avoid this trapping. This model is applied in the cost minimization of the Car Sequencing and Operator Allocation (CSOA) problem. The practical experiment shows that our model outperforms other techniques in cost minimization.

Keywords: Parallel Job Shop Scheduling Problem, Artificial Intelligence, Discrete Breeding Swarm, Car Sequencing and Operator Allocation, cost minimization.

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1090 The Influence of the Commons Structure Modification on the Active Power Losses Allocation

Authors: O. Pop, C. Barbulescu, M. Nemes, St. Kilyeni

Abstract:

The tracing methods determine the contribution the power system sources have in their supplying. These methods can be used to assess the transmission prices, but also to recover the transmission fixed cost. In this paper is presented the influence of the modification of commons structure has on the specific price of transfer and on active power losses. The authors propose a power losses allocation method, based on Kirschen-s method. The system operator must make use of a few basic principles about allocation. The only necessary information is the power flows on system branches and the modifications applied to power system buses. In order to illustrate this method, the 25-bus test system is used, elaborated within the Electrical Power Engineering Department, from Timisoara, Romania.

Keywords: Power systems, P-U bus, P-Q bus, loss allocation, traceability methods.

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1089 Resource Allocation and Task Scheduling with Skill Level and Time Bound Constraints

Authors: Salam Saudagar, Ankit Kamboj, Niraj Mohan, Satgounda Patil, Nilesh Powar

Abstract:

Task Assignment and Scheduling is a challenging Operations Research problem when there is a limited number of resources and comparatively higher number of tasks. The Cost Management team at Cummins needs to assign tasks based on a deadline and must prioritize some of the tasks as per business requirements. Moreover, there is a constraint on the resources that assignment of tasks should be done based on an individual skill level, that may vary for different tasks. Another constraint is for scheduling the tasks that should be evenly distributed in terms of number of working hours, which adds further complexity to this problem. The proposed greedy approach to solve assignment and scheduling problem first assigns the task based on management priority and then by the closest deadline. This is followed by an iterative selection of an available resource with the least allocated total working hours for a task, i.e. finding the local optimal choice for each task with the goal of determining the global optimum. The greedy approach task allocation is compared with a variant of Hungarian Algorithm, and it is observed that the proposed approach gives an equal allocation of working hours among the resources. The comparative study of the proposed approach is also done with manual task allocation and it is noted that the visibility of the task timeline has increased from 2 months to 6 months. An interactive dashboard app is created for the greedy assignment and scheduling approach and the tasks with more than 2 months horizon that were waiting in a queue without a delivery date initially are now analyzed effectively by the business with expected timelines for completion.

Keywords: Assignment, deadline, greedy approach, hungarian algorithm, operations research, scheduling.

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1088 Design and Bandwidth Allocation of Embedded ATM Networks using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: H. El-Madbouly

Abstract:

In this paper, genetic algorithm (GA) is proposed for the design of an optimization algorithm to achieve the bandwidth allocation of ATM network. In Broadband ISDN, the ATM is a highbandwidth; fast packet switching and multiplexing technique. Using ATM it can be flexibly reconfigure the network and reassign the bandwidth to meet the requirements of all types of services. By dynamically routing the traffic and adjusting the bandwidth assignment, the average packet delay of the whole network can be reduced to a minimum. M/M/1 model can be used to analyze the performance.

Keywords: Bandwidth allocation, Genetic algorithm, ATMNetwork, packet delay.

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1087 A New Hybrid Optimization Method for Optimum Distribution Capacitor Planning

Authors: A. R. Seifi

Abstract:

This work presents a new algorithm based on a combination of fuzzy (FUZ), Dynamic Programming (DP), and Genetic Algorithm (GA) approach for capacitor allocation in distribution feeders. The problem formulation considers two distinct objectives related to total cost of power loss and total cost of capacitors including the purchase and installation costs. The novel formulation is a multi-objective and non-differentiable optimization problem. The proposed method of this article uses fuzzy reasoning for sitting of capacitors in radial distribution feeders, DP for sizing and finally GA for finding the optimum shape of membership functions which are used in fuzzy reasoning stage. The proposed method has been implemented in a software package and its effectiveness has been verified through a 9-bus radial distribution feeder for the sake of conclusions supports. A comparison has been done among the proposed method of this paper and similar methods in other research works that shows the effectiveness of the proposed method of this paper for solving optimum capacitor planning problem.

