Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3339

Search results for: Combinational Algorithm

3339 IMLFQ Scheduling Algorithm with Combinational Fault Tolerant Method

Authors: MohammadReza EffatParvar, Akbar Bemana, Mehdi EffatParvar

Abstract:

Scheduling algorithms are used in operating systems to optimize the usage of processors. One of the most efficient algorithms for scheduling is Multi-Layer Feedback Queue (MLFQ) algorithm which uses several queues with different quanta. The most important weakness of this method is the inability to define the optimized the number of the queues and quantum of each queue. This weakness has been improved in IMLFQ scheduling algorithm. Number of the queues and quantum of each queue affect the response time directly. In this paper, we review the IMLFQ algorithm for solving these problems and minimizing the response time. In this algorithm Recurrent Neural Network has been utilized to find both the number of queues and the optimized quantum of each queue. Also in order to prevent any probable faults in processes' response time computation, a new fault tolerant approach has been presented. In this approach we use combinational software redundancy to prevent the any probable faults. The experimental results show that using the IMLFQ algorithm results in better response time in comparison with other scheduling algorithms also by using fault tolerant mechanism we improve IMLFQ performance.

Keywords: IMLFQ, Fault Tolerant, Scheduling, Queue, Recurrent Neural Network.

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3338 Block Based Imperial Competitive Algorithm with Greedy Search for Traveling Salesman Problem

Authors: Meng-Hui Chen, Chiao-Wei Yu, Pei-Chann Chang

Abstract:

Imperial competitive algorithm (ICA) simulates a multi-agent algorithm. Each agent is like a kingdom has its country, and the strongest country in each agent is called imperialist, others are colony. Countries are competitive with imperialist which in the same kingdom by evolving. So this country will move in the search space to find better solutions with higher fitness to be a new imperialist. The main idea in this paper is using the peculiarity of ICA to explore the search space to solve the kinds of combinational problems. Otherwise, we also study to use the greed search to increase the local search ability. To verify the proposed algorithm in this paper, the experimental results of traveling salesman problem (TSP) is according to the traveling salesman problem library (TSPLIB). The results show that the proposed algorithm has higher performance than the other known methods.

Keywords: Traveling Salesman Problem, Artificial Chromosomes, Greedy Search, Imperial Competitive Algorithm.

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3337 Analysis of Effect of Pre-Logic Factoring on Cell Based Combinatorial Logic Synthesis

Authors: Padmanabhan Balasubramanian, Bashetty Raghavendra

Abstract:

In this paper, an analysis is presented, which demonstrates the effect pre-logic factoring could have on an automated combinational logic synthesis process succeeding it. The impact of pre-logic factoring for some arbitrary combinatorial circuits synthesized within a FPGA based logic design environment has been analyzed previously. This paper explores a similar effect, but with the non-regenerative logic synthesized using elements of a commercial standard cell library. On an overall basis, the results obtained pertaining to the analysis on a variety of MCNC/IWLS combinational logic benchmark circuits indicate that pre-logic factoring has the potential to facilitate simultaneous power, delay and area optimized synthesis solutions in many cases.

Keywords: Algebraic factoring, Combinational logic synthesis, Standard cells, Low power, Delay optimization, Area reduction.

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3336 Chose the Right Mutation Rate for Better Evolve Combinational Logic Circuits

Authors: Emanuele Stomeo, Tatiana Kalganova, Cyrille Lambert

Abstract:

Evolvable hardware (EHW) is a developing field that applies evolutionary algorithm (EA) to automatically design circuits, antennas, robot controllers etc. A lot of research has been done in this area and several different EAs have been introduced to tackle numerous problems, as scalability, evolvability etc. However every time a specific EA is chosen for solving a particular task, all its components, such as population size, initialization, selection mechanism, mutation rate, and genetic operators, should be selected in order to achieve the best results. In the last three decade the selection of the right parameters for the EA-s components for solving different “test-problems" has been investigated. In this paper the behaviour of mutation rate for designing logic circuits, which has not been done before, has been deeply analyzed. The mutation rate for an EHW system modifies the number of inputs of each logic gates, the functionality (for example from AND to NOR) and the connectivity between logic gates. The behaviour of the mutation has been analyzed based on the number of generations, genotype redundancy and number of logic gates for the evolved circuits. The experimental results found provide the behaviour of the mutation rate during evolution for the design and optimization of simple logic circuits. The experimental results propose the best mutation rate to be used for designing combinational logic circuits. The research presented is particular important for those who would like to implement a dynamic mutation rate inside the evolutionary algorithm for evolving digital circuits. The researches on the mutation rate during the last 40 years are also summarized.

