Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 24

Search results for: Concurrency

24 NSBS: Design of a Network Storage Backup System

Authors: Xinyan Zhang, Zhipeng Tan, Shan Fan

Abstract:

The first layer of defense against data loss is the backup data. This paper implements an agent-based network backup system used the backup, server-storage and server-backup agent these tripartite construction, and the snapshot and hierarchical index are used in the NSBS. It realizes the control command and data flow separation, balances the system load, thereby improving efficiency of the system backup and recovery. The test results show the agent-based network backup system can effectively improve the task-based concurrency, reasonably allocate network bandwidth, the system backup performance loss costs smaller and improves data recovery efficiency by 20%.

Keywords: Agent, network backup system, three architecture model, NSBS.

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23 Coloured Petri Nets Model for Web Architectures of Web and Database Servers

Authors: Nidhi Gaur, Padmaja Joshi, Vijay Jain, Rajeev Srivastava

Abstract:

Web application architecture is important to achieve the desired performance for the application. Performance analysis studies are conducted to evaluate existing or planned systems. Web applications are used by hundreds of thousands of users simultaneously, which sometimes increases the risk of server failure in real time operations. We use Coloured Petri Net (CPN), a very powerful tool for modelling dynamic behaviour of a web application system. CPNs extend the vocabulary of ordinary Petri nets and add features that make them suitable for modelling large systems. The major focus of this work is on server side of web applications. The presented work focuses on modelling restructuring aspects, with major focus on concurrency and architecture, using CPN. It also focuses on bringing out the appropriate architecture for web and database servers given the number of concurrent users.

Keywords: Coloured petri nets, concurrent users, performance modelling, web application architecture.

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22 Relaxation Dynamics of Quantum Emitters Resonantly Coupled to a Localized Surface Plasmon

Authors: Khachatur V. Nerkararyan, Sergey I. Bozhevolnyi

Abstract:

We investigate relaxation dynamics of a quantum dipole emitter (QDE), e.g., a molecule or quantum dot, located near a metal nanoparticle (MNP) exhibiting a dipolar localized surface plasmon (LSP) resonance at the frequency of the QDE radiative transition. It is shown that under the condition of the QDE-MNP characteristic relaxation time being much shorter than that of the QDE in free-space but much longer than the LSP lifetime. It is also shown that energy dissipation in the QDE-MNP system is relatively weak with the probability of the photon emission being about 0.75, a number which, rather surprisingly, does not explicitly depend on the metal absorption characteristics. The degree of entanglement measured by the concurrency takes the maximum value, while the distances between the QDEs and metal ball approximately are equal.

Keywords: Metal nanoparticle, Localized surface plasmon, Quantum dipole emitter, Relaxation dynamics.

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21 Distributed Manufacturing (DM) - Smart Units and Collaborative Processes

Authors: Hermann Kuehnle

Abstract:

Applications of the Hausdorff space and its mappings into tangent spaces are outlined, including their fractal dimensions and self-similarities. The paper details this theory set up and further describes virtualizations and atomization of manufacturing processes. It demonstrates novel concurrency principles that will guide manufacturing processes and resources configurations. Moreover, varying levels of details may be produced by up folding and breaking down of newly introduced generic models. This choice of layered generic models for units and systems aspects along specific aspects allows research work in parallel to other disciplines with the same focus on all levels of detail. More credit and easier access are granted to outside disciplines for enriching manufacturing grounds. Specific mappings and the layers give hints for chances for interdisciplinary outcomes and may highlight more details for interoperability standards, as already worked on the international level. The new rules are described, which require additional properties concerning all involved entities for defining distributed decision cycles, again on the base of self-similarity. All properties are further detailed and assigned to a maturity scale, eventually displaying the smartness maturity of a total shopfloor or a factory. The paper contributes to the intensive ongoing discussion in the field of intelligent distributed manufacturing and promotes solid concepts for implementations of Cyber Physical Systems and the Internet of Things into manufacturing industry, like industry 4.0, as discussed in German-speaking countries.

Keywords: Autonomous unit, Networkability, Smart manufacturing unit, Virtualization.