Keywords: Capacitor planning, Fuzzy logic method, Genetic Algorithm, Dynamic programming, Radial Distribution feeder

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1086 Optimal Resource Configuration and Allocation Planning Problem for Bottleneck Machines and Auxiliary Tools

Authors: Yin-Yann Chen, Tzu-Ling Chen

Abstract:

This study presents the case of an actual Taiwanese semiconductor assembly and testing manufacturer. Three major bottleneck manufacturing processes, namely, die bond, wire bond, and molding, are analyzed to determine how to use finite resources to achieve the optimal capacity allocation. A medium-term capacity allocation planning model is developed by considering the optimal total profit to satisfy the promised volume demanded by customers and to obtain the best migration decision among production lines for machines and tools. Finally, sensitivity analysis based on the actual case is provided to explore the effect of various parameter levels.

Keywords: Capacity planning, capacity allocation, machine migration, resource configuration.

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1085 A Simulation Modeling Approach for Optimization of Storage Space Allocation in Container Terminal

Authors: Gamal Abd El-Nasser A. Said, El-Sayed M. El-Horbaty

Abstract:

Container handling problems at container terminals are NP-hard problems. This paper presents an approach using discrete-event simulation modeling to optimize solution for storage space allocation problem, taking into account all various interrelated container terminal handling activities. The proposed approach is applied on a real case study data of container terminal at Alexandria port. The computational results show the effectiveness of the proposed model for optimization of storage space allocation in container terminal where 54% reduction in containers handling time in port is achieved.

Keywords: Container terminal, discrete-event simulation, optimization, storage space allocation.

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1084 Optimum Design of Heat Exchanger in Diesel Engine Cold EGR for Pollutants Reduction

Authors: Nasser Ghassembaglou, Armin Rahmatfam, Faramarz Ranjbar

Abstract:

Using cold EGR method with variable venturi and turbocharger has a very significant effect on reduction of NOX and grime simultaneously. EGR cooler is one of the most important parts in the cold EGR circuit. In this paper optimum design of cooler for working in different percentages of EGR and for determining optimum temperature of exhausted gases, growth of efficiency, reduction of weight, dimension, expenditures, sediment and also optimum performance by using gasoil which has significant amounts of brimstone are investigated and optimized.

Keywords: Cold EGR, NOX, Cooler.

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1083 Downlink Scheduling and Radio Resource Allocation in Adaptive OFDMA Wireless Communication Systems for User-Individual QoS

Authors: Lu Yanhui, Wang Chunming, Yin Changchuan, Yue Guangxin

Abstract:

In this paper, we address the problem of adaptive radio resource allocation (RRA) and packet scheduling in the downlink of a cellular OFDMA system, and propose a downlink multi-carrier proportional fair (MPF) scheduler and its joint with adaptive RRA algorithm to distribute radio resources among multiple users according to their individual QoS requirements. The allocation and scheduling objective is to maximize the total throughput, while at the same time maintaining the fairness among users. The simulation results demonstrate that the methods presented provide for user more explicit fairness relative to RRA algorithm, but the joint scheme achieves the higher sum-rate capacity with flexible parameters setting compared with MPF scheduler.

Keywords: OFDMA, adaptive radio resource allocation, scheduling, QoS.

