Search results for: alum
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

Search results for: alum

11 Pre and Post Mordant Effect of Alum on Gamma Rays Assisted Cotton Fabric by Using Ipomoea indica Leaves Extract

Authors: Abdul Hafeez, Shahid Adeel, Ayesha Hussain

Abstract:

There are number of plants species in the universe which give the protections from different diseases and give colour for the foods and textiles. The environmental condition of the universe suggested toward the ecofriendly textiles. The aim of the paper is to analyze the influence of pre & post mordanting of alum on radiated cotton fabric with Gamma Radiation of different doses by using Ipomoea indica leaves extract. Alum used as mordant with the concentration of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% as pre and post mordanting to observe the effect of light and colour fastness of radiated cotton. 6% of alum concentration in pre mordanting gave good colour strength 117.82 with darker in shade toward the greenish tone and in post mordanting 6% concentration gave good colour strength 102.19. The lab values show that the colour is darker in tone and gave bluish effect. Further results showed that alum gave good light and rubbing fastness on gamma radiated cotton fabric.

Keywords: Ipomoea indica, gamma radiation, alum, light fastness.

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10 An Approach for Coagulant Dosage Optimization Using Soft Jar Test: A Case Study of Bangkhen Water Treatment Plant

Authors: Ninlawat Phuangchoke, Waraporn Viyanon, Setta Sasananan

Abstract:

The most important process of the water treatment plant process is coagulation, which uses alum and poly aluminum chloride (PACL). Therefore, determining the dosage of alum and PACL is the most important factor to be prescribed. This research applies an artificial neural network (ANN), which uses the Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm to create a mathematical model (Soft Jar Test) for chemical dose prediction, as used for coagulation, such as alum and PACL, with input data consisting of turbidity, pH, alkalinity, conductivity, and, oxygen consumption (OC) of the Bangkhen Water Treatment Plant (BKWTP), under the authority of the Metropolitan Waterworks Authority of Thailand. The data were collected from 1 January 2019 to 31 December 2019 in order to cover the changing seasons of Thailand. The input data of ANN are divided into three groups: training set, test set, and validation set. The coefficient of determination and the mean absolute errors of the alum model are 0.73, 3.18 and the PACL model are 0.59, 3.21, respectively.

Keywords: Soft jar test, jar test, water treatment plant process, artificial neural network.

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9 Physico-chemical Treatment of Tar-Containing Wastewater Generated from Biomass Gasification Plants

Authors: Vrajesh Mehta, Anal Chavan

Abstract:

Treatment of tar-containing wastewater is necessary for the successful operation of biomass gasification plants (BGPs). In the present study, tar-containing wastewater was treated using lime and alum for the removal of in-organics, followed by adsorption on powdered activated carbon (PAC) for the removal of organics. Limealum experiments were performed in a jar apparatus and activated carbon studies were performed in an orbital shaker. At optimum concentrations, both lime and alum individually proved to be capable of removing color, total suspended solids (TSS) and total dissolved solids (TDS), but in both cases, pH adjustment had to be carried out after treatment. The combination of lime and alum at the dose ratio of 0.8:0.8 g/L was found to be optimum for the removal of inorganics. The removal efficiency achieved at optimum concentrations were 78.6, 62.0, 62.5 and 52.8% for color, alkalinity, TSS and TDS, respectively. The major advantages of the lime-alum combination were observed to be as follows: no requirement of pH adjustment before and after treatment and good settleability of sludge. Coagulation-precipitation followed by adsorption on PAC resulted in 92.3% chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and 100% phenol removal at equilibrium. Ammonia removal efficiency was found to be 11.7% during coagulation-flocculation and 36.2% during adsorption on PAC. Adsorption of organics on PAC in terms of COD and phenol followed Freundlich isotherm with Kf = 0.55 & 18.47 mg/g and n = 1.01 & 1.45, respectively. This technology may prove to be one of the fastest and most techno-economically feasible methods for the treatment of tar-containing wastewater generated from BGPs.

Keywords: Activated carbon, Alum, Biomass gasification, Coagulation-flocculation, Lime, Tar-containing wastewater.

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8 Removal of Lead in High Rate Activated Sludge System

Authors: Mamdouh Y. Saleh, Gaber EL Enany, Medhat H. Elzahar, Mohamed Z. Elshikhipy, Rana Hamouda

Abstract:

The heavy metals pollution in water, sediments and fish of Lake Manzala affected form the disposal of wastewater, industrial and agricultural drainage water into the lake on the environmental situation. A pilot plant with an industrial discharge flow of 135L/h designed according to the activated sludge plant to simulate between the biological and chemical treatment with the addition of alum to the aeration tank with dosages of 100, 150, 200 and 250 mg/L. The industrial discharge had concentrations of Lead and BOD5 with an average range 1.22, 145mg/L respectively. That means the average Pb was high up to 25 times than the allowed permissible concentration. The optimization of the chemical-biological process using 200mg/L Alum dosage compared has improvement of Lead and BOD5 removal efficiency to 61.76% and 56% respectively.

