Search results for: impact on course grading and SGPA
Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 2274

Search results for: impact on course grading and SGPA

2274 Impact on Course Registration and SGPA of the Students of BSc in EEE Programme due to Online Teaching during the COVID-19 Pandemic

Authors: Muhibul Haque Bhuyan

Abstract:

Most educational institutions were compelled to switch over to the online mode of teaching, learning, and assessment due to the lockdown when the corona pandemic started around the globe in the early part of the year 2020. However, they faced a unique set of challenges in delivering knowledge and skills to their students as well as formulating a proper assessment policy. This paper investigates whether there is an impact on the student Semester Grade Point Average (SGPA) due to the online mode of teaching and learning assessment at the Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering (EEE) of Southeast University (SEU). Details of student assessments are discussed. Then students’ grades were analyzed to find out the impact on SGPA based on the z-test by finding the standard deviation (). It also pointed out the challenges associated with the online classes and assessment strategies to be adopted during the online assessment. The student admission, course advising, and registration statistics were also presented in several tables and analyzed based on the change in percentage to observe the impact on it due to the pandemic. In summary, it was observed that the students’ SGPAs are not affected but student course advising and registration were affected slightly by the pandemic. Finally, the paper provides some recommendations to improve the online teaching, learning, assessment, and evaluation system.

Keywords: electrical and electronic engineering students, impact on course grading and SGPA, online assessment, online teaching, student registration, semester result

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2273 Grading of Emulsified Agarwood Oil Using Gel Electrophoresis Technique

Authors: Y. T. Boon, M. N. Naim, R. Zakaria, N. F. Abu Bakar, N. Ahmad, I. W. Lenggoro

Abstract:

In this study, encapsulation of agarwood oil with non-ionic surfactant, Tween 80 was prepared at critical micelle concentration of 0.0167 % v/v to produce the most stable nano-emulsion in aqueous. The encapsulation has minimized the bioactive compounds degradation in various pH conditions thus prolong their shelf life and maintained its initial oil grade. The oil grading of the prepared samples were conducted using the gel electrophoresis instead of using common analytical industrial grading such as gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC- MS). The grading method was chosen due to their unique zeta potential value after the encapsulation process. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of applying the electrophoresis principles to separate the encapsulated agarwood oil or grading of the emulsified agarwood oil. The results indicated that the grading process are potential to be further investigate based on their droplet size and zeta potential value at various pH condition when the droplet were migrate through polyacrylamide gel.

Keywords: Electrophoretic mobility, essential oil, nanoemulsion, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, Tween 80, zeta potential.

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2272 Grading and Sequencing Tasks in Task-Based Syllabus: A Critical Look at Criterion Selection

Authors: Hossein Ahmadi, Ogholgol Nazari

Abstract:

The necessity of grading and sequencing tasks has led to the development of different criteria in this regard. However, appropriateness of these criteria in different situations is less discussed. This paper attempts to shed more light on the priority of different criteria in relation with different factors including learners, teachers, educational, and cultural factors.

Keywords: Criteria, Grading, Sequencing, Language learning tasks.

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2271 An Overview of the Application of Fuzzy Inference System for the Automation of Breast Cancer Grading with Spectral Data

Authors: Shabbar Naqvi, Jonathan M. Garibaldi

Abstract:

Breast cancer is one of the most frequent occurring cancers in women throughout the world including U.K. The grading of this cancer plays a vital role in the prognosis of the disease. In this paper we present an overview of the use of advanced computational method of fuzzy inference system as a tool for the automation of breast cancer grading. A new spectral data set obtained from Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) of cancer patients has been used for this study. The future work outlines the potential areas of fuzzy systems that can be used for the automation of breast cancer grading.

