Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Search results for: Motorcycle

13 Metallurgical Analysis of Surface Defect in Telescopic Front Fork

Authors: Souvik Das, Janak Lal, Arthita Dey, Goutam Mukhopadhyay, Sandip Bhattacharya

Abstract:

Telescopic Front Fork (TFF) used in two wheelers, mainly motorcycle, is made from high strength steel, and is manufactured by high frequency induction welding process wherein hot rolled and pickled coils are used as input raw material for rolling of hollow tubes followed by heat treatment, surface treatment, cold drawing, tempering, etc. The final application demands superior quality TFF tubes w.r.t. surface finish and dimensional tolerances. This paper presents the investigation of two different types of failure of fork during operation. The investigation consists of visual inspection, chemical analysis, characterization of microstructure, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. In this paper, comprehensive investigations of two failed tube samples were investigated. In case of Sample #1, the result revealed that there was a pre-existing crack, known as hook crack, which leads to the cracking of the tube. Metallographic examination exhibited that during field operation the pre-existing hook crack was surfaced out leading to crack in the pipe. In case of Sample #2, presence of internal oxidation with decarburised grains inside the material indicates origin of the defect from slab stage.

Keywords: telescopic front fork, induction welding, hook crack, internal oxidation

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12 Crash and Injury Characteristics of Riders in Motorcycle-Passenger Vehicle Crashes

Authors: Z. A. Ahmad Noor Syukri, A. J. Nawal Aswan, S. V. Wong

Abstract:

The motorcycle has become one of the most common type of vehicles used on the road, particularly in the Asia region, including Malaysia, due to its size-convenience and affordable price. This study focuses only on crashes involving motorcycles with passenger cars consisting 43 real world crashes obtained from in-depth crash investigation process from June 2016 till July 2017. The study collected and analyzed vehicle and site parameters obtained during crash investigation and injury information acquired from the patient-treating hospital. The investigation team, consisting of two personnel, is stationed at the Emergency Department of the treatment facility, and was dispatched to the crash scene once receiving notification of the related crashes. The injury information retrieved was coded according to the level of severity using the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and classified into different body regions. The data revealed that weekend crashes were significantly higher for the night time period and the crash occurrence was the highest during morning hours (commuting to work period) for weekdays. Bad weather conditions play a minimal effect towards the occurrence of motorcycle – passenger vehicle crashes and nearly 90% involved motorcycles with single riders. Riders up to 25 years old are heavily involved in crashes with passenger vehicles (60%), followed by 26-55 year age group with 35%. Male riders were dominant in each of the age segments. The majority of the crashes involved side impacts, followed by rear impacts and cars outnumbered the rest of the passenger vehicle types in terms of crash involvement with motorcycles. The investigation data also revealed that passenger vehicles were the most at-fault counterpart (62%) when involved in crashes with motorcycles and most of the crashes involved situations whereby both of the vehicles are travelling in the same direction and one of the vehicles is in a turning maneuver. More than 80% of the involved motorcycle riders had sustained yellow severity level during triage process. The study also found that nearly 30% of the riders sustained injuries to the lower extremities, while MAIS level 3 injuries were recorded for all body regions except for thorax region. The result showed that crashes in which the motorcycles were found to be at fault were more likely to occur during night and raining conditions. These types of crashes were also found to be more likely to involve other types of passenger vehicles rather than cars and possess higher likelihood in resulting higher ISS (>6) value to the involved rider. To reduce motorcycle fatalities, it first has to understand the characteristics concerned and focus may be given on crashes involving passenger vehicles as the most dominant crash partner on Malaysian roads.

Keywords: motorcycle crash, passenger vehicle, in-depth crash investigation, injury mechanism

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11 Porosities Comparison between Production and Simulation in Motorcycle Fuel Caps of Aluminum High Pressure Die Casting

Authors: P. Meethum, C. Suvanjumrat

Abstract:

Many aluminum motorcycle parts produced by a high pressure die casting. Some parts such as fuel caps were a thin and complex shape. This part risked for porosities and blisters on surface if it only depended on an experience of mold makers for mold design. This research attempted to use CAST-DESIGNER software simulated the high pressure die casting process with the same process parameters of a motorcycle fuel cap production. The simulated results were compared with fuel cap products and expressed the same porosity and blister locations on cap surface. An average of absolute difference of simulated results was obtained 0.094 mm when compared the simulated porosity and blister defect sizes on the fuel cap surfaces with the experimental micro photography. This comparison confirmed an accuracy of software and will use the setting parameters to improve fuel cap molds in the further work.

