Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12239

Search results for: parametric study

12239 Relationship between Sums of Squares in Linear Regression and Semi-parametric Regression

Authors: Dursun Aydın, Bilgin Senel

Abstract:

In this paper, the sum of squares in linear regression is reduced to sum of squares in semi-parametric regression. We indicated that different sums of squares in the linear regression are similar to various deviance statements in semi-parametric regression. In addition to, coefficient of the determination derived in linear regression model is easily generalized to coefficient of the determination of the semi-parametric regression model. Then, it is made an application in order to support the theory of the linear regression and semi-parametric regression. In this way, study is supported with a simulated data example.

Keywords: Semi-parametric regression, Penalized LeastSquares, Residuals, Deviance, Smoothing Spline.

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12238 A Parametric Study on the Backwater Level Due to a Bridge Constriction

Authors: S. Atabay, T. A. Ali, Md. M. Mortula

Abstract:

This paper presents the results and findings from a parametric study on the water surface elevation at upstream of bridge constriction for subcritical flow. In this study, the influence of Manning's Roughness Coefficient of main channel (nmc) and floodplain (nfp), and bridge opening (b) flow rate (Q), contraction (kcon) and expansion coefficients (kexp) were investigated on backwater level. The DECK bridge models with different span widths and without any pier were investigated within the two stage channel having various roughness conditions. One of the most commonly used commercial one-dimensional HEC-RAS model was used in this parametric study. This study showed that the effects of main channel roughness (nmc) and flow rate (Q) on the backwater level are much higher than those of the floodplain roughness (nfp). Bridge opening (b) with contraction (kcon) and expansion coefficients (kexp) have very little effect on the backwater level within this range of parameters.

Keywords: Bridge backwater, parametric study and waterways.

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12237 Parametric and Nonparametric Analysis of Breast Cancer Treatments

Authors: Chunling Cong, Chris.P.Tsokos

Abstract:

The objective of the present research manuscript is to perform parametric, nonparametric, and decision tree analysis to evaluate two treatments that are being used for breast cancer patients. Our study is based on utilizing real data which was initially used in “Tamoxifen with or without breast irradiation in women of 50 years of age or older with early breast cancer" [1], and the data is supplied to us by N.A. Ibrahim “Decision tree for competing risks survival probability in breast cancer study" [2]. We agree upon certain aspects of our findings with the published results. However, in this manuscript, we focus on relapse time of breast cancer patients instead of survival time and parametric analysis instead of semi-parametric decision tree analysis is applied to provide more precise recommendations of effectiveness of the two treatments with respect to reoccurrence of breast cancer.

Keywords: decision tree, breast cancer treatments, parametricanalysis, non-parametric analysis

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12236 Parametric Design as an Approach to Respond to Complexity

Authors: Sepideh Jabbari Behnam, Zahrasadat Saide Zarabadi

Abstract:

A city is an intertwined texture from the relationship of different components in a whole which is united in a one, so designing the whole complex and its planning is not an easy matter. By considering that a city is a complex system with infinite components and communications, providing flexible layouts that can respond to the unpredictable character of the city, which is a result of its complexity, is inevitable. Parametric design approach as a new approach can produce flexible and transformative layouts in any stage of design. This study aimed to introduce parametric design as a modern approach to respond to complex urban issues by using descriptive and analytical methods. This paper firstly introduces complex systems and then giving a brief characteristic of complex systems. The flexible design and layout flexibility is another matter in response and simulation of complex urban systems that should be considered in design, which is discussed in this study. In this regard, after describing the nature of the parametric approach as a flexible approach, as well as a tool and appropriate way to respond to features such as limited predictability, reciprocating nature, complex communications, and being sensitive to initial conditions and hierarchy, this paper introduces parametric design.

Keywords: Complexity theory, complex system, flexibility, parametric design.

