Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Search results for: Image authentication

12 Hybrid Authentication Scheme for Graphical Password Using QR Code and Integrated Sound Signature

Authors: Salim Istyaq, Mohammad Sarosh Umar

Abstract:

Today, the mankind is in the stage of development, every day comes with new proposal of technology, in order to secure these types of technology, we also prepare high yielding security modules to conserve these resources. The capacity of human brain to recognize anything is far more than any species; this is all due to our developing cycle of curiosity. In this paper, we proposed a scheme based on graphical password using QR Code which provides more security to the recent online system. It also contains a supportive sound signature. In this system, authentication is done using sequence of images in QR code form. Users select one click-point per image with the help of QR scanner or recognizer. The encoded phrase in a QR code emphasizes the minimum probability of attacking via shoulder surfing or other attacks.

Keywords: QR code, graphical password, image authentication, sound signature, cued click point

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11 Fragile Watermarking for Color Images Using Thresholding Technique

Authors: Kuo-Cheng Liu

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose ablock-wise watermarking scheme for color image authentication to resist malicious tampering of digital media. The thresholding technique is incorporated into the scheme such that the tampered region of the color image can be recovered with high quality while the proofing result is obtained. The watermark for each block consists of its dual authentication data and the corresponding feature information. The feature information for recovery iscomputed bythe thresholding technique. In the proofing process, we propose a dual-option parity check method to proof the validity of image blocks. In the recovery process, the feature information of each block embedded into the color image is rebuilt for high quality recovery. The simulation results show that the proposed watermarking scheme can effectively proof the tempered region with high detection rate and can recover the tempered region with high quality.

Keywords: thresholding technique, tamper proofing, tamper recovery

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10 Binary Phase-Only Filter Watermarking with Quantized Embedding

Authors: Hu Haibo, Liu Yi, He Ming

Abstract:

The binary phase-only filter digital watermarking embeds the phase information of the discrete Fourier transform of the image into the corresponding magnitudes for better image authentication. The paper proposed an approach of how to implement watermark embedding by quantizing the magnitude, with discussing how to regulate the quantization steps based on the frequencies of the magnitude coefficients of the embedded watermark, and how to embed the watermark at low frequency quantization. The theoretical analysis and simulation results show that algorithm flexibility, security, watermark imperceptibility and detection performance of the binary phase-only filter digital watermarking can be effectively improved with quantization based watermark embedding, and the robustness against JPEG compression will also be increased to some extent.

Keywords: Digital Watermarking, Quantization, image authentication, Discrete Fourier transform, binary phase-only filter

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9 A DCT-Based Secure JPEG Image Authentication Scheme

Authors: Mona F. M. Mursi, Ghazy M.R. Assassa, Hatim A. Aboalsamh, Khaled Alghathbar

Abstract:

The challenge in the case of image authentication is that in many cases images need to be subjected to non malicious operations like compression, so the authentication techniques need to be compression tolerant. In this paper we propose an image authentication system that is tolerant to JPEG lossy compression operations. A scheme for JPEG grey scale images is proposed based on a data embedding method that is based on a secret key and a secret mapping vector in the frequency domain. An encrypted feature vector extracted from the image DCT coefficients, is embedded redundantly, and invisibly in the marked image. On the receiver side, the feature vector from the received image is derived again and compared against the extracted watermark to verify the image authenticity. The proposed scheme is robust against JPEG compression up to a maximum compression of approximately 80%,, but sensitive to malicious attacks such as cutting and pasting.

Keywords: Authentication, Watermarking, JPEG, DCT

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8 Computer Generated Hologram for SemiFragile Watermarking with Encrypted Images

Authors: G. Schirripa Spagnolo, M. De Santis

Abstract:

The protection of the contents of digital products is referred to as content authentication. In some applications, to be able to authenticate a digital product could be extremely essential. For example, if a digital product is used as a piece of evidence in the court, its integrity could mean life or death of the accused. Generally, the problem of content authentication can be solved using semifragile digital watermarking techniques. Recently many authors have proposed Computer Generated Hologram Watermarking (CGHWatermarking) techniques. Starting from these studies, in this paper a semi-fragile Computer Generated Hologram coding technique is proposed, which is able to detect malicious tampering while tolerating some incidental distortions. The proposed technique uses as watermark an encrypted image, and it is well suitable for digital image authentication.