Keywords: Design of logic circuit, evolutionary computation, evolvable hardware, mutation rate.

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3335 Feasibility of the Evolutionary Algorithm using Different Behaviours of the Mutation Rate to Design Simple Digital Logic Circuits

Authors: Konstantin Movsovic, Emanuele Stomeo, Tatiana Kalganova

Abstract:

The evolutionary design of electronic circuits, or evolvable hardware, is a discipline that allows the user to automatically obtain the desired circuit design. The circuit configuration is under the control of evolutionary algorithms. Several researchers have used evolvable hardware to design electrical circuits. Every time that one particular algorithm is selected to carry out the evolution, it is necessary that all its parameters, such as mutation rate, population size, selection mechanisms etc. are tuned in order to achieve the best results during the evolution process. This paper investigates the abilities of evolution strategy to evolve digital logic circuits based on programmable logic array structures when different mutation rates are used. Several mutation rates (fixed and variable) are analyzed and compared with each other to outline the most appropriate choice to be used during the evolution of combinational logic circuits. The experimental results outlined in this paper are important as they could be used by every researcher who might need to use the evolutionary algorithm to design digital logic circuits.

Keywords: Evolvable hardware, evolutionary algorithm, digitallogic circuit, mutation rate.

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3334 A New Digital Transceiver Circuit for Asynchronous Communication

Authors: Aakash Subramanian, Vansh Pal Singh Makh, Abhijit Mitra

Abstract:

A new digital transceiver circuit for asynchronous frame detection is proposed where both the transmitter and receiver contain all digital components, thereby avoiding possible use of conventional devices like monostable multivibrators with unstable external components such as resistances and capacitances. The proposed receiver circuit, in particular, uses a combinational logic block yielding an output which changes its state as soon as the start bit of a new frame is detected. This, in turn, helps in generating an efficient receiver sampling clock. A data latching circuit is also used in the receiver to latch the recovered data bits in any new frame. The proposed receiver structure is also extended from 4- bit information to any general n data bits within a frame with a common expression for the output of the combinational logic block. Performance of the proposed hardware design is evaluated in terms of time delay, reliability and robustness in comparison with the standard schemes using monostable multivibrators. It is observed from hardware implementation that the proposed circuit achieves almost 33 percent speed up over any conventional circuit.

Keywords: Asynchronous Communication, Digital Detector, Combinational logic output, Sampling clock generator, Hardwareimplementation.

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3333 Synthesis of Digital Circuits with Genetic Algorithms: A Fractional-Order Approach

Authors: Cecília Reis, J. A. Tenreiro Machado, J. Boaventura Cunha

Abstract:

This paper analyses the performance of a genetic algorithm using a new concept, namely a fractional-order dynamic fitness function, for the synthesis of combinational logic circuits. The experiments reveal superior results in terms of speed and convergence to achieve a solution.

Keywords: Circuit design, fractional-order systems, genetic algorithms, logic circuits.

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3332 Synthesis of Logic Circuits Using Fractional-Order Dynamic Fitness Functions

Authors: Cecília Reis, J. A. Tenreiro Machado, J. Boaventura Cunha

Abstract:

This paper analyses the performance of a genetic algorithm using a new concept, namely a fractional-order dynamic fitness function, for the synthesis of combinational logic circuits. The experiments reveal superior results in terms of speed and convergence to achieve a solution.

Keywords: Circuit design, fractional-order systems, genetic algorithms, logic circuits

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3331 A Hybrid Multi-Objective Firefly-Sine Cosine Algorithm for Multi-Objective Optimization Problem

Authors: Gaohuizi Guo, Ning Zhang

Abstract:

Firefly algorithm (FA) and Sine Cosine algorithm (SCA) are two very popular and advanced metaheuristic algorithms. However, these algorithms applied to multi-objective optimization problems have some shortcomings, respectively, such as premature convergence and limited exploration capability. Combining the privileges of FA and SCA while avoiding their deficiencies may improve the accuracy and efficiency of the algorithm. This paper proposes a hybridization of FA and SCA algorithms, named multi-objective firefly-sine cosine algorithm (MFA-SCA), to develop a more efficient meta-heuristic algorithm than FA and SCA.

