Search results for: Back-propagation algorithm
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3429

Search results for: Back-propagation algorithm

3429 A Study on Neural Network Training Algorithm for Multiface Detection in Static Images

Authors: Zulhadi Zakaria, Nor Ashidi Mat Isa, Shahrel A. Suandi

Abstract:

This paper reports the study results on neural network training algorithm of numerical optimization techniques multiface detection in static images. The training algorithms involved are scale gradient conjugate backpropagation, conjugate gradient backpropagation with Polak-Riebre updates, conjugate gradient backpropagation with Fletcher-Reeves updates, one secant backpropagation and resilent backpropagation. The final result of each training algorithms for multiface detection application will also be discussed and compared.

Keywords: training algorithm, multiface, static image, neural network

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3428 Improving the Convergence of the Backpropagation Algorithm Using Local Adaptive Techniques

Authors: Z. Zainuddin, N. Mahat, Y. Abu Hassan

Abstract:

Since the presentation of the backpropagation algorithm, a vast variety of improvements of the technique for training a feed forward neural networks have been proposed. This article focuses on two classes of acceleration techniques, one is known as Local Adaptive Techniques that are based on weightspecific only, such as the temporal behavior of the partial derivative of the current weight. The other, known as Dynamic Adaptation Methods, which dynamically adapts the momentum factors, α, and learning rate, η, with respect to the iteration number or gradient. Some of most popular learning algorithms are described. These techniques have been implemented and tested on several problems and measured in terms of gradient and error function evaluation, and percentage of success. Numerical evidence shows that these techniques improve the convergence of the Backpropagation algorithm.

Keywords: Backpropagation, Dynamic Adaptation Methods, Local Adaptive Techniques, Neural networks.

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3427 Optimization of a Three-Term Backpropagation Algorithm Used for Neural Network Learning

Authors: Yahya H. Zweiri

Abstract:

The back-propagation algorithm calculates the weight changes of an artificial neural network, and a two-term algorithm with a dynamically optimal learning rate and a momentum factor is commonly used. Recently the addition of an extra term, called a proportional factor (PF), to the two-term BP algorithm was proposed. The third term increases the speed of the BP algorithm. However, the PF term also reduces the convergence of the BP algorithm, and optimization approaches for evaluating the learning parameters are required to facilitate the application of the three terms BP algorithm. This paper considers the optimization of the new back-propagation algorithm by using derivative information. A family of approaches exploiting the derivatives with respect to the learning rate, momentum factor and proportional factor is presented. These autonomously compute the derivatives in the weight space, by using information gathered from the forward and backward procedures. The three-term BP algorithm and the optimization approaches are evaluated using the benchmark XOR problem.

Keywords: Neural Networks, Backpropagation, Optimization.

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3426 Extraction of Symbolic Rules from Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: S. M. Kamruzzaman, Md. Monirul Islam

Abstract:

Although backpropagation ANNs generally predict better than decision trees do for pattern classification problems, they are often regarded as black boxes, i.e., their predictions cannot be explained as those of decision trees. In many applications, it is desirable to extract knowledge from trained ANNs for the users to gain a better understanding of how the networks solve the problems. A new rule extraction algorithm, called rule extraction from artificial neural networks (REANN) is proposed and implemented to extract symbolic rules from ANNs. A standard three-layer feedforward ANN is the basis of the algorithm. A four-phase training algorithm is proposed for backpropagation learning. Explicitness of the extracted rules is supported by comparing them to the symbolic rules generated by other methods. Extracted rules are comparable with other methods in terms of number of rules, average number of conditions for a rule, and predictive accuracy. Extensive experimental studies on several benchmarks classification problems, such as breast cancer, iris, diabetes, and season classification problems, demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach with good generalization ability.

Keywords: Backpropagation, clustering algorithm, constructivealgorithm, continuous activation function, pruning algorithm, ruleextraction algorithm, symbolic rules.

