Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 383

Search results for: waste recycling

383 Recovery of Metals from Electronic Waste by Physical and Chemical Recycling Processes

Authors: Muammer Kaya

Abstract:

The main purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of various physical and chemical processes for electronic waste (e-waste) recycling, their advantages and shortfalls towards achieving a cleaner process of waste utilization, with especial attention towards extraction of metallic values. Current status and future perspectives of waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) recycling are described. E-waste characterization, dismantling/ disassembly methods, liberation and classification processes, composition determination techniques are covered. Manual selective dismantling and metal-nonmetal liberation at – 150 µm at two step crushing are found to be the best. After size reduction, mainly physical separation/concentration processes employing gravity, electrostatic, magnetic separators, froth floatation etc., which are commonly used in mineral processing, have been critically reviewed here for separation of metals and non-metals, along with useful utilizations of the non-metallic materials. The recovery of metals from e-waste material after physical separation through pyrometallurgical, hydrometallurgical or biohydrometallurgical routes is also discussed along with purification and refining and some suitable flowsheets are also given. It seems that hydrometallurgical route will be a key player in the base and precious metals recoveries from e-waste. E-waste recycling will be a very important sector in the near future from economic and environmental perspectives.

Keywords: E-waste, WEEE, PCB, recycling, metal recovery, hydrometallurgy, pyrometallurgy, biohydrometallurgy.

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382 Recycling Construction Waste Materials to Reduce the Environmental Pollutants

Authors: Mehrdad Abkenari, Alireza Rezaei, Naghmeh Pournayeb

Abstract:

There have recently been many studies and investments in developed and developing countries regarding the possibility of recycling construction waste, which are still ongoing. Since the term 'construction waste' covers a vast spectrum of materials in constructing buildings, roads and etc., many investigations are required to measure their technical performance in use as well as their time and place of use. Concrete is among the major and fundamental materials used in current construction industry. Along with the rise of population in developing countries, it is desperately required to meet the people's primary need in construction industry and on the other hand, dispose existing wastes for reducing the amount of environmental pollutants. Restrictions of natural resources and environmental pollution are the most important problems encountered by civil engineers. Reusing construction waste is an important and economic approach that not only assists the preservation of environment but also, provides us with primary raw materials. In line with consistent municipal development in disposal and reuse of construction waste, several approaches including, management of construction waste and materials, materials recycling and innovation and new inventions in materials have been predicted. This article has accordingly attempted to study the activities related to recycling of construction wastes and then, stated the economic, quantitative, qualitative and environmental results obtained.

Keywords: Civil engineering, environment, recycling, construction waste.

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381 Recycling Organic Waste in Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University as Compost

Authors: Anat Thapinta

Abstract:

This research aimed to study on the potential of recycling organic waste in Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University as compost. In doing so, the composition of solid waste generated in the campus was investigated while physical and chemical properties of organic waste were analyzed in order to evaluate the portion of waste suitable for recycling as compost. As a result of the study, it was found that (1) the amount of organic waste was averaged at 299.8 kg/day in which mixed food wastes had the highest amount of 191.9 kg/day followed by mixed leave & yard wastes and mixed fruit & vegetable wastes at the amount of 66.3 and 41.6 kg/day respectively; (2) physical and chemical properties of organic waste in terms of moisture content was between 69.54 to 78.15%, major elements for plant as N, P and K were 0.14 to 0.17%, 0.46 to 0.52% and 0.16 to 0.18% respectively, and carbon/nitrogen ratio (C/N) was about 15:1 to 17.5:1; (3) recycling organic waste as compost was designed by aerobic decomposition using mixed food wastes : mixed leave & yard wastes : mixed fruit & vegetable wastes at the portion of 3:2:1 by weight in accordance with the potential of their amounts and their physical and chemical properties.

Keywords: Compost, Organic waste, Physical and chemical properties, Recycling.

