Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

Search results for: tetrahedral

16 Analysis of Gas Disturbance Characteristics in Lunar Sample Storage

Authors: Lv Shizeng, Han Xiao, Zhang Yi, Ding Wenjing

Abstract:

The lunar sample storage device is mainly used for the preparation of the lunar samples, observation, physical analysis and other work. The lunar samples and operating equipment are placed directly inside the storage device. The inside of the storage device is a high purity nitrogen environment to ensure that the sample is not contaminated by the Earth's environment. In order to ensure that the water and oxygen indicators in the storage device meet the sample requirements, a dynamic gas cycle is required between the storage device and the external purification equipment. However, the internal gas disturbance in the storage device can affect the operation of the sample. In this paper, the storage device model is established, and the tetrahedral mesh is established by Tetra/Mixed method. The influence of different inlet position and gas flow on the internal flow field disturbance is calculated, and the disturbed flow area should be avoided during the sampling operation.

Keywords: lunar samples, gas disturbance, storage device, characteristic analysis

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 428
15 The Microstructural and Mechanical Characterization of Organo-Clay-Modified Bitumen, Calcareous Aggregate, and Organo-Clay Blends

Authors: A. Gürses, T. B. Barın, Ç. Doğar

Abstract:

Bitumen has been widely used as the binder of aggregate in road pavement due to its good viscoelastic properties, as a viscous organic mixture with various chemical compositions. Bitumen is a liquid at high temperature and it becomes brittle at low temperatures, and this temperature-sensitivity can cause the rutting and cracking of the pavement and limit its application. Therefore, the properties of existing asphalt materials need to be enhanced. The pavement with polymer modified bitumen exhibits greater resistance to rutting and thermal cracking, decreased fatigue damage, as well as stripping and temperature susceptibility; however, they are expensive and their applications have disadvantages. Bituminous mixtures are composed of very irregular aggregates bound together with hydrocarbon-based asphalt, with a low volume fraction of voids dispersed within the matrix. Montmorillonite (MMT) is a layered silicate with low cost and abundance, which consists of layers of tetrahedral silicate and octahedral hydroxide sheets. Recently, the layered silicates have been widely used for the modification of polymers, as well as in many different fields. However, there are not too much studies related with the preparation of the modified asphalt with MMT, currently. In this study, organo-clay-modified bitumen, and calcareous aggregate and organo-clay blends were prepared by hot blending method with OMMT, which has been synthesized using a cationic surfactant (Cetyltrymethylammonium bromide, CTAB) and long chain hydrocarbon, and MMT. When the exchangeable cations in the interlayer region of pristine MMT were exchanged with hydrocarbon attached surfactant ions, the MMT becomes organophilic and more compatible with bitumen. The effects of the super hydrophobic OMMT onto the micro structural and mechanic properties (Marshall Stability and volumetric parameters) of the prepared blends were investigated. Stability and volumetric parameters of the blends prepared were measured using Marshall Test. Also, in order to investigate the morphological and micro structural properties of the organo-clay-modified bitumen and calcareous aggregate and organo-clay blends, their SEM and HRTEM images were taken. It was observed that the stability and volumetric parameters of the prepared mixtures improved significantly compared to the conventional hot mixes and even the stone matrix mixture. A micro structural analysis based on SEM images indicates that the organo-clay platelets dispersed in the bitumen have a dominant role in the increase of effectiveness of bitumen - aggregate interactions.

Keywords: hot mix asphalt, stone matrix asphalt, organo clay, Marshall test, calcareous aggregate, modified bitumen

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 818
14 Sand Production Modelled with Darcy Fluid Flow Using Discrete Element Method

Authors: M. N. Nwodo, Y. P. Cheng, N. H. Minh

Abstract:

