Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4002

Search results for: fast simulation

4002 VFAST TCP: A delay-based enhanced version of FAST TCP

Authors: Salem Belhaj, Moncef Tagina

Abstract:

This paper is aimed at describing a delay-based endto- end (e2e) congestion control algorithm, called Very FAST TCP (VFAST), which is an enhanced version of FAST TCP. The main idea behind this enhancement is to smoothly estimate the Round-Trip Time (RTT) based on a nonlinear filter, which eliminates throughput and queue oscillation when RTT fluctuates. In this context, an evaluation of the suggested scheme through simulation is introduced, by comparing our VFAST prototype with FAST in terms of throughput, queue behavior, fairness, stability, RTT and adaptivity to changes in network. The achieved simulation results indicate that the suggested protocol offer better performance than FAST TCP in terms of RTT estimation and throughput.

Keywords: Fast tcp, RTT, delay estimation, delay-based congestion control, high speed TCP, large bandwidth delay product.

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4001 Importance of Simulation in Manufacturing

Authors: F. Hosseinpour, H. Hajihosseini

Abstract:

Simulation is a very helpful and valuable work tool in manufacturing. It can be used in industrial field allowing the system`s behavior to be learnt and tested. Simulation provides a low cost, secure and fast analysis tool. It also provides benefits, which can be reached with many different system configurations. Topics to be discussed include: Applications, Modeling, Validating, Software and benefits of simulation. This paper provides a comprehensive literature review on research efforts in simulation.

Keywords: Manufacturing, modeling, simulation, training.

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4000 Fast Algorithm of Shot Cut Detection

Authors: Lenka Krulikovská, Jaroslav Polec, Tomáš Hirner

Abstract:

In this paper we present a novel method, which reduces the computational complexity of abrupt cut detection. We have proposed fast algorithm, where the similarity of frames within defined step is evaluated instead of comparing successive frames. Based on the results of simulation on large video collection, the proposed fast algorithm is able to achieve 80% reduction of needed frames comparisons compared to actually used methods without the shot cut detection accuracy degradation.

Keywords: Abrupt cut, fast algorithm, shot cut detection, Pearson correlation coefficient.

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3999 Fast Object/Face Detection Using Neural Networks and Fast Fourier Transform

Authors: Hazem M. El-Bakry, Qiangfu Zhao

Abstract:

Recently, fast neural networks for object/face detection were presented in [1-3]. The speed up factor of these networks relies on performing cross correlation in the frequency domain between the input image and the weights of the hidden layer. But, these equations given in [1-3] for conventional and fast neural networks are not valid for many reasons presented here. In this paper, correct equations for cross correlation in the spatial and frequency domains are presented. Furthermore, correct formulas for the number of computation steps required by conventional and fast neural networks given in [1-3] are introduced. A new formula for the speed up ratio is established. Also, corrections for the equations of fast multi scale object/face detection are given. Moreover, commutative cross correlation is achieved. Simulation results show that sub-image detection based on cross correlation in the frequency domain is faster than classical neural networks.

Keywords: Conventional Neural Networks, Fast Neural Networks, Cross Correlation in the Frequency Domain.

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3998 Modeling and Simulation of In-vessel Core Handling in PFBR Operator Training Simulator

Authors: Bindu Sankar, Jaideep Chakraborty, Rashmi Nawlakha, A. Venkatesan, S. Raghupathy, T. Jayanthi, S.A.V. Satya Murty

Abstract:

Component handling system is one of the important sub systems of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) used for fuel handling. Core handling system is again a sub system of component handling system. Core handling system consists of in-vessel and ex-vessel subassembly handling. In-vessel core handling involves transfer arm, large rotatable plug and small rotatable plug operations. Modeling and simulation of in-vessel core handling is a part of development of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor Operator Training Simulator. This paper deals with simulation and modeling of operations of transfer arm, large rotatable plug and small rotatable plug needed for in-vessel core handling. Process modeling was developed in house using platform independent Cµ code with OpenGL (Open Graphics Library). The control logic models and virtual panel were modeled using simulation tool.

Keywords: Animation, Core Handling System, Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor, Simulator

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3997 A New Implementation of PCA for Fast Face Detection

Authors: Hazem M. El-Bakry

Abstract:

Principal Component Analysis (PCA) has many different important applications especially in pattern detection such as face detection / recognition. Therefore, for real time applications, the response time is required to be as small as possible. In this paper, new implementation of PCA for fast face detection is presented. Such new implementation is designed based on cross correlation in the frequency domain between the input image and eigenvectors (weights). Simulation results show that the proposed implementation of PCA is faster than conventional one.