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380 Recycling Motivations and Barriers in Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia

Authors: Jasmine Adela Mutang, Rosnah Ismail, Chua Bee Seok, Ferlis Bahari, Lailawati Madlan, Walton Wider, Rickless Das

Abstract:

Public participation in recycling domestic waste is still very low in Malaysia. Only 10.5% of solid waste was recycled up to now which is far below than of in developed countries. Therefore, understanding public motivations towards recycling domestic waste are important to improve current recycling rate. Thus, this study attempts to identify what are the possible motivations and hindrances for the public to recycle. Open-ended questions format were administered to 484 people in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia. Two specific questions we asked to explore their general determinants and barriers in practicing recycling: “What motivates you to recycle?” and “What are the barriers you encountered in doing recycling activities?” Thematic was conducted on the open-ended questions in which themes were created with the raw comments. It was found that the underlying recycling motivations are (i) awareness’ towards the environment; (ii) benefits to the society and individual; and (iii) social influence. Non participations are influence by (i) attitudes; (ii) commitment; (iii) facilities; (iv) knowledge; (v) inconvenience; and (vi) enforcement.

Keywords: Recycling motivation, recycling barrier, sustainable, household waste.

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379 Characteristics of E-waste Recycling Systems in Japan and China

Authors: Bi Bo, Kayoko Yamamoto

Abstract:

This study aims to identify processes, current situations, and issues of recycling systems for four home appliances, namely, air conditioners, television receivers, refrigerators, and washing machines, among e-wastes in China and Japan for understanding and comparison of their characteristics. In accordance with results of a literature search, review of information disclosed online, and questionnaire survey conducted, conclusions of the study boil down to: (1)The results show that in Japan most of the home appliances mentioned above have been collected through home appliance recycling tickets, resulting in an issue of “requiring some effort" in treatment and recycling stages, and most plants have contracted out their e-waste recycling. (2)It is found out that advantages of the recycling system in Japan include easiness to monitor concrete data and thorough environmental friendliness ensured while its disadvantages include illegal dumping and export. It becomes apparent that advantages of the recycling system in China include a high reuse rate, low treatment cost, and fewer illegal dumping while its disadvantages include less safe reused products, environmental pollution caused by e-waste treatment, illegal import, and difficulty in obtaining data.

Keywords: E-waste, Recycling Systems, Home Appliances, Japan and China.

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378 Recycling in Bogotá: A SWOT Analysis of Three Associations to Evaluate the Integrating the Informal Sector into Solid Waste Management

Authors: Clara Inés Pardo Martínez, William H. Alfonso Piña

Abstract:

In emerging economies, recycling is an opportunity for the cities to increase the lifespan of sanitary landfills, reduce the costs of the solid waste management, decrease the environmental problems of the waste treatment through reincorporate waste in the productive cycle and protect and develop people’s livelihoods of informal waste pickers. However, few studies have analysed the possibilities and strategies to integrate formal and informal sectors in the solid waste management for the benefit of both. This study seek to make a strength, weakness, opportunity, and threat (SWOT) analysis in three recycling associations of Bogotá with the aim to understand and determine the situation of recycling from perspective of informal sector in its transition to enter as authorized waste providers. Data used in the analysis are derived from multiple strategies such as literature review, the Bogota’s recycling database, focus group meetings, governmental reports, national laws and regulations and specific interviews with key stakeholders. Results of this study show as the main stakeholders of formal and informal sector of waste management can identify the internal and internal conditions of recycling in Bogotá. Several strategies were designed based on the SWOTs determined, could be useful for Bogotá to advance and promote recycling as a key strategy for integrated sustainable waste management in the city.

Keywords: Bogotá, recycling, solid waste management, SWOT analysis.

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377 Strategies for E-Waste Management: A Literature Review

Authors: Linh Thi Truc Doan, Yousef Amer, Sang-Heon Lee, Phan Nguyen Ky Phuc

Abstract:

During the last few decades, with the high-speed upgrade of electronic products, electronic waste (e-waste) has become one of the fastest growing wastes of the waste stream. In this context, more efforts and concerns have already been placed on the treatment and management of this waste. To mitigate their negative influences on the environment and society, it is necessary to establish appropriate strategies for e-waste management. Hence, this paper aims to review and analysis some useful strategies which have been applied in several countries to handle e-waste. Future perspectives on e-waste management are also suggested. The key findings found that, to manage e-waste successfully, it is necessary to establish effective reverse supply chains for e-waste, and raise public awareness towards the detrimental impacts of e-waste. The result of the research provides valuable insights to governments, policymakers in establishing e-waste management in a safe and sustainable manner.