In the process of recovering oil in weak sandstone formations, the strength of sandstones around the wellbore is weakened due to the increase of effective stress/load from the completion activities around the cavity. The weakened and de-bonded sandstone may be eroded away by the produced fluid, which is termed sand production. It is one of the major trending subjects in the petroleum industry because of its significant negative impacts, as well as some observed positive impacts. For efficient sand management therefore, there has been need for a reliable study tool to understand the mechanism of sanding. One method of studying sand production is the use of the widely recognized Discrete Element Method (DEM), Particle Flow Code (PFC3D) which represents sands as granular individual elements bonded together at contact points. However, there is limited knowledge of the particle-scale behavior of the weak sandstone, and the parameters that affect sanding. This paper aims to investigate the reliability of using PFC3D and a simple Darcy flow in understanding the sand production behavior of a weak sandstone. An isotropic tri-axial test on a weak oil sandstone sample was first simulated at a confining stress of 1MPa to calibrate and validate the parallel bond models of PFC3D using a 10m height and 10m diameter solid cylindrical model. The effect of the confining stress on the number of bonds failure was studied using this cylindrical model. With the calibrated data and sample material properties obtained from the tri-axial test, simulations without and with fluid flow were carried out to check on the effect of Darcy flow on bonds failure using the same model geometry. The fluid flow network comprised of every four particles connected with tetrahedral flow pipes with a central pore or flow domain. Parametric studies included the effects of confining stress, and fluid pressure; as well as validating flow rate – permeability relationship to verify Darcy’s fluid flow law. The effect of model size scaling on sanding was also investigated using 4m height, 2m diameter model. The parallel bond model successfully calibrated the sample’s strength of 4.4MPa, showing a sharp peak strength before strain-softening, similar to the behavior of real cemented sandstones. There seems to be an exponential increasing relationship for the bigger model, but a curvilinear shape for the smaller model. The presence of the Darcy flow induced tensile forces and increased the number of broken bonds. For the parametric studies, flow rate has a linear relationship with permeability at constant pressure head. The higher the fluid flow pressure, the higher the number of broken bonds/sanding. The DEM PFC3D is a promising tool to studying the micromechanical behavior of cemented sandstones.

Keywords: fluid flow, parametric study, discrete element method, sand production/bonds failure

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1307
13 Chitosan Functionalized [email protected] Core-Shell Nanomaterials for Targeted Drug Delivery

Authors: S. S. Pati, L. Herojit Singh, A. C. Oliveira, V. K. Garg

Abstract:

Chitosan functionalized Fe3O4-Au core shell nanoparticles have been prepared using a two-step wet chemical approach using NaBH4 as reducing agent for formation of Au in ethylene glycol. X-ray diffraction studies shows individual phases of Fe3O4 and Au in the as prepared samples with crystallite size of 5.9 and 11.4 nm respectively. The functionalization of the core-shell nanostructure with Chitosan has been confirmed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy along with signatures of octahedral and tetrahedral sites of Fe3O4 below 600cm-1. Mössbauer spectroscopy shows decrease in particle-particle interaction in presence of Au shell (72% sextet) than pure oleic coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles (88% sextet) at room temperature. At 80K, oleic acid coated Fe3O4 shows only sextets whereas the Chitosan functionalized Fe3O4 and Chitosan functionalized [email protected] core shell show presence of 5 and 11% doublet, respectively.

Keywords: magnetic nanoparticles, Au nanoparticles, [email protected] core shell, iron oxide

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2423
12 Effect of N2 Pretreatment on the Properties of Tungsten-Based Catalysts in Metathesis of Ethylene and 2-Butene

Authors: K. Aranyarat, S. Maksasithorn, K. Suriye, S. Kunjara Na Ayudhya, J. Panpranot

Abstract:

The effect of N2 pretreatment on the catalytic activity of tungsten-based catalysts was investigated in the metathesis of ethylene and trans-2-butene at 450oC and atmospheric pressure. The presence of tungsten active species was confirmed by UV-Vis and Raman spectroscopy. Compared to the WO3-based catalysts treated in air, higher amount of WO4 2-tetrahedral species and lower amount of WO3 crystalline species were observed on the N2-treated ones. These contribute to the higher conversion of 2-butene and propylene selectivity during 10 h time-on-stream. Moreover, N2 treatment led to lower amount of coke formation as revealed by TPO of the spent catalysts.