Keywords: Breast cancer, FTIR, fuzzy inference system, principal component analysis

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2270 Assessment of Compaction Temperatures on Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) Properties

Authors: Houman Saedi

Abstract:

Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) is one of the most commonest constructed asphalts in Iran and the quality control of constructed roads with HMA have been always paid due attention by researchers. The quality control of constructed roads with this method is being usually carried out by measuring volumetric parameters of HMA marshall samples. One of the important parameters that has a critical role in changing these volumetric parameters is “compaction temperature"; which as a result of its changing, volumetric parameters of Marshall Samples and subsequently constructed asphalt is encountered with variations. In this study, considering the necessity of preservation of the compaction temperature, the effect of various temperatures on Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) samples properties has been evaluated. As well, to evaluate the effect of this parameter on different grading, two different grading (Top coat index grading and binder index grading) have been used and samples were compacted at 5 various temperatures.

Keywords: Compaction Temperature, HMA, Volumetric Parameters, Marshall Method

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2269 Grading Fourteen Zones of Isfahan in Terms of the Impact of Globalization on the Urban Fabric of the City, Using the TOPSIS Model

Authors: A. Zahedi Yeganeh, A. Khademolhosseini, R. Mokhtari Malekabadi

Abstract:

Undoubtedly one of the most far-reaching and controversial topics considered in the past few decades, has been globalization. Globalization lies in the essence of the modern culture. It is a complex and rapidly expanding network of links and mutual interdependence that is an aspect of modern life; though some argue that this link existed since the beginning of human history. If we consider globalization as a dynamic social process in which the geographical constraints governing the political, economic, social and cultural relationships have been undermined, it might not be possible to simply describe its impact on the urban fabric. But since in this phenomenon the increase in communications of societies (while preserving the main cultural - regional characteristics) with one another and the increase in the possibility of influencing other societies are discussed, the need for more studies will be felt. The main objective of this study is to grade based on some globalization factors on urban fabric applying the TOPSIS model. The research method is descriptive - analytical and survey. For data analysis, the TOPSIS model and SPSS software were used and the results of GIS software with fourteen cities are shown on the map. The results show that the process of being influenced by the globalization of the urban fabric of fourteen zones of Isfahan was not similar and there have been large differences in this respect between city zones; the most affected areas are zones 5, 6 and 9 of the municipality and the least impact has been on the zones 4 and 3 and 2.

Keywords: Grading, Globalization, Urban fabric, 14 zones of Isfahan, TOPSIS model.

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2268 Design and Analysis of Extra High Voltage Non-Ceramic Insulator by Finite Element Method

Authors: M. Nageswara Rao, V. S. N. K. Chaitanya, P. Pratyusha

Abstract:

High voltage insulator has to withstand sever electrical stresses. Higher electrical stresses lead to erosion of the insulator surface. Degradation of insulating properties leads to flashover and in some extreme cases it may cause to puncture. For analyzing these electrical stresses and implement necessary actions to diminish the electrical stresses, numerical methods are best. By minimizing the electrical stresses, reliability of the power system will improve. In this paper electric field intensity at critical regions of 400 kV silicone composite insulator is analyzed using finite element method. Insulator is designed using FEMM-2D software package. Electric Field Analysis (EFA) results are analyzed for five cases i.e., only insulator, insulator with two sides arcing horn, High Voltage (HV) end grading ring, grading ring-arcing horn arrangement and two sides grading ring. These EFA results recommended that two sides grading ring is better for minimization of electrical stresses and improving life span of insulator.

Keywords: Polymer insulator, electric field analysis, numerical methods, finite element method, FEMM-2D.

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2267 Battery Grading Algorithm in 2nd-Life Repurposing Li-ion Battery System

Authors: Ya Lv, Benjamin Ong Wei Lin, Wanli Niu, Benjamin Seah Chin Tat

Abstract:

This article presents a methodology that improves reliability and cyclability of 2nd-life Li-ion battery system repurposed as energy storage system (ESS). Most of the 2nd-life retired battery systems in market have module/pack-level state of health (SOH) indicator, which is utilized for guiding appropriate depth of discharge (DOD) in the application of ESS. Due to the lack of cell-level SOH indication, the different degrading behaviors among various cells cannot be identified upon reaching retired status; in the end, considering end of life (EOL) loss and pack-level DOD, the repurposed ESS has to be oversized by > 1.5 times to complement the application requirement of reliability and cyclability. This proposed battery grading algorithm, using non-invasive methodology, is able to detect outlier cells based on historical voltage data and calculate cell-level historical maximum temperature data using semi-analytic methodology. In this way, the individual battery cell in the 2nd-life battery system can be graded in terms of SOH on basis of the historical voltage fluctuation and estimated historical maximum temperature variation. These grades will have corresponding DOD grades in the application of the repurposed ESS to enhance the system reliability and cyclability. In all, this introduced battery grading algorithm is non-invasive, compatible with all kinds of retired Li-ion battery systems which lack of cell-level SOH indication, as well as potentially being embedded into battery management software for preventive maintenance and real-time cyclability optimization.