Keywords: E-waste, e-waste management, life cycle assessment, recycling regulations.

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376 Gauteng-s Waste Outlook: A Reflection

Authors: Edison Muzenda

Abstract:

Gauteng, as the province with the greatest industrial and population density, the economic hub of South Africa also generates the greatest amount of waste, both general and hazardous. Therefore the province has a significant need to develop and apply appropriate integrated waste management policies that ensure that waste is recognised as a serious problem and is managed in an effective integrated manner to preserve both the present and future human health and environment. This paper reflects on Gauteng-s waste outlook in particular the province-s General Waste Minimisation Plan and its Integrated Waste Management Policy. The paper also looks at general waste generation, recyclable waste streams as well as recycling and separation at source initiatives in the province. Both the quantity and nature of solid waste differs considerably across the socio-economic spectrum. People in informal settlements generate an average of 0.16 kg per person per day whereas 2 kg per day is not unusual in affluent areas. For example the amount of waste generated in Johannesburg is approximately 1.2 kg per person per day.

Keywords: General waste, generation, integrated, minimisation, recycling, separation

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375 Design Consideration of a Plastic Shredder in Recycling Processes

Authors: Tolulope A. Olukunle

Abstract:

Plastic waste management has emerged as one of the greatest challenges facing developing countries. This paper describes the design of various components of a plastic shredder. This machine is widely used in industries and recycling plants. The introduction of plastic shredder machine will promote reduction of post-consumer plastic waste accumulation and serves as a system for wealth creation and empowerment through conversion of waste into economically viable products. In this design research, a 10 kW electric motor with a rotational speed of 500 rpm was chosen to drive the shredder. A pulley size of 400 mm is mounted on the electric motor at a distance of 1000 mm away from the shredder pulley. The shredder rotational speed is 300 rpm.

Keywords: Design, machine, plastic waste, recycling.

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374 The Composting Process from a Waste Management Method to a Remediation Procedure

Authors: G. Petruzzelli, F. Pedron, M. Grifoni, F. Gorini, I. Rosellini, B. Pezzarossa

Abstract:

Composting is a controlled technology to enhance the natural aerobic process of organic wastes degradation. The resulting product is a humified material that is principally recyclable for agricultural purpose. The composting process is one of the most important tools for waste management, by the European Community legislation. In recent years composting has been increasingly used as a remediation technology to remove biodegradable contaminants from soil, and to modulate heavy metals bioavailability in phytoremediation strategies. An optimization in the recovery of resources from wastes through composting could enhance soil fertility and promote its use in the remediation biotechnologies of contaminated soils.

Keywords: Agriculture, biopile, compost, soil clean-up, waste recycling.

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373 Solid Waste Characterization and Recycling Potential in Hawassa University, Ethiopia

Authors: Hunachew B. Mengesha, Biruck Y. Dessalegn

Abstract:

Owing to the dramatic expansion of universities in Ethiopia, understanding the composition and nature of solid waste at the source of generation plays an important role in designing a program for an integrated waste management program. In this study, we report the quantity, quality and recycling potential of the waste generated in the three campuses of the Hawassa University, Southern Ethiopia. A total of 3.5 tons of waste was generated per day in the three campuses of the university. More than 95% of the waste constituents were with potential to be recovered. It was a lesson from the study that there was no source reduction, recycling, composting, proper land filling or incineration practices in-place. The considerably high waste generation associated with the expansion of educational programs in the university appears worthwhile requiring implementation of programs for an integrated solid waste management to minimize health risk to humans and reduce environmental implications as a result of improper handling and disposal of wastes.

Keywords: Hawassa University, integrated solid waste management, solid waste generation.

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372 Destination of the Solid Waste Generated at the Agricultural Products Wholesale Market in Brazil

Authors: C de Almeida, I. M. Dal Fabbro

Abstract:

The Brazilian Agricultural Products Wholesale Market fits well as example of residues generating system, reaching 750 metric tons per month of total residues, from which 600 metric tons are organic material and 150 metric tons are recyclable materials. Organic material is basically composed of fruit, vegetables and flowers leftovers from the products commercialization. The recyclable compounds are generate from packing material employed in the commercialization process. This research work devoted efforts in carrying quantitative analysis of the residues generated in the agricultural enterprise at its final destination. Data survey followed the directions implemented by the Residues Management Program issued by the agricultural enterprise. It was noticed from that analysis the necessity of changing the logistics applied to the recyclable material collecting process. However, composting process was elected as the organic compounds destination which is considered adequate for a material composed of significant percentage of organic matter far higher than wood, cardboard and plastics contents.

