Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 473

Search results for: JPEG Compression

473 Performance Analysis of Chrominance Red and Chrominance Blue in JPEG

Authors: Mamta Garg

Abstract:

While compressing text files is useful, compressing still image files is almost a necessity. A typical image takes up much more storage than a typical text message and without compression images would be extremely clumsy to store and distribute. The amount of information required to store pictures on modern computers is quite large in relation to the amount of bandwidth commonly available to transmit them over the Internet and applications. Image compression addresses the problem of reducing the amount of data required to represent a digital image. Performance of any image compression method can be evaluated by measuring the root-mean-square-error & peak signal to noise ratio. The method of image compression that will be analyzed in this paper is based on the lossy JPEG image compression technique, the most popular compression technique for color images. JPEG compression is able to greatly reduce file size with minimal image degradation by throwing away the least “important" information. In JPEG, both color components are downsampled simultaneously, but in this paper we will compare the results when the compression is done by downsampling the single chroma part. In this paper we will demonstrate more compression ratio is achieved when the chrominance blue is downsampled as compared to downsampling the chrominance red in JPEG compression. But the peak signal to noise ratio is more when the chrominance red is downsampled as compared to downsampling the chrominance blue in JPEG compression. In particular we will use the hats.jpg as a demonstration of JPEG compression using low pass filter and demonstrate that the image is compressed with barely any visual differences with both methods.

Keywords: JPEG, Discrete Cosine Transform, Quantization, Color Space Conversion, Image Compression, Peak Signal to Noise Ratio & Compression Ratio.

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472 A DCT-Based Secure JPEG Image Authentication Scheme

Authors: Mona F. M. Mursi, Ghazy M.R. Assassa, Hatim A. Aboalsamh, Khaled Alghathbar

Abstract:

The challenge in the case of image authentication is that in many cases images need to be subjected to non malicious operations like compression, so the authentication techniques need to be compression tolerant. In this paper we propose an image authentication system that is tolerant to JPEG lossy compression operations. A scheme for JPEG grey scale images is proposed based on a data embedding method that is based on a secret key and a secret mapping vector in the frequency domain. An encrypted feature vector extracted from the image DCT coefficients, is embedded redundantly, and invisibly in the marked image. On the receiver side, the feature vector from the received image is derived again and compared against the extracted watermark to verify the image authenticity. The proposed scheme is robust against JPEG compression up to a maximum compression of approximately 80%,, but sensitive to malicious attacks such as cutting and pasting.

Keywords: Authentication, DCT, JPEG, Watermarking.

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471 Parallel Image Compression and Analysis with Wavelets

Authors: M. Kutila, J. Viitanen

Abstract:

This paper presents image compression with wavelet based method. The wavelet transformation divides image to low- and high pass filtered parts. The traditional JPEG compression technique requires lower computation power with feasible losses, when only compression is needed. However, there is obvious need for wavelet based methods in certain circumstances. The methods are intended to the applications in which the image analyzing is done parallel with compression. Furthermore, high frequency bands can be used to detect changes or edges. Wavelets enable hierarchical analysis for low pass filtered sub-images. The first analysis can be done for a small image, and only if any interesting is found, the whole image is processed or reconstructed.

Keywords: image compression, jpeg, wavelet, vlc

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470 An Analysis of Compression Methods and Implementation of Medical Images in Wireless Network

Authors: C. Rajan, K. Geetha, S. Geetha

Abstract:

The motivation of image compression technique is to reduce the irrelevance and redundancy of the image data in order to store or pass data in an efficient way from one place to another place. There are several types of compression methods available. Without the help of compression technique, the file size is knowingly larger, usually several megabytes, but by doing the compression technique, it is possible to reduce file size up to 10% as of the original without noticeable loss in quality. Image compression can be lossless or lossy. The compression technique can be applied to images, audio, video and text data. This research work mainly concentrates on methods of encoding, DCT, compression methods, security, etc. Different methodologies and network simulations have been analyzed here. Various methods of compression methodologies and its performance metrics has been investigated and presented in a table manner.

Keywords: Image compression techniques, encoding, DCT, lossy compression, lossless compression, JPEG.