Keywords: Battery grading algorithm, 2nd-life repurposing battery system, semi-analytic methodology, reliability and cyclability.

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2266 Early Recognition and Grading of Cataract Using a Combined Log Gabor/Discrete Wavelet Transform with ANN and SVM

Authors: Hadeer R. M. Tawfik, Rania A. K. Birry, Amani A. Saad

Abstract:

Eyes are considered to be the most sensitive and important organ for human being. Thus, any eye disorder will affect the patient in all aspects of life. Cataract is one of those eye disorders that lead to blindness if not treated correctly and quickly. This paper demonstrates a model for automatic detection, classification, and grading of cataracts based on image processing techniques and artificial intelligence. The proposed system is developed to ease the cataract diagnosis process for both ophthalmologists and patients. The wavelet transform combined with 2D Log Gabor Wavelet transform was used as feature extraction techniques for a dataset of 120 eye images followed by a classification process that classified the image set into three classes; normal, early, and advanced stage. A comparison between the two used classifiers, the support vector machine SVM and the artificial neural network ANN were done for the same dataset of 120 eye images. It was concluded that SVM gave better results than ANN. SVM success rate result was 96.8% accuracy where ANN success rate result was 92.3% accuracy.

Keywords: Cataract, classification, detection, feature extraction, grading, log-gabor, neural networks, support vector machines, wavelet.

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2265 Evaluation of Gingival Hyperplasia Caused by Medications

Authors: Ilma Robo, Saimir Heta, Greta Plaka, Vera Ostreni

Abstract:

Purpose: Drug gingival hyperplasia is an uncommon pathology encountered during routine work in dental units. The purpose of this paper is to present the clinical appearance of gingival hyperplasia caused by medications. There are already three classes of medications that cause hyperplasia and based on data from the literature, the clinical cases encountered and included in this study have been compared. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in a total of 311 patients, out of which 182 patients were included in our study, meeting the inclusion criteria. After each patient's history was recorded and it was found that patients were in their knowledge of chronic illness, undergoing treatment of gingivitis hypertrophic drugs was performed with a clinical examination of oral cavity and assessment by vertical and horizontal evaluation according to the periodontal indexes. Results: Of the data collected during the study, it was observed that 97% of patients with gingival hyperplasia are treated with nifedipine. 84% of patients treated with selected medicines and gingival hyperplasia in the oral cavity has been exposed at time period for more than 1 year and 1 month. According to the GOI, in the first rank of this index are about 21% of patients, in the second rank are 52%, in the third rank are 24% and in the fourth grade are 3%. According to the horizontal growth index of gingival hyperplasia, grade 1 included about 61% of patients and grade 2 included about 39% of patients with gingival hyperplasia. Bacterial index divides patients by degrees: grading 0 - 8.2%, grading 1 - 32.4%, grading 2 - 14% and grading 3 - 45.1%. Conclusions: The highest percentage of gingival hyperplasia caused by drugs is due to dosing of nifedipine for a duration of dosing and application for systemic healing for more than 1 year.

Keywords: Drug gingival hyperplasia, horizontal growth index, vertical growth index.