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20 Enhanced Disk-Based Databases Towards Improved Hybrid In-Memory Systems

Authors: Samuel Kaspi, Sitalakshmi Venkatraman

Abstract:

In-memory database systems are becoming popular due to the availability and affordability of sufficiently large RAM and processors in modern high-end servers with the capacity to manage large in-memory database transactions. While fast and reliable inmemory systems are still being developed to overcome cache misses, CPU/IO bottlenecks and distributed transaction costs, disk-based data stores still serve as the primary persistence. In addition, with the recent growth in multi-tenancy cloud applications and associated security concerns, many organisations consider the trade-offs and continue to require fast and reliable transaction processing of diskbased database systems as an available choice. For these organizations, the only way of increasing throughput is by improving the performance of disk-based concurrency control. This warrants a hybrid database system with the ability to selectively apply an enhanced disk-based data management within the context of inmemory systems that would help improve overall throughput. The general view is that in-memory systems substantially outperform disk-based systems. We question this assumption and examine how a modified variation of access invariance that we call enhanced memory access, (EMA) can be used to allow very high levels of concurrency in the pre-fetching of data in disk-based systems. We demonstrate how this prefetching in disk-based systems can yield close to in-memory performance, which paves the way for improved hybrid database systems. This paper proposes a novel EMA technique and presents a comparative study between disk-based EMA systems and in-memory systems running on hardware configurations of equivalent power in terms of the number of processors and their speeds. The results of the experiments conducted clearly substantiate that when used in conjunction with all concurrency control mechanisms, EMA can increase the throughput of disk-based systems to levels quite close to those achieved by in-memory system. The promising results of this work show that enhanced disk-based systems facilitate in improving hybrid data management within the broader context of in-memory systems.

Keywords: Concurrency control, disk-based databases, inmemory systems, enhanced memory access (EMA).

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19 Ensuring Consistency under the Snapshot Isolation

Authors: Carlos Roberto Valˆencio, F´abio Renato de Almeida, Thatiane Kawabata, Leandro Alves Neves, Julio Cesar Momente, Mario Luiz Tronco, Angelo Cesar Colombini

Abstract:

By running transactions under the SNAPSHOT isolation we can achieve a good level of concurrency, specially in databases with high-intensive read workloads. However, SNAPSHOT is not immune to all the problems that arise from competing transactions and therefore no serialization warranty exists. We propose in this paper a technique to obtain data consistency with SNAPSHOT by using some special triggers that we named DAEMON TRIGGERS. Besides keeping the benefits of the SNAPSHOT isolation, the technique is specially useful for those database systems that do not have an isolation level that ensures serializability, like Firebird and Oracle. We describe all the anomalies that might arise when using the SNAPSHOT isolation and show how to preclude them with DAEMON TRIGGERS. Based on the methodology presented here, it is also proposed the creation of a new isolation level: DAEMON SNAPSHOT.

Keywords: Data consistency, serialization, snapshot.

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18 Component Lifecycle and Concurrency Model in Usage Control (UCON) System

Authors: P. Ghann, J. Shiguang, C. Zhou

Abstract:

Access control is one of the most challenging issues facing information security. Access control is defined as, the ability to permit or deny access to a particular computational resource or digital information by an unauthorized user or subject. The concept of usage control (UCON) has been introduced as a unified approach to capture a number of extensions for access control models and systems. In UCON, an access decision is determined by three factors: authorizations, obligations and conditions. Attribute mutability and decision continuity are two distinct characteristics introduced by UCON for the first time. An observation of UCON components indicates that, the components are predefined and static. In this paper, we propose a new and flexible model of usage control for the creation and elimination of some of these components; for example new objects, subjects, attributes and integrate these with the original UCON model. We also propose a model for concurrent usage scenarios in UCON.

Keywords: Access Control, Concurrency, Digital container, Usage control.

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17 CScheme in Traditional Concurrency Problems

Authors: Nathar Shah, Visham Cheerkoot

Abstract:

CScheme, a concurrent programming paradigm based on scheme concept enables concurrency schemes to be constructed from smaller synchronization units through a GUI based composer and latter be reused on other concurrency problems of a similar nature. This paradigm is particularly important in the multi-core environment prevalent nowadays. In this paper, we demonstrate techniques to separate concurrency from functional code using the CScheme paradigm. Then we illustrate how the CScheme methodology can be used to solve some of the traditional concurrency problems – critical section problem, and readers-writers problem - using synchronization schemes such as Single Threaded Execution Scheme, and Readers Writers Scheme.

Keywords: Concurrent Programming, Object Oriented Programming, Environments for multiple-processor systems, Programming paradigms.