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1082 Using Fuzzy Numbers in Heavy Aggregation Operators

Authors: José M. Merigó, Montserrat Casanovas

Abstract:

We consider different types of aggregation operators such as the heavy ordered weighted averaging (HOWA) operator and the fuzzy ordered weighted averaging (FOWA) operator. We introduce a new extension of the OWA operator called the fuzzy heavy ordered weighted averaging (FHOWA) operator. The main characteristic of this aggregation operator is that it deals with uncertain information represented in the form of fuzzy numbers (FN) in the HOWA operator. We develop the basic concepts of this operator and study some of its properties. We also develop a wide range of families of FHOWA operators such as the fuzzy push up allocation, the fuzzy push down allocation, the fuzzy median allocation and the fuzzy uniform allocation.

Keywords: Aggregation operators, Fuzzy numbers, Fuzzy OWAoperator, Heavy OWA operator.

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1081 Optimization of Tilt Angle for Solar Collectors: A Case Study for Bursa, Turkey

Authors: N. Arslanoglu

Abstract:

This paper deals with the optimum tilt angle for the solar collector in order to collect the maximum solar radiation. The optimum angle for tilted surfaces varying from 0 to 90 in steps of 1was computed. In present study, a theoretical model is used to predict the global solar radiation on a tilted surface and to obtain the optimum tilt angle for a solar collector in Bursa, Turkey. Global solar energy radiation on the solar collector surface with an optimum tilt angle is calculated for specific periods. It is determined that the optimum slope angle varies between 0 (June) and 59 (December) throughout the year. In winter (December, January, and February) the tilt should be 55, in spring (March, April, and May) 19.6, in summer (June, July, and August) 5.6, and in autumn (September, October, and November) 44.3. The yearly average of this value was obtained to be 31.1 and this would be the optimum fixed slope throughout the year.

Keywords: Optimum tilt angle, global solar radiation, tilted surface.

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1080 The Management and Funding of Education in Nigeria

Authors: Teryima Oralu, Babatunde Kasim Oladele

Abstract:

This paper looks at the management and funding of education in Nigeria. The concept of management and administration has been concisely defined. Also the historical background of educational management in Nigeria has been discussed alongside the management of primary education, secondary education and tertiary education in Nigeria. Furthermore, the funding of education has also been concisely discussed in this paper alongside the various sources of funds available to education in Nigeria. The sources include government grant, school fees, external aids, school revenue yielding businesses and so on. The budgetary allocation of Nigeria to education from 1999 to 2013 was also highlighted in this in paper and it was discovered that the lowest allocation was in 1999 with 4.46% while the highest allocation was in 2006 with 10.43%. It is also of note that, Nigeria is still yet to meet the recommendation of UNESCO of 26% budgetary allocation to education by developing countries. Recommendations have been drawn that the government should increase budgetary allocation to this sector in a consistent manner because of its importance to the national economy, hoping that with proper monitoring of fund, it would contribute more significantly to the development of the country. An effective utilization of such funds is also advocated for greater achievements. All organs of the government should exhibit good corporate governance and transparency and so on.

Keywords: Education, funding, management, Nigeria.

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1079 Virtual Routing Function Allocation Method for Minimizing Total Network Power Consumption

Authors: Kenichiro Hida, Shin-Ichi Kuribayashi

Abstract:

In a conventional network, most network devices, such as routers, are dedicated devices that do not have much variation in capacity. In recent years, a new concept of network functions virtualisation (NFV) has come into use. The intention is to implement a variety of network functions with software on general-purpose servers and this allows the network operator to select their capacities and locations without any constraints. This paper focuses on the allocation of NFV-based routing functions which are one of critical network functions, and presents the virtual routing function allocation algorithm that minimizes the total power consumption. In addition, this study presents the useful allocation policy of virtual routing functions, based on an evaluation with a ladder-shaped network model. This policy takes the ratio of the power consumption of a routing function to that of a circuit and traffic distribution between areas into consideration. Furthermore, the present paper shows that there are cases where the use of NFV-based routing functions makes it possible to reduce the total power consumption dramatically, in comparison to a conventional network, in which it is not economically viable to distribute small-capacity routing functions.