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469 Effectiveness of Contourlet vs Wavelet Transform on Medical Image Compression: a Comparative Study

Authors: Negar Riazifar, Mehran Yazdi

Abstract:

Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) has demonstrated far superior to previous Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and standard JPEG in natural as well as medical image compression. Due to its localization properties both in special and transform domain, the quantization error introduced in DWT does not propagate globally as in DCT. Moreover, DWT is a global approach that avoids block artifacts as in the JPEG. However, recent reports on natural image compression have shown the superior performance of contourlet transform, a new extension to the wavelet transform in two dimensions using nonseparable and directional filter banks, compared to DWT. It is mostly due to the optimality of contourlet in representing the edges when they are smooth curves. In this work, we investigate this fact for medical images, especially for CT images, which has not been reported yet. To do that, we propose a compression scheme in transform domain and compare the performance of both DWT and contourlet transform in PSNR for different compression ratios (CR) using this scheme. The results obtained using different type of computed tomography images show that the DWT has still good performance at lower CR but contourlet transform performs better at higher CR.

Keywords: Computed Tomography (CT), DWT, Discrete Contourlet Transform, Image Compression.

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468 EZW Coding System with Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: Saudagar Abdul Khader Jilani, Syed Abdul Sattar

Abstract:

Image compression plays a vital role in today-s communication. The limitation in allocated bandwidth leads to slower communication. To exchange the rate of transmission in the limited bandwidth the Image data must be compressed before transmission. Basically there are two types of compressions, 1) LOSSY compression and 2) LOSSLESS compression. Lossy compression though gives more compression compared to lossless compression; the accuracy in retrievation is less in case of lossy compression as compared to lossless compression. JPEG, JPEG2000 image compression system follows huffman coding for image compression. JPEG 2000 coding system use wavelet transform, which decompose the image into different levels, where the coefficient in each sub band are uncorrelated from coefficient of other sub bands. Embedded Zero tree wavelet (EZW) coding exploits the multi-resolution properties of the wavelet transform to give a computationally simple algorithm with better performance compared to existing wavelet transforms. For further improvement of compression applications other coding methods were recently been suggested. An ANN base approach is one such method. Artificial Neural Network has been applied to many problems in image processing and has demonstrated their superiority over classical methods when dealing with noisy or incomplete data for image compression applications. The performance analysis of different images is proposed with an analysis of EZW coding system with Error Backpropagation algorithm. The implementation and analysis shows approximately 30% more accuracy in retrieved image compare to the existing EZW coding system.

Keywords: Accuracy, Compression, EZW, JPEG2000, Performance.

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467 Perceptual JPEG Compliant Coding by Using DCT-Based Visibility Thresholds of Color Images

Authors: Kuo-Cheng Liu

Abstract:

Effective estimation of just noticeable distortion (JND) for images is helpful to increase the efficiency of a compression algorithm in which both the statistical redundancy and the perceptual redundancy should be accurately removed. In this paper, we design a DCT-based model for estimating JND profiles of color images. Based on a mathematical model of measuring the base detection threshold for each DCT coefficient in the color component of color images, the luminance masking adjustment, the contrast masking adjustment, and the cross masking adjustment are utilized for luminance component, and the variance-based masking adjustment based on the coefficient variation in the block is proposed for chrominance components. In order to verify the proposed model, the JND estimator is incorporated into the conventional JPEG coder to improve the compression performance. A subjective and fair viewing test is designed to evaluate the visual quality of the coding image under the specified viewing condition. The simulation results show that the JPEG coder integrated with the proposed DCT-based JND model gives better coding bit rates at visually lossless quality for a variety of color images.

Keywords: Just-noticeable distortion (JND), discrete cosine transform (DCT), JPEG.

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466 Fast Cosine Transform to Increase Speed-up and Efficiency of Karhunen-Loève Transform for Lossy Image Compression

Authors: Mario Mastriani, Juliana Gambini

Abstract:

In this work, we present a comparison between two techniques of image compression. In the first case, the image is divided in blocks which are collected according to zig-zag scan. In the second one, we apply the Fast Cosine Transform to the image, and then the transformed image is divided in blocks which are collected according to zig-zag scan too. Later, in both cases, the Karhunen-Loève transform is applied to mentioned blocks. On the other hand, we present three new metrics based on eigenvalues for a better comparative evaluation of the techniques. Simulations show that the combined version is the best, with minor Mean Absolute Error (MAE) and Mean Squared Error (MSE), higher Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) and better image quality. Finally, new technique was far superior to JPEG and JPEG2000.