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3425 A Comparison of First and Second Order Training Algorithms for Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: Syed Muhammad Aqil Burney, Tahseen Ahmed Jilani, C. Ardil

Abstract:

Minimization methods for training feed-forward networks with Backpropagation are compared. Feedforward network training is a special case of functional minimization, where no explicit model of the data is assumed. Therefore due to the high dimensionality of the data, linearization of the training problem through use of orthogonal basis functions is not desirable. The focus is functional minimization on any basis. A number of methods based on local gradient and Hessian matrices are discussed. Modifications of many methods of first and second order training methods are considered. Using share rates data, experimentally it is proved that Conjugate gradient and Quasi Newton?s methods outperformed the Gradient Descent methods. In case of the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm is of special interest in financial forecasting.

Keywords: Backpropagation algorithm, conjugacy condition, line search, matrix perturbation

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3424 A Subjective Scheduler Based on Backpropagation Neural Network for Formulating a Real-life Scheduling Situation

Authors: K. G. Anilkumar, T. Tanprasert

Abstract:

This paper presents a subjective job scheduler based on a 3-layer Backpropagation Neural Network (BPNN) and a greedy alignment procedure in order formulates a real-life situation. The BPNN estimates critical values of jobs based on the given subjective criteria. The scheduler is formulated in such a way that, at each time period, the most critical job is selected from the job queue and is transferred into a single machine before the next periodic job arrives. If the selected job is one of the oldest jobs in the queue and its deadline is less than that of the arrival time of the current job, then there is an update of the deadline of the job is assigned in order to prevent the critical job from its elimination. The proposed satisfiability criteria indicates that the satisfaction of the scheduler with respect to performance of the BPNN, validity of the jobs and the feasibility of the scheduler.

Keywords: Backpropagation algorithm, Critical value, Greedy alignment procedure, Neural network, Subjective criteria, Satisfiability.

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3423 Performance Evaluation of Complex Valued Neural Networks Using Various Error Functions

Authors: Anita S. Gangal, P. K. Kalra, D. S. Chauhan

Abstract:

The backpropagation algorithm in general employs quadratic error function. In fact, most of the problems that involve minimization employ the Quadratic error function. With alternative error functions the performance of the optimization scheme can be improved. The new error functions help in suppressing the ill-effects of the outliers and have shown good performance to noise. In this paper we have tried to evaluate and compare the relative performance of complex valued neural network using different error functions. During first simulation for complex XOR gate it is observed that some error functions like Absolute error, Cauchy error function can replace Quadratic error function. In the second simulation it is observed that for some error functions the performance of the complex valued neural network depends on the architecture of the network whereas with few other error functions convergence speed of the network is independent of architecture of the neural network.

Keywords: Complex backpropagation algorithm, complex errorfunctions, complex valued neural network, split activation function.

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3422 Improving the Performance of Back-Propagation Training Algorithm by Using ANN

Authors: Vishnu Pratap Singh Kirar

Abstract:

Artificial Neural Network (ANN) can be trained using back propagation (BP). It is the most widely used algorithm for supervised learning with multi-layered feed-forward networks. Efficient learning by the BP algorithm is required for many practical applications. The BP algorithm calculates the weight changes of artificial neural networks, and a common approach is to use a twoterm algorithm consisting of a learning rate (LR) and a momentum factor (MF). The major drawbacks of the two-term BP learning algorithm are the problems of local minima and slow convergence speeds, which limit the scope for real-time applications. Recently the addition of an extra term, called a proportional factor (PF), to the two-term BP algorithm was proposed. The third increases the speed of the BP algorithm. However, the PF term also reduces the convergence of the BP algorithm, and criteria for evaluating convergence are required to facilitate the application of the three terms BP algorithm. Although these two seem to be closely related, as described later, we summarize various improvements to overcome the drawbacks. Here we compare the different methods of convergence of the new three-term BP algorithm.

Keywords: Neural Network, Backpropagation, Local Minima, Fast Convergence Rate.