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12235 Degree of Bending in Axially Loaded Tubular KT-Joints of Offshore Structures: Parametric Study and Formulation

Authors: Hamid Ahmadi, Shadi Asoodeh

Abstract:

The fatigue life of tubular joints commonly found in offshore industry is not only dependent on the value of hot-spot stress (HSS), but is also significantly influenced by the through-thethickness stress distribution characterized by the degree of bending (DoB). The determination of DoB values in a tubular joint is essential for improving the accuracy of fatigue life estimation using the stresslife (S–N) method and particularly for predicting the fatigue crack growth based on the fracture mechanics (FM) approach. In the present paper, data extracted from finite element (FE) analyses of tubular KT-joints, verified against experimental data and parametric equations, was used to investigate the effects of geometrical parameters on DoB values at the crown 0°, saddle, and crown 180° positions along the weld toe of central brace in tubular KT-joints subjected to axial loading. Parametric study was followed by a set of nonlinear regression analyses to derive DoB parametric formulas for the fatigue analysis of KT-joints under axial loads. The tubular KTjoint is a quite common joint type found in steel offshore structures. However, despite the crucial role of the DoB in evaluating the fatigue performance of tubular joints, this paper is the first attempt to study and formulate the DoB values in KT-joints.

Keywords: Tubular KT-joint, fatigue, degree of bending (DoB), axial loading, parametric formula.

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12234 Outer-Brace Stress Concentration Factors of Offshore Two-Planar Tubular DKT-Joints

Authors: Mohammad Ali Lotfollahi-Yaghin, Hamid Ahmadi

Abstract:

In the present paper, a set of parametric FE stress analyses is carried out for two-planar welded tubular DKT-joints under two different axial load cases. Analysis results are used to present general remarks on the effect of geometrical parameters on the stress concentration factors (SCFs) at the inner saddle, outer saddle, toe, and heel positions on the main (outer) brace. Then a new set of SCF parametric equations is developed through nonlinear regression analysis for the fatigue design of two-planar DKT-joints. An assessment study of these equations is conducted against the experimental data; and the satisfaction of the criteria regarding the acceptance of parametric equations is checked. Significant effort has been devoted by researchers to the study of SCFs in various uniplanar tubular connections. Nevertheless, for multi-planar joints covering the majority of practical applications, very few investigations have been reported due to the complexity and high cost involved.

Keywords: Offshore jacket structure, Parametric equation, Stress concentration factor (SCF), Two-planar tubular KT-joint

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12233 Fractal Shapes Description with Parametric L-systems and Turtle Algebra

Authors: Ikbal Zammouri, Béchir Ayeb

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a new method to describe fractal shapes using parametric l-systems. First we introduce scaling factors in the production rules of the parametric l-systems grammars. Then we decorticate these grammars with scaling factors using turtle algebra to show the mathematical relation between l-systems and iterated function systems (IFS). We demonstrate that with specific values of the scaling factors, we find the exact relationship established by Prusinkiewicz and Hammel between l-systems and IFS.

Keywords: Fractal shapes, IFS, parametric l-systems, turtlealgebra.

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12232 Non-Parametric Histogram-Based Thresholding Methods for Weld Defect Detection in Radiography

Authors: N. Nacereddine, L. Hamami, M. Tridi, N. Oucief

Abstract:

In non destructive testing by radiography, a perfect knowledge of the weld defect shape is an essential step to appreciate the quality of the weld and make decision on its acceptability or rejection. Because of the complex nature of the considered images, and in order that the detected defect region represents the most accurately possible the real defect, the choice of thresholding methods must be done judiciously. In this paper, performance criteria are used to conduct a comparative study of four non parametric histogram thresholding methods for automatic extraction of weld defect in radiographic images.

Keywords: Radiographic images, non parametric methods, histogram thresholding, performance criteria.

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12231 Comparison of Parametric and Nonparametric Techniques for Non-peak Traffic Forecasting

Authors: Yang Zhang, Yuncai Liu

Abstract:

Accurately predicting non-peak traffic is crucial to daily traffic for all forecasting models. In the paper, least squares support vector machines (LS-SVMs) are investigated to solve such a practical problem. It is the first time to apply the approach and analyze the forecast performance in the domain. For comparison purpose, two parametric and two non-parametric techniques are selected because of their effectiveness proved in past research. Having good generalization ability and guaranteeing global minima, LS-SVMs perform better than the others. Providing sufficient improvement in stability and robustness reveals that the approach is practically promising.