Keywords: Virtual routing function, NFV, resource allocation, minimum power consumption.

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1078 State Estimation Solution with Optimal Allocation of Phasor Measurement Units Considering Zero Injection Bus Modeling

Authors: M. Ravindra, R. Srinivasa Rao, V. Shanmukha Naga Raju

Abstract:

This paper presents state estimation with Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) allocation to obtain complete observability of network. A matrix is designed with modeling of zero injection constraints to minimize PMU allocations. State estimation algorithm is developed with optimal allocation of PMUs to find accurate states of network. The incorporation of PMU into traditional state estimation process improves accuracy and computational performance for large power systems. The nonlinearity integrated with zero injection (ZI) constraints is remodeled to linear frame to optimize number of PMUs. The problem of optimal PMU allocation is regarded with modeling of ZI constraints, PMU loss or line outage, cost factor and redundant measurements. The proposed state estimation with optimal PMU allocation has been compared with traditional state estimation process to show its importance. MATLAB programming on IEEE 14, 30, 57, and 118 bus networks is implemented out by Binary Integer Programming (BIP) method and compared with other methods to show its effectiveness.

Keywords: Observability, phasor measurement units, synchrophasors, SCADA measurements, zero injection bus.

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1077 Maximizing Sum-Rate for Multi-User Two-Way Relaying Networks with ANC Protocol

Authors: Muhammad Abrar, Xiang Gui, Amal Punchihewa

Abstract:

In this paper we study the resource allocation problem for an OFDMA based cooperative two-way relaying (TWR) network. We focus on amplify and forward (AF) analog network coding (ANC) protocol. An optimization problem for two basic resources namely, sub-carrier and power is formulated for multi-user TWR networks. A joint optimal optimization problem is investigated and two-step low complexity sub-optimal resource allocation algorithm is proposed for multi-user TWR networks with ANC protocol. The proposed algorithm has been evaluated in term of total achievable system sum-rate and achievable individual sum-rate for each userpair. The good tradeoff between system sum-rate and fairness is observed in the two-step proportional resource allocation scheme.

Keywords: Relay Network, Relay Protocols, Resource Allocation, Two –way relaying.

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1076 A Practical Scheme for Transmission Loss Allocation to Generators and Loads in Restructured Power Systems

Authors: M.R. Ebrahimi, M. Ehsan

Abstract:

This paper presents a practical scheme that can be used for allocating the transmission loss to generators and loads. In this scheme first the share of a generator or load on the current through a branch is determined using Z-bus modified matrix. Then the current components are decomposed and the branch loss allocation is obtained. A motivation of proposed scheme is to improve the results of Z-bus method and to reach more fair allocation. The proposed scheme has been implemented and tested on several networks. To achieve practical and applicable results, the proposed scheme is simulated and compared on the transmission network (400kv) of Khorasan region in Iran and the 14-bus standard IEEE network. The results show that the proposed scheme is comprehensive and fair to allocating the energy losses of a power market to its participants.

Keywords: Transmission Loss, Loss Allocation, Z-bus modifiedmatrix, current Components Decomposition and Restructured PowerSystems

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1075 Expected Present Value of Losses in the Computation of Optimum Seismic Design Parameters

Authors: J. García-Pérez

Abstract:

An approach to compute optimum seismic design parameters is presented. It is based on the optimization of the expected present value of the total cost, which includes the initial cost of structures as well as the cost due to earthquakes. Different types of seismicity models are considered, including one for characteristic earthquakes. Uncertainties are included in some variables to observe the influence on optimum values. Optimum seismic design coefficients are computed for three different structural types representing high, medium and low rise buildings, located near and far from the seismic sources. Ordinary and important structures are considered in the analysis. The results of optimum values show an important influence of seismicity models as well as of uncertainties on the variables.

Keywords: Importance factors, optimum parameters, seismic losses, seismic risk, total cost.

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