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2264 Blockchain-Based Assignment Management System

Authors: Amogh Katti, J. Sai Asritha, D. Nivedh, M. Kalyan Srinivas, B. Somnath Chakravarthi

Abstract:

Today's modern education system uses Learning Management System (LMS) portals for the scoring and grading of student performances, to maintain student records, and teachers are instructed to accept assignments through online submissions of .pdf, .doc, .ppt, etc. There is a risk of data tampering in the traditional portals; we will apply the Blockchain model instead of this traditional model to avoid data tampering and also provide a decentralized mechanism for overall fairness. Blockchain technology is a better and also recommended model because of the following features: consensus mechanism, decentralized system, cryptographic encryption, smart contracts, Ethereum blockchain. The proposed system ensures data integrity and tamper-proof assignment submission and grading, which will be helpful for both students and also educators.

Keywords: Education technology, learning management system, decentralized applications, blockchain.

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2263 Characterization and Design of a Crumb Rubber Modified Asphalt Mix Formulation

Authors: H. Al-Baghli

Abstract:

Laboratory trial results of mixing crumb rubber produced from discarded tires with 60/70 pen grade Kuwaiti bitumen are presented on this paper. PG grading and multiple stress creep recovery tests were conducted on Kuwaiti bitumen blended with 15% and 18% crumb rubber at temperatures ranging from 40 to 70 °C. The results from elastic recovery and non-recoverable creep presented optimum performance at 18% rubber content. The optimum rubberized-bitumen mix was next transformed into a pelletized form (PelletPave®), and was used as a partial replacement to the conventional bitumen in the manufacture of continuously graded hot mix asphalts at a number of binder contents. The trialed PelletPave® contents were at 2.5%, 3.0%, and 3.5% by mass of asphalt mix. In this investigation, it was not possible to utilize the results of standard Marshall method of mix design (i.e. volumetric, stability and flow tests) and subsequently additional assessment of mix compactability was carried out using gyratory compactor in order to determine the optimum PelletPave® and total binder contents.

Keywords: Crumb rubber, Marshall mix design, PG grading, rubberized-bitumen.

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2262 Blinking Characteristics and Corneal Staining in Different Soft Lens Materials

Authors: Bashirah Ishak, Jacyln JiaYing Thye, Bariah Mohd Ali, Norhani Mohidin

Abstract:

Background Contact lens (CL) wear can cause changes in blinking and corneal staining. Aims and Objectives To determine the effects of CL materials (HEMA and SiHy) on spontaneous blink rate, blinking patterns and corneal staining after 2 months of wear. Methods Ninety subjects in 3 groups (control, HEMA and SiHy) were assessed at baseline and 2-months. Blink rate was recorded using a video camera. Blinking patterns were assessed with digital camera and slit lamp biomicroscope. Corneal staining was graded using IER grading scale Results There were no significant differences in all parameters at baseline. At 2 months, CL wearers showed significant increment in average blink rate (F1.626, 47.141 = 7.250, p = 0.003; F2,58 = 6.240, p = 0.004) and corneal staining (χ2 2, n=30 = 31.921, p < 0.001; χ2 2, n=30 = 26.909, p < 0.001). Conclusion Blinking characteristics and corneal staining were not influence by soft CL materials.

Keywords: Spontaneous blinking, cornea staining, grading, soft contact lenses.

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2261 Member Investment Willingness in Agricultural Cooperatives in Shaanxi (China)

Authors: Lijia Wang, Xuexi Huo

Abstract:

This study analyzes characteristics determining member’s willingness to invest in cooperatives using ordered logit model. The data were collected in a field survey among 122 cooperative members in north-central China. The descriptive analysis of survey evidence suggests that cooperatives in China generally having poor ability to deliver the processing services related to product package, grading, and storage, performing worse in profitability, inability of providing returns to capital and obtaining agricultural loan. The regression results demonstrate that members’ farm size, their satisfaction with cooperative price preferential services, attitudes toward cooperative operational scale and development potential have statistically significant impact on willingness to invest.

Keywords: Cooperatives, investment willingness, member, ordered logit.

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2260 Effect of Impact Location upon Sub-Impacts between Beam and Block

Authors: T. F. Jin, X. C. Yin, P. B. Qian

Abstract:

The present investigation is concerned with sub-impacts taken placed when a rigid hemispherical-head block transversely impacts against a beam at different locations. Dynamic substructure technique for elastic-plastic impact is applied to solve numerically this problem. The time history of impact force and energy exchange between block and beam are obtained. The process of sub-impacts is analyzed from the energy exchange point of view. The results verify the influences of the impact location on impact duration, the first sub-impact and energy exchange between the beam and the block.