Keywords: Fast Face Detection, PCA, Cross Correlation, Frequency Domain

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3996 A Fast Neural Algorithm for Serial Code Detection in a Stream of Sequential Data

Authors: Hazem M. El-Bakry, Qiangfu Zhao

Abstract:

In recent years, fast neural networks for object/face detection have been introduced based on cross correlation in the frequency domain between the input matrix and the hidden weights of neural networks. In our previous papers [3,4], fast neural networks for certain code detection was introduced. It was proved in [10] that for fast neural networks to give the same correct results as conventional neural networks, both the weights of neural networks and the input matrix must be symmetric. This condition made those fast neural networks slower than conventional neural networks. Another symmetric form for the input matrix was introduced in [1-9] to speed up the operation of these fast neural networks. Here, corrections for the cross correlation equations (given in [13,15,16]) to compensate for the symmetry condition are presented. After these corrections, it is proved mathematically that the number of computation steps required for fast neural networks is less than that needed by classical neural networks. Furthermore, there is no need for converting the input data into symmetric form. Moreover, such new idea is applied to increase the speed of neural networks in case of processing complex values. Simulation results after these corrections using MATLAB confirm the theoretical computations.

Keywords: Fast Code/Data Detection, Neural Networks, Cross Correlation, real/complex values.

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3995 Optimal Document Archiving and Fast Information Retrieval

Authors: Hazem M. El-Bakry, Ahmed A. Mohammed

Abstract:

In this paper, an intelligent algorithm for optimal document archiving is presented. It is kown that electronic archives are very important for information system management. Minimizing the size of the stored data in electronic archive is a main issue to reduce the physical storage area. Here, the effect of different types of Arabic fonts on electronic archives size is discussed. Simulation results show that PDF is the best file format for storage of the Arabic documents in electronic archive. Furthermore, fast information detection in a given PDF file is introduced. Such approach uses fast neural networks (FNNs) implemented in the frequency domain. The operation of these networks relies on performing cross correlation in the frequency domain rather than spatial one. It is proved mathematically and practically that the number of computation steps required for the presented FNNs is less than that needed by conventional neural networks (CNNs). Simulation results using MATLAB confirm the theoretical computations.

Keywords: Information Storage and Retrieval, Electronic Archiving, Fast Information Detection, Cross Correlation, Frequency Domain.

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3994 A Microscopic Simulation Model for Earthmoving Operations

Authors: Jiali Fu

Abstract:

Earthmoving operations are a major part of many construction projects. Because of the complexity and fast-changing environment of such operations, the planning and estimating are crucial on both planning and operational levels. This paper presents the framework ofa microscopic discrete-event simulation system for modeling earthmoving operations and conducting productivity estimations on an operational level.A prototype has been developed to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed framework, and this simulation system is presented via a case study based on an actual earthmoving project. The case study shows that the proposed simulation model is capable of evaluating alternative operating strategies and resource utilization at a very detailed level.

Keywords: Earthmoving operation, microscopic simulation, discrete-event simulation

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3993 Fast Complex Valued Time Delay Neural Networks

Authors: Hazem M. El-Bakry, Qiangfu Zhao

Abstract:

Here, a new idea to speed up the operation of complex valued time delay neural networks is presented. The whole data are collected together in a long vector and then tested as a one input pattern. The proposed fast complex valued time delay neural networks uses cross correlation in the frequency domain between the tested data and the input weights of neural networks. It is proved mathematically that the number of computation steps required for the presented fast complex valued time delay neural networks is less than that needed by classical time delay neural networks. Simulation results using MATLAB confirm the theoretical computations.

Keywords: Fast Complex Valued Time Delay Neural Networks, Cross Correlation, Frequency Domain

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3992 Efficient Detection Using Sequential Probability Ratio Test in Mobile Cognitive Radio Systems

Authors: Yeon-Jea Cho, Sang-Uk Park, Won-Chul Choi, Dong-Jo Park

Abstract:

This paper proposes a smart design strategy for a sequential detector to reliably detect the primary user-s signal, especially in fast fading environments. We study the computation of the log-likelihood ratio for coping with a fast changing received signal and noise sample variances, which are considered random variables. First, we analyze the detectability of the conventional generalized log-likelihood ratio (GLLR) scheme when considering fast changing statistics of unknown parameters caused by fast fading effects. Secondly, we propose an efficient sensing algorithm for performing the sequential probability ratio test in a robust and efficient manner when the channel statistics are unknown. Finally, the proposed scheme is compared to the conventional method with simulation results with respect to the average number of samples required to reach a detection decision.