Keywords: Parametric and Nonparametric Techniques, Non-peak Traffic Forecasting

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12230 A Non-Parametric Based Mapping Algorithm for Use in Audio Fingerprinting

Authors: Analise Borg, Paul Micallef

Abstract:

Over the past few years, the online multimedia collection has grown at a fast pace. Several companies showed interest to study the different ways to organise the amount of audio information without the need of human intervention to generate metadata. In the past few years, many applications have emerged on the market which are capable of identifying a piece of music in a short time. Different audio effects and degradation make it much harder to identify the unknown piece. In this paper, an audio fingerprinting system which makes use of a non-parametric based algorithm is presented. Parametric analysis is also performed using Gaussian Mixture Models (GMMs). The feature extraction methods employed are the Mel Spectrum Coefficients and the MPEG-7 basic descriptors. Bin numbers replaced the extracted feature coefficients during the non-parametric modelling. The results show that nonparametric analysis offer potential results as the ones mentioned in the literature.

Keywords: Audio fingerprinting, mapping algorithm, Gaussian Mixture Models, MFCC, MPEG-7.

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12229 Finite Element Study of a DfD Beam-Column Connection

Authors: Zhi Sheng Lin, K. C. G. Ong, Lado Riannevo Chandra, Bee Hong Angeline Tan, Chat Tim Tam, Sze Dai Pang

Abstract:

Design for Disassembly (DfD) aims to reuse the structural components instead of demolition followed by recycling of the demolition debris. This concept preserves the invested embodied energy of materials, thus reducing inputs of new embodied energy during materials reprocessing or remanufacturing. Both analytical and experimental research on a proposed DfD beam-column connection for use in residential apartments is currently investigated at the National University of Singapore in collaboration with the Housing and Development Board of Singapore. The present study reports on the results of a numerical analysis of the proposed connection utilizing finite element analysis. The numerical model was calibrated and validated by comparison against experimental results. Results of a parametric study will also be presented and discussed.

Keywords: Design for Disassembly (DfD), finite element analysis, parametric study.

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12228 Study of the Effect of Inclusion of TiO2 in Active Flux on Submerged Arc Welding of Low Carbon Mild Steel Plate and Parametric Optimization of the Process by Using DEA Based Bat Algorithm

Authors: Sheetal Kumar Parwar, J. Deb Barma, A. Majumder

Abstract:

Submerged arc welding is a very complex process. It is a very efficient and high performance welding process. In this present study an attempt have been done to reduce the welding distortion by increased amount of oxide flux through TiO2 in submerged arc welding process. Care has been taken to avoid the excessiveness of the adding agent for attainment of significant results. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) based BAT algorithm is used for the parametric optimization purpose in which DEA is used to convert multi response parameters into a single response parameter. The present study also helps to know the effectiveness of the addition of TiO2 in active flux during submerged arc welding process.

Keywords: BAT algorithm, design of experiment, optimization, submerged arc welding.

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12227 Parametric Study on Dynamic Analysis of Composite Laminated Plate

Authors: Junaid Kameran Ahmed

Abstract:

A laminated plate composite of graphite/epoxy has been analyzed dynamically in the present work by using a quadratic element (8-node diso-parametric), and by depending on 1st order shear deformation theory, every node in this element has 6-degrees of freedom (displacement in x, y, and z axis and twist about x, y, and z axis). The dynamic analysis in the present work covered parametric studies on a composite laminated plate (square plate) to determine its effect on the natural frequency of the plate. The parametric study is represented by set of changes (plate thickness, number of layers, support conditions, layer orientation), and the plates have been simulated by using ANSYS package 12. The boundary conditions considered in this study, at all four edges of the plate, are simply supported and fixed boundary condition. The results obtained from ANSYS program show that the natural frequency for both fixed and simply supported increases with increasing the number of layers, but this increase in the natural frequency for the first five modes will be neglected after 10 layers. And it is observed that the natural frequency of a composite laminated plate will change with the change of ply orientation, the natural frequency increases and it will be at maximum with angle 45 of ply for simply supported laminated plate, and maximum natural frequency will be with cross-ply (0/90) for fixed laminated composite plate. It is also observed that the natural frequency increase is approximately doubled when the thickness is doubled.