Keywords: Aluminum, die casting, fuel cap, motorcycle

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10 The Fuel Consumption and Non Linear Model Metropolitan and Large City Transportation System

Authors: Mudjiastuti Handajani

Abstract:

The national economy development affects the vehicle ownership which ultimately increases fuel consumption. The rise of the vehicle ownership is dominated by the increasing number of motorcycles. This research aims to analyze and identify the characteristics of fuel consumption, the city transportation system, and to analyze the relationship and the effect of the city transportation system on the fuel consumption. A multivariable analysis is used in this study. The data analysis techniques include: a Multivariate Multivariable Analysis by using the R software. More than 84% of fuel on Java is consumed in metropolitan and large cities. The city transportation system variables that strongly effect the fuel consumption are population, public vehicles, private vehicles and private bus. This method can be developed to control the fuel consumption by considering the urban transport system and city tipology. The effect can reducing subsidy on the fuel consumption, increasing state economic.

Keywords: Transportation, City, consumption, Fuel

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9 Development of a Novel Pneumatic Hybrid Engine

Authors: Yu-Ta Shen, Yean-Ren Hwang

Abstract:

Although electrical motors are still the main devices used in vehicular exhaust comprises more than 95 percent of the air pollution in Taiwan's largest city, Taipei. On average, all commuters in Taipei travel 13.6 km daily, while motorcycle commuters travel 12.2 km. The convenience and mobility of motorcycles makes them irreplaceable in Taiwan city traffic but they add significantly to air pollution problems. In order to improve air pollution conditions, some new types of vehicles have been proposed, such as fuel cell driven and hybrid energy vehicles. In this study, we develop a model pneumatic hybrid motorcycle system and simulate its acceleration and mileage (km/L) performance. The results show that the pneumatic hybrid motorcycle can improve efficiency.

Keywords: Air Pollution, Hybrid, Exhaust, motorcycle, vehicular, pneumatic

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8 Development of Accident Predictive Model for Rural Roadway

Authors: Fajaruddin Mustakim, Motohiro Fujita

Abstract:

This paper present the study carried out of accident analysis, black spot study and to develop accident predictive models based on the data collected at rural roadway, Federal Route 50 (F050) Malaysia. The road accident trends and black spot ranking were established on the F050. The development of the accident prediction model will concentrate in Parit Raja area from KM 19 to KM 23. Multiple non-linear regression method was used to relate the discrete accident data with the road and traffic flow explanatory variable. The dependent variable was modeled as the number of crashes namely accident point weighting, however accident point weighting have rarely been account in the road accident prediction Models. The result show that, the existing number of major access points, without traffic light, rise in speed, increasing number of Annual Average Daily Traffic (AADT), growing number of motorcycle and motorcar and reducing the time gap are the potential contributors of increment accident rates on multiple rural roadway.

Keywords: Accident Trends, Black Spot Study, Accident Prediction Model

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7 A Study of Geographic Information System Combining with GPS and 3G for Parking Guidance and Information System

Authors: Yu-Chi Shiue, Jyong Lin, Shih-Chang Chen

Abstract:

With the increase of economic behavior and the upgrade of living standar, the ratio for people in Taiwan who own automobiles and motorcycles have recently increased with multiples. Therefore, parking issues will be a big challenge to facilitate traffic network and ensure urban life quality. The Parking Guidance and Information System is one of important systems for Advanced Traveler Information Services (ATIS). This research proposes a parking guidance and information system which integrates GPS and 3G network for a map on the Geographic Information System to solution inadequate of roadside information kanban. The system proposed in this study mainly includes Parking Host, Parking Guidance and Information Server, Geographic Map and Information System as well as Parking Guidance and Information Browser. The study results show this system can increase driver-s efficiency to find parking space and efficiently enhance parking convenience in comparison with roadside kanban system.