Keywords: Composting, environment, recycling, solid waste.

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371 Waste Management, Strategies and Situation in South Africa: An Overview

Authors: Edison Muzenda, Freeman Ntuli, Tsietsi Jefrey Pilusa

Abstract:

This paper highlights some interesting facts on South African-s waste situation and management strategies, in particular the Integrated Waste Management. South Africa supports a waste hierarchy by promoting cleaner production, waste minimisation, reuse, recycling and waste treatment with disposal and remediation as the last preferred options in waste management. The drivers for waste management techniques are identified as increased demand for waste service provision; increased demand for waste minimisation; recycling and recovery; land use, physical and environmental limitations; and socio-economic and demographic factors. The South African government recognizes the importance of scientific research as outlined on the white paper on Integrated Pollution and Waste Management (IP and WM) (DEAT, 2000).

Keywords: Cleaner production, demographic factors, environmental quality, integrated waste management, hierarchy, recycling

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370 Reduce, Reuse and Recycle: Grand Challenges in Construction Recovery Process

Authors: Abioye A. Oyenuga, Rao Bhamidimarri

Abstract:

Hurling a successful Construction and Demolition Waste (C&DW) recycling operation around the globe is a challenge today, predominantly because secondary materials markets are yet to be integrated. Reducing, Reusing and recycling of (C&DW) have been employed over the years, and various techniques have been investigated. However, the economic and environmental viability of its application seems limited. This paper discusses the costs and benefits in using secondary materials and focus on investigating reuse and recycling process for five major types of construction materials: concrete, metal, wood, cardboard/paper and plasterboard. Data obtained from demolition specialists and contractors are considered and evaluated. The research paper found that construction material recovery process fully incorporate a 3R’s principle contributing to saving energy and natural resources. This scrutiny leads to the empathy of grand challenges in construction material recovery process. Recommendations to deepen material recovery process are also discussed.

Keywords: Construction & Demolition Waste (C&DW), 3R concept, Recycling, Reuse, Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA), Waste Management.

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369 Quantitative Analysis of Construction Waste in the City of Novi Sad, Serbia

Authors: Nikola Karanovic, Aleksandar Djuric

Abstract:

This paper introduces a method of calculating the quantities of construction materials and construction waste on site in city of Novi Sad. In buildings is about 40% of the total weight of materials that are in circulation in the world economic space. The best solution for this waste is to be stored at source, at the point of generation. There are several treatment options for this type of waste, reduction at source, reuse, recycling. Beside its negative effects on the environment, construction waste can be and resource. Novi Sad is divided in 16 single family resident zones and 10 multi family resident zones. For every zone of the city, quantities of used construction materials and construction waste were obtained. Rational use of natural resources is an essential factor in applying the principles of development with savings.

Keywords: Construction materials, Construction waste, Novi Sad, Recycling

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368 Use of Waste Glass as Coarse Aggregate in Concrete: A Possibility towards Sustainable Building Construction

Authors: T. S. Serniabat, M. N. N. Khan, M. F. M. Zain

Abstract:

Climate change and environmental pressures are major international issues nowadays. It is time when governments, businesses and consumers have to respond through more environmentally friendly and aware practices, products and policies. This is the prime time to develop alternative sustainable construction materials, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, save energy, look to renewable energy sources and recycled materials, and reduce waste. The utilization of waste materials (slag, fly ash, glass beads, plastic and so on) in concrete manufacturing is significant due to its engineering, financial, environmental and ecological benefits. Thus, utilization of waste materials in concrete production is very much helpful to reach the goal of the sustainable construction. Therefore, this study intends to use glass beads in concrete production. The paper reports on the performance of 9 different concrete mixes containing different ratios of glass crushed to 5 mm - 20 mm maximum size and glass marble of 20 mm size as coarse aggregate. Ordinary Portland cement type 1 and fine sand less than 0.5 mm were used to produce standard concrete cylinders. Compressive strength tests were carried out on concrete specimens at various ages. Test results indicated that the mix having the balanced ratio of glass beads and round marbles possess maximum compressive strength which is 3889 psi, as glass beads perform better in bond formation but have lower strength, on the other hand marbles are strong in themselves but not good in bonding. These mixes were prepared following a specific W/C and aggregate ratio; more strength can be expected to achieve from different W/C, aggregate ratios, adding admixtures like strength increasing agents, ASR inhibitor agents etc.