Keywords: Industrial wastewater, Activated sludge, BOD5, Lead, Alum salt.

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7 Biological and Chemical Filter Treatment for Wastewater Reuse

Authors: M. J. Go, H. S. Shin, D. W. Kim, D. Chang, S. B. Han, J. M. Hur, B. R. Chung, J. K. Choi, J. Fan

Abstract:

This study developed a high efficient and combined biological and chemical filter treatment process. This process used PAC (Powder Activated Carbon), Alum and attached growth treatment process. The system removals of total nitrogen and total phosphorus ratio of two were as high as 70% and 73%, moreover, the effluent water was suitable to urban and agricultural water. Also the advantages of this process are not only occupies small place but is simple, economic and easy operating. Besides, our developed process can keep stable process efficiency even in relative low load level. Therefore, this study judges that use of the high efficient and combined biological and chemical filter treatment process, it is expected that the effluent water in this system can be reused as urban and agricultural water.

Keywords: biological and chemical filter treatment, wastewaterreuse, PAC, Alum

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6 Factors Affecting Aluminum Dissolve from Acidified Water Purification Sludge

Authors: Wen Po Cheng, Chi Hua Fu, Ping Hung Chen, Ruey Fang Yu

Abstract:

Recovering resources from water purification sludge (WPS) have been gradually stipulated in environmental protection laws and regulations in many nations. Hence, reusing the WPS is becoming an important topic, and recovering alum from WPS is one of the many practical alternatives. Most previous research efforts have been conducted on studying the amphoteric characteristic of aluminum hydroxide for investigating the optimum pH range to dissolve the Al(III) species from WPS, but it has been lack of reaction kinetics or mechanisms related discussion. Therefore, in this investigation, water purification sludge (WPS) solution was broken by ultrasound to make particle size of reactants smaller, specific surface area larger. According to the reaction kinetics, these phenomena let the dissolved aluminum salt quantity increased and the reaction rate go faster.

Keywords: Aluminum, Acidification, Sludge, Recovery.

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5 Soil-Cement Floor Produced with Alum Water Treatment Residues

Authors: Flavio Araujo, Paulo Scalize, Julio Lima, Natalia Vieira, Antonio Albuquerque, Isabela Santos

Abstract:

From a concern regarding the environmental impacts caused by the disposal of residues generated in Water Treatment Plants (WTP's), alternatives ways have been studied to use these residues as raw material for manufacture of building materials, avoiding their discharge on water streams, disposal on sanitary landfills or incineration. This paper aims to present the results of a research work, which is using WTR for replacing the soil content in the manufacturing of soil-cement floor with proportions of 0, 5, 10 and 15%. The samples tests showed a reduction mechanical strength in so far as has increased the amount of waste. The water absorption was below the maximum of 6% required by the standard. The application of WTR contributes to the reduction of the environmental damage in the water treatment industry.

Keywords: Residue, soil-cement floor, sustainable, WTP.

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4 Study of Remote Sensing and Satellite Images Ability in Preparing Agricultural Land Use Map (ALUM)

Authors: Ali Gholami

Abstract:

In this research the Preparation of Land use map of scanner LISS III satellite data, belonging to the IRS in the Aghche region in Isfahan province, is studied carefully. For this purpose, the IRS satellite images of August 2008 and various land preparation uses in region including rangelands, irrigation farming, dry farming, gardens and urban areas were separated and identified. Therefore, the GPS and Erdas Imaging software were used and three methods of Maximum Likelihood, Mahalanobis Distance and Minimum Distance were analyzed. In each of these methods, matrix error and Kappa index were calculated and accuracy of each method, based on percentages: 53.13, 56.64 and 48.44, were obtained respectively. Considering the low accuracy of these methods in separation of land preparation use, the visual interpretation of the map was used. Finally, regional visits of 150 points were noted at random and no error was observed. It shows that the map prepared by visual interpretation is in high accuracy. Although the probable errors due to visual interpretation and geometric correction might happen but the desired accuracy of the map which is more than 85 percent is reliable.