Keywords: RSA, image authentication, Asymmetric cryptography, Semi-Fragile watermarking, Hologram watermark, Public- Key Cryptography

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7 Embedded Semi-Fragile Signature Based Scheme for Ownership Identification and Color Image Authentication with Recovery

Authors: M. Hamad Hassan, S.A.M. Gilani

Abstract:

In this paper, a novel scheme is proposed for Ownership Identification and Color Image Authentication by deploying Cryptography & Digital Watermarking. The color image is first transformed from RGB to YST color space exclusively designed for watermarking. Followed by color space transformation, each channel is divided into 4×4 non-overlapping blocks with selection of central 2×2 sub-blocks. Depending upon the channel selected two to three LSBs of each central 2×2 sub-block are set to zero to hold the ownership, authentication and recovery information. The size & position of sub-block is important for correct localization, enhanced security & fast computation. As YS ÔèÑ T so it is suitable to embed the recovery information apart from the ownership and authentication information, therefore 4×4 block of T channel along with ownership information is then deployed by SHA160 to compute the content based hash that is unique and invulnerable to birthday attack or hash collision instead of using MD5 that may raise the condition i.e. H(m)=H(m'). For recovery, intensity mean of 4x4 block of each channel is computed and encoded upto eight bits. For watermark embedding, key based mapping of blocks is performed using 2DTorus Automorphism. Our scheme is oblivious, generates highly imperceptible images with correct localization of tampering within reasonable time and has the ability to recover the original work with probability of near one.

Keywords: PSNR, MD5, lsb, Hash Collision, SHA160

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6 A Semi-Fragile Watermarking Scheme for Color Image Authentication

Authors: M. Hamad Hassan, S.A.M. Gilani

Abstract:

In this paper, a semi-fragile watermarking scheme is proposed for color image authentication. In this particular scheme, the color image is first transformed from RGB to YST color space, suitable for watermarking the color media. Each channel is divided into 4×4 non-overlapping blocks and its each 2×2 sub-block is selected. The embedding space is created by setting the two LSBs of selected sub-block to zero, which will hold the authentication and recovery information. For verification of work authentication and parity bits denoted by 'a' & 'p' are computed for each 2×2 subblock. For recovery, intensity mean of each 2×2 sub-block is computed and encoded upto six to eight bits depending upon the channel selection. The size of sub-block is important for correct localization and fast computation. For watermark distribution 2DTorus Automorphism is implemented using a private key to have a secure mapping of blocks. The perceptibility of watermarked image is quite reasonable both subjectively and objectively. Our scheme is oblivious, correctly localizes the tampering and able to recovery the original work with probability of near one.

Keywords: PSNR, image authentication, LSBs, YST Color Space, Intensity Mean

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5 A Fragile Watermarking Scheme for Color Image Authentication

Authors: M. Hamad Hassan, S.A.M. Gilani

Abstract:

In this paper, a fragile watermarking scheme is proposed for color image specified object-s authentication. The color image is first transformed from RGB to YST color space, suitable for watermarking the color media. The T channel corresponds to the chrominance component of a color image andYS ÔèÑ T , therefore selected for embedding the watermark. The T channel is first divided into 2×2 non-overlapping blocks and the two LSBs are set to zero. The object that is to be authenticated is also divided into 2×2 nonoverlapping blocks and each block-s intensity mean is computed followed by eight bit encoding. The generated watermark is then embedded into T channel randomly selected 2×2 block-s LSBs using 2D-Torus Automorphism. Selection of block size is paramount for exact localization and recovery of work. The proposed scheme is blind, efficient and secure with ability to detect and locate even minor tampering applied to the image with full recovery of original work. The quality of watermarked media is quite high both subjectively and objectively. The technique is suitable for class of images with format such as gif, tif or bitmap.