Keywords: Laminated plate, orthotropic plate, square plate, natural frequency, graphite/epoxy.

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12226 Estimating the Life-Distribution Parameters of Weibull-Life PV Systems Utilizing Non-Parametric Analysis

Authors: Saleem Z. Ramadan

Abstract:

In this paper, a model is proposed to determine the life distribution parameters of the useful life region for the PV system utilizing a combination of non-parametric and linear regression analysis for the failure data of these systems. Results showed that this method is dependable for analyzing failure time data for such reliable systems when the data is scarce.

Keywords: Masking, Bathtub model, reliability, non-parametric analysis, useful life.

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12225 A Parametric Study on Deoiling Hydrocyclones Flow Field

Authors: Maysam Saidi, Reza Maddahian, Bijan Farhanieh

Abstract:

Hydrocyclones flow field study is conducted by performing a parametric study. Effect of cone angle on deoiling hydrocyclones flow behaviour is studied in this research. Flow field of hydrocyclone is obtained by three-dimensional simulations with OpenFOAM code. Because of anisotropic behaviour of flow inside hydrocyclones LES is a suitable method to predict the flow field since it resolves large scales and model isotropic small scales. Large eddy simulation is used to predict the flow behavior of three different cone angles. Differences in tangential velocity and pressure distribution are reported in some figures.

Keywords: Deoiling hydrocyclones, Flow field, Hydrocyclone cone angle, Large Eddy Simulation, Pressure distribution

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12224 Parametric Vibrations of Periodic Shells

Authors: B. Tomczyk, R. Mania

Abstract:

Thin linear-elastic cylindrical circular shells having a micro-periodic structure along two directions tangent to the shell midsurface (biperiodic shells) are object of considerations. The aim of this paper is twofold. First, we formulate an averaged nonasymptotic model for the analysis of parametric vibrations or dynamical stability of periodic shells under consideration, which has constant coefficients and takes into account the effect of a cell size on the overall shell behavior (a length-scale effect). This model is derived employing the tolerance modeling procedure. Second we apply the obtained model to derivation of frequency equation being a starting point in the analysis of parametric vibrations. The effect of the microstructure length oh this frequency equation is discussed.

Keywords: Micro-periodic shells, mathematical modeling, length-scale effect, parametric vibrations

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12223 Parametric Cost Estimating Relationships for Design Effort Estimation

Authors: Adil Salam, Nadia Bhuiyan, Gerard J. Gouw

Abstract:

The Canadian aerospace industry faces many challenges. One of them is the difficulty in estimating costs. In particular, the design effort required in a project impacts resource requirements and lead-time, and consequently the final cost. This paper presents the findings of a case study conducted for recognized global leader in the design and manufacturing of aircraft engines. The study models parametric cost estimation relationships to estimate the design effort of integrated blade-rotor low-pressure compressor fans. Several effort drivers are selected to model the relationship. Comparative analyses of three types of models are conducted. The model with the best accuracy and significance in design estimation is retained.

Keywords: Effort estimation, design, aerospace.

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12222 Parametric Urban Comfort Envelope an Approach toward a Responsive Sustainable Urban Morphology

Authors: Mohamed M. Saleh, Khalid S. Al-Hagla

Abstract:

By taking advantage of computer-s processing power, an unlimited number of variations and parameters in both spatial and environmental can be provided while following the same set of rules and constraints. This paper focuses on using the tools of parametric urbanism towards a more responsive environmental and sustainable urban morphology. It presents an understanding to Parametric Urban Comfort Envelope (PUCE) as an interactive computational assessment urban model. In addition, it investigates the applicability potentials of this model to generate an optimized urban form to Borg El Arab city (a new Egyptian Community) concerning the human comfort values specially wind and solar envelopes. Finally, this paper utilizes its application outcomes -both visual and numerical- to extend the designer-s limitations by decrease the concern of controlling and manipulation of geometry, and increase the designer-s awareness about the various potentials of using the parametric tools to create relationships that generate multiple geometric alternatives.

Keywords: Assessment model, human comfort, parametric urbanism, sustainable urban morphology.