Keywords: Waste glass, recycling, environmentally friendly, glass aggregate, strength development.

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367 Recycled Aggregates from Construction and Demolition Waste in the Production of Concrete Blocks

Authors: Juan A. Ferriz-Papi, Simon Thomas

Abstract:

The construction industry generates large amounts of waste, usually mixed, which can be composed of different origin materials, most of them catalogued as non-hazardous. The European Union targets for this waste for 2020 have been already achieved by the UK, but it is mainly developed in downcycling processes (backfilling) whereas upcycling (such as recycle in new concrete batches) still keeps at a low percentage. The aim of this paper is to explore further in the use of recycled aggregates from construction and demolition waste (CDW) in concrete mixes so as to improve upcycling. A review of most recent research and legislation applied in the UK is developed regarding the production of concrete blocks. As a case study, initial tests were developed with a CDW recycled aggregate sample from a CDW plant in Swansea. Composition by visual inspection and sieving tests of two samples were developed and compared to original aggregates. More than 70% was formed by soil waste from excavation, and the rest was a mix of waste from mortar, concrete, and ceramics with small traces of plaster, glass and organic matter. Two concrete mixes were made with 80% replacement of recycled aggregates and different water/cement ratio. Tests were carried out for slump, absorption, density and compression strength. The results were compared to a reference sample and showed a substantial reduction of quality in both mixes. Despite that, the discussion brings to identify different aspects to solve, such as heterogeneity or composition, and analyze them for the successful use of these recycled aggregates in the production of concrete blocks. The conclusions obtained can help increase upcycling processes ratio with mixed CDW as recycled aggregates in concrete mixes.

Keywords: Recycled aggregate, concrete, concrete block, construction and demolition waste, recycling.

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366 Pre-Analysis of Printed Circuit Boards Based On Multispectral Imaging for Vision Based Recognition of Electronics Waste

Authors: Florian Kleber, Martin Kampel

Abstract:

The increasing demand of gallium, indium and rare-earth elements for the production of electronics, e.g. solid state-lighting, photovoltaics, integrated circuits, and liquid crystal displays, will exceed the world-wide supply according to current forecasts. Recycling systems to reclaim these materials are not yet in place, which challenges the sustainability of these technologies. This paper proposes a multispectral imaging system as a basis for a vision based recognition system for valuable components of electronics waste. Multispectral images intend to enhance the contrast of images of printed circuit boards (single components, as well as labels) for further analysis, such as optical character recognition and entire printed circuit board recognition. The results show, that a higher contrast is achieved in the near infrared compared to ultraviolett and visible light.

Keywords: Electronic Waste, Recycling, Multispectral Imaging, Printed Circuit Boards, Rare-Earth Elements.

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365 Triboelectric Separation of Binary Plastic Mixture

Authors: M. Saeki

Abstract:

This paper presents the results of an experimental study on the performance of a triboelectric separator of plastic mixtures used for recycling. The separator consists of four cylindrical electrodes. The principle behind the separation technique is based on the difference in the Coulomb force acting on the plastic particles after triboelectric charging. The separation of mixtures of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and polystyrene (PS) using this method was studied. The effects of the triboelectric charging time and applied voltage on the separation efficiency were investigated. The experimental results confirm that it is possible to obtain a high purity and recovery rate for the initial compositions considered in this study.

Keywords: Coulomb force, recycling, triboelectric separator, waste plastics.