Keywords: Geographic Information System, GPS, parkinginformation

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6 Crash Severity Modeling in Urban Highways Using Backward Regression Method

Authors: F. Rezaie Moghaddam, T. Rezaie Moghaddam, M. Pasbani Khiavi, M. Ali Ghorbani

Abstract:

Identifying and classifying intersections according to severity is very important for implementation of safety related counter measures and effective models are needed to compare and assess the severity. Highway safety organizations have considered intersection safety among their priorities. In spite of significant advances in highways safety, the large numbers of crashes with high severities still occur in the highways. Investigation of influential factors on crashes enables engineers to carry out calculations in order to reduce crash severity. Previous studies lacked a model capable of simultaneous illustration of the influence of human factors, road, vehicle, weather conditions and traffic features including traffic volume and flow speed on the crash severity. Thus, this paper is aimed at developing the models to illustrate the simultaneous influence of these variables on the crash severity in urban highways. The models represented in this study have been developed using binary Logit Models. SPSS software has been used to calibrate the models. It must be mentioned that backward regression method in SPSS was used to identify the significant variables in the model. Consider to obtained results it can be concluded that the main factor in increasing of crash severity in urban highways are driver age, movement with reverse gear, technical defect of the vehicle, vehicle collision with motorcycle and bicycle, bridge, frontal impact collisions, frontal-lateral collisions and multi-vehicle crashes in urban highways which always increase the crash severity in urban highways.

Keywords: Speed, crash severity, Backward regression, urbanhighways

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5 Studying the Causes and Affecting Factors of Motorcycle Accidents A Case Study on the Road Accidents in Zanjan Province (IRAN) - 2007

Authors: A. Beheshti, S. Salkhordeh, H. Amini

Abstract:

Based on statistics released by Islamic Republic of Iran Police (IRIP), from among the total 9555 motorcycle accidents that happened in 2007, 857 riders died and 11219 one got injured. If we also consider the death toll and injuries of other vehicles' accidents resulted from traffic violation by motorcycle riders, then paying attention to the motorcycle accidents seems to be very necessary. Therefore, in this study we tried to investigate the traits and issues related to production, application, and training, along with causes of motorcycle accidents from 4 perspectives of road, human, environment and vehicle and also based on statistical and geographical analysis of accident-sheets prepared by Iran Road Patrol Department (IRPD). Unfamiliarity of riders with regulations and techniques of motorcycling, disuse of safety equipments, inefficiency of roads and design of junctions for safe trafficking of motorcycles and finally the lack of sufficient control of responsible organizations are among the major causes which lead to these accidents.

Keywords: Road Accidents, motorcycle, Motorcycle riders, Statistical analysis of accidents

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4 A Study on the Attractiveness of Heavy Duty Motorcycle

Authors: Kaishuan Shen, Pan Changyu, Yuhsiang Lu, Zongshao Liu, Chishxsin Chuang, Minyuan Ma

Abstract:

The culture of riding heavy motorcycles originates from advanced countries and mainly comes from Europe, North America, and Japan. Heavy duty motorcycle riders are different from people who view motorcycles as a convenient mean of transportation. They regard riding them as a kind of enjoyment and high-level taste. The activities of riding heavy duty motorcycles have formes a distinctive landscape in domestic land in Taiwan. Previous studies which explored motorcycle culture in Taiwan still focused on the objects of motorcycle engine displacement under 50 cc.. The study aims to study the heavy duty motorcycles of engine displacement over 550 cc. and explores where their attractiveness is. For finding the attractiveness of heavy duty motorcycle, the study chooses Miryoku Engineering (Preference-Based Design) approach. Two steps are adopted to proceed the research. First, through arranging the letters obtained from interviewing experts, EGM (The Evaluation Grid Method) was applied to find out the structure of attractiveness. The attractive styles are eye-dazzling, leisure, classic, and racing competitive styles. Secondarily, Quantification Theory Type I analysis was adopted as a tool for analyzing the importance of attractiveness. The relationship between style and attractive parts was also discussed. The results could contribute to the design and research development of heavy duty motorcycle industry in Taiwan.