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12221 Parametric Optimization of Hospital Design

Authors: M. K. Holst, P. H. Kirkegaard, L. D. Christoffersen

Abstract:

Present paper presents a parametric performancebased design model for optimizing hospital design. The design model operates with geometric input parameters defining the functional requirements of the hospital and input parameters in terms of performance objectives defining the design requirements and preferences of the hospital with respect to performances. The design model takes point of departure in the hospital functionalities as a set of defined parameters and rules describing the design requirements and preferences.

Keywords: Architectural Layout Design, Hospital Design, Parametric design, Performance-based models.

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12220 High Quality Speech Coding using Combined Parametric and Perceptual Modules

Authors: M. Kulesza, G. Szwoch, A. Czyżewski

Abstract:

A novel approach to speech coding using the hybrid architecture is presented. Advantages of parametric and perceptual coding methods are utilized together in order to create a speech coding algorithm assuring better signal quality than in traditional CELP parametric codec. Two approaches are discussed. One is based on selection of voiced signal components that are encoded using parametric algorithm, unvoiced components that are encoded perceptually and transients that remain unencoded. The second approach uses perceptual encoding of the residual signal in CELP codec. The algorithm applied for precise transient selection is described. Signal quality achieved using the proposed hybrid codec is compared to quality of some standard speech codecs.

Keywords: CELP residual coding, hybrid codec architecture, perceptual speech coding, speech codecs comparison.

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12219 Formex Algebra Adaptation into Parametric Design Tools: Dome Structures

Authors: Réka Sárközi, Péter Iványi, Attila B. Széll

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to present the adaptation of the dome construction tool for formex algebra to the parametric design software Grasshopper. Formex algebra is a mathematical system, primarily used for planning structural systems such like truss-grid domes and vaults, together with the programming language Formian. The goal of the research is to allow architects to plan truss-grid structures easily with parametric design tools based on the versatile formex algebra mathematical system. To produce regular structures, coordinate system transformations are used and the dome structures are defined in spherical coordinate system. Owing to the abilities of the parametric design software, it is possible to apply further modifications on the structures and gain special forms. The paper covers the basic dome types, and also additional dome-based structures using special coordinate-system solutions based on spherical coordinate systems. It also contains additional structural possibilities like making double layer grids in all geometry forms. The adaptation of formex algebra and the parametric workflow of Grasshopper together give the possibility of quick and easy design and optimization of special truss-grid domes.

Keywords: Parametric design, structural morphology, space structures, spherical coordinate system.

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12218 Performance Study of Scraped Surface Heat Exchanger with Helical Ribbons

Authors: S. Ali, M. Baccar

Abstract:

In this work, numerical simulations were carried out using a specific CFD code in order to study the performance of an innovative Scraped Surface Heat Exchanger (SSHE) with helical ribbons for Bingham fluids (threshold fluids). The resolution of three-dimensional form of the conservation equations (continuity, momentum and energy equations) was carried out basing on the finite volume method (FVM). After studying the effect of dimensionless numbers (axial Reynolds, rotational Reynolds and Oldroyd numbers) on the hydrodynamic and thermal behaviors within SSHE, a parametric study was developed, by varying the width of the helical ribbon, the clearance between the stator wall and the tip of the ribbon and the number of turns of the helical ribbon, in order to improve the heat transfer inside the exchanger. The effect of these geometrical numbers on the hydrodynamic and thermal behaviors was discussed.

Keywords: Heat transfer, helical ribbons, hydrodynamic behavior, parametric study, scraped surface heat exchanger, thermal behavior.

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12217 Design of Gravity Dam by Genetic Algorithms

Authors: Farzin Salmasi

Abstract:

The design of a gravity dam is performed through an interactive process involving a preliminary layout of the structure followed by a stability and stress analysis. This study presents a method to define the optimal top width of gravity dam with genetic algorithm. To solve the optimization task (minimize the cost of the dam), an optimization routine based on genetic algorithms (GAs) was implemented into an Excel spreadsheet. It was found to perform well and GA parameters were optimized in a parametric study. Using the parameters found in the parametric study, the top width of gravity dam optimization was performed and compared to a gradient-based optimization method (classic method). The accuracy of the results was within close proximity. In optimum dam cross section, the ratio of is dam base to dam height is almost equal to 0.85, and ratio of dam top width to dam height is almost equal to 0.13. The computerized methodology may provide the help for computation of the optimal top width for a wide range of height of a gravity dam.