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364 Technology Identification, Evaluation and Selection Methodology for Industrial Process Water and Waste Water Treatment Plant of 3x150 MWe Tufanbeyli Lignite-Fired Power Plant

Authors: Cigdem Safak Saglam

Abstract:

Most thermal power plants use steam as working fluid in their power cycle. Therefore, in addition to fuel, water is the other main input for thermal plants. Water and steam must be highly pure in order to protect the systems from corrosion, scaling and biofouling. Pure process water is produced in water treatment plants having many several treatment methods. Treatment plant design is selected depending on raw water source and required water quality. Although working principle of fossil-fuel fired thermal power plants are same, there is no standard design and equipment arrangement valid for all thermal power plant utility systems. Besides that, there are many other technology evaluation and selection criteria for designing the most optimal water systems meeting the requirements such as local conditions, environmental restrictions, electricity and other consumables availability and transport, process water sources and scarcity, land use constraints etc. Aim of this study is explaining the adopted methodology for technology selection for process water preparation and industrial waste water treatment plant in a thermal power plant project located in Tufanbeyli, Adana Province in Turkey. Thermal power plant is fired with indigenous lignite coal extracted from adjacent lignite reserves. This paper addresses all above-mentioned factors affecting the thermal power plant water treatment facilities (demineralization + waste water treatment) design and describes the ultimate design of Tufanbeyli Thermal Power Plant Water Treatment Plant.

Keywords: Thermal power plant, lignite coal, pre-treatment, demineralization, electrodialysis, recycling, waste water, process water.

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363 Concrete Recycling in Egypt for Construction Applications: A technical and Financial Feasibility Model

Authors: Omar Farahat Hassanein, A. Samer Ezeldin

Abstract:

The construction industry is a very dynamic field. Every day new technologies and methods are developed to fasten the process and increase its efficiency. Hence, if a project uses fewer resources it will be more efficient.

This paper examines the recycling of concrete construction and demolition (C&D) waste to reuse it as aggregates in on-site applications for construction projects in Egypt and possibly in the Middle East. The study focuses on a stationary plant setting. The machinery set-up used in the plant is analyzed technically and financially.

The findings are gathered and grouped to obtain a comprehensive cost-benefit financial model to demonstrate the feasibility of establishing and operating a concrete recycling plant. Furthermore, a detailed business plan including the time and hierarchy is proposed. 

Keywords: Construction wastes, recycling, sustainability, financial model, concrete recycling, concrete life cycle.

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362 Development of Cellulose Panels with Porous Structure for Sustainable Building Insulation

Authors: P. Garbagnoli, M. Musitelli, B. Del Curto, MP. Pedeferri

Abstract:

The study and development of an innovative material for building insulation is really important for a sustainable society in order to improve comfort and reducing energy consumption. The aim of this work is the development of insulating panels for sustainable buildings based on an innovative material made by cardboard and Phase Change Materials (PCMs). The research has consisted in laboratory tests whose purpose has been the obtaining of the required properties for insulation panels: lightweight, porous structures and mechanical resistance. PCMs have been used for many years in the building industry as smart insulation technology because of their properties of storage and release high quantity of latent heat at useful specific temperatures [1]- [2]. The integration of PCMs into cellulose matrix during the waste paper recycling process has been developed in order to obtain a composite material. Experiments on the productive process for the realization of insulating panels were done in order to make the new material suitable for building application. The addition of rising agents demonstrated the possibility to obtain a lighter structure with better insulation properties. Several tests were conducted to verify the new panel properties. The results obtained have shown the possibility to realize an innovative and sustainable material suitable to replace insulating panels currently used.

Keywords: Sustainability, recycling, waste cardboard, PCM, cladding system, insulating materials.

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361 Energy Efficient Recycling of in-Plant Fines

Authors: H. Ahmed, A. Persson, L. Sundqvist, B. Biorkman

Abstract:

Numerous amounts of metallurgical dusts and sludge containing iron as well as some other valuable elements such as Zn, Pb and C are annually produced in the steelmaking industry. These alternative iron ore resources (fines) with unsatisfying physical and metallurgical properties are difficult to recycle. However, agglomerating these fines to be further used as a feed stock for existing iron and steelmaking processes is practiced successfully at several plants but for limited extent.