Keywords: Cognitive radio, fast fading, sequential detection, spectrum sensing.

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3991 Sliding-Mode Control of Synchronous Reluctance Motor

Authors: Mostafa.A. Fellani, Dawo.E. Abaid

Abstract:

This paper presents a controller design technique for Synchronous Reluctance Motor to improve its dynamic performance with fast response and high accuracy. The sliding mode control is the most attractive and suitable method to use for this purpose, since it is simple in design and for its insensitivity to parameter variations or external disturbances. When this method implemented it yields fast dynamic response without overshoot and a zero steady-state error. The current loop control with decentralized sliding mode is presented in this paper. The mathematical model for the synchronous machine, the inverter and the controller is developed. The stability of the sliding mode controller is analyzed. Simulation of synchronous reluctance motor and the controller with PWM-inverter has been curried out, using the SIMULINK software package of MATLAB. Simulation results are presented to show the effectiveness of the approach.

Keywords: Dynamic Simulation, MATLAB, PWM-inverter, Reluctance Machine, Sliding-mode.

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3990 Sub-Image Detection Using Fast Neural Processors and Image Decomposition

Authors: Hazem M. El-Bakry, Qiangfu Zhao

Abstract:

In this paper, an approach to reduce the computation steps required by fast neural networksfor the searching process is presented. The principle ofdivide and conquer strategy is applied through imagedecomposition. Each image is divided into small in sizesub-images and then each one is tested separately usinga fast neural network. The operation of fast neuralnetworks based on applying cross correlation in thefrequency domain between the input image and theweights of the hidden neurons. Compared toconventional and fast neural networks, experimentalresults show that a speed up ratio is achieved whenapplying this technique to locate human facesautomatically in cluttered scenes. Furthermore, fasterface detection is obtained by using parallel processingtechniques to test the resulting sub-images at the sametime using the same number of fast neural networks. Incontrast to using only fast neural networks, the speed upratio is increased with the size of the input image whenusing fast neural networks and image decomposition.

Keywords: Fast Neural Networks, 2D-FFT, CrossCorrelation, Image decomposition, Parallel Processing.

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3989 Fast Forecasting of Stock Market Prices by using New High Speed Time Delay Neural Networks

Authors: Hazem M. El-Bakry, Nikos Mastorakis

Abstract:

Fast forecasting of stock market prices is very important for strategic planning. In this paper, a new approach for fast forecasting of stock market prices is presented. Such algorithm uses new high speed time delay neural networks (HSTDNNs). The operation of these networks relies on performing cross correlation in the frequency domain between the input data and the input weights of neural networks. It is proved mathematically and practically that the number of computation steps required for the presented HSTDNNs is less than that needed by traditional time delay neural networks (TTDNNs). Simulation results using MATLAB confirm the theoretical computations.

Keywords: Fast Forecasting, Stock Market Prices, Time Delay NeuralNetworks, Cross Correlation, Frequency Domain.

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3988 Discontinuous Feedback Linearization of an Electrically Driven Fast Robot Manipulator

Authors: A. Izadbakhsh, M. M. Fateh, M. A. Sadrnia

Abstract:

A multivariable discontinuous feedback linearization approach is proposed to position control of an electrically driven fast robot manipulator. A desired performance is achieved by selecting a useful controller and suitable sampling rate and considering saturation for actuators. There is a high flexibility to apply the proposed control approach on different electrically driven manipulators. The control approach can guarantee the stability and satisfactory tracking performance. A PUMA 560 robot driven by geared permanent magnet dc motors is simulated. The simulation results show a desired performance for control system under technical specifications.

Keywords: Fast robot, feedback linearization, multivariabledigital control, PUMA560.

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3987 Semi-Analytic Method in Fast Evaluation of Thermal Management Solution in Energy Storage System

Authors: Ya Lv

Abstract:

This article presents the application of the semi-analytic method (SAM) in the thermal management solution (TMS) of the energy storage system (ESS). The TMS studied in this work is fluid cooling. In fluid cooling, both effective heat conduction and heat convection are indispensable due to the heat transfer from solid to fluid. Correspondingly, an efficient TMS requires a design investigation of the following parameters: fluid inlet temperature, ESS initial temperature, fluid flow rate, working c rate, continuous working time, and materials properties. Their variation induces a change of thermal performance in the battery module, which is usually evaluated by numerical simulation. Compared to complicated computation resources and long computation time in simulation, the SAM is developed in this article to predict the thermal influence within a few seconds. In SAM, a fast prediction model is reckoned by combining numerical simulation with theoretical/empirical equations. The SAM can explore the thermal effect of boundary parameters in both steady-state and transient heat transfer scenarios within a short time. Therefore, the SAM developed in this work can simplify the design cycle of TMS and inspire more possibilities in TMS design.