Keywords: Beam, sub-impact, substructure, elastic-plasticity.

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2259 Experimental Study of Upsetting and Die Forging with Controlled Impact

Authors: T. Penchev, D. Karastoyanov

Abstract:

The results from experimental research of deformation by upsetting and die forging of lead specimens wit controlled impact are presented. Laboratory setup for conducting the investigations, which uses cold rocket engine operated with compressed air, is described. The results show that when using controlled impact is achieving greater plastic deformation and consumes less impact energy than at ordinary impact deformation process.

Keywords: Rocket Engine, Forging Hammer, Sticking Impact, Plastic Deformation.

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2258 Concrete Mix Design Using Neural Network

Authors: Rama Shanker, Anil Kumar Sachan

Abstract:

Basic ingredients of concrete are cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate and water. To produce a concrete of certain specific properties, optimum proportion of these ingredients are mixed. The important factors which govern the mix design are grade of concrete, type of cement and size, shape and grading of aggregates. Concrete mix design method is based on experimentally evolved empirical relationship between the factors in the choice of mix design. Basic draw backs of this method are that it does not produce desired strength, calculations are cumbersome and a number of tables are to be referred for arriving at trial mix proportion moreover, the variation in attainment of desired strength is uncertain below the target strength and may even fail. To solve this problem, a lot of cubes of standard grades were prepared and attained 28 days strength determined for different combination of cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate and water. An artificial neural network (ANN) was prepared using these data. The input of ANN were grade of concrete, type of cement, size, shape and grading of aggregates and output were proportions of various ingredients. With the help of these inputs and outputs, ANN was trained using feed forward back proportion model. Finally trained ANN was validated, it was seen that it gave the result with/ error of maximum 4 to 5%. Hence, specific type of concrete can be prepared from given material properties and proportions of these materials can be quickly evaluated using the proposed ANN.

Keywords: Aggregate Proportions, Artificial Neural Network, Concrete Grade, Concrete Mix Design.

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2257 Briquetting of Metal Chips by Controlled Impact: Experimental Study

Authors: Todor Penchev, Dimitar Karastojanov, Ivan Altaparmakov

Abstract:

For briquetting of metal chips are used hydraulic and mechanical presses. The density of the briquettes in this case is about 60% - 70 % on the density of solid metal. In this work are presented the results of experimental studies for briquetting of metal chips, by using a new technology for impact briquetting. The used chips are by Armco iron, steel, cast iron, copper, aluminum and brass. It has been found that: (i) in a controlled impact the density of the briquettes can be increases up to 30%; (ii) at the same specific impact energy Es (J/sm3) the density of the briquettes increases with increasing of the impact velocity; (iii), realization of the repeated impact leads to decrease of chips density, which can be explained by distribution of elastic waves in the briquette.

Keywords: Briquetting, chips briquetting, impact briquetting.

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2256 The Application of Regulatory Impact Assessment (RIA) on the Czech Financial Market

Authors: Jana Chvalkovska, Petr Jansky, Petr Teply

Abstract:

The impact assessment in its various forms has recently become a very important part of policy-making and legislation in many different countries. Regulatory impact assessment (RIA) is yet another set of analytical methods deployed in the legislation of the European Union, of many developed countries as well as in many developing ones such as Mexico, Malaysia and Philippines. The aim of this paper is to provide a theoretical background for economic models in regulatory impact assessment and an overview of their application especially on the financial market in the Czech Republic. We found out an inadequate application of these models, what makes room for further research in this field.