Keywords: Evaluation, attractiveness, heavy dutymotorcycle, miryoku engineering

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3 Fuzzy Approach for Ranking of Motor Vehicles Involved in Road Accidents

Authors: Lazim Abdullah, N orhanadiah Zam

Abstract:

Increasing number of vehicles and lack of awareness among road users may lead to road accidents. However no specific literature was found to rank vehicles involved in accidents based on fuzzy variables of road users. This paper proposes a ranking of four selected motor vehicles involved in road accidents. Human and non-human factors that normally linked with road accidents are considered for ranking. The imprecision or vagueness inherent in the subjective assessment of the experts has led the application of fuzzy sets theory to deal with ranking problems. Data in form of linguistic variables were collected from three authorised personnel of three Malaysian Government agencies. The Multi Criteria Decision Making, fuzzy TOPSIS was applied in computational procedures. From the analysis, it shows that motorcycles vehicles yielded the highest closeness coefficient at 0.6225. A ranking can be drawn using the magnitude of closeness coefficient. It was indicated that the motorcycles recorded the first rank.

Keywords: Decision Making, Road Accidents, fuzzy number, closeness coefficient

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2 Simulation of an Auto-Tuning Bicycle Suspension Fork with Quick Releasing Valves

Authors: Y. C. Mao, G. S. Chen

Abstract:

Bicycle configuration is not as large as those of motorcycles or automobiles, while it indeed composes a complicated dynamic system. People-s requirements on comfortability, controllability and safety grow higher as the research and development technologies improve. The shock absorber affects the vehicle suspension performances enormously. The absorber takes the vibration energy and releases it at a suitable time, keeping the wheel under a proper contact condition with road surface, maintaining the vehicle chassis stability. Suspension design for mountain bicycles is more difficult than that of city bikes since it encounters dynamic variations on road and loading conditions. Riders need a stiff damper as they exert to tread on the pedals when climbing, while a soft damper when they descend downhill. Various switchable shock absorbers are proposed in markets, however riders have to manually switch them among soft, hard and lock positions. This study proposes a novel design of the bicycle shock absorber, which provides automatic smooth tuning of the damping coefficient, from a predetermined lower bound to theoretically unlimited. An automatic quick releasing valve is involved in this design so that it can release the peak pressure when the suspension fork runs into a square-wave type obstacle and prevent the chassis from damage, avoiding the rider skeleton from injury. This design achieves the automatic tuning process by innovative plunger valve and fluidic passage arrangements without any electronic devices. Theoretical modelling of the damper and spring are established in this study. Design parameters of the valves and fluidic passages are determined. Relations between design parameters and shock absorber performances are discussed in this paper. The analytical results give directions to the shock absorber manufacture.

Keywords: Simulation, Modelling, Damping, shock absorber, bicycle, Releasing Valve

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1 A Modification of Wireless and Internet Technologies for Logistics- Analysis

Authors: Apiwat Sangnoree

Abstract:

This research is designed for helping a WAPbased mobile phone-s user in order to analyze of logistics in the traffic area by applying and designing the accessible processes from mobile user to server databases. The research-s design comprises Mysql 4.1.8-nt database system for being the server which there are three sub-databases, traffic light – times of intersections in periods of the day, distances on the road of area-blocks where are divided from the main sample-area and speeds of sample vehicles (motorcycle, personal car and truck) in periods of the day. For interconnections between the server and user, PHP is used to calculate distances and travelling times from the beginning point to destination, meanwhile XHTML applied for receiving, sending and displaying data from PHP to user-s mobile. In this research, the main sample-area is focused at the Huakwang-Ratchada-s area, Bangkok, Thailand where usually the congested point and 6.25 km2 surrounding area which are split into 25 blocks, 0.25 km2 for each. For simulating the results, the designed server-database and all communicating models of this research have been uploaded to www.utccengineering.com/m4tg and used the mobile phone which supports WAP 2.0 XHTML/HTML multimode browser for observing values and displayed pictures. According to simulated results, user can check the route-s pictures from the requiring point to destination along with analyzed consuming times when sample vehicles travel in various periods of the day.

Keywords: Logistics, Internet, XHTML, WAP

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