Keywords: Fast Cosine Transform, image compression, JPEG, JPEG2000, Karhunen-Loève Transform, zig-zag scan.

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465 New Features for Specific JPEG Steganalysis

Authors: Johann Barbier, Eric Filiol, Kichenakoumar Mayoura

Abstract:

We present in this paper a new approach for specific JPEG steganalysis and propose studying statistics of the compressed DCT coefficients. Traditionally, steganographic algorithms try to preserve statistics of the DCT and of the spatial domain, but they cannot preserve both and also control the alteration of the compressed data. We have noticed a deviation of the entropy of the compressed data after a first embedding. This deviation is greater when the image is a cover medium than when the image is a stego image. To observe this deviation, we pointed out new statistic features and combined them with the Multiple Embedding Method. This approach is motivated by the Avalanche Criterion of the JPEG lossless compression step. This criterion makes possible the design of detectors whose detection rates are independent of the payload. Finally, we designed a Fisher discriminant based classifier for well known steganographic algorithms, Outguess, F5 and Hide and Seek. The experiemental results we obtained show the efficiency of our classifier for these algorithms. Moreover, it is also designed to work with low embedding rates (< 10-5) and according to the avalanche criterion of RLE and Huffman compression step, its efficiency is independent of the quantity of hidden information.

Keywords: Compressed frequency domain, Fisher discriminant, specific JPEG steganalysis.

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464 Maximizer of the Posterior Marginal Estimate for Noise Reduction of JPEG-compressed Image

Authors: Yohei Saika, Yuji Haraguchi

Abstract:

We constructed a method of noise reduction for JPEG-compressed image based on Bayesian inference using the maximizer of the posterior marginal (MPM) estimate. In this method, we tried the MPM estimate using two kinds of likelihood, both of which enhance grayscale images converted into the JPEG-compressed image through the lossy JPEG image compression. One is the deterministic model of the likelihood and the other is the probabilistic one expressed by the Gaussian distribution. Then, using the Monte Carlo simulation for grayscale images, such as the 256-grayscale standard image “Lena" with 256 × 256 pixels, we examined the performance of the MPM estimate based on the performance measure using the mean square error. We clarified that the MPM estimate via the Gaussian probabilistic model of the likelihood is effective for reducing noises, such as the blocking artifacts and the mosquito noise, if we set parameters appropriately. On the other hand, we found that the MPM estimate via the deterministic model of the likelihood is not effective for noise reduction due to the low acceptance ratio of the Metropolis algorithm.

Keywords: Noise reduction, JPEG-compressed image, Bayesian inference, the maximizer of the posterior marginal estimate

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463 Distortion Estimation in Digital Image Watermarking using Genetic Programming

Authors: Labiba Gilani, Asifullah Khan, Anwar M. Mirza

Abstract:

This paper introduces a technique of distortion estimation in image watermarking using Genetic Programming (GP). The distortion is estimated by considering the problem of obtaining a distorted watermarked signal from the original watermarked signal as a function regression problem. This function regression problem is solved using GP, where the original watermarked signal is considered as an independent variable. GP-based distortion estimation scheme is checked for Gaussian attack and Jpeg compression attack. We have used Gaussian attacks of different strengths by changing the standard deviation. JPEG compression attack is also varied by adding various distortions. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed technique is able to detect the watermark even in the case of strong distortions and is more robust against attacks.

Keywords: Blind Watermarking, Genetic Programming (GP), Fitness Function, Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT).

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462 Objective Performance of Compressed Image Quality Assessments

Authors: Ratchakit Sakuldee, Somkait Udomhunsakul

Abstract:

Measurement of the quality of image compression is important for image processing application. In this paper, we propose an objective image quality assessment to measure the quality of gray scale compressed image, which is correlation well with subjective quality measurement (MOS) and least time taken. The new objective image quality measurement is developed from a few fundamental of objective measurements to evaluate the compressed image quality based on JPEG and JPEG2000. The reliability between each fundamental objective measurement and subjective measurement (MOS) is found. From the experimental results, we found that the Maximum Difference measurement (MD) and a new proposed measurement, Structural Content Laplacian Mean Square Error (SCLMSE), are the suitable measurements that can be used to evaluate the quality of JPEG200 and JPEG compressed image, respectively. In addition, MD and SCLMSE measurements are scaled to make them equivalent to MOS, given the rate of compressed image quality from 1 to 5 (unacceptable to excellent quality).