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3421 Ontology-Based Backpropagation Neural Network Classification and Reasoning Strategy for NoSQL and SQL Databases

Authors: Hao-Hsiang Ku, Ching-Ho Chi

Abstract:

Big data applications have become an imperative for many fields. Many researchers have been devoted into increasing correct rates and reducing time complexities. Hence, the study designs and proposes an Ontology-based backpropagation neural network classification and reasoning strategy for NoSQL big data applications, which is called ON4NoSQL. ON4NoSQL is responsible for enhancing the performances of classifications in NoSQL and SQL databases to build up mass behavior models. Mass behavior models are made by MapReduce techniques and Hadoop distributed file system based on Hadoop service platform. The reference engine of ON4NoSQL is the ontology-based backpropagation neural network classification and reasoning strategy. Simulation results indicate that ON4NoSQL can efficiently achieve to construct a high performance environment for data storing, searching, and retrieving.

Keywords: Hadoop, NoSQL, ontology, backpropagation neural network, and high distributed file system.

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3420 Artificial Neural Network with Steepest Descent Backpropagation Training Algorithm for Modeling Inverse Kinematics of Manipulator

Authors: Thiang, Handry Khoswanto, Rendy Pangaldus

Abstract:

Inverse kinematics analysis plays an important role in developing a robot manipulator. But it is not too easy to derive the inverse kinematic equation of a robot manipulator especially robot manipulator which has numerous degree of freedom. This paper describes an application of Artificial Neural Network for modeling the inverse kinematics equation of a robot manipulator. In this case, the robot has three degree of freedoms and the robot was implemented for drilling a printed circuit board. The artificial neural network architecture used for modeling is a multilayer perceptron networks with steepest descent backpropagation training algorithm. The designed artificial neural network has 2 inputs, 2 outputs and varies in number of hidden layer. Experiments were done in variation of number of hidden layer and learning rate. Experimental results show that the best architecture of artificial neural network used for modeling inverse kinematics of is multilayer perceptron with 1 hidden layer and 38 neurons per hidden layer. This network resulted a RMSE value of 0.01474.

Keywords: Artificial neural network, back propagation, inverse kinematics, manipulator, robot.

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3419 Binary Mixture of Copper-Cobalt Ions Uptake by Zeolite using Neural Network

Authors: John Kabuba, Antoine Mulaba-Bafubiandi, Kim Battle

Abstract:

In this study a neural network (NN) was proposed to predict the sorption of binary mixture of copper-cobalt ions into clinoptilolite as ion-exchanger. The configuration of the backpropagation neural network giving the smallest mean square error was three-layer NN with tangent sigmoid transfer function at hidden layer with 10 neurons, linear transfer function at output layer and Levenberg-Marquardt backpropagation training algorithm. Experiments have been carried out in the batch reactor to obtain equilibrium data of the individual sorption and the mixture of coppercobalt ions. The obtained modeling results have shown that the used of neural network has better adjusted the equilibrium data of the binary system when compared with the conventional sorption isotherm models.

Keywords: Adsorption isotherm, binary system, neural network; sorption

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3418 On Face Recognition using Gabor Filters

Authors: Al-Amin Bhuiyan, Chang Hong Liu

Abstract:

Gabor-based face representation has achieved enormous success in face recognition. This paper addresses a novel algorithm for face recognition using neural networks trained by Gabor features. The system is commenced on convolving a face image with a series of Gabor filter coefficients at different scales and orientations. Two novel contributions of this paper are: scaling of rms contrast and introduction of fuzzily skewed filter. The neural network employed for face recognition is based on the multilayer perceptron (MLP) architecture with backpropagation algorithm and incorporates the convolution filter response of Gabor jet. The effectiveness of the algorithm has been justified over a face database with images captured at different illumination conditions.

Keywords: Fuzzily skewed filter, Gabor filter, rms contrast, neural network.

