Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Search results for: intercalated

9 Influence of Organic Modifier Loading on Particle Dispersion of Biodegradable Polycaprolactone/Montmorillonite Nanocomposites

Authors: O. I. H. Dimitry, N. A. Mansour, A. L. G. Saad

Abstract:

Natural sodium montmorillonite (NaMMT), Cloisite Na+ and two organophilic montmorillonites (OMMTs), Cloisites 20A and 15A were used. Polycaprolactone (PCL)/MMT composites containing 1, 3, 5, and 10 wt% of Cloisite Na+ and PCL/OMMT nanocomposites containing 5 and 10 wt% of Cloisites 20A and 15A were prepared via solution intercalation technique to study the influence of organic modifier loading on particle dispersion of PCL/ NaMMT composites. Thermal stabilities of the obtained composites were characterized by thermal analysis using the thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) which showed that in the presence of nitrogen flow the incorporation of 5 and 10 wt% of filler brings some decrease in PCL thermal stability in the sequence: Cloisite Na+>Cloisite 15A > Cloisite 20A, while in the presence of air flow these fillers scarcely influenced the thermoxidative stability of PCL by slightly accelerating the process. The interaction between PCL and silicate layers was studied by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy which confirmed moderate interactions between nanometric silicate layers and PCL segments. The electrical conductivity (σ) which describes the ionic mobility of the systems was studied as a function of temperature and showed that σ of PCL was enhanced on increasing the modifier loading at filler content of 5 wt%, especially at higher temperatures in the sequence: Cloisite Na+<Cloisite 20A<Cloisite 15A, and was then decreased to some extent with a further increase to 10 wt%. The activation energy Eσ obtained from the dependency of σ on temperature using Arrhenius equation was found to be lowest for the nanocomposite containing 5 wt% of Cloisite 15A. The dispersed behavior of clay in PCL matrix was evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses which revealed partial intercalated structures in PCL/NaMMT composites and semi-intercalated/semi-exfoliated structures in PCL/OMMT nanocomposites containing 5 wt% of Cloisite 20A or Cloisite 15A.

Keywords: Polycaprolactone, organoclay, nanocomposite, montmorillonite, electrical conductivity, activation energy, exfoliation, intercalation.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 657
8 Effect of Modified Layered Silicate Nanoclay on the Dynamic Viscoelastic Properties of Thermoplastic Polymers Nanocomposites

Authors: Benalia Kouini, Aicha Serier

Abstract:

This work aims to investigate the structure–property relationship in ternary nanocomposites consisting of polypropylene as the matrix, polyamide 66 as the minor phase and treated nanoclay DELLITE 67G as the reinforcement. All PP/PA66/Nanoclay systems with polypropylene grafted maleic anhydride PP-g-MAH as a compatibilizer were prepared via melt compounding and characterized in terms of nanoclay content. Morphological structure was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The rheological behavior of the nanocomposites was determined by various methods, viz melt flow index (MFI) and parallel plate rheological measurements. The PP/PP-g-MAH/PA66 nanocomposites showed a homogeneous morphology supporting the compatibility improvement between PP, PA66, and nanoclay. SEM results revealed the formation of nanocomposites as the nanoclay was intercalated and exfoliated. In the ternary nanocomposites, the rheological behavior showed that, the complex viscosity is increased with increasing the nanoclay. The results showed that the use of nanoclay affects the variations of storage modulus (G′), loss modulus (G″) and the melt elasticity.

Keywords: Nanocomposites, polypropylene, polyamide66, modified nanoclay, rheology.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1376
7 Synthesis and Characterization of Recycled Isotactic Polypropylene Nanocomposites Containing Date Wood Fiber

Authors: Habib Shaban

Abstract:

Nanocomposites of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) and date wood fiber were prepared after modification of the host matrix by reactive extrusion grafting of maleic anhydride. Chemical and mechanical treatment of date wood flour (WF) was conducted to obtain nanocrystalline cellulose. Layered silicates (clay) were partially intercalated with date wood fiber, and the modified layered silicate was used as filler in the PP matrix via a melt-blending process. The tensile strength of composites prepared from wood fiber modified clay was greater than that of the iPP-clay and iPP-WF composites at a 6% filler concentration, whereas deterioration of mechanical properties was observed when clay and WF were used alone for reinforcement. The dispersion of the filler in the matrix significantly decreased after clay modification with cellulose at higher concentrations, as shown by X-ray diffraction (XRD) data.

Keywords: Nanocomposites, isotactic polypropylene, date wood flour, intercalated, melt-blending.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 723
6 GIC-Based Adsorbents for Wastewater Treatment through Adsorption and Electrochemical-Regeneration

Authors: H. M. A. Asghar, S. N. Hussain, E. P. L. Roberts, N. W. Brown, H. Sattar

Abstract:

Intercalation imparts interesting features to the host graphite material. Two different types of intercalated compounds called (GIC-bisulphate or Nyex 1000 and GIC-nitrate or Nyex 3000) were tested for their adsorption capacity and ability to undergo electrochemical regeneration. It was found that Nyex 3000 showed comparatively slow kinetics along with reduced adsorption capacity to one half for acid violet 17 as adsorbate. Acid violet 17 was selected as model organic pollutant for evaluating comparative performance of said adsorbents. Both adsorbent materials showed 100% regeneration efficiency as achieved by passing a charge of 36 C g-1 at a current density of 12 mA cm-2 and a treatment time of 60 min.  