Keywords: JPEG, JPEG2000, objective image quality measurement, subjective image quality measurement, correlation coefficients.

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461 A Complexity-Based Approach in Image Compression using Neural Networks

Authors: Hadi Veisi, Mansour Jamzad

Abstract:

In this paper we present an adaptive method for image compression that is based on complexity level of the image. The basic compressor/de-compressor structure of this method is a multilayer perceptron artificial neural network. In adaptive approach different Back-Propagation artificial neural networks are used as compressor and de-compressor and this is done by dividing the image into blocks, computing the complexity of each block and then selecting one network for each block according to its complexity value. Three complexity measure methods, called Entropy, Activity and Pattern-based are used to determine the level of complexity in image blocks and their ability in complexity estimation are evaluated and compared. In training and evaluation, each image block is assigned to a network based on its complexity value. Best-SNR is another alternative in selecting compressor network for image blocks in evolution phase which chooses one of the trained networks such that results best SNR in compressing the input image block. In our evaluations, best results are obtained when overlapping the blocks is allowed and choosing the networks in compressor is based on the Best-SNR. In this case, the results demonstrate superiority of this method comparing with previous similar works and JPEG standard coding.

Keywords: Adaptive image compression, Image complexity, Multi-layer perceptron neural network, JPEG Standard, PSNR.

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460 New Efficient Method for Coding Color Images

Authors: Walaa M.Abd-Elhafiez, Wajeb Gharibi

Abstract:

In this paper a novel color image compression technique for efficient storage and delivery of data is proposed. The proposed compression technique started by RGB to YCbCr color transformation process. Secondly, the canny edge detection method is used to classify the blocks into the edge and non-edge blocks. Each color component Y, Cb, and Cr compressed by discrete cosine transform (DCT) process, quantizing and coding step by step using adaptive arithmetic coding. Our technique is concerned with the compression ratio, bits per pixel and peak signal to noise ratio, and produce better results than JPEG and more recent published schemes (like CBDCT-CABS and MHC). The provided experimental results illustrate the proposed technique that is efficient and feasible in terms of compression ratio, bits per pixel and peak signal to noise ratio.

Keywords: Image compression, color image, Q-coder, quantization, edge-detection.

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459 Coding of DWT Coefficients using Run-length Coding and Huffman Coding for the Purpose of Color Image Compression

Authors: Varun Setia, Vinod Kumar

Abstract:

In present paper we proposed a simple and effective method to compress an image. Here we found success in size reduction of an image without much compromising with it-s quality. Here we used Haar Wavelet Transform to transform our original image and after quantization and thresholding of DWT coefficients Run length coding and Huffman coding schemes have been used to encode the image. DWT is base for quite populate JPEG 2000 technique.

Keywords: Lossy compression, DWT, quantization, Run length coding, Huffman coding, JPEG2000.

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458 A Secure Semi-Fragile Watermarking Scheme for Authentication and Recovery of Images Based On Wavelet Transform

Authors: Rafiullah Chamlawi, Asifullah Khan, Adnan Idris, Zahid Munir

Abstract:

Authentication of multimedia contents has gained much attention in recent times. In this paper, we propose a secure semi-fragile watermarking, with a choice of two watermarks to be embedded. This technique operates in integer wavelet domain and makes use of semi fragile watermarks for achieving better robustness. A self-recovering algorithm is employed, that hides the image digest into some Wavelet subbands to detect possible malevolent object manipulation undergone by the image (object replacing and/or deletion). The Semi-fragility makes the scheme tolerant for JPEG lossy compression as low as quality of 70%, and locate the tempered area accurately. In addition, the system ensures more security because the embedded watermarks are protected with private keys. The computational complexity is reduced using parameterized integer wavelet transform. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme guarantees the safety of watermark, image recovery and location of the tempered area accurately.

Keywords: Integer Wavelet Transform (IWT), Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT), JPEG Compression, Authentication and Self- Recovery.