In the present study, briquettes of integrated steelmaking industry waste materials (namely, BF-dust and sludge, BOF-dust and sludge) were used as feed stock to produce direct reduced iron (DRI). Physical and metallurgical properties of produced briquettes were investigated by means of TGA/DTA/QMS in combination with XRD. Swelling, softening and melting behavior were also studied using heating microscope.

Keywords: Iron and Steel Wastes, Recycling, Self-Reducing Briquettes, Thermogravimetry.

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360 Quantification of E-Waste: A Case Study in Federal University of Espírito Santo, Brazil

Authors: Andressa S. T. Gomes, Luiza A. Souza, Luciana H. Yamane, Renato R. Siman

Abstract:

The segregation of waste of electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) in the generating source, its characterization (quali-quantitative) and identification of origin, besides being integral parts of classification reports, are crucial steps to the success of its integrated management. The aim of this paper was to count WEEE generation at the Federal University of Espírito Santo (UFES), Brazil, as well as to define sources, temporary storage sites, main transportations routes and destinations, the most generated WEEE and its recycling potential. Quantification of WEEE generated at the University in the years between 2010 and 2015 was performed using data analysis provided by UFES’s sector of assets management. EEE and WEEE flow in the campuses information were obtained through questionnaires applied to the University workers. It was recorded 6028 WEEEs units of data processing equipment disposed by the university between 2010 and 2015. Among these waste, the most generated were CRT screens, desktops, keyboards and printers. Furthermore, it was observed that these WEEEs are temporarily stored in inappropriate places at the University campuses. In general, these WEEE units are donated to NGOs of the city, or sold through auctions (2010 and 2013). As for recycling potential, from the primary processing and further sale of printed circuit boards (PCB) from the computers, the amount collected could reach U$ 27,839.23. The results highlight the importance of a WEEE management policy at the University.

Keywords: Solid waste, waste of electric and electronic equipment, waste management, institutional generation of solid waste.

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359 Recycling of Polymers in the Presence of Nanocatalysts: A Green Approach towards Sustainable Environment

Authors: Beena Sethi

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This work involves the degradation of plastic waste in the presence of three different nanocatalysts. A thin film of LLDPE was formed with all three nanocatalysts separately in the solvent. Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetric (DSC) analysis of polymers suggest that the presence of these catalysts lowers the degradation temperature and the change mechanism of degradation. Gas chromatographic analysis was carried out for two films. In gas chromatography (GC) analysis, it was found that degradation of pure polymer produces only 32% C3/C4 hydrocarbons and 67.6% C5/C9 hydrocarbons. In the presence of these catalysts, more than 80% of polymer by weight was converted into either liquid or gaseous hydrocarbons. Change in the mechanism of degradation of polymer was observed therefore more C3/C4 hydrocarbons along with valuable feedstock are produced. Adjustment of dose of nanocatalyst, use of nano-admixtures and recycling of catalyst can make this catalytic feedstock recycling method a good tool to get sustainable environment. The obtained products can be utilized as fuel or can be transformed into other useful products. In accordance with the principles of sustainable development, chemical recycling i.e. tertiary recycling of polymers along with the reuse (zero order recycling) of plastics can be the most appropriate and promising method in this direction. The tertiary recycling is attracting much attention from the viewpoint of the energy resource.

Keywords: Degradation, differential scanning calorimetry, feedstock recycling, gas chromatography, thermogravimetric analysis. DSC.

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358 The Prospect of Producing Hydrogen by Electrolysis of Idle Discharges of Water from Reservoirs and Recycling of Waste-Gas Condensates

Authors: Inom Sh. Normatov, Nurmakhmad Shermatov, Rajabali Barotov, Rano Eshankulova

Abstract:

The results of the studies for the hydrogen production by the application of water electrolysis and plasma-chemical processing of gas condensate-waste of natural gas production methods are presented. Thin coating covers the electrode surfaces in the process of water electrolysis. Therefore, water for electrolysis was first exposed to electrosedimentation. The threshold voltage is shifted to a lower value compared with the use of electrodes made of stainless steel. At electrolysis of electrosedimented water by use of electrodes from stainless steel, a significant amount of hydrogen is formed. Pyrolysis of gas condensates in the atmosphere of a nitrogen was followed by the formation of acetylene (3-7 vol.%), ethylene (4-8 vol.%), and pyrolysis carbon (10-15 wt.%).