Keywords: Semi-analytic method, fast prediction model, thermal influence of boundary parameters, energy storage system.

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3986 Modified Fast and Exact Algorithm for Fast Haar Transform

Authors: Phang Chang, Phang Piau

Abstract:

Wavelet transform or wavelet analysis is a recently developed mathematical tool in applied mathematics. In numerical analysis, wavelets also serve as a Galerkin basis to solve partial differential equations. Haar transform or Haar wavelet transform has been used as a simplest and earliest example for orthonormal wavelet transform. Since its popularity in wavelet analysis, there are several definitions and various generalizations or algorithms for calculating Haar transform. Fast Haar transform, FHT, is one of the algorithms which can reduce the tedious calculation works in Haar transform. In this paper, we present a modified fast and exact algorithm for FHT, namely Modified Fast Haar Transform, MFHT. The algorithm or procedure proposed allows certain calculation in the process decomposition be ignored without affecting the results.

Keywords: Fast Haar Transform, Haar transform, Wavelet analysis.

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3985 Fast Calculation for Particle Interactions in SPH Simulations: Outlined Sub-domain Technique

Authors: Buntara Sthenly Gan, Naohiro Kawada

Abstract:

A simple and easy algorithm is presented for a fast calculation of kernel functions which required in fluid simulations using the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic (SPH) method. Present proposed algorithm improves the Linked-list algorithm and adopts the Pair-Wise Interaction technique, which are widely used for evaluating kernel functions in fluid simulations using the SPH method. The algorithm is easy to be implemented without any complexities in programming. Some benchmark examples are used to show the simulation time saved by using the proposed algorithm. Parametric studies on the number of divisions for sub-domains, smoothing length and total amount of particles are conducted to show the effectiveness of the present technique. A compact formulation is proposed for practical usage.

Keywords: Technique, fluid simulation, smoothing particle hydrodynamic (SPH), particle interaction.

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3984 The Effect of Fast Food Globalisation on Students’ Food Choice

Authors: Ijeoma Chinyere Ukonu

Abstract:

This research seeks to investigate how the globalisation of fast food has affected students’ food choice. A mixed method approach was used in this research; basically involving quantitative and qualitative methods. The quantitative method uses a self-completion questionnaire to randomly sample one hundred and four students; while the qualitative method uses a semi structured interview technique to survey four students on their knowledge and choice to consume fast food. A cross tabulation of variables and the Kruskal Wallis nonparametric test were used to analyse the quantitative data; while the qualitative data was analysed through deduction of themes, and trends from the interview transcribe. The findings revealed that globalisation has amplified the evolution of fast food, popularising it among students. Its global presence has affected students’ food choice and preference. Price, convenience, taste, and peer influence are some of the major factors affecting students’ choice of fast food. Though, students are familiar with the health effect of fast food and the significance of using food information labels for healthy choice making, their preference of fast food is more than homemade food.

Keywords: Fast food, food choice, globalisation, students.

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3983 Aspen Plus Simulation of Saponification of Ethyl Acetate in the Presence of Sodium Hydroxide in a Plug Flow Reactor

Authors: U. P. L. Wijayarathne, K. C. Wasalathilake

Abstract:

This work presents the modelling and simulation of saponification of ethyl acetate in the presence of sodium hydroxide in a plug flow reactor using Aspen Plus simulation software. Plug flow reactors are widely used in the industry due to the non-mixing property. The use of plug flow reactors becomes significant when there is a need for continuous large scale reaction or fast reaction. Plug flow reactors have a high volumetric unit conversion as the occurrence for side reactions is minimum. In this research Aspen Plus V8.0 has been successfully used to simulate the plug flow reactor. In order to simulate the process as accurately as possible HYSYS Peng- Robinson EOS package was used as the property method. The results obtained from the simulation were verified by the experiment carried out in the EDIBON plug flow reactor module. The correlation coefficient (r2) was 0.98 and it proved that simulation results satisfactorily fit for the experimental model. The developed model can be used as a guide for understanding the reaction kinetics of a plug flow reactor.