Keywords: Intercalation compound of graphite, Adsorption, electrochemical-regeneration, waste water.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3530
5 Processing, Morphological, Thermal and Absorption Behavior of PLA/Thermoplastic Starch/Montmorillonite Nanocomposites

Authors: Esmat Jalalvandi, Rohah Abd. Majid, Taravat Ghanbari

Abstract:

Thermoplastic starch, polylactic acid glycerol and maleic anhydride (MA) were compounded with natural montmorillonite (MMT) through a twin screw extruder to investigate the effects of different loading of MMT on structure, thermal and absorption behavior of the nanocomposites. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) showed that sample with MMT loading 4phr exhibited exfoliated structure while sample that contained MMT 8 phr exhibited intercalated structure. FESEM images showed big lump when MMT loading was at 8 phr. The thermal properties were characterized by using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The results showed that MMT increased melting temperature and crystallization temperature of matrix but reduction in glass transition temperature was observed Meanwhile the addition of MMT has improved the water barrier property. The nanosize MMT particle is also able to block a tortuous pathway for water to enter the starch chain, thus reducing the water uptake and improved the physical barrier of nanocomposite.

Keywords: Montmorillonite, Nanocomposite, Polylactic acid, Starch.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2097
4 [Ca(2,2'-bipyridine)3]2+ -Montmorillonite: A Potentiometric Sensor for Sulfide ion

Authors: Sunan Payungsak, Atchana Wongchaisuwat, Ladda Meesuk

Abstract:

Sulfide ion (S2-) is one of the most important ions to be monitored due to its high toxicity, especially for aquatic organisms. In this work, [Ca(2,2'-bipyridine)3]2+-intercalated montmorillonite was prepared and used as a sensor to construct a potentiometric electrode to measure sulfide ion in solution. The formation of [Ca(2,2'- bipyridine)3]2+ in montmorillonite was confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared spectra. The electrode worked well at pH 4-12 and 4-10 in sulfide solution 10-2 M and 10-3 M, respectively, in terms of Nernstian slope. The sensor gave good precision and low cost.

Keywords: 2, 2'-bipyridine complexes, montmorillonite potentiometry, sulfide ion.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1180
3 Overall Effect of Nano Clay on the Physical Mechanical Properties of Epoxy Resin

Authors: Alireza BozorgianÏî Navid Majdi Nasab, Hassan Mirzazadeh

Abstract:

In this paper, the effect of modified clay on the mechanical efficiency of epoxy resin is examined. Studies by X ray diffraction and microscopic transient electron method show that modified clay distribution in polymer area is intercalated kind. Examination the results of mechanical tests shows that existence of modified clay in epoxy area increases pressure yield strength, tension module and nano composite fracture toughness in relate of pure epoxy. By microscopic examinations it is recognized too that the action of toughness growth of this kind of nano composite is due to crack deflection, formation of new surfaces and fracture of clay piles.

Keywords: Nano clay, Epoxy, Toughness, Composite

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1699
2 Synthesis and Properties of Biobased Polyurethane/Montmorillonite Nanocomposites

Authors: Teuku Rihayat, Suryani

Abstract:

Polyurethanes (PURs) are very versatile polymeric materials with a wide range of physical and chemical properties. PURs have desirable properties such as high abrasion resistance, tear strength, shock absorption, flexibility and elasticity. Although they have relatively poor thermal stability, this can be improved by using treated clay. Polyurethane/clay nanocomposites have been synthesized from renewable sources. A polyol for the production of polyurethane by reaction with an isocyanate was obtained by the synthesis of palm oil-based oleic acid with glycerol. Dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid (DBSA) was used as catalyst and emulsifier. The unmodified clay (kunipia-F) was treated with cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB-mont) and octadodecylamine (ODAmont). The d-spacing in CTAB-mont and ODA-mont were 1.571 nm and 1.798 nm respectively and larger than that of the pure-mont (1.142 nm). The organoclay was completely intercalated in the polyurethane, as confirmed by a wide angle x-ray diffraction (WAXD) pattern. The results showed that adding clay demonstrated better thermal stability in comparison with the virgin polyurethane. Onset degradation of pure PU is at 200oC, and is lower than that of the CTAB-mont PU and ODA-mont PU which takes place at about 318oC and 330oC, respectively. The mechanical properties (including the dynamic mechanical properties) of pure polyurethane (PU) and PU/clay nanocomposites, were measured. The modified organoclay had a remarkably beneficial effect on the strength and elongation at break of the nanocomposites, which both increased with increasing clay content with the increase of the tensile strength of more than 214% and 267% by the addition of only 5 wt% of the montmorillonite CTAB-mont PU and ODA-mont PU, respectively.

Keywords: Polyurethane, Clay nanocomposites, Biobase

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2201
1 Classification of Discharges Initiated by Liquid Droplet on Insulation Material under AC Voltages Adopting UHF Technique

Authors: R. Sarathi, G. Nagesh, K. Vasudevan

Abstract:

In the present work, an attempt has been made to understand the feasibility of using UHF technique for identification of any corona discharges/ arcing in insulating material due to water droplets. The sensors of broadband type are useful for identification of such discharges. It is realised that arcing initiated by liquid droplet radiates UHF signals in the entire bandwidth up to 2 GHz. The frequency content of the UHF signal generated due to corona/arcing is not much varied in epoxy nanocomposites with different weight percentage of clay content. The exfoliated/intercalated properties were analysed through TEM studies. It is realized that corona initiated discharges are of intermittent process. The hydrophobicity of the material characterized through contact angle measurement. It is realized that low Wt % of nanoclay content in epoxy resin reduces the surface carbonization due to arcing/corona discharges. The results of the study with gamma irradiated specimen indicates that contact angle, discharge inception time and evaporation time of the liquid are much lower than the virgin epoxy nanocomposite material.

Keywords: Arcing, Corona, epoxy resin, insulation, nanocomposites, UHF signal, water droplet.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1549