Keywords: Chromosomes, dam, genetic algorithm, globaloptimum, preliminary layout, stress analysis, theoretical profile.

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12216 Long Term Variability of Temperature in Armenia in the Context of Climate Change

Authors: Hrachuhi Galstyan, Lucian Sfîcă, Pavel Ichim

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to analyze the temporal and spatial variability of thermal conditions in the Republic of Armenia. The paper describes annual fluctuations in air temperature. Research has been focused on case study region of Armenia and surrounding areas, where long–term measurements and observations of weather conditions have been performed within the National Meteorological Service of Armenia and its surrounding areas. The study contains yearly air temperature data recorded between 1961- 2012. Mann-Kendal test and the autocorrelation function were applied to detect the change trend of annual mean temperature, as well as other parametric and non-parametric tests searching to find the presence of some breaks in the long term evolution of temperature. The analysis of all records reveals a tendency mostly towards warmer years, with increased temperatures especially in valleys and inner basins. The maximum temperature increase is up to 1,5°C. Negative results have not been observed in Armenia. The patterns of temperature change have been observed since the 1990’s over much of the Armenian territory. The climate in Armenia was influenced by global change in the last 2 decades, as results from the methods employed within the study.

Keywords: Air temperature, long-term variability, trend, climate change.

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12215 A Bootstrap's Reliability Measure on Tests of Hypotheses

Authors: Al Jefferson J. Pabelic, Dennis A. Tarepe

Abstract:

Bootstrapping has gained popularity in different tests of hypotheses as an alternative in using asymptotic distribution if one is not sure of the distribution of the test statistic under a null hypothesis. This method, in general, has two variants – the parametric and the nonparametric approaches. However, issues on reliability of this method always arise in many applications. This paper addresses the issue on reliability by establishing a reliability measure in terms of quantiles with respect to asymptotic distribution, when this is approximately correct. The test of hypotheses used is Ftest. The simulated results show that using nonparametric bootstrapping in F-test gives better reliability than parametric bootstrapping with relatively higher degrees of freedom.

Keywords: F-test, nonparametric bootstrapping, parametric bootstrapping, reliability measure, tests of hypotheses.

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12214 Model Reference Adaptive Control and LQR Control for Quadrotor with Parametric Uncertainties

Authors: Alia Abdul Ghaffar, Tom Richardson

Abstract:

A model reference adaptive control and a fixed gain LQR control were implemented in the height controller of a quadrotor that has parametric uncertainties due to the act of picking up an object of unknown dimension and mass. It is shown that an adaptive controller, unlike the fixed gain controller, is capable of ensuring a stable tracking performance under such condition, although adaptive control suffers from several limitations. The combination of both adaptive and fixed gain control in the controller architecture can result in an enhanced tracking performance in the presence parametric uncertainties.

Keywords: UAV, quadrotor, model reference adaptive control, LQR control.

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12213 Parametric Primitives for Hand Gesture Recognition

Authors: Sanmohan Krüger, Volker Krüger

Abstract:

Imitation learning is considered to be an effective way of teaching humanoid robots and action recognition is the key step to imitation learning. In this paper an online algorithm to recognize parametric actions with object context is presented. Objects are key instruments in understanding an action when there is uncertainty. Ambiguities arising in similar actions can be resolved with objectn context. We classify actions according to the changes they make to the object space. Actions that produce the same state change in the object movement space are classified to belong to the same class. This allow us to define several classes of actions where members of each class are connected with a semantic interpretation.