Keywords: Firefly algorithm, hybrid algorithm, multi-objective optimization, Sine Cosine algorithm.

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3330 Approximating Fixed Points by a Two-Step Iterative Algorithm

Authors: Safeer Hussain Khan

Abstract:

In this paper, we introduce a two-step iterative algorithm to prove a strong convergence result for approximating common fixed points of three contractive-like operators. Our algorithm basically generalizes an existing algorithm..Our iterative algorithm also contains two famous iterative algorithms: Mann iterative algorithm and Ishikawa iterative algorithm. Thus our result generalizes the corresponding results proved for the above three iterative algorithms to a class of more general operators. At the end, we remark that nothing prevents us to extend our result to the case of the iterative algorithm with error terms.

Keywords: Contractive-like operator, iterative algorithm, fixed point, strong convergence.

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3329 Some Improvements on Kumlander-s Maximum Weight Clique Extraction Algorithm

Authors: Satoshi Shimizu, Kazuaki Yamaguchi, Toshiki Saitoh, Sumio Masuda

Abstract:

Some fast exact algorithms for the maximum weight clique problem have been proposed. Östergard’s algorithm is one of them. Kumlander says his algorithm is faster than it. But we confirmed that the straightforwardly implemented Kumlander’s algorithm is slower than O¨ sterga˚rd’s algorithm. We propose some improvements on Kumlander’s algorithm.

Keywords: Maximum weight clique, exact algorithm, branch-andbound, NP-hard.

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3328 Quantum Dot Cellular Automata Based Effective Design of Combinational and Sequential Logical Structures

Authors: Hema Sandhya Jagarlamudi, Mousumi Saha, Pavan Kumar Jagarlamudi

Abstract:

The use of Quantum dots is a promising emerging Technology for implementing digital system at the nano level. It is effecient for attractive features such as faster speed , smaller size and low power consumption than transistor technology. In this paper, various Combinational and sequential logical structures - HALF ADDER, SR Latch and Flip-Flop, D Flip-Flop preceding NAND, NOR, XOR,XNOR are discussed based on QCA design, with comparatively less number of cells and area. By applying these layouts, the hardware requirements for a QCA design can be reduced. These structures are designed and simulated using QCA Designer Tool. By taking full advantage of the unique features of this technology, we are able to create complete circuits on a single layer of QCA. Such Devices are expected to function with ultra low power Consumption and very high speeds.

Keywords: QCA, QCA Designer, Clock, Majority Gate

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3327 Efficient Large Numbers Karatsuba-Ofman Multiplier Designs for Embedded Systems

Authors: M.Machhout, M.Zeghid, W.El hadj youssef, B.Bouallegue, A.Baganne, R.Tourki

Abstract:

Long number multiplications (n ≥ 128-bit) are a primitive in most cryptosystems. They can be performed better by using Karatsuba-Ofman technique. This algorithm is easy to parallelize on workstation network and on distributed memory, and it-s known as the practical method of choice. Multiplying long numbers using Karatsuba-Ofman algorithm is fast but is highly recursive. In this paper, we propose different designs of implementing Karatsuba-Ofman multiplier. A mixture of sequential and combinational system design techniques involving pipelining is applied to our proposed designs. Multiplying large numbers can be adapted flexibly to time, area and power criteria. Computationally and occupation constrained in embedded systems such as: smart cards, mobile phones..., multiplication of finite field elements can be achieved more efficiently. The proposed designs are compared to other existing techniques. Mathematical models (Area (n), Delay (n)) of our proposed designs are also elaborated and evaluated on different FPGAs devices.

Keywords: finite field, Karatsuba-Ofman, long numbers, multiplication, mathematical model, recursivity.

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3326 Application of Adaptive Genetic Algorithm in Function Optimization

Authors: Panpan Xu, Shulin Sui

Abstract:

The crossover probability and mutation probability are the two important factors in genetic algorithm. The adaptive genetic algorithm can improve the convergence performance of genetic algorithm, in which the crossover probability and mutation probability are adaptively designed with the changes of fitness value. We apply adaptive genetic algorithm into a function optimization problem. The numerical experiment represents that adaptive genetic algorithm improves the convergence speed and avoids local convergence.