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3417 Evolving Neural Networks using Moment Method for Handwritten Digit Recognition

Authors: H. El Fadili, K. Zenkouar, H. Qjidaa

Abstract:

This paper proposes a neural network weights and topology optimization using genetic evolution and the backpropagation training algorithm. The proposed crossover and mutation operators aims to adapt the networks architectures and weights during the evolution process. Through a specific inheritance procedure, the weights are transmitted from the parents to their offsprings, which allows re-exploitation of the already trained networks and hence the acceleration of the global convergence of the algorithm. In the preprocessing phase, a new feature extraction method is proposed based on Legendre moments with the Maximum entropy principle MEP as a selection criterion. This allows a global search space reduction in the design of the networks. The proposed method has been applied and tested on the well known MNIST database of handwritten digits.

Keywords: Genetic algorithm, Legendre Moments, MEP, Neural Network.

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3416 Multi-Layer Perceptron Neural Network Classifier with Binary Particle Swarm Optimization Based Feature Selection for Brain-Computer Interfaces

Authors: K. Akilandeswari, G. M. Nasira

Abstract:

Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) measure brain signals activity, intentionally and unintentionally induced by users, and provides a communication channel without depending on the brain’s normal peripheral nerves and muscles output pathway. Feature Selection (FS) is a global optimization machine learning problem that reduces features, removes irrelevant and noisy data resulting in acceptable recognition accuracy. It is a vital step affecting pattern recognition system performance. This study presents a new Binary Particle Swarm Optimization (BPSO) based feature selection algorithm. Multi-layer Perceptron Neural Network (MLPNN) classifier with backpropagation training algorithm and Levenberg-Marquardt training algorithm classify selected features.

Keywords: Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI), Feature Selection (FS), Walsh–Hadamard Transform (WHT), Binary Particle Swarm Optimization (BPSO), Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP), Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm.

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3415 Neural Network Controller for Mobile Robot Motion Control

Authors: Jasmin Velagic, Nedim Osmic, Bakir Lacevic

Abstract:

In this paper the neural network-based controller is designed for motion control of a mobile robot. This paper treats the problems of trajectory following and posture stabilization of the mobile robot with nonholonomic constraints. For this purpose the recurrent neural network with one hidden layer is used. It learns relationship between linear velocities and error positions of the mobile robot. This neural network is trained on-line using the backpropagation optimization algorithm with an adaptive learning rate. The optimization algorithm is performed at each sample time to compute the optimal control inputs. The performance of the proposed system is investigated using a kinematic model of the mobile robot.

Keywords: Mobile robot, kinematic model, neural network, motion control, adaptive learning rate.

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3414 SVM Based Model as an Optimal Classifier for the Classification of Sonar Signals

Authors: Suresh S. Salankar, Balasaheb M. Patre

Abstract:

Research into the problem of classification of sonar signals has been taken up as a challenging task for the neural networks. This paper investigates the design of an optimal classifier using a Multi layer Perceptron Neural Network (MLP NN) and Support Vector Machines (SVM). Results obtained using sonar data sets suggest that SVM classifier perform well in comparison with well-known MLP NN classifier. An average classification accuracy of 91.974% is achieved with SVM classifier and 90.3609% with MLP NN classifier, on the test instances. The area under the Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve for the proposed SVM classifier on test data set is found as 0.981183, which is very close to unity and this clearly confirms the excellent quality of the proposed classifier. The SVM classifier employed in this paper is implemented using kernel Adatron algorithm is seen to be robust and relatively insensitive to the parameter initialization in comparison to MLP NN.

Keywords: Classification, MLP NN, backpropagation algorithm, SVM, Receiver Operating Characteristics.

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3413 Modeling and Analysis of Concrete Slump Using Hybrid Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: Vinay Chandwani, Vinay Agrawal, Ravindra Nagar

Abstract:

Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) trained using backpropagation (BP) algorithm are commonly used for modeling material behavior associated with non-linear, complex or unknown interactions among the material constituents. Despite multidisciplinary applications of back-propagation neural networks (BPNN), the BP algorithm possesses the inherent drawback of getting trapped in local minima and slowly converging to a global optimum. The paper present a hybrid artificial neural networks and genetic algorithm approach for modeling slump of ready mix concrete based on its design mix constituents. Genetic algorithms (GA) global search is employed for evolving the initial weights and biases for training of neural networks, which are further fine tuned using the BP algorithm. The study showed that, hybrid ANN-GA model provided consistent predictions in comparison to commonly used BPNN model. In comparison to BPNN model, the hybrid ANNGA model was able to reach the desired performance goal quickly. Apart from the modeling slump of ready mix concrete, the synaptic weights of neural networks were harnessed for analyzing the relative importance of concrete design mix constituents on the slump value. The sand and water constituents of the concrete design mix were found to exhibit maximum importance on the concrete slump value.

