Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Search results for: Endophytic micromycetes

7 Prevalence and Fungicidal Activity of Endophytic Micromycetes of Plants in Kazakhstan

Authors: L. V. Ignatova, Y. V. Brazhnikova, T. D. Mukasheva, R. Zh. Berzhanova, A. A. Omirbekova

Abstract:

Endophytic microorganisms are presented in plants of different families growing in the foothills and piedmont plains of Trans-Ili Alatau. It was found that the maximum number of endophytic micromycetes is typical to the Fabaceae family. The number of microscopic fungi in the roots reached (145.9±5.9)×103 CFU/g of plant tissue; yeasts - (79.8±3.5)×102 CFU/g of plant tissue. Basically, endophytic microscopic fungi are typical for underground parts of plants. In contrast, yeasts more infected aboveground parts of plants. Small amount of micromycetes is typical to inflorescence and fruits. Antagonistic activity of selected micromycetes against Fusarium graminearum, Cladosporium sp., Phytophtora infestans and Botrytis cinerea phytopathogens was detected. Strains with a broad, narrow and limited range of action were identified. For further investigations Rh2 and T7 strains were selected, they are characterized by a broad spectrum of fungicidal activity and they formed the large inhibition zones against phytopathogens. Active antagonists are attributed to the Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Beauveria bassiana species.

Keywords: Endophytic micromycetes, fungicidal activity, prevalence.

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6 Biodiversity of Micromycetes Isolated from Soils of Different Agricultures in Kazakhstan and Their Plant Growth Promoting Potential

Authors: L. V. Ignatova, Y. V. Brazhnikova, T. D. Mukasheva, A. A. Omirbekova, R. Zh. Berzhanova, R. K. Sydykbekova, T. A. Karpenyuk, A. V. Goncharova

Abstract:

The comparative analysis of different taxonomic groups of microorganisms isolated from dark chernozem soils under different agricultures (alfalfa, melilot, sainfoin, soybean, rapeseed) at Almaty region of Kazakhstan was conducted. It was shown that the greatest number of micromycetes was typical to the soil planted with alfalfa and canola. Species diversity of micromycetes markedly decreases as it approaches the surface of the root, so that the species composition in the rhizosphere is much more uniform than in the virgin soil. Promising strains of microscopic fungi and yeast with plant growth-promoting activity to agricultures were selected. Among the selected fungi there are representatives of Penicillium bilaiae, Trichoderma koningii, Fusarium equiseti, Aspergillus ustus. The highest rates of growth and development of seedlings of plants observed under the influence of yeasts Aureobasidium pullulans, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Metschnikovia pulcherrima. Using molecular - genetic techniques confirmation of the identification results of selected micromycetes was conducted.

Keywords: Agricultures, biodiversity, micromycetes, plant growth-promoting microorganisms.

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5 Identification Characterization and Production of Phytase from Endophytic Fungi

Authors: Yetti Marlida , Rina Delfita , Neni Gusmanizar, Gita Ciptaan

Abstract:

Phytases are acid phosphatase enzymes, which efficiently cleave phosphate moieties from phytic acid, thereby generating myo-inositol and inorganic phosphate. Thirty four isolates of endophytic fungi to produce of phytases were isolated from leaf, stem and root fragments of soybean. Screening of 34 isolates of endophytic fungi identified the phytases produced by Rhizoctonia sp. and Fusarium verticillioides . The phytase production were the best induced by phytic acid and rice bran compared the others inducer in submerged fermentation medium used. The phytase produced by both Rhizoctonia sp. and F. verticillioides have pH optimum at 4.0 and 5.0 respectively. The characterization of phytase from Fusarium verticillioides showed that temperature optimum was 500C and stability until 600C, the pH optimum 5.0 and pH stability was 2.5 – 6.0, and substrate specificity were rice bran>soybean meal>corn> coconut cake, respectively.

Keywords: endophytic fungus, phytase, soybean, Rhizoctoniasp., Fusarium verticillioides,

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4 Biotransformation of Monoterpenes by Whole Cells of Eleven Praxelis clematidea-Derived Endophytic Fungi

Authors: Daomao Yang, Qizhi Wang

Abstract:

Monoterpenoids are mainly found in plant essential oils and they are ideal substrates for biotransformation into oxygen-containing derivatives with important commercial value due to their low price and simple structure. In this paper, eleven strains of endophytic fungi from Praxelis clematidea were used as test strains to conduct the whole cell biotransformation of the monoterpenoids: (+)-limonene, (-)-limonene and myrcene. The fungi were inoculated in 50 ml Sabouraud medium and incubated at 30 ℃ with the agitation of 150 r/min for 6 d, and then 0.5% (v/v) substrates were added into the medium and biotransformed for further 3 d. Afterwards the cultures were filtered, and extracted using equal volume of ethyl acetate. The metabolites were analyzed by GC-MS technique with NIST database. The Total Ion Chromatogram of the extractions from the eleven strains showed that the main product of (+)- and (-)-limonene biotransformation was limonene-1,2-diol, while it is limonene and linalool oxide for biotransformation of myrcene. This work will help screen the microorganisms to biotransform the monoterpenes.