Keywords: Land use map, Aghche Region, Erdas Imagine, satellite images

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3 Enhanced Coagulation of Disinfection By-Products Precursors in Porsuk Water Resource, Eskisehir

Authors: Zehra Yigit, Hatice Inan, Guven Seydioglu, Vedat Uyak

Abstract:

Natural organic matter (NOM) is heterogeneous mixture of organic compounds that enter the water media from animal and plant remains, domestic and industrial wastes. Researches showed that NOM is likely precursor material for disinfection by products (DBPs). Chlorine very commenly used for disinfection purposes and NOM and chlorine reacts then Trihalomethane (THM) and Haloacetic acids (HAAs) which are cancerogenics for human health are produced. The aim of the study is to search NOM removal by enhanced coagulation from drinking water source of Eskisehir which is supplied from Porsuk Dam. Recently, Porsuk dam water is getting highly polluted and therefore NOM concentration is increasing. Enhanced coagulation studies were evaluated by measurement of Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC), UV absorbance at 254 nm (UV254), and different trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) tests. Results of jar test experiments showed that NOM can be removed from water about 40-50 % of efficiency by enhanced coagulation. Optimum coagulant type and coagulant dosages were determined using FeCl3 and Alum.

Keywords: Chlorination, Disinfection by-products, DOC, Enhanced Coagulation, NOM, Porsuk, UV254.

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2 Potential of Henna Leaves as Dye and Its Fastness Properties on Fabric

Authors: Nkem Angela Udeani

Abstract:

Despite the wide spread use of synthetic dyes, natural dyes are still exploited and used to enhance its inherent aesthetic qualities as a major material for beautification of the body. Centuries before the discovery of synthetic dyes, natural dyes were the only source of dye open to mankind. Dyes are extracted from plant - leaves, roots and barks, insect secretions, and minerals. However, research findings have made it clear that of all, plants- leaves, roots, barks or flowers are the most explored and exploited in which henna (Lawsonia innermis L.) is one of those plants. Experiment has also shown that henna is used in body painting in conjunction with an alkaline (Ammonium Sulphate) as a fixing agent. This of course gives a clue that if colour derived from henna is properly investigated, it may not only be used for body decoration but possibly, may have affinity to fiber substrate. This paper investigates the dyeing potentials – dye ability and fastness qualities of henna dye extracts on cotton and linen fibers using mordants like ammonium sulphate and other alkalis (hydrosulphate and caustic soda, potash, common salt, potassium alum). Hot and cold water and ethanol solvent were used in the extraction of the dye to investigate the most effective method, dye ability, and fastness qualities of these extracts under room temperature. The results of the experiment show that cotton have a high rate of dye intake than other fiber. On a similar note, the colours obtained depend most on the solvent used. In conclusion, hot water extraction appears more effective. While the colours obtained from ethanol and both cold hot methods of extraction range from light to dark yellow, light green to army green and to some extent shades of brown hues.

Keywords: Dye, fabrics, henna leaves, potential.

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1 Effect of a Gravel Bed Flocculator on the Efficiency of a Low Cost Water Treatment Plants

Authors: Alaa Hussein Wadi

Abstract:

The principal objective of a water treatment plant is to produce water that satisfies a set of drinking water quality standards at a reasonable price to the consumers. The gravel-bed flocculator provide a simple and inexpensive design for flocculation in small water treatment plants (less than 5000 m3/day capacity). The packed bed of gravel provides ideal conditions for the formation of compact settleable flocs because of continuous recontact provided by the sinuous flow of water through the interstices formed by the gravel. The field data which were obtained from the operation of the water supply treatment unit cover the physical, chemical and biological water qualities of the raw and settled water as obtained by the operation of the treatment unit. The experiments were carried out with the aim of assessing the efficiency of the gravel filter in removing the turbidity, pathogenic bacteria, from the raw water. The water treatment plant, which was constructed for the treatment of river water, was in principle a rapid sand filter. The results show that the average value of the turbidity level of the settled water was 4.83 NTU with a standard deviation of turbidity 2.893 NTU. This indicated that the removal efficiency of the sedimentation tank (gravel filter) was about 67.8 %. for pH values fluctuated between 7.75 and 8.15, indicating the alkaline nature of the raw water of the river Shatt Al-Hilla, as expected. Raw water pH is depressed slightly following alum coagulation. The pH of the settled water ranged from 7.75 to a maximum of 8.05. The bacteriological tests which were carried out on the water samples were: total coliform test, E-coli test, and the plate count test. In each test the procedure used was as outlined in the Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (APHA, AWWA, and WPCF, 1985). The gravel filter exhibit a low performance in removing bacterial load. The percentage bacterial removal, which is maximum for total plate count (19%) and minimum for total coliform (16.82%).

Keywords: Gravel bed flocculator, turbidity, total coliform.

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