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457 A Novel VLSI Architecture of Hybrid Image Compression Model based on Reversible Blockade Transform

Authors: C. Hemasundara Rao, M. Madhavi Latha

Abstract:

Image compression can improve the performance of the digital systems by reducing time and cost in image storage and transmission without significant reduction of the image quality. Furthermore, the discrete cosine transform has emerged as the new state-of-the art standard for image compression. In this paper, a hybrid image compression technique based on reversible blockade transform coding is proposed. The technique, implemented over regions of interest (ROIs), is based on selection of the coefficients that belong to different transforms, depending on the coefficients is proposed. This method allows: (1) codification of multiple kernals at various degrees of interest, (2) arbitrary shaped spectrum,and (3) flexible adjustment of the compression quality of the image and the background. No standard modification for JPEG2000 decoder was required. The method was applied over different types of images. Results show a better performance for the selected regions, when image coding methods were employed for the whole set of images. We believe that this method is an excellent tool for future image compression research, mainly on images where image coding can be of interest, such as the medical imaging modalities and several multimedia applications. Finally VLSI implementation of proposed method is shown. It is also shown that the kernal of Hartley and Cosine transform gives the better performance than any other model.

Keywords: VLSI, Discrete Cosine Transform, JPEG, Hartleytransform, Radon Transform

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456 A Novel VLSI Architecture for Image Compression Model Using Low power Discrete Cosine Transform

Authors: Vijaya Prakash.A.M, K.S.Gurumurthy

Abstract:

In Image processing the Image compression can improve the performance of the digital systems by reducing the cost and time in image storage and transmission without significant reduction of the Image quality. This paper describes hardware architecture of low complexity Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) architecture for image compression[6]. In this DCT architecture, common computations are identified and shared to remove redundant computations in DCT matrix operation. Vector processing is a method used for implementation of DCT. This reduction in computational complexity of 2D DCT reduces power consumption. The 2D DCT is performed on 8x8 matrix using two 1-Dimensional Discrete cosine transform blocks and a transposition memory [7]. Inverse discrete cosine transform (IDCT) is performed to obtain the image matrix and reconstruct the original image. The proposed image compression algorithm is comprehended using MATLAB code. The VLSI design of the architecture is implemented Using Verilog HDL. The proposed hardware architecture for image compression employing DCT was synthesized using RTL complier and it was mapped using 180nm standard cells. . The Simulation is done using Modelsim. The simulation results from MATLAB and Verilog HDL are compared. Detailed analysis for power and area was done using RTL compiler from CADENCE. Power consumption of DCT core is reduced to 1.027mW with minimum area[1].

Keywords: Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT), Inverse DiscreteCosine Transform (IDCT), Joint Photographic Expert Group (JPEG), Low Power Design, Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) .

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455 Supercompression for Full-HD and 4k-3D (8k)Digital TV Systems

Authors: Mario Mastriani

Abstract:

In this work, we developed the concept of supercompression, i.e., compression above the compression standard used. In this context, both compression rates are multiplied. In fact, supercompression is based on super-resolution. That is to say, supercompression is a data compression technique that superpose spatial image compression on top of bit-per-pixel compression to achieve very high compression ratios. If the compression ratio is very high, then we use a convolutive mask inside decoder that restores the edges, eliminating the blur. Finally, both, the encoder and the complete decoder are implemented on General-Purpose computation on Graphics Processing Units (GPGPU) cards. Specifically, the mentio-ned mask is coded inside texture memory of a GPGPU.

Keywords: General-Purpose computation on Graphics Processing Units, Image Compression, Interpolation, Super-resolution.

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454 A Novel Compression Algorithm for Electrocardiogram Signals based on Wavelet Transform and SPIHT

Authors: Sana Ktata, Kaïs Ouni, Noureddine Ellouze

Abstract:

Electrocardiogram (ECG) data compression algorithm is needed that will reduce the amount of data to be transmitted, stored and analyzed, but without losing the clinical information content. A wavelet ECG data codec based on the Set Partitioning In Hierarchical Trees (SPIHT) compression algorithm is proposed in this paper. The SPIHT algorithm has achieved notable success in still image coding. We modified the algorithm for the one-dimensional (1-D) case and applied it to compression of ECG data. By this compression method, small percent root mean square difference (PRD) and high compression ratio with low implementation complexity are achieved. Experiments on selected records from the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database revealed that the proposed codec is significantly more efficient in compression and in computation than previously proposed ECG compression schemes. Compression ratios of up to 48:1 for ECG signals lead to acceptable results for visual inspection.

Keywords: Discrete Wavelet Transform, ECG compression, SPIHT.