Keywords: Electrolyze, gas condensate, hydrogen, pyrolysis.

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357 Green Computing: From Current to Future Trends

Authors: Tariq Rahim Soomro, Muhammad Sarwar

Abstract:

During recent years, attention in 'Green Computing' has moved research into energy-saving techniques for home computers to enterprise systems' Client and Server machines. Saving energy or reduction of carbon footprints is one of the aspects of Green Computing. The research in the direction of Green Computing is more than just saving energy and reducing carbon foot prints. This study provides a brief account of Green Computing. The emphasis of this study is on current trends in Green Computing; challenges in the field of Green Computing and the future trends of Green Computing.

Keywords: Energy consumption, e-waste recycling, Green Computing, Green IT

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356 Recycling of Tungsten Alloy Swarf

Authors: A. A. Alhazza

Abstract:

The recycling process of Tungsten alloy (Swarf) by oxidation reduction technique have been investigated. The reduced powder was pressed under a pressure 20Kg/cm2 and sintered at 1150°C in dry hydrogen atmosphere. The particle size of the recycled alloy powder was 1-3 μm and the shape was regular at a reduction temperature 800°C. The chemical composition of the recycled alloy is the same as the primary Swarf.

Keywords: Recycling, Swarf, Oxidation, Reduction.

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355 Design Transformation to Reduce Cost in Irrigation Using Value Engineering

Authors: F. S. Al-Anzi, M. Sarfraz, A. Elmi, A. R. Khan

Abstract:

Researchers are responding to the environmental challenges of Kuwait in localized, innovative, effective and economic ways. One of the vital and significant examples of the natural challenges is lack or water and desertification. In this research, the project team focuses on redesigning a prototype, using Value Engineering Methodology, which would provide similar functionalities to the well-known technology of Waterboxx kits while reducing the capital and operational costs and simplifying the process of manufacturing and usability by regular farmers. The design employs used tires and recycled plastic sheets as raw materials. Hence, this approach is going to help not just fighting desertification but also helping in getting rid of ever growing huge tire dumpsters in Kuwait, as well as helping in avoiding hazards of tire fires yielding in a safer and friendlier environment. Several alternatives for implementing the prototype have been considered. The best alternative in terms of value has been selected after thorough Function Analysis System Technique (FAST) exercise has been developed. A prototype has been fabricated and tested in a controlled simulated lab environment that is being followed by real environment field testing. Water and soil analysis conducted on the site of the experiment to cross compare between the composition of the soil before and after the experiment to insure that the prototype being tested is actually going to be environment safe. Experimentation shows that the design was equally as effective as, and may exceed, the original design with significant savings in cost. An estimated total cost reduction using the VE approach of 43.84% over the original design. This cost reduction does not consider the intangible costs of environmental issue of waste recycling which many further intensify the total savings of using the alternative VE design. This case study shows that Value Engineering Methodology can be an important tool in innovating new designs for reducing costs.

Keywords: Desertification, functional analysis, scrap tires, value engineering, waste recycling, water irrigation rationing.

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354 A Current Steering Positive Feedback Improved Recycling Folded Cascode OTA

Authors: S. Kumaravel, B. Venkataramani

Abstract:

In the literature, Improved Recycling Folded Cascode (IRFC) Operational Transconductance Amplifier (OTA) is proposed for enhancing the DC gain and the Unity Gain Bandwidth (UGB) of the Recycling Folded Cascode (RFC) OTA. In this paper, an enhanced IRFC (EIRFC) OTA which uses positive feedback at the cascode node is proposed for enhancing the differential mode (DM) gain without changing the unity gain bandwidth (UGB) and lowering the Common mode (CM) gain. For the purpose of comparison, IRFC and EIRFC OTAs are implemented using UMC 90nm CMOS technology and studied through simulation. From the simulation, it is found that the DM gain and CM gain of EIRFC OTA is higher by 6dB and lower by 38dB respectively, compared to that of IRFC OTA for the same power and area. The slew rate of EIRFC OTA is also higher by a factor of 1.5.

Keywords: Cascode Amplifier, CMRR, gm/ID Methodology, Recycling, Slew Rate.

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