Keywords: Endophytic fungi, (+)–limonene, (-)–limonene, myrcene.

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3 Isolation and Identification Fibrinolytic Protease Endophytic Fungi from Hibiscus Leaves in Shah Alam

Authors: Mohd Sidek Ahmad, Zainon Mohd Noor, Zaidah Zainal Ariffin

Abstract:

Fibrin degradation is an important part in prevention or treatment of intravascular thrombosis and cardiovascular diseases. Plasmin like fibrinolytic enzymes has given new hope to patient with cardiovascular diseases by treating fibrin aggregation related diseases with traditional plasminogen activator which have many side effects. Various researches involving wide range of sources for production of fibrinolytic proteases, from bacteria, fungi, insects and fermented foods. But few have looked into endophytic fungi as a potential source. Sixteen (16) endophytic fungi were isolated from Hibiscus sp. leaves from six different locations in Shah Alam, Selangor. Only two endophytic fungi, FH3 and S13 showed positive fibrinolytic protease activities. FH3 produced 5.78cm and S13 produced 4.48cm on Skim Milk Agar after 4 days of incubation at 27°C. Fibrinolytic activity was observed; 3.87cm and 1.82cm diameter clear zone on fibrin plate of FH3 and S13 respectively. 18srRNA was done for identification of the isolated fungi with positive fibrinolytic protease. S13 had the highest similarity (100%) to that of Penicillium citrinum strain TG2 and FH3 had the highest similarity (99%) to that of Fusarium sp. FW2PhC1, Fusarium sp. 13002, Fusarium sp. 08006, Fusarium equiseti strain Salicorn 8 and Fungal sp. FCASAn-2. Media composition variation showed the effects of carbon nitrogen on protein concentration, where the decrement of 50% of media composition caused drastic decrease in protease of FH3 from 1.081 to 0.056 and also S13 from 2.946 to 0.198.

Keywords: Isolation, identification, fibrinolytic protease, endophytic fungi, Hibiscus leaves.

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2 Biodiversity of Plants Rhizosphere and Rhizoplane Bacteria in the Presence of Petroleum Hydrocarbons

Authors: Togzhan D. Mukasheva, Anel A. Omirbekova, Raikhan S. Sydykbekova, Ramza Zh. Berzhanova, Lyudmila V. Ignatova

Abstract:

Following plants-barley (Hordeum sativum), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), grass mixture (red fescue-75%, long-term ryegrass - 20% Kentucky bluegrass - 10%), oilseed rape (Brassica napus biennis), resistant to growth in the contaminated soil with oil content of 15.8 g / kg 25.9 g / kg soil were used. Analysis of the population showed that the oil pollution reduces the number of bacteria in the rhizosphere and rhizoplane of plants and enhances the amount of spore-forming bacteria and saprotrophic micromycetes. It was shown that regardless of the plant, dominance of Pseudomonas and Bacillus genera bacteria was typical for the rhizosphere and rhizoplane of plants. The frequency of bacteria of these genera was more than 60%. Oil pollution changes the ratio of occurrence of various types of bacteria in the rhizosphere and rhizoplane of plants. Besides the Pseudomonas and Bacillus genera, in the presence of hydrocarbons in the root zone of plants dominant and most typical were the representatives of the Mycobacterium and Rhodococcus genera. Together the number was between 62% to 72%.

Keywords: Identification, micromycetes, pollution, root system.

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1 The Effectiveness of Tebuconazole and Chitosan in Inhibiting the Growth of Fusarium Species on Winter Wheat Grain under Field Conditions

Authors: Urszula Wachowska, Anna Daria Stasiulewicz-Paluch, Katarzyna Kucharska

Abstract:

A three-year field experiment (2010-2012) was conducted to determine the abundance of epiphytic and endophytic filamentous fungi colonizing the grain of winter wheat cv. Bogatka. Wheat spikes were protected with tebuconazole or chitosan at the watery ripe stage. Untreated plants served as control. Tebuconazole exerted an inhibitory effect primarily on F. culmorum and F. graminearum, and its effectiveness was determined by the pressure from pathogens that infected wheat spikes during the growing season. Chitosan did not suppress the growth of Fusarium species and Alternaria alternata.

Keywords: Winter wheat, tebuconazole, chitosan, Fusarium.

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