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453 Wavelet Compression of ECG Signals Using SPIHT Algorithm

Authors: Mohammad Pooyan, Ali Taheri, Morteza Moazami-Goudarzi, Iman Saboori

Abstract:

In this paper we present a novel approach for wavelet compression of electrocardiogram (ECG) signals based on the set partitioning in hierarchical trees (SPIHT) coding algorithm. SPIHT algorithm has achieved prominent success in image compression. Here we use a modified version of SPIHT for one dimensional signals. We applied wavelet transform with SPIHT coding algorithm on different records of MIT-BIH database. The results show the high efficiency of this method in ECG compression.

Keywords: ECG compression, wavelet, SPIHT.

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452 Compression of Semistructured Documents

Authors: Leo Galambos, Jan Lansky, Katsiaryna Chernik

Abstract:

EGOTHOR is a search engine that indexes the Web and allows us to search the Web documents. Its hit list contains URL and title of the hits, and also some snippet which tries to shortly show a match. The snippet can be almost always assembled by an algorithm that has a full knowledge of the original document (mostly HTML page). It implies that the search engine is required to store the full text of the documents as a part of the index. Such a requirement leads us to pick up an appropriate compression algorithm which would reduce the space demand. One of the solutions could be to use common compression methods, for instance gzip or bzip2, but it might be preferable if we develop a new method which would take advantage of the document structure, or rather, the textual character of the documents. There already exist a special compression text algorithms and methods for a compression of XML documents. The aim of this paper is an integration of the two approaches to achieve an optimal level of the compression ratio

Keywords: Compression, search engine, HTML, XML.

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451 A Parallel Quadtree Approach for Image Compression using Wavelets

Authors: Hamed Vahdat Nejad, Hossein Deldari

Abstract:

Wavelet transforms are multiresolution decompositions that can be used to analyze signals and images. Image compression is one of major applications of wavelet transforms in image processing. It is considered as one of the most powerful methods that provides a high compression ratio. However, its implementation is very time-consuming. At the other hand, parallel computing technologies are an efficient method for image compression using wavelets. In this paper, we propose a parallel wavelet compression algorithm based on quadtrees. We implement the algorithm using MatlabMPI (a parallel, message passing version of Matlab), and compute its isoefficiency function, and show that it is scalable. Our experimental results confirm the efficiency of the algorithm also.

Keywords: Image compression, MPI, Parallel computing, Wavelets.

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450 Colour Image Compression Method Based On Fractal Block Coding Technique

Authors: Dibyendu Ghoshal, Shimal Das

Abstract:

Image compression based on fractal coding is a lossy compression method and normally used for gray level images range and domain blocks in rectangular shape. Fractal based digital image compression technique provide a large compression ratio and in this paper, it is proposed using YUV colour space and the fractal theory which is based on iterated transformation. Fractal geometry is mainly applied in the current study towards colour image compression coding. These colour images possesses correlations among the colour components and hence high compression ratio can be achieved by exploiting all these redundancies. The proposed method utilises the self-similarity in the colour image as well as the cross-correlations between them. Experimental results show that the greater compression ratio can be achieved with large domain blocks but more trade off in image quality is good to acceptable at less than 1 bit per pixel.

Keywords: Fractal coding, Iterated Function System (IFS), Image compression, YUV colour space.

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449 Comparison of Compression Ability Using DCT and Fractal Technique on Different Imaging Modalities

Authors: Sumathi Poobal, G. Ravindran

Abstract:

Image compression is one of the most important applications Digital Image Processing. Advanced medical imaging requires storage of large quantities of digitized clinical data. Due to the constrained bandwidth and storage capacity, however, a medical image must be compressed before transmission and storage. There are two types of compression methods, lossless and lossy. In Lossless compression method the original image is retrieved without any distortion. In lossy compression method, the reconstructed images contain some distortion. Direct Cosine Transform (DCT) and Fractal Image Compression (FIC) are types of lossy compression methods. This work shows that lossy compression methods can be chosen for medical image compression without significant degradation of the image quality. In this work DCT and Fractal Compression using Partitioned Iterated Function Systems (PIFS) are applied on different modalities of images like CT Scan, Ultrasound, Angiogram, X-ray and mammogram. Approximately 20 images are considered in each modality and the average values of compression ratio and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) are computed and studied. The quality of the reconstructed image is arrived by the PSNR values. Based on the results it can be concluded that the DCT has higher PSNR values and FIC has higher compression ratio. Hence in medical image compression, DCT can be used wherever picture quality is preferred and FIC is used wherever compression of images for storage and transmission is the priority, without loosing picture quality diagnostically.