Keywords: Artificial neural networks, Genetic algorithms, Back-propagation algorithm, Ready Mix Concrete, Slump value.

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3412 Application of Neural Network in User Authentication for Smart Home System

Authors: A. Joseph, D.B.L. Bong, D.A.A. Mat

Abstract:

Security has been an important issue and concern in the smart home systems. Smart home networks consist of a wide range of wired or wireless devices, there is possibility that illegal access to some restricted data or devices may happen. Password-based authentication is widely used to identify authorize users, because this method is cheap, easy and quite accurate. In this paper, a neural network is trained to store the passwords instead of using verification table. This method is useful in solving security problems that happened in some authentication system. The conventional way to train the network using Backpropagation (BPN) requires a long training time. Hence, a faster training algorithm, Resilient Backpropagation (RPROP) is embedded to the MLPs Neural Network to accelerate the training process. For the Data Part, 200 sets of UserID and Passwords were created and encoded into binary as the input. The simulation had been carried out to evaluate the performance for different number of hidden neurons and combination of transfer functions. Mean Square Error (MSE), training time and number of epochs are used to determine the network performance. From the results obtained, using Tansig and Purelin in hidden and output layer and 250 hidden neurons gave the better performance. As a result, a password-based user authentication system for smart home by using neural network had been developed successfully.

Keywords: Neural Network, User Authentication, Smart Home, Security

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3411 Effects of Hidden Unit Sizes and Autoregressive Features in Mental Task Classification

Authors: Ramaswamy Palaniappan, Nai-Jen Huan

Abstract:

Classification of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals extracted during mental tasks is a technique that is actively pursued for Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI) designs. In this paper, we compared the classification performances of univariateautoregressive (AR) and multivariate autoregressive (MAR) models for representing EEG signals that were extracted during different mental tasks. Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) neural network (NN) trained by the backpropagation (BP) algorithm was used to classify these features into the different categories representing the mental tasks. Classification performances were also compared across different mental task combinations and 2 sets of hidden units (HU): 2 to 10 HU in steps of 2 and 20 to 100 HU in steps of 20. Five different mental tasks from 4 subjects were used in the experimental study and combinations of 2 different mental tasks were studied for each subject. Three different feature extraction methods with 6th order were used to extract features from these EEG signals: AR coefficients computed with Burg-s algorithm (ARBG), AR coefficients computed with stepwise least square algorithm (ARLS) and MAR coefficients computed with stepwise least square algorithm. The best results were obtained with 20 to 100 HU using ARBG. It is concluded that i) it is important to choose the suitable mental tasks for different individuals for a successful BCI design, ii) higher HU are more suitable and iii) ARBG is the most suitable feature extraction method.

Keywords: Autoregressive, Brain-Computer Interface, Electroencephalogram, Neural Network.

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3410 Design of an Intelligent Location Identification Scheme Based On LANDMARC and BPNs

Authors: S. Chaisit, H.Y. Kung, N.T. Phuong

Abstract:

Radio frequency identification (RFID) applications have grown rapidly in many industries, especially in indoor location identification. The advantage of using received signal strength indicator (RSSI) values as an indoor location measurement method is a cost-effective approach without installing extra hardware. Because the accuracy of many positioning schemes using RSSI values is limited by interference factors and the environment, thus it is challenging to use RFID location techniques based on integrating positioning algorithm design. This study proposes the location estimation approach and analyzes a scheme relying on RSSI values to minimize location errors. In addition, this paper examines different factors that affect location accuracy by integrating the backpropagation neural network (BPN) with the LANDMARC algorithm in a training phase and an online phase. First, the training phase computes coordinates obtained from the LANDMARC algorithm, which uses RSSI values and the real coordinates of reference tags as training data for constructing an appropriate BPN architecture and training length. Second, in the online phase, the LANDMARC algorithm calculates the coordinates of tracking tags, which are then used as BPN inputs to obtain location estimates. The results show that the proposed scheme can estimate locations more accurately compared to LANDMARC without extra devices.

