Commenced in January 2007
Paper Count: 30184
Engineering Geological Characteristics of Soil Materials, East Nile Delta, Egypt
Abstract:This paper is concerned with the study of mineralogy and engineering characteristics of soil materials derived from the eastern part of Nile Delta. The clay minerals of the studied soil by using X- ray diffraction are mainly illite (average 72.6 %) and kaolinite (average 2.6 %), expandable portion in illite-smectite mixed layer (average 7 %). Smectite is more abundant in fluviatile clays, whereas kaolinite is more abundant in lagoonal clays. On the other hand, illite and illite-smectite are more abundant in marine clays. The geotechnical results show that the soil under study consists mainly of about 0.3 % gravel, 5 % sand, 51.5 % silt and 42.2 % clay in average. The average shrinkage limit attains 11 % whereas the average value of the plasticity index is 23.4 %. The free swelling ranges from 40 % to 75 % and has a value of 55 % giving an indication about the inadequacy of such soil under foundations. From a construction point of view, the soil under investigation poses many problems even under light foundations due to the swelling and shrinkage. Such swelling and shrinkage is due to the high content of soil materials in the expandable clay minerals of illite and smectite. Based on the results of the present and earlier studies, trial application of soil stabilisation is recommended.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1058911Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3270
 R. Said, "The geological evolution of the Nile River", Springer Verlag, New Work, 1981, 151 p.
 R. Said, "The geology of Egypt", Elsevier, New York, 1962, 377 p.
 G. Hemdan, "Personality of Egypt", a study in uniqueness of the position", Alam El-Kotob, Cairo 1980, 841 p.
 H. E. De Wit and L. Van. Stralen, "Preliminary results of the paleogeographical survey", In E.C.M VAN DEN BRINK (Editor), The archaeology of the Nile Delta. Wolfkamb, Amesterdam, 1987, pp.135- 139.
 T. A. Foucoult and D. J. Stanely, "Late Quaternary paleoclimatic oscillations in East Africa recorded by heavy minerals in the Nile delta", Nature, vol. 339, 1989, pp. 44-46.
 A. Rizzini, F. Vezzani, V. Cococcetta, and G. Milad, "Stratigraphy and sedimentation of a Neogene-Quaternary section in the Nile Delta area", Marine Geology, vol. 27, 1978, pp. 327-348.
 D.J. Stanley, A. G. Warne, H. R. Davis, M. P. Bernascone and Z. Chen, "Nile delta: the late Quaternary evolution of the north - centeral Nile delta between Manzalla and Burullus lagoons, Egypt", National Geographic Society, Research and Exploration vol. 8, 1992, pp. 22-51.
 Z.M. Zaghloul, M. A. Essawy and El-Sherbini, "Grain size and texture analysis of the subsurface sediments of Sidi Salim Well NO.1., Nile Delta", Egypt, Bull. Fac. Sci., No. 4, 1977, pp. 79-98.
 A. El-Shahat, A. Mahmoudi, M. El-Gamili, and A. Farid, "Late Quaternary evolution of the northeastern Nile Delta", The first International Conference on the Geology of Africa, Assiut, Egypt, vol., 2, 1999, pp. 61-78.
 DIN- Taschenbuch 113, "Erkundung und Untersuchung des Baugrunds, Bestimmung der Korngrößenverteilung", DIN 18123 (1), Deutsches Institut f├╝r Normung e.V., Wiesbaden, 1998, pp. 273-284.
 DIN- Taschenbuch 113, "Erkundung und Untersuchung des Baugrunds Bodenklassifikation f├╝r bautechnische Zwecke", DIN 18196, Deutsches Institut f├╝r Normung e.V., Wiesbaden, 1998, pp. 409-412.
 British Standards Institution, "Linear shrinkage", BS 1377, London, 1975, pp. 93-94.
 British Standards Institution,"Moisture content and index tests", BS 1377, London, 1975, pp. 50-100.
 H. J. Gibbs and W. G. Holtz, "Engineering properties of expansive clays", Trans., Am. Soc. Civ. Eng.,121 (1), 1956, paper, 2814.
 K. Jasmund and G. Lagaly, ÔÇ×Tonminerale und Tone", Darmstadt (Steinkopff), Germany, 1993, 490 p.
 D. M. Moore and R. C. Jr. Reynolds, "X-ray diffraction and the identification and analysis of clay minerals", New York (Oxford University Press), 1997, 332 p.
 C. E. Weaver, "Dist ribution and identification of mixed-layer clays in sedimentary rocks", Am. Mineral. , 41, 1956, pp. 202-221.
 T. Sato, T. Murakami and T. Watanabi, "Change in layer charge of smectites and smectite layers in illite/smectite during diagenetic alternation", Clays and Clay Miner., 44, 1996, pp. 460-469.
 J. Srodon, "Nature of mixed-layer clays and mechanism of their formations and alternation", Annl. Rev. Earth & Planet Sciences, 1999, 27, pp. 19-53.
 C. E. Weaver and K. E. Beck, "A discussion of the origin of clay minerals in sedimentary rocks", Clays and Clay Min., 5, 1971a, pp.159- 173.
 C. E. Weaver, and K. E. Beck, "Clay water diagenesis during burial: how mud becomes grains", Geol. Soc. Amer. Spec., 1971b, pp.134: 96
 M. A. El- Askary and O. E. Frihy, "Mineralogy of the subsurface sediments at Rossetta and Damieta Promontories", Egypt. Bull. Inst. Oceanogr. & Fish., ARE, 13(2), 1987, pp. 111-120.
 A. I. M. Ismail, "Engineering and Petrological Characteristics of Clayey Silt Soils to be used as Raod Base and their Improvement by Lime and Cement", PhD Thesis, Technical Unversity of Clausthal, Germany, ISBN 3-8920-716-8, 2004, 192 p.
 F. C. Ugbe, "Basic Engineering Geological Properties of Lateritic Soils from Western Niger Delta", Research Journal of Environmental and Earth Sciences 3(5), 2011, pp. 571-577.
 F. G. BELL, "The influence of the mineral contents of clays on their stabilization by cement", Bulletin of the Association of Engineering Geologists, 13, 1976, pp. 267-278