Keywords: Genetic algorithm, Adaptive genetic algorithm, Function optimization.

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3325 Optimal External Merge Sorting Algorithm with Smart Block Merging

Authors: Mir Hadi Seyedafsari, Iraj Hasanzadeh

Abstract:

Like other external sorting algorithms, the presented algorithm is a two step algorithm including internal and external steps. The first part of the algorithm is like the other similar algorithms but second part of that is including a new easy implementing method which has reduced the vast number of inputoutput operations saliently. As decreasing processor operating time does not have any effect on main algorithm speed, any improvement in it should be done through decreasing the number of input-output operations. This paper propose an easy algorithm for choose the correct record location of the final list. This decreases the time complexity and makes the algorithm faster.

Keywords: External sorting algorithm, internal sortingalgorithm, fast sorting, robust algorithm.

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3324 Analog Circuit Design using Genetic Algorithm: Modified

Authors: Amod P. Vaze

Abstract:

Genetic Algorithm has been used to solve wide range of optimization problems. Some researches conduct on applying Genetic Algorithm to analog circuit design automation. These researches show a better performance due to the nature of Genetic Algorithm. In this paper a modified Genetic Algorithm is applied for analog circuit design automation. The modifications are made to the topology of the circuit. These modifications will lead to a more computationally efficient algorithm.

Keywords: Genetic algorithm, analog circuits, design.

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3323 Application of Hybrid Genetic Algorithm Based on Simulated Annealing in Function Optimization

Authors: Panpan Xu, Shulin Sui, Zongjie Du

Abstract:

Genetic algorithm is widely used in optimization problems for its excellent global search capabilities and highly parallel processing capabilities; but, it converges prematurely and has a poor local optimization capability in actual operation. Simulated annealing algorithm can avoid the search process falling into local optimum. A hybrid genetic algorithm based on simulated annealing is designed by combining the advantages of genetic algorithm and simulated annealing algorithm. The numerical experiment represents the hybrid genetic algorithm can be applied to solve the function optimization problems efficiently.

Keywords: Genetic algorithm, Simulated annealing, Hybrid genetic algorithm, Function optimization.

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3322 Convergence Analysis of an Alternative Gradient Algorithm for Non-Negative Matrix Factorization

Authors: Chenxue Yang, Mao Ye, Zijian Liu, Tao Li, Jiao Bao

Abstract:

Non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) is a useful computational method to find basis information of multivariate nonnegative data. A popular approach to solve the NMF problem is the multiplicative update (MU) algorithm. But, it has some defects. So the columnwisely alternating gradient (cAG) algorithm was proposed. In this paper, we analyze convergence of the cAG algorithm and show advantages over the MU algorithm. The stability of the equilibrium point is used to prove the convergence of the cAG algorithm. A classic model is used to obtain the equilibrium point and the invariant sets are constructed to guarantee the integrity of the stability. Finally, the convergence conditions of the cAG algorithm are obtained, which help reducing the evaluation time and is confirmed in the experiments. By using the same method, the MU algorithm has zero divisor and is convergent at zero has been verified. In addition, the convergence conditions of the MU algorithm at zero are similar to that of the cAG algorithm at non-zero. However, it is meaningless to discuss the convergence at zero, which is not always the result that we want for NMF. Thus, we theoretically illustrate the advantages of the cAG algorithm.

Keywords: Non-negative matrix factorizations, convergence, cAG algorithm, equilibrium point, stability.

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3321 Genetic Mining: Using Genetic Algorithm for Topic based on Concept Distribution

Authors: S. M. Khalessizadeh, R. Zaefarian, S.H. Nasseri, E. Ardil

Abstract:

Today, Genetic Algorithm has been used to solve wide range of optimization problems. Some researches conduct on applying Genetic Algorithm to text classification, summarization and information retrieval system in text mining process. This researches show a better performance due to the nature of Genetic Algorithm. In this paper a new algorithm for using Genetic Algorithm in concept weighting and topic identification, based on concept standard deviation will be explored.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithm, Text Mining, Term Weighting, Concept Extraction, Concept Distribution.