Keywords: BPNs, indoor location, location estimation, intelligent location identification.

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3409 An Effective Noise Resistant FM Continuous-Wave Radar Vital Sign Signal Detection Method

Authors: Lu Yang, Meiyang Song, Xiang Yu, Wenhao Zhou, Chuntao Feng

Abstract:

To address the problem that the FM continuous-wave (FMCW) radar extracts human vital sign signals which are susceptible to noise interference and low reconstruction accuracy, a detection scheme for the sign signals is proposed. Firstly, an improved complete ensemble empirical modal decomposition with adaptive noise (ICEEMDAN) algorithm is applied to decompose the radar-extracted thoracic signals to obtain several intrinsic modal functions (IMF) with different spatial scales, and then the IMF components are optimized by a backpropagation (BP) neural network improved by immune genetic algorithm (IGA). The simulation results show that this scheme can effectively separate the noise, accurately extract the respiratory and heartbeat signals and improve the reconstruction accuracy and signal to-noise ratio of the sign signals.

Keywords: Frequency modulated continuous wave radar, ICEEMDAN, BP Neural Network, vital signs signal.

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3408 A Hybrid Multi-Objective Firefly-Sine Cosine Algorithm for Multi-Objective Optimization Problem

Authors: Gaohuizi Guo, Ning Zhang

Abstract:

Firefly algorithm (FA) and Sine Cosine algorithm (SCA) are two very popular and advanced metaheuristic algorithms. However, these algorithms applied to multi-objective optimization problems have some shortcomings, respectively, such as premature convergence and limited exploration capability. Combining the privileges of FA and SCA while avoiding their deficiencies may improve the accuracy and efficiency of the algorithm. This paper proposes a hybridization of FA and SCA algorithms, named multi-objective firefly-sine cosine algorithm (MFA-SCA), to develop a more efficient meta-heuristic algorithm than FA and SCA.

Keywords: Firefly algorithm, hybrid algorithm, multi-objective optimization, Sine Cosine algorithm.

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3407 Approximating Fixed Points by a Two-Step Iterative Algorithm

Authors: Safeer Hussain Khan

Abstract:

In this paper, we introduce a two-step iterative algorithm to prove a strong convergence result for approximating common fixed points of three contractive-like operators. Our algorithm basically generalizes an existing algorithm..Our iterative algorithm also contains two famous iterative algorithms: Mann iterative algorithm and Ishikawa iterative algorithm. Thus our result generalizes the corresponding results proved for the above three iterative algorithms to a class of more general operators. At the end, we remark that nothing prevents us to extend our result to the case of the iterative algorithm with error terms.

Keywords: Contractive-like operator, iterative algorithm, fixed point, strong convergence.

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3406 Arabic Character Recognition using Artificial Neural Networks and Statistical Analysis

Authors: Ahmad M. Sarhan, Omar I. Al Helalat

Abstract:

In this paper, an Arabic letter recognition system based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and statistical analysis for feature extraction is presented. The ANN is trained using the Least Mean Squares (LMS) algorithm. In the proposed system, each typed Arabic letter is represented by a matrix of binary numbers that are used as input to a simple feature extraction system whose output, in addition to the input matrix, are fed to an ANN. Simulation results are provided and show that the proposed system always produces a lower Mean Squared Error (MSE) and higher success rates than the current ANN solutions.

Keywords: ANN, Backpropagation, Gaussian, LMS, MSE, Neuron, standard deviation, Widrow-Hoff rule.