Keywords: regulatory impact assessment, RIA, impact evaluation, building societies, Czech Republic

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2255 Design and Analysis of an Automobile Bumper with the Capacity of Energy Release Using GMT Materials

Authors: A.R. Mortazavi Moghaddam, M. T. Ahmadian

Abstract:

Bumpers play an important role in preventing the impact energy from being transferred to the automobile and passengers. Saving the impact energy in the bumper to be released in the environment reduces the damages of the automobile and passengers. The goal of this paper is to design a bumper with minimum weight by employing the Glass Material Thermoplastic (GMT) materials. This bumper either absorbs the impact energy with its deformation or transfers it perpendicular to the impact direction. To reach this aim, a mechanism is designed to convert about 80% of the kinetic impact energy to the spring potential energy and release it to the environment in the low impact velocity according to American standard1. In addition, since the residual kinetic energy will be damped with the infinitesimal elastic deformation of the bumper elements, the passengers will not sense any impact. It should be noted that in this paper, modeling, solving and result-s analysis are done in CATIA, LS-DYNA and ANSYS V8.0 software respectively.

Keywords: Bumper, Composite material, Energy Release, GMT, Impact

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2254 Buckling Optimization of Radially-Graded, Thin-Walled, Long Cylinders under External Pressure

Authors: Karam Y. Maalawi

Abstract:

This paper presents a generalized formulation for the problem of buckling optimization of anisotropic, radially graded, thin-walled, long cylinders subject to external hydrostatic pressure. The main structure to be analyzed is built of multi-angle fibrous laminated composite lay-ups having different volume fractions of the constituent materials within the individual plies. This yield to a piecewise grading of the material in the radial direction; that is the physical and mechanical properties of the composite material are allowed to vary radially. The objective function is measured by maximizing the critical buckling pressure while preserving the total structural mass at a constant value equals to that of a baseline reference design. In the selection of the significant optimization variables, the fiber volume fractions adjoin the standard design variables including fiber orientation angles and ply thicknesses. The mathematical formulation employs the classical lamination theory, where an analytical solution that accounts for the effective axial and flexural stiffness separately as well as the inclusion of the coupling stiffness terms is presented. The proposed model deals with dimensionless quantities in order to be valid for thin shells having arbitrary thickness-to-radius ratios. The critical buckling pressure level curves augmented with the mass equality constraint are given for several types of cylinders showing the functional dependence of the constrained objective function on the selected design variables. It was shown that material grading can have significant contribution to the whole optimization process in achieving the required structural designs with enhanced stability limits.

Keywords: Buckling instability, structural optimization, functionally graded material, laminated cylindrical shells, externalhydrostatic pressure.

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2253 Simulation of the Extensional Flow Mixing of Molten Aluminium and Fly Ash Nanoparticles

Authors: O. Ualibek, C. Spitas, V. Inglezakis, G. Itskos

Abstract:

This study presents simulations of an aluminium melt containing an initially non-dispersed fly ash nanoparticle phase. Mixing is affected predominantly by means of forced extensional flow via either straight or slanted orifices. The sensitivity to various process parameters is determined. The simulated process is used for the production of cast fly ash-aluminium nanocomposites. The possibilities for rod and plate stock grading in the context of a continuous casting process implementation are discussed.

Keywords: Metal matrix composites, fly ash nanoparticles, aluminium 2024, agglomeration.

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2252 The Effect of Ageing on Impact Toughness and Microstructure of 2024 Al-Cu-Mg Alloy

Authors: Swami Naidu Gurugubelli

Abstract:

The present study aims at determining the effect of ageing on the impact toughness and microstructure of 2024 Al-Cu - Mg alloy. Following the 2 h solutionizing treatment at 450°C and water quench, the specimens were aged at 200°C for various periods (1 to 18 h). The precipitation stages during ageing were monitored by hardness measurements. For each specimen group, Charpy impact and hardness tests were carried out. During ageing the impact toughness of the alloy first increased, and then, following a maxima decreased due to the precipitation of intermediate phases, finally it reached its minimum at the peak hardness. Correlations between hardness and impact toughness were investigated.

Keywords: Ageing, alloy, hardness, microstructure.