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3320 Application of ESA in the CAVE Mode Authentication

Authors: Keonwoo Kim, Dowon Hong, Kyoil Chung

Abstract:

This paper proposes the authentication method using ESA algorithm instead of using CAVE algorithm in the CDMA mobile communication systems including IS-95 and CDMA2000 1x. And, we analyze to apply ESA mechanism on behalf of CAVE mechanism without the change of message format and air interface in the existing CDMA systems. If ESA algorithm can be used as the substitution of CAVE algorithm, security strength of authentication algorithm is intensified without protocol change. An algorithm replacement proposed in this paper is not to change an authentication mechanism, but to configure input of ESA algorithm and to produce output. Therefore, our proposal can be the compatible to the existing systems.

Keywords: ESA, CAVE, CDMA, authentication, mobilecommunication.

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3319 A New Algorithm to Stereo Correspondence Using Rank Transform and Morphology Based On Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Razagh Hafezi, Ahmad Keshavarz, Vida Moshfegh

Abstract:

This paper presents a novel algorithm of stereo correspondence with rank transform. In this algorithm we used the genetic algorithm to achieve the accurate disparity map. Genetic algorithms are efficient search methods based on principles of population genetic, i.e. mating, chromosome crossover, gene mutation, and natural selection. Finally morphology is employed to remove the errors and discontinuities.

Keywords: genetic algorithm, morphology, rank transform, stereo correspondence

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3318 A Genetic Based Algorithm to Generate Random Simple Polygons Using a New Polygon Merge Algorithm

Authors: Ali Nourollah, Mohsen Movahedinejad

Abstract:

In this paper a new algorithm to generate random simple polygons from a given set of points in a two dimensional plane is designed. The proposed algorithm uses a genetic algorithm to generate polygons with few vertices. A new merge algorithm is presented which converts any two polygons into a simple polygon. This algorithm at first changes two polygons into a polygonal chain and then the polygonal chain is converted into a simple polygon. The process of converting a polygonal chain into a simple polygon is based on the removal of intersecting edges. The experiments results show that the proposed algorithm has the ability to generate a great number of different simple polygons and has better performance in comparison to celebrated algorithms such as space partitioning and steady growth.

Keywords: Divide and conquer, genetic algorithm, merge polygons, Random simple polygon generation.

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3317 A Constrained Clustering Algorithm for the Classification of Industrial Ores

Authors: Luciano Nieddu, Giuseppe Manfredi

Abstract:

In this paper a Pattern Recognition algorithm based on a constrained version of the k-means clustering algorithm will be presented. The proposed algorithm is a non parametric supervised statistical pattern recognition algorithm, i.e. it works under very mild assumptions on the dataset. The performance of the algorithm will be tested, togheter with a feature extraction technique that captures the information on the closed two-dimensional contour of an image, on images of industrial mineral ores.

Keywords: K-means, Industrial ores classification, Invariant Features, Supervised Classification.

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3316 An Innovative Fuzzy Decision Making Based Genetic Algorithm

Authors: M. A. Sharbafi, M. Shakiba Herfeh, Caro Lucas, A. Mohammadi Nejad

Abstract:

Several researchers have proposed methods about combination of Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Fuzzy Logic (the use of GA to obtain fuzzy rules and application of fuzzy logic in optimization of GA). In this paper, we suggest a new method in which fuzzy decision making is used to improve the performance of genetic algorithm. In the suggested method, we determine the alleles that enhance the fitness of chromosomes and try to insert them to the next generation. In this algorithm we try to present an innovative vaccination in the process of reproduction in genetic algorithm, with considering the trade off between exploration and exploitation.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithm, Fuzzy Decision Making.

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3315 FILMS based ANC System – Evaluation and Practical Implementation

Authors: Branislav Vuksanović, Dragana Nikolić

Abstract:

This paper describes the implementation and testing of a multichannel active noise control system (ANCS) based on the filtered-inverse LMS (FILMS) algorithm. The FILMS algorithm is derived from the well-known filtered-x LMS (FXLMS) algorithm with the aim to improve the rate of convergence of the multichannel FXLMS algorithm and to reduce its computational load. Laboratory setup and techniques used to implement this system efficiently are described in this paper. Experiments performed in order to test the performance of the FILMS algorithm are discussed and the obtained results presented.

Keywords: Active noise control, adaptive filters, inverse filters, LMS algorithm, FILMS algorithm.