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16 Concurrency without Locking in Parallel Hash Structures used for Data Processing

Authors: Ákos Dudás, Sándor Juhász

Abstract:

Various mechanisms providing mutual exclusion and thread synchronization can be used to support parallel processing within a single computer. Instead of using locks, semaphores, barriers or other traditional approaches in this paper we focus on alternative ways for making better use of modern multithreaded architectures and preparing hash tables for concurrent accesses. Hash structures will be used to demonstrate and compare two entirely different approaches (rule based cooperation and hardware synchronization support) to an efficient parallel implementation using traditional locks. Comparison includes implementation details, performance ranking and scalability issues. We aim at understanding the effects the parallelization schemes have on the execution environment with special focus on the memory system and memory access characteristics.

Keywords: Lock-free synchronization, mutual exclusion, parallel hash tables, parallel performance

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15 Application of Java-based Pointcuts in Aspect Oriented Programming (AOP) for Data Race Detection

Authors: Sadaf Khalid, Fahim Arif

Abstract:

Wide applicability of concurrent programming practices in developing various software applications leads to different concurrency errors amongst which data race is the most important. Java provides greatest support for concurrent programming by introducing various concurrency packages. Aspect oriented programming (AOP) is modern programming paradigm facilitating the runtime interception of events of interest and can be effectively used to handle the concurrency problems. AspectJ being an aspect oriented extension to java facilitates the application of concepts of AOP for data race detection. Volatile variables are usually considered thread safe, but they can become the possible candidates of data races if non-atomic operations are performed concurrently upon them. Various data race detection algorithms have been proposed in the past but this issue of volatility and atomicity is still unaddressed. The aim of this research is to propose some suggestions for incorporating certain conditions for data race detection in java programs at the volatile fields by taking into account support for atomicity in java concurrency packages and making use of pointcuts. Two simple test programs will demonstrate the results of research. The results are verified on two different Java Development Kits (JDKs) for the purpose of comparison.

Keywords: Aspect Bench Compiler (abc), Aspect OrientedProgramming (AOP), AspectJ, Aspects, Concurrency packages, Concurrent programming, Cross-cutting Concerns, Data race, Eclipse, Java, Java Development Kits (JDKs), Pointcuts

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14 Dynamic Data Partition Algorithm for a Parallel H.264 Encoder

Authors: Juntae Kim, Jaeyoung Park, Kyoungkun Lee, Jong Tae Kim

Abstract:

The H.264/AVC standard is a highly efficient video codec providing high-quality videos at low bit-rates. As employing advanced techniques, the computational complexity has been increased. The complexity brings about the major problem in the implementation of a real-time encoder and decoder. Parallelism is the one of approaches which can be implemented by multi-core system. We analyze macroblock-level parallelism which ensures the same bit rate with high concurrency of processors. In order to reduce the encoding time, dynamic data partition based on macroblock region is proposed. The data partition has the advantages in load balancing and data communication overhead. Using the data partition, the encoder obtains more than 3.59x speed-up on a four-processor system. This work can be applied to other multimedia processing applications.

Keywords: H.264/AVC, video coding, thread-level parallelism, OpenMP, multimedia

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13 Effect of Network Communication Overhead on the Performance of Adaptive Speculative Locking Protocol

Authors: Waqar Haque, Pai Qi

Abstract:

The speculative locking (SL) protocol extends the twophase locking (2PL) protocol to allow for parallelism among conflicting transactions. The adaptive speculative locking (ASL) protocol provided further enhancements and outperformed SL protocols under most conditions. Neither of these protocols consider the impact of network latency on the performance of the distributed database systems. We have studied the performance of ASL protocol taking into account the communication overhead. The results indicate that though system load can counter network latency, it can still become a bottleneck in many situations. The impact of latency on performance depends on many factors including the system resources. A flexible discrete event simulator was used as the testbed for this study.

Keywords: concurrency control, distributed database systems, speculative locking

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12 Metadata Update Mechanism Improvements in Data Grid

Authors: S. Farokhzad, M. Reza Salehnamadi

Abstract:

Grid environments include aggregation of geographical distributed resources. Grid is put forward in three types of computational, data and storage. This paper presents a research on data grid. Data grid is used for covering and securing accessibility to data from among many heterogeneous sources. Users are not worry on the place where data is located in it, provided that, they should get access to the data. Metadata is used for getting access to data in data grid. Presently, application metadata catalogue and SRB middle-ware package are used in data grids for management of metadata. At this paper, possibility of updating, streamlining and searching is provided simultaneously and rapidly through classified table of preserving metadata and conversion of each table to numerous tables. Meanwhile, with regard to the specific application, the most appropriate and best division is set and determined. Concurrency of implementation of some of requests and execution of pipeline is adaptability as a result of this technique.