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3405 Some Improvements on Kumlander-s Maximum Weight Clique Extraction Algorithm

Authors: Satoshi Shimizu, Kazuaki Yamaguchi, Toshiki Saitoh, Sumio Masuda

Abstract:

Some fast exact algorithms for the maximum weight clique problem have been proposed. Östergard’s algorithm is one of them. Kumlander says his algorithm is faster than it. But we confirmed that the straightforwardly implemented Kumlander’s algorithm is slower than O¨ sterga˚rd’s algorithm. We propose some improvements on Kumlander’s algorithm.

Keywords: Maximum weight clique, exact algorithm, branch-andbound, NP-hard.

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3404 Proposal of Additional Fuzzy Membership Functions in Smoothing Transition Autoregressive Models

Authors: Ε. Giovanis

Abstract:

In this paper we present, propose and examine additional membership functions for the Smoothing Transition Autoregressive (STAR) models. More specifically, we present the tangent hyperbolic, Gaussian and Generalized bell functions. Because Smoothing Transition Autoregressive (STAR) models follow fuzzy logic approach, more fuzzy membership functions should be tested. Furthermore, fuzzy rules can be incorporated or other training or computational methods can be applied as the error backpropagation or genetic algorithm instead to nonlinear squares. We examine two macroeconomic variables of US economy, the inflation rate and the 6-monthly treasury bills interest rates.

Keywords: Forecast , Fuzzy membership functions, Smoothingtransition, Time-series

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3403 Application of Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System in Smoothing Transition Autoregressive Models

Authors: Ε. Giovanis

Abstract:

In this paper we propose and examine an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) in Smoothing Transition Autoregressive (STAR) modeling. Because STAR models follow fuzzy logic approach, in the non-linear part fuzzy rules can be incorporated or other training or computational methods can be applied as the error backpropagation algorithm instead to nonlinear squares. Furthermore, additional fuzzy membership functions can be examined, beside the logistic and exponential, like the triangle, Gaussian and Generalized Bell functions among others. We examine two macroeconomic variables of US economy, the inflation rate and the 6-monthly treasury bills interest rates.

Keywords: Forecasting, Neuro-Fuzzy, Smoothing transition, Time-series

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3402 Application of Adaptive Genetic Algorithm in Function Optimization

Authors: Panpan Xu, Shulin Sui

Abstract:

The crossover probability and mutation probability are the two important factors in genetic algorithm. The adaptive genetic algorithm can improve the convergence performance of genetic algorithm, in which the crossover probability and mutation probability are adaptively designed with the changes of fitness value. We apply adaptive genetic algorithm into a function optimization problem. The numerical experiment represents that adaptive genetic algorithm improves the convergence speed and avoids local convergence.

Keywords: Genetic algorithm, Adaptive genetic algorithm, Function optimization.

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3401 Optimal External Merge Sorting Algorithm with Smart Block Merging

Authors: Mir Hadi Seyedafsari, Iraj Hasanzadeh

Abstract:

Like other external sorting algorithms, the presented algorithm is a two step algorithm including internal and external steps. The first part of the algorithm is like the other similar algorithms but second part of that is including a new easy implementing method which has reduced the vast number of inputoutput operations saliently. As decreasing processor operating time does not have any effect on main algorithm speed, any improvement in it should be done through decreasing the number of input-output operations. This paper propose an easy algorithm for choose the correct record location of the final list. This decreases the time complexity and makes the algorithm faster.

Keywords: External sorting algorithm, internal sortingalgorithm, fast sorting, robust algorithm.

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3400 Analog Circuit Design using Genetic Algorithm: Modified

Authors: Amod P. Vaze

Abstract:

Genetic Algorithm has been used to solve wide range of optimization problems. Some researches conduct on applying Genetic Algorithm to analog circuit design automation. These researches show a better performance due to the nature of Genetic Algorithm. In this paper a modified Genetic Algorithm is applied for analog circuit design automation. The modifications are made to the topology of the circuit. These modifications will lead to a more computationally efficient algorithm.

Keywords: Genetic algorithm, analog circuits, design.

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