Keywords: DCT, FIC, PIFS, PSNR.

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448 Electrocardiogram Signal Compression Using Multiwavelet Transform

Authors: Morteza Moazami-Goudarzi, Mohammad. H. Moradi

Abstract:

In this paper we are to find the optimum multiwavelet for compression of electrocardiogram (ECG) signals. At present, it is not well known which multiwavelet is the best choice for optimum compression of ECG. In this work, we examine different multiwavelets on 24 sets of ECG data with entirely different characteristics, selected from MITBIH database. For assessing the functionality of the different multiwavelets in compressing ECG signals, in addition to known factors such as Compression Ratio (CR), Percent Root Difference (PRD), Distortion (D), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) in compression literature, we also employed the Cross Correlation (CC) criterion for studying the morphological relations between the reconstructed and the original ECG signal and Signal to reconstruction Noise Ratio (SNR). The simulation results show that the cardbal2 by the means of identity (Id) prefiltering method to be the best effective transformation.

Keywords: ECG compression, Multiwavelet, Prefiltering.

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447 Influence of Ambient Condition on Performance of Wet Compression Process

Authors: Kyoung Hoon Kim

Abstract:

Gas turbine systems with wet compression have a potential for future power generation, since they can offer a high efficiency and a high specific power with a relatively low cost. In this study influence of ambient condition on the performance of the wet compression process is investigated with a non-equilibrium analytical modeling based on droplet evaporation. Transient behaviors of droplet diameter and temperature of mixed air are investigated for various ambient temperatures. Special attention is paid for the effects of ambient temperature, pressure ratio, and water injection ratios on the important wet compression variables including compressor outlet temperature and compression work. Parametric studies show that downing of the ambient temperature leads to lower compressor outlet temperature and consequently lower consumption of compression work even in wet compression processes.

Keywords: water injection, droplet evaporation, wet compression, gas turbine, ambient condition

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446 A Way of Converting Color Images to Gray Scale Ones for the Color Blinds -Reducing the Colors for Tokyo Subway Map-

Authors: Katsuhiro Narikiyo, Naoto Kobayakawa

Abstract:

We proposes a way of removing noises and reducing the number of colors contained in a JPEG image. Main purpose of this project is to convert color images to monochrome images for the color blinds. We treat the crispy color images like the Tokyo subway map. Each color in the image has an important information. But for the color blinds, similar colors cannot be distinguished. If we can convert those colors to different gray values, they can distinguish them.

Keywords: Image processing, Color blind, JPEG

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445 An Algorithm for Secure Visible Logo Embedding and Removing in Compression Domain

Authors: Hongyuan Li, Guang Liu, Yuewei Dai, Zhiquan Wang

Abstract:

Digital watermarking is the process of embedding information into a digital signal which can be used in DRM (digital rights managements) system. The visible watermark (often called logo) can indicate the owner of the copyright which can often be seen in the TV program and protects the copyright in an active way. However, most of the schemes do not consider the visible watermark removing process. To solve this problem, a visible watermarking scheme with embedding and removing process is proposed under the control of a secure template. The template generates different version of watermarks which can be seen visually the same for different users. Users with the right key can completely remove the watermark and recover the original image while the unauthorized user is prevented to remove the watermark. Experiment results show that our watermarking algorithm obtains a good visual quality and is hard to be removed by the illegally users. Additionally, the authorized users can completely remove the visible watermark and recover the original image with a good quality.

Keywords: digital watermarking, visible and removablewatermark, secure template, JPEG compression

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444 Design of a DCT-based Image Compression with Efficient Enhancement Filter

Authors: Yen-Yu Chen, Pao-Ching Chu, Ya-Ling Tsai

Abstract:

The algorithm represents the DCT coefficients to concentrate signal energy and proposes combination and dictator to eliminate the correlation in the same level subband for encoding the DCT-based images. This work adopts DCT and modifies the SPIHT algorithm to encode DCT coefficients. The proposed algorithm also provides the enhancement function in low bit rate in order to improve the perceptual quality. Experimental results indicate that the proposed technique improves the quality of the reconstructed image in terms of both PSNR and the perceptual results close to JPEG2000 at the same bit rate.

Keywords: JPEG 2000, enhancement filter

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