Keywords: Tungsten, propylene, Pretreatment, metathesis

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1684
11 Investigation of the Effect of Grid Size on External Store Separation Trajectory Using CFD

Authors: Alaa A. Osman, Amgad M. Bayoumy, Ismail El baialy, Osama E. Abdellatif, Essam E. Khallil

Abstract:

In this paper, a numerical simulation of a finned store separating from a wing-pylon configuration has been studied and validated. A dynamic unstructured tetrahedral mesh approach is accomplished by using three grid sizes to numerically solving the discretized three dimensional, inviscid and compressible Euler equations. The method used for computations of separation of an external store assuming quasi-steady flow condition. Computations of quasi-steady flow have been directly coupled to a six degree-offreedom (6DOF) rigid-body motion code to generate store trajectories. The pressure coefficients at four different angular cuts and time histories of various trajectory parameters and wing pressure distribution during the store separation are compared for every grid size with published experimental data.

Keywords: CFD Modelling, transonic store separation, quasi-steady flow, moving-body trajectories, Moving-body Trajectories

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2383
10 Construction and Validation of a Hybrid Lumbar Spine Model for the Fast Evaluation of Intradiscal Pressure and Mobility

Authors: Ali Hamadi Dicko, Nicolas Tong-Yette, Benjamin Gilles, François Faure, Olivier Palombi

Abstract:

A novel hybrid model of the lumbar spine, allowing fast static and dynamic simulations of the disc pressure and the spine mobility, is introduced in this work. Our contribution is to combine rigid bodies, deformable finite elements, articular constraints, and springs into a unique model of the spine. Each vertebra is represented by a rigid body controlling a surface mesh to model contacts on the facet joints and the spinous process. The discs are modeled using a heterogeneous tetrahedral finite element model. The facet joints are represented as elastic joints with six degrees of freedom, while the ligaments are modeled using non-linear one-dimensional elastic elements. The challenge we tackle is to make these different models efficiently interact while respecting the principles of Anatomy and Mechanics. The mobility, the intradiscal pressure, the facet joint force and the instantaneous center of rotation of the lumbar spine are validated against the experimental and theoretical results of the literature on flexion, extension, lateral bending as well as axial rotation. Our hybrid model greatly simplifies the modeling task and dramatically accelerates the simulation of pressure within the discs, as well as the evaluation of the range of motion and the instantaneous centers of rotation, without penalizing precision. These results suggest that for some types of biomechanical simulations, simplified models allow far easier modeling and faster simulations compared to usual full-FEM approaches without any loss of accuracy.

Keywords: Modeling, Hybrid, lumbar spine, fast simulation

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1952
9 Computer Aided X-Ray Diffraction Intensity Analysis for Spinels: Hands-On Computing Experience

Authors: Ashish R. Tanna, Hiren H. Joshi

Abstract:

The mineral having chemical compositional formula MgAl2O4 is called “spinel". The ferrites crystallize in spinel structure are known as spinel-ferrites or ferro-spinels. The spinel structure has a fcc cage of oxygen ions and the metallic cations are distributed among tetrahedral (A) and octahedral (B) interstitial voids (sites). The X-ray diffraction (XRD) intensity of each Bragg plane is sensitive to the distribution of cations in the interstitial voids of the spinel lattice. This leads to the method of determination of distribution of cations in the spinel oxides through XRD intensity analysis. The computer program for XRD intensity analysis has been developed in C language and also tested for the real experimental situation by synthesizing the spinel ferrite materials Mg0.6Zn0.4AlxFe2- xO4 and characterized them by X-ray diffractometry. The compositions of Mg0.6Zn0.4AlxFe2-xO4(x = 0.0 to 0.6) ferrites have been prepared by ceramic method and powder X-ray diffraction patterns were recorded. Thus, the authenticity of the program is checked by comparing the theoretically calculated data using computer simulation with the experimental ones. Further, the deduced cation distributions were used to fit the magnetization data using Localized canting of spins approach to explain the “recovery" of collinear spin structure due to Al3+ - substitution in Mg-Zn ferrites which is the case if A-site magnetic dilution and non-collinear spin structure. Since the distribution of cations in the spinel ferrites plays a very important role with regard to their electrical and magnetic properties, it is essential to determine the cation distribution in spinel lattice.