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2251 Atherosclerosis Prevalence within Populations of the Southeastern United States

Authors: Samuel P. Prahlow, Anthony Sciuva, Katherine Bombly, Emily Wilson, Shiv Dhiman, Savita Arya

Abstract:

A prevalence cohort study of atherosclerotic lesions within cadavers was performed to better understand and characterize the prevalence of atherosclerosis among Georgia residents within body donors in the Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine (PCOM) - Georgia body donor program. We procured specimens from cadavers used for medical student, physical therapy student, and biomedical science student cadaveric anatomical dissection at PCOM - South Georgia and PCOM - Georgia. Tissues were prepared using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain as histological slides by Colquitt Regional Medical Center Laboratory Services. One section from each of the following arteries was taken after cadaveric dissection at the site of most calcification palpated grossly (if present): left anterior descending coronary artery, left internal carotid artery, abdominal aorta, splenic artery, and hepatic artery. All specimens were graded and categorized according to the American Heart Association’s Modified and Conventional Standards for Atherosclerotic Lesions using x4, x10, x40 microscopic magnification. Our study cohort included 22 cadavers, with 16 females and 6 males. The average age was 72.54 and median age was 72, with a range of 52 to 90 years old. The cause of death determination listing vascular and/or cardiovascular causes were present on 6 of the 22 death certificates. 19 of 22 (86%) cadavers had at least a single artery grading > 5. Of the cadavers with at least a single artery graded at greater than 5, only 5 of 19 (26%) cadavers had a vascular or cardiovascular cause of death reported. Malignancy was listed as a cause of death on 7 (32%) of death certificates. The average atherosclerosis grading of the common hepatic, splenic and left internal carotid arteries (2.15, 3.05, and 3.36 respectively) were lower than the left anterior descending artery and the abdominal aorta (5.16 and 5.86 respectively). This prevalence study characterizes atherosclerosis found in five medium and large systemic arteries within cadavers from the state of Georgia.

Keywords: Atherosclerosis, cardiovascular, histology, pathology.

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2250 Sub-Impact Phenomenon of Elasto-Plastic Free-Free Beam during a Strike

Authors: H. Rong, X. C. Yin, J. Yang, Y. N. Shen

Abstract:

Based on Rayleigh beam theory, the sub-impacts of a free-free beam struck horizontally by a round-nosed rigid mass is simulated by the finite difference method and the impact-separation conditions. In order to obtain the sub-impact force, a uniaxial compression elastic-plastic contact model is employed to analyze the local deformation field on contact zone. It is found that the horizontal impact is a complicated process including the elastic plastic sub-impacts in sequence. There are two sub-zones of sub-impact. In addition, it found that the elastic energy of the free-free beam is more suitable for the Poisson collision hypothesis to explain compression and recovery processes.

Keywords: beam, sub-impact, elastic-plastic deformation, finite difference method.

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2249 Natural Disaster Impact on Annual Visitors of Recreation Area: The Taiwan Case

Authors: Ya-Fen Lee, Yun-Yao Chi

Abstract:

This paper aims to quantify the impact of natural disaster on tourism by the change of annual visitors to scenic spots. The data of visitors to Alishan, Sun Moon Lake, Sitou and Palace Museum in Taiwan during 1986 to 2012 year is collected, and the trend analysis is used to predict the annual visitors to these scenic spots. The findings show that 1999 Taiwan earthquake had significant effect on the visitors to Alishan, Sun Moon Lake and Sitou with an average impact of 55.75% during 1999 to 2000 year except for Palace Museum. The impact was greater as closer epicenter of 1999 earthquake. And the discovery period of visitors is about 2 to 9 years. Further, the impact of heavy rainfall on Alishan, Taiwan is estimated. As the accumulative rainfall reaches to 500 mm, the impact on visitors can be predicted. 

Keywords: Impact, Natural disaster, tourism, visitors.

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2248 Finite Element Analysis of Low-Velocity Impact Damage on Stiffened Composite Panels

Authors: Xuan Sun, Mingbo Tong

Abstract:

To understand the factors which affect impact damage on composite structures, particularly the effects of impact position and ribs. In this paper, a finite element model (FEM) of low-velocity impact damage on the composite structure was established via the nonlinear finite element method, combined with the user-defined materials subroutine (VUMAT) of the ABAQUS software. The structural elements chosen for the investigation comprised a series of stiffened composite panels, representative of real aircraft structure. By impacting the panels at different positions relative to the ribs, the effect of relative position of ribs was found out. Then the simulation results and the experiments data were compared. Finally, the factors which affect impact damage on the structures were discussed. The paper was helpful for the design of stiffened composite structures.