Keywords: Aspen Plus, Modelling, Plug Flow Reactor, Simulation.

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3982 A Fast Code Acquisition Scheme for O-CDMA Systems

Authors: Youngpo Lee, Jaewoo Lee, Seokho Yoon

Abstract:

This paper proposes a fast code acquisition scheme for optical code division multiple access (O-CDMA) systems. Unlike the conventional scheme, the proposed scheme employs multiple thresholds providing a shorter mean acquisition time (MAT) performance. The simulation results show that the MAT of the proposed scheme is shorter than that of the conventional scheme.

Keywords: Optical CDMA, acquisition, MAT, multiple-shift

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3981 Fast Lines at Theme Parks

Authors: G. Hernandez-Maskivker, G. Ryan, M. Blazey, M. Pàmies

Abstract:

Waiting times and queues are a daily problem for theme parks. Fast lines or priority queues appear as a solution for a specific segment of customers, that is, tourists who are willing to pay to avoid waiting. This paper analyzes the fast line system and explores the factors that affect the decision to purchase a fast line pass. A greater understanding of these factors may help companies to design appropriate products and services. This conceptual paper was based on a literature review in marketing and consumer behavior. Additional research was identified in related disciplines such as leisure studies, psychology, and sociology. A conceptual framework of the factors influencing the decision to purchase a fast line pass is presented.

Keywords: Tourist behavior, fast lines, theme park, willing to pay.

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3980 Control-Oriented Enhanced Zero-Dimensional Two-Zone Combustion Modelling of Internal Combustion Engines

Authors: Razieh Arian, Hadi Adibi-Asl

Abstract:

This paper investigates an efficient combustion modeling for cycle simulation of internal combustion engine (ICE) studies. The term “efficient model” means that the models must generate desired simulation results while having fast simulation time. In other words, the efficient model is defined based on the application of the model. The objective of this study is to develop math-based models for control applications or shortly control-oriented models. This study compares different modeling approaches used to model the ICEs such as mean-value models, zero dimensional, quasi-dimensional, and multi-dimensional models for control applications. Mean-value models have been widely used for model-based control applications, but recently by developing advanced simulation tools (e.g. Maple/MapleSim) the higher order models (more complex) could be considered as control-oriented models. This paper presents the enhanced zero-dimensional cycle-by-cycle modeling and simulation of a spark ignition engine with a two-zone combustion model. The simulation results are cross-validated against the simulation results from GT-Power package and show a good agreement in terms of trends and values.

Keywords: Two-zone combustion, control-oriented model, wiebe function, internal combustion engine.

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3979 A Short Reflection on the Strengths and Weaknesses of Simulation Optimization

Authors: P. Vazan, P. Tanuska

Abstract:

The paper provides the basic overview of simulation optimization. The procedure of its practical using is demonstrated on the real example in simulator Witness. The simulation optimization is presented as a good tool for solving many problems in real praxis especially in production systems. The authors also characterize their own experiences and they mention the strengths and weakness of simulation optimization.

Keywords: discrete event simulation, simulation optimization, Witness

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3978 Algorithms for the Fast Computation of PWL and PHL Transforms

Authors: Fituri H Belgassem, Abdulbasit Nigrat, Seddeeq Ghrari

Abstract:

In this paper, the construction of fast algorithms for the computation of Periodic Walsh Piecewise-Linear PWL transform and the Periodic Haar Piecewise-Linear PHL transform will be presented. Algorithms for the computation of the inverse transforms are also proposed. The matrix equation of the PWL and PHL transforms are introduced. Comparison of the computational requirements for the periodic piecewise-linear transforms and other orthogonal transforms shows that the periodic piecewise-linear transforms require less number of operations than some orthogonal transforms such as the Fourier, Walsh and the Discrete Cosine transforms.

Keywords: Piece wise linear transforms, Fast transforms, Fast algorithms.

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3977 Decoupled, Reduced Order Model for Double Output Induction Generator Using Integral Manifolds and Iterative Separation Theory

Authors: M. Sedighizadeh, A. Rezazadeh

Abstract:

In this paper presents a technique for developing the computational efficiency in simulating double output induction generators (DOIG) with two rotor circuits where stator transients are to be included. Iterative decomposition is used to separate the flux– Linkage equations into decoupled fast and slow subsystems, after which the model order of the fast subsystems is reduced by neglecting the heavily damped fast transients caused by the second rotor circuit using integral manifolds theory. The two decoupled subsystems along with the equation for the very slowly changing slip constitute a three time-scale model for the machine which resulted in increasing computational speed. Finally, the proposed method of reduced order in this paper is compared with the other conventional methods in linear and nonlinear modes and it is shown that this method is better than the other methods regarding simulation accuracy and speed.