Keywords: PSNR, image authentication, LSBs, YST Color Space

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4 A Semi-Fragile Signature based Scheme for Ownership Identification and Color Image Authentication

Authors: M. Hamad Hassan, S.A.M. Gilani

Abstract:

In this paper, a novel scheme is proposed for ownership identification and authentication using color images by deploying Cryptography and Digital Watermarking as underlaying technologies. The former is used to compute the contents based hash and the latter to embed the watermark. The host image that will claim to be the rightful owner is first transformed from RGB to YST color space exclusively designed for watermarking based applications. Geometrically YS ÔèÑ T and T channel corresponds to the chrominance component of color image, therefore suitable for embedding the watermark. The T channel is divided into 4×4 nonoverlapping blocks. The size of block is important for enhanced localization, security and low computation. Each block along with ownership information is then deployed by SHA160, a one way hash function to compute the content based hash, which is always unique and resistant against birthday attack instead of using MD5 that may raise the condition i.e. H(m)=H(m'). The watermark payload varies from block to block and computed by the variance factorα . The quality of watermarked images is quite high both subjectively and objectively. Our scheme is blind, computationally fast and exactly locates the tampered region.

Keywords: PSNR, MD5, lsb, Hash Collision, SHA160

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3 Combined Hashing/Watermarking Method for Image Authentication

Authors: Vlado Kitanovski, Dimitar Taskovski, Sofija Bogdanova

Abstract:

In this paper we present a combined hashing/watermarking method for image authentication. A robust image hash, invariant to legitimate modifications, but fragile to illegitimate modifications is generated from the local image characteristics. To increase security of the system the watermark is generated using the image hash as a key. Quantized Index Modulation of DCT coefficients is used for watermark embedding. Watermark detection is performed without use of the original image. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the presented method in terms of robustness and fragility.

Keywords: Authentication, semi-fragile watermarking, blind watermarking, image hash

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2 Image Authenticity and Perceptual Optimization via Genetic Algorithm and a Dependence Neighborhood

Authors: Imran Usman, Asifullah Khan, Rafiullah Chamlawi, Abdul Majid

Abstract:

Information hiding for authenticating and verifying the content integrity of the multimedia has been exploited extensively in the last decade. We propose the idea of using genetic algorithm and non-deterministic dependence by involving the un-watermarkable coefficients for digital image authentication. Genetic algorithm is used to intelligently select coefficients for watermarking in a DCT based image authentication scheme, which implicitly watermark all the un-watermarkable coefficients also, in order to thwart different attacks. Experimental results show that such intelligent selection results in improvement of imperceptibility of the watermarked image, and implicit watermarking of all the coefficients improves security against attacks such as cover-up, vector quantization and transplantation.

Keywords: Digital Watermarking, image authentication, GeneticAlgorithm, fragile watermarking

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1 A Lossless Watermarking Based Authentication System For Medical Images

Authors: Samia Boucherkha, Mohamed Benmohamed

Abstract:

In this paper we investigate the watermarking authentication when applied to medical imagery field. We first give an overview of watermarking technology by paying attention to fragile watermarking since it is the usual scheme for authentication.We then analyze the requirements for image authentication and integrity in medical imagery, and we show finally that invertible schemes are the best suited for this particular field. A well known authentication method is studied. This technique is then adapted here for interleaving patient information and message authentication code with medical images in a reversible manner, that is using lossless compression. The resulting scheme enables on a side the exact recovery of the original image that can be unambiguously authenticated, and on the other side, the patient information to be saved or transmitted in a confidential way. To ensure greater security the patient information is encrypted before being embedded into images.

Keywords: Medical Imaging, Authentication, Integrity, Invertible Watermarking

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