Keywords: Parametric actions, Action primitives, Hand gesture recognition, Imitation learning

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12212 Trend Analysis of Annual Total Precipitation Data in Konya

Authors: Naci Büyükkaracığan

Abstract:

Hydroclimatic observation values ​​are used in the planning of the project of water resources. Climate variables are the first of the values ​​used in planning projects. At the same time, the climate system is a complex and interactive system involving the atmosphere, land surfaces, snow and bubbles, the oceans and other water structures. The amount and distribution of precipitation, which is an important climate parameter, is a limiting environmental factor for dispersed living things. Trend analysis is applied to the detection of the presence of a pattern or trend in the data set. Many trends work in different parts of the world are usually made for the determination of climate change. The detection and attribution of past trends and variability in climatic variables is essential for explaining potential future alteration resulting from anthropogenic activities. Parametric and non-parametric tests are used for determining the trends in climatic variables. In this study, trend tests were applied to annual total precipitation data obtained in period of 1972 and 2012, in the Konya Basin. Non-parametric trend tests, (Sen’s T, Spearman’s Rho, Mann-Kendal, Sen’s T trend, Wald-Wolfowitz) and parametric test (mean square) were applied to annual total precipitations of 15 stations for trend analysis. The linear slopes (change per unit time) of trends are calculated by using a non-parametric estimator developed by Sen. The beginning of trends is determined by using the Mann-Kendall rank correlation test. In addition, homogeneities in precipitation trends are tested by using a method developed by Van Belle and Hughes. As a result of tests, negative linear slopes were found in annual total precipitations in Konya.

Keywords: Trend analysis, precipitation, hydroclimatology, Konya, Turkey.

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12211 Parametric Study of 3D Micro-Fin Tubes on Heat Transfer and Friction Factor

Authors: Shima Soleimani, Steven Eckels

Abstract:

One area of special importance for the surface-level study of heat exchangers is tubes with internal micro-fins (< 0.5 mm tall). Micro-finned surfaces are a kind of extended solid surface in which energy is exchanged with water that acts as the source or sink of energy. Significant performance gains are possible for either shell, tube, or double pipe heat exchangers if the best surfaces are identified. The parametric studies of micro-finned tubes that have appeared in the literature left some key parameters unexplored. Specifically, they ignored three-dimensional (3D) micro-fin configurations, conduction heat transfer in the fins, and conduction in the solid surface below the micro-fins. Thus, this study aimed at implementing a parametric study of 3D micro-finned tubes that considered micro-fine height and discontinuity features. A 3D conductive and convective heat-transfer simulation through coupled solid and periodic fluid domains is applied in a commercial package, ANSYS Fluent 19.1. The simulation is steady-state with turbulent water flow cooling the inner wall of a tube with micro-fins. The simulation utilizes a constant and uniform temperature on the tube outer wall. Performance is mapped for 18 different simulation cases, including a smooth tube using a realizable k-ε turbulence model at a Reynolds number of 48,928. Results compared the performance of 3D tubes with results for the similar two-dimensional (2D) one. Results showed that the micro-fine height has a greater impact on performance factors than discontinuity features in 3D micro-fin tubes. A transformed 3D micro-fin tube can enhance heat transfer, and pressure drops up to 21% and 56% compared to a 2D one, respectfully.

Keywords: Three-dimensional micro-fin tube, heat transfer, friction factor, heat exchanger.

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12210 Relationship with Immediate Superior, Leadership, and Career Success of Managers

Authors: L. N. A. Chandana Jayawardena, Ales Gregar

Abstract:

Occupational Self Efficacy (OSE) reflects the conviction of a person’s ability to fulfill his job related behavior at a perfectly acceptable level to the employer. Transformational leadership improves followers’ commitment by influencing their needs, values, and self-esteem. Employees also develop a dyadic relationship with their immediate superiors. Study was conducted amongst one hundred and twenty two (122) bank managers in Sri Lanka. They were selected based on multi-stage (seniority in the hierarchy, gender, department-wise etc.) stratified random sampling. Major objectives of this study were to analyze the impact of Transformational leadership style, and OSE along with Sociodemographic factors, and Career, Job and Organizational experience, to the Career satisfaction of managers. SPSS software was used for parametric and non-parametric statistical analyses. Career satisfaction had positive impacts with their Transformational leadership style, and their relationships with the immediate superior. Impact of sociodemographic factors, and career exposure to career satisfaction was assessed.

Keywords: Career success, Relationship with immediate superior, Transformational leadership.

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