Keywords: DOIG, Iterative separation, Integral manifolds, Reduced order.

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3976 A Fast HRRP Synthesis Algorithm with Sensing Dictionary in GTD Model

Authors: R. Fan, Q. Wan, H. Chen, Y.L. Liu, Y.P. Liu

Abstract:

In the paper, a fast high-resolution range profile synthetic algorithm called orthogonal matching pursuit with sensing dictionary (OMP-SD) is proposed. It formulates the traditional HRRP synthetic to be a sparse approximation problem over redundant dictionary. As it employs a priori that the synthetic range profile (SRP) of targets are sparse, SRP can be accomplished even in presence of data lost. Besides, the computation complexity decreases from O(MNDK) flops for OMP to O(M(N + D)K) flops for OMP-SD by introducing sensing dictionary (SD). Simulation experiments illustrate its advantages both in additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) and noiseless situation, respectively.

Keywords: GTD-based model, HRRP, orthogonal matching pursuit, sensing dictionary.

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3975 Solving the Nonlinear Heat Conduction in a Spherical Coordinate with Electrical Simulation

Authors: A. M. Gheitaghy, H. Saffari, G. Q. Zhang

Abstract:

Numerical approach based on the electrical simulation method is proposed to solve a nonlinear transient heat conduction problem with nonlinear boundary for a spherical body. This problem represents a strong nonlinearity in both the governing equation for temperature dependent thermal property and the boundary condition for combined convective and radiative cooling. By analysing the equivalent electrical model using the electrical circuit simulation program HSPICE, transient temperature and heat flux distributions at sphere can be obtained easily and fast. The solutions clearly illustrate the effect of the radiation-conduction parameter Nrc, the Biot number and the linear coefficient of temperature dependent conductivity and heat capacity. On comparing the results with corresponding numerical solutions, the accuracy and efficiency of this computational method is found to be good.

Keywords: Convective boundary, radiative boundary, electrical simulation method, nonlinear heat conduction, spherical coordinate.

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3974 Performance of Coded Multi-Line Copper Wire for G.fast Communications in the Presence of Impulsive Noise

Authors: Israa Al-Neami, Ali J. Al-Askery, Martin Johnston, Charalampos Tsimenidis

Abstract:

In this paper, we focus on the design of a multi-line copper wire (MLCW) communication system. First, we construct our proposed MLCW channel and verify its characteristics based on the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. In addition, we apply Middleton class A impulsive noise (IN) to the copper channel for further investigation. Second, the MIMO G.fast system is adopted utilizing the proposed MLCW channel model and is compared to a single line G-fast system. Second, the performance of the coded system is obtained utilizing concatenated interleaved Reed-Solomon (RS) code with four-dimensional trellis-coded modulation (4D TCM), and compared to the single line G-fast system. Simulations are obtained for high quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) constellations that are commonly used with G-fast communications, the results demonstrate that the bit error rate (BER) performance of the coded MLCW system shows an improvement compared to the single line G-fast systems.

Keywords: G.fast, Middleton Class A impulsive noise, mitigation techniques, copper channel Model.

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3973 Influence of Measurement System on Negative Bias Temperature Instability Characterization: Fast BTI vs Conventional BTI vs Fast Wafer Level Reliability

Authors: Vincent King Soon Wong, Hong Seng Ng, Florinna Sim

Abstract:

Negative Bias Temperature Instability (NBTI) is one of the critical degradation mechanisms in semiconductor device reliability that causes shift in the threshold voltage (Vth). However, thorough understanding of this reliability failure mechanism is still unachievable due to a recovery characteristic known as NBTI recovery. This paper will demonstrate the severity of NBTI recovery as well as one of the effective methods used to mitigate, which is the minimization of measurement system delays. Comparison was done in between two measurement systems that have significant differences in measurement delays to show how NBTI recovery causes result deviations and how fast measurement systems can mitigate NBTI recovery. Another method to minimize NBTI recovery without the influence of measurement system known as Fast Wafer Level Reliability (FWLR) NBTI was also done to be used as reference.

Keywords: Fast vs slow BTI, Fast wafer level reliability, Negative bias temperature instability, NBTI measurement system, metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor, MOSFET, NBTI recovery, reliability.

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