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3314 Simulation of Tracking Time Delay Algorithm using Mathcad Package

Authors: Mahmud Hesain ALdwaik, Omar Hsiain Eldwaik

Abstract:

This paper deals with tracking and estimating time delay between two signals. The simulation of this algorithm accomplished by using Mathcad package is carried out. The algorithm we will present adaptively controls and tracking the delay, so as to minimize the mean square of this error. Thus the algorithm in this case has task not only of seeking the minimum point of error but also of tracking the change of position, leading to a significant improving of performance. The flowchart of the algorithm is presented as well as several tests of different cases are carried out.

Keywords: Tracking time delay, Algorithm simulation, Mathcad, MSE

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3313 A New Algorithm for Cluster Initialization

Authors: Moth'd Belal. Al-Daoud

Abstract:

Clustering is a very well known technique in data mining. One of the most widely used clustering techniques is the k-means algorithm. Solutions obtained from this technique are dependent on the initialization of cluster centers. In this article we propose a new algorithm to initialize the clusters. The proposed algorithm is based on finding a set of medians extracted from a dimension with maximum variance. The algorithm has been applied to different data sets and good results are obtained.

Keywords: clustering, k-means, data mining.

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3312 Improving the Performance of Back-Propagation Training Algorithm by Using ANN

Authors: Vishnu Pratap Singh Kirar

Abstract:

Artificial Neural Network (ANN) can be trained using back propagation (BP). It is the most widely used algorithm for supervised learning with multi-layered feed-forward networks. Efficient learning by the BP algorithm is required for many practical applications. The BP algorithm calculates the weight changes of artificial neural networks, and a common approach is to use a twoterm algorithm consisting of a learning rate (LR) and a momentum factor (MF). The major drawbacks of the two-term BP learning algorithm are the problems of local minima and slow convergence speeds, which limit the scope for real-time applications. Recently the addition of an extra term, called a proportional factor (PF), to the two-term BP algorithm was proposed. The third increases the speed of the BP algorithm. However, the PF term also reduces the convergence of the BP algorithm, and criteria for evaluating convergence are required to facilitate the application of the three terms BP algorithm. Although these two seem to be closely related, as described later, we summarize various improvements to overcome the drawbacks. Here we compare the different methods of convergence of the new three-term BP algorithm.

Keywords: Neural Network, Backpropagation, Local Minima, Fast Convergence Rate.

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3311 A New Evolutionary Algorithm for Cluster Analysis

Authors: B.Bahmani Firouzi, T. Niknam, M. Nayeripour

Abstract:

Clustering is a very well known technique in data mining. One of the most widely used clustering techniques is the kmeans algorithm. Solutions obtained from this technique depend on the initialization of cluster centers and the final solution converges to local minima. In order to overcome K-means algorithm shortcomings, this paper proposes a hybrid evolutionary algorithm based on the combination of PSO, SA and K-means algorithms, called PSO-SA-K, which can find better cluster partition. The performance is evaluated through several benchmark data sets. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms previous approaches, such as PSO, SA and K-means for partitional clustering problem.

Keywords: Data clustering, Hybrid evolutionary optimization algorithm, K-means algorithm, Simulated Annealing (SA), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO).

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3310 Scheduling Multiple Workflow Using De-De Dodging Algorithm and PBD Algorithm in Cloud: Detailed Study

Authors: B. Arun Kumar, T. Ravichandran

Abstract:

Workflow scheduling is an important part of cloud computing and based on different criteria it decides cost, execution time, and performances. A cloud workflow system is a platform service facilitating automation of distributed applications based on new cloud infrastructure. An aspect which differentiates cloud workflow system from others is market-oriented business model, an innovation which challenges conventional workflow scheduling strategies. Time and Cost optimization algorithm for scheduling Hybrid Clouds (TCHC) algorithm decides which resource should be chartered from public providers is combined with a new De-De algorithm considering that every instance of single and multiple workflows work without deadlocks. To offset this, two new concepts - De-De Dodging Algorithm and Priority Based Decisive Algorithm - combine with conventional deadlock avoidance issues by proposing one algorithm that maximizes active (not just allocated) resource use and reduces Makespan.

Keywords: Workflow Scheduling, cloud workflow, TCHC algorithm, De-De Dodging Algorithm, Priority Based Decisive Algorithm (PBD), Makespan.

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