Keywords: Stiffened, Low-velocity, Impact, Abaqus, Impact Energy.

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2247 Modeling of Single-Particle Impact in Abrasive Water Jet Machining

Authors: S. Y. Ahmadi-Brooghani, H. Hassanzadeh, P. Kahhal

Abstract:

This work presents a study on the abrasive water jet (AWJ) machining. An explicit finite element analysis (FEA) of single abrasive particle impact on stainless steel 1.4304 (AISI 304) is conducted. The abrasive water jet machining is modeled by FEA software ABAQUS/CAE. Shapes of craters in FEM simulation results were used and compared with the previous experimental and FEM works by means of crater sphericity. The influence of impact angle and particle velocity was observed. Adaptive mesh domain is used to model the impact zone. Results are in good agreement with those obtained from the experimental and FEM simulation. The crater-s depth is also obtained for different impact angle and abrasive particle velocities.

Keywords: Abrasive water jet machining, Adaptive meshcontrol, Explicit finite elements analysis, Single-particle impact.

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2246 A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of Aluminum Production Process

Authors: Alaa Al Hawari, Mohammad Khader, Wael El Hasan, Mahmoud Alijla, Ammar Manawi, Abdelbaki Benamour

Abstract:

The production of aluminum alloys and ingots – starting from the processing of alumina to aluminum, and the final cast product – was studied using a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. The studied aluminum supply chain consisted of a carbon plant, a reduction plant, a casting plant, and a power plant. In the LCA model, the environmental loads of the different plants for the production of 1 ton of aluminum metal were investigated. The impact of the aluminum production was assessed in eight impact categories. The results showed that for all of the impact categories the power plant had the highest impact only in the cases of Human Toxicity Potential (HTP) the reduction plant had the highest impact and in the Marine Aquatic Eco-Toxicity Potential (MAETP) the carbon plant had the highest impact. Furthermore, the impact of the carbon plant and the reduction plant combined was almost the same as the impact of the power plant in the case of the Acidification Potential (AP). The carbon plant had a positive impact on the environment when it come to the Eutrophication Potential (EP) due to the production of clean water in the process. The natural gas based power plant used in the case study had 8.4 times less negative impact on the environment when compared to the heavy fuel based power plant and 10.7 times less negative impact when compared to the hard coal based power plant.

Keywords: Life cycle assessment, aluminum production, Supply chain.

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2245 Procedure for Impact Testing of Fused Recycled Glass

Authors: David Halley, Tyra Oseng-Rees, Luca Pagano, Juan A Ferriz-Papi

Abstract:

Recycled glass material is made from 100% recycled bottle glass and consumes less energy than re-melt technology. It also uses no additives in the manufacturing process allowing the recycled glass material, in principal, to go back to the recycling stream after end-of-use, contributing to the circular economy with a low ecological impact. The aim of this paper is to investigate the procedure for testing the recycled glass material for impact resistance, so it can be applied to pavements and other surfaces which are at risk of impact during service. A review of different impact test procedures for construction materials was undertaken, comparing methodologies and international standards applied to other materials such as natural stone, ceramics and glass. A drop weight impact testing machine was designed and manufactured in-house to perform these tests. As a case study, samples of the recycled glass material were manufactured with two different thicknesses and tested. The impact energy was calculated theoretically, obtaining results with 5 and 10 J. The results on the material were subsequently discussed. Improvements on the procedure can be made using high speed video technology to calculate velocity just before and immediately after the impact to know the absorbed energy. The initial results obtained in this procedure were positive although repeatability needs to be developed to obtain a correlation of results and finally be able to validate the procedure. The experiment with samples showed the practicality of this procedure and application to the recycled glass material impact testing although further research needs to be developed.

Keywords: Construction materials, drop weight impact, impact testing, recycled glass.

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