Keywords: spinel ferrites, Localized canting of spins, X-ray diffraction, Programming in Borland C

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3349
8 Experimental and CFD Investigation of Nozzle Angle in Jet Mixer

Authors: Hamid Rafiei, Reza Janamiri, Mohammad Hossein Sedaghat, Amir Hatampour

Abstract:

In this work, the results of mixing study by a jet mixer in a tank have been investigated in the laboratory scale. The tank dimensions are H/D=1 and the jet entrance have been considered in the center of upper surface of tank. RNG-k-ε model is used as the turbulent model for the prediction of the pattern of turbulent flow inside the tank. For this purpose, a tank with volume of 110 liter is simulated and it has been divided into 410,000 tetrahedral control cells for performing the calculations. The grids at the vicinity of the nozzle and suction pare are finer to get more accurate results. The experimental results showed that in a vertical jet, the lowest mixing time takes place at 35 degree. In addition, mixing time decreased by increasing the Reynolds number. Furthermore, the CFD simulation predicted the items as well a flow patterns precisely that validates the experiments.

Keywords: CFD, Reynolds number, turbulent model, mixing time, Jet mixer, Nozzle angle

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2199
7 Pressure Study on Mn Doped KDP System under Hydrostatic Pressure

Authors: W. Paraguassu, S. Guerini, C. M. R. Remédios, P. T. C. Freire

Abstract:

High Pressure Raman scattering measurements of KDP:Mn were performed at room temperatures. The X-ray powder diffraction patterns taken at room temperature by Rietveld refinement showed that doped samples of KDP-Mn have the same tetragonal structure of a pure KDP crystal, but with a contraction of the crystalline cell. The behavior of the Raman spectra, in particular the emergence of a new modes at 330 cm-1, indicates that KDP:Mn undergoes a structural phase transition with onset at around 4 GP. First principle density-functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that tetrahedral rotation with pressure is predominantly around the c crystalline direction. Theoretical results indicates that pressure induced tetrahedral rotations leads to change tetrahedral neighborhood, activating librations/bending modes observed for high pressure phase of KDP:Mn with stronger Raman activity.

Keywords: Phase Transition, Ab Initio, high pressure, Dipotassium molybdate, Raman scattering

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1202
6 Material Density Mapping on Deformable 3D Models of Human Organs

Authors: Petru Manescu, Joseph Azencot, Michael Beuve, Hamid Ladjal, Jacques Saade, Jean-Michel Morreau, Philippe Giraud, Behzad Shariat

Abstract:

Organ motion, especially respiratory motion, is a technical challenge to radiation therapy planning and dosimetry. This motion induces displacements and deformation of the organ tissues within the irradiated region which need to be taken into account when simulating dose distribution during treatment. Finite element modeling (FEM) can provide a great insight into the mechanical behavior of the organs, since they are based on the biomechanical material properties, complex geometry of organs, and anatomical boundary conditions. In this paper we present an original approach that offers the possibility to combine image-based biomechanical models with particle transport simulations. We propose a new method to map material density information issued from CT images to deformable tetrahedral meshes. Based on the principle of mass conservation our method can correlate density variation of organ tissues with geometrical deformations during the different phases of the respiratory cycle. The first results are particularly encouraging, as local error quantification of density mapping on organ geometry and density variation with organ motion are performed to evaluate and validate our approach.

Keywords: Image Guided Radiation Therapy, Biomechanical Simulation, Dose distribution, organ motion, tetrahedral mesh

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2557
5 Modeling of Normal and Atherosclerotic Blood Vessels using Finite Element Methods and Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: K. Kamalanand, S. Srinivasan

Abstract:

Analysis of blood vessel mechanics in normal and diseased conditions is essential for disease research, medical device design and treatment planning. In this work, 3D finite element models of normal vessel and atherosclerotic vessel with 50% plaque deposition were developed. The developed models were meshed using finite number of tetrahedral elements. The developed models were simulated using actual blood pressure signals. Based on the transient analysis performed on the developed models, the parameters such as total displacement, strain energy density and entropy per unit volume were obtained. Further, the obtained parameters were used to develop artificial neural network models for analyzing normal and atherosclerotic blood vessels. In this paper, the objectives of the study, methodology and significant observations are presented.

Keywords: Artificial Neural Networks, Atherosclerosis, finite element model, blood vessel

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1919
4 The Effect of Mixture Velocity and Droplet Diameter on Oil-water Separator using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)

Authors: M. Abdulkadir, V. Hernandez-Perez

Abstract:

The characteristics of fluid flow and phase separation in an oil-water separator were numerically analysed as part of the work presented herein. Simulations were performed for different velocities and droplet diameters, and the way this parameters can influence the separator geometry was studied. The simulations were carried out using the software package Fluent 6.2, which is designed for numerical simulation of fluid flow and mass transfer. The model consisted of a cylindrical horizontal separator. A tetrahedral mesh was employed in the computational domain. The condition of two-phase flow was simulated with the two-fluid model, taking into consideration turbulence effects using the k-ε model. The results showed that there is a strong dependency of phase separation on mixture velocity and droplet diameter. An increase in mixture velocity will bring about a slow down in phase separation and as a consequence will require a weir of greater height. An increase in droplet diameter will produce a better phase separation. The simulations are in agreement with results reported in literature and show that CFD can be a useful tool in studying a horizontal oilwater separator.

Keywords: CFD, mixture velocity, droplet diameter

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2740
3 Development of Improved Three Dimensional Unstructured Tetrahedral Mesh Generator

Authors: Ng Yee Luon, Mohd Zamri Yusoff, Norshah Hafeez Shuaib

Abstract:

Meshing is the process of discretizing problem domain into many sub domains before the numerical calculation can be performed. One of the most popular meshes among many types of meshes is tetrahedral mesh, due to their flexibility to fit into almost any domain shape. In both 2D and 3D domains, triangular and tetrahedral meshes can be generated by using Delaunay triangulation. The quality of mesh is an important factor in performing any Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations as the results is highly affected by the mesh quality. Many efforts had been done in order to improve the quality of the mesh. The paper describes a mesh generation routine which has been developed capable of generating high quality tetrahedral cells in arbitrary complex geometry. A few test cases in CFD problems are used for testing the mesh generator. The result of the mesh is compared with the one generated by a commercial software. The results show that no sliver exists for the meshes generated, and the overall quality is acceptable since the percentage of the bad tetrahedral is relatively small. The boundary recovery was also successfully done where all the missing faces are rebuilt.

Keywords: CFD, mesh generation, tetrahedral, Delaunay

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1187
2 Boundary-Element-Based Finite Element Methods for Helmholtz and Maxwell Equations on General Polyhedral Meshes

Authors: Dylan M. Copeland

Abstract:

We present new finite element methods for Helmholtz and Maxwell equations on general three-dimensional polyhedral meshes, based on domain decomposition with boundary elements on the surfaces of the polyhedral volume elements. The methods use the lowest-order polynomial spaces and produce sparse, symmetric linear systems despite the use of boundary elements. Moreover, piecewise constant coefficients are admissible. The resulting approximation on the element surfaces can be extended throughout the domain via representation formulas. Numerical experiments confirm that the convergence behavior on tetrahedral meshes is comparable to that of standard finite element methods, and equally good performance is attained on more general meshes.

Keywords: Finite elements, Boundary Elements, Helmholtz equation, Maxwell equations

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1346
1 Geometry Design Supported by Minimizing and Visualizing Collision in Dynamic Packing

Authors: Johan Segeborn, Johan S. Carlson, Robert Bohlin, Rikard Söderberg

Abstract:

This paper presents a method to support dynamic packing in cases when no collision-free path can be found. The method, which is primarily based on path planning and shrinking of geometries, suggests a minimal geometry design change that results in a collision-free assembly path. A supplementing approach to optimize geometry design change with respect to redesign cost is described. Supporting this dynamic packing method, a new method to shrink geometry based on vertex translation, interweaved with retriangulation, is suggested. The shrinking method requires neither tetrahedralization nor calculation of medial axis and it preserves the topology of the geometry, i.e. holes are neither lost nor introduced. The proposed methods are successfully applied on industrial geometries.

Keywords: Path Planning, Dynamic packing, shrinking

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1051