Keywords: Grids, data grid, metadata, update.

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11 Algebraic Specification of Serializability for Partitioned Transactions

Authors: Walter Hussak, John Keane

Abstract:

The usual correctness condition for a schedule of concurrent database transactions is some form of serializability of the transactions. For general forms, the problem of deciding whether a schedule is serializable is NP-complete. In those cases other approaches to proving correctness, using proof rules that allow the steps of the proof of serializability to be guided manually, are desirable. Such an approach is possible in the case of conflict serializability which is proved algebraically by deriving serial schedules using commutativity of non-conflicting operations. However, conflict serializability can be an unnecessarily strong form of serializability restricting concurrency and thereby reducing performance. In practice, weaker, more general, forms of serializability for extended models of transactions are used. Currently, there are no known methods using proof rules for proving those general forms of serializability. In this paper, we define serializability for an extended model of partitioned transactions, which we show to be as expressive as serializability for general partitioned transactions. An algebraic method for proving general serializability is obtained by giving an initial-algebra specification of serializable schedules of concurrent transactions in the model. This demonstrates that it is possible to conduct algebraic proofs of correctness of concurrent transactions in general cases.

Keywords: Algebraic Specification, Partitioned Transactions, Serializability.

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10 Aspect based Reusable Synchronization Schemes

Authors: Nathar Shah

Abstract:

Concurrency and synchronization are becoming big issues as every new PC comes with multi-core processors. A major reason for Object-Oriented Programming originally was to enable easier reuse: encode your algorithm into a class and thoroughly debug it, then you can reuse the class again and again. However, when we get to concurrency and synchronization, this is often not possible. Thread-safety issues means that synchronization constructs need to be entangled into every class involved. We contributed a detailed literature review of issues and challenges in concurrent programming and present a methodology that uses the Aspect- Oriented paradigm to address this problem. Aspects will allow us to extract the synchronization concerns as schemes to be “weaved in" later into the main code. This allows the aspects to be separately tested and verified. Hence, the functional components can be weaved with reusable synchronization schemes that are robust and scalable.

Keywords: Aspect-orientation, development methodologysoftware concurrency, synchronization.

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9 Concurrency in Web Access Patterns Mining

Authors: Jing Lu, Malcolm Keech, Weiru Chen

Abstract:

Web usage mining is an interesting application of data mining which provides insight into customer behaviour on the Internet. An important technique to discover user access and navigation trails is based on sequential patterns mining. One of the key challenges for web access patterns mining is tackling the problem of mining richly structured patterns. This paper proposes a novel model called Web Access Patterns Graph (WAP-Graph) to represent all of the access patterns from web mining graphically. WAP-Graph also motivates the search for new structural relation patterns, i.e. Concurrent Access Patterns (CAP), to identify and predict more complex web page requests. Corresponding CAP mining and modelling methods are proposed and shown to be effective in the search for and representation of concurrency between access patterns on the web. From experiments conducted on large-scale synthetic sequence data as well as real web access data, it is demonstrated that CAP mining provides a powerful method for structural knowledge discovery, which can be visualised through the CAP-Graph model.

Keywords: concurrent access patterns (CAP), CAP mining and modelling, CAP-Graph, web access patterns (WAP), WAP-Graph, Web usage mining.

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8 Double Reduction of Ada-ECATNet Representation using Rewriting Logic

Authors: Noura Boudiaf, Allaoua Chaoui

Abstract:

One major difficulty that faces developers of concurrent and distributed software is analysis for concurrency based faults like deadlocks. Petri nets are used extensively in the verification of correctness of concurrent programs. ECATNets [2] are a category of algebraic Petri nets based on a sound combination of algebraic abstract types and high-level Petri nets. ECATNets have 'sound' and 'complete' semantics because of their integration in rewriting logic [12] and its programming language Maude [13]. Rewriting logic is considered as one of very powerful logics in terms of description, verification and programming of concurrent systems. We proposed in [4] a method for translating Ada-95 tasking programs to ECATNets formalism (Ada-ECATNet). In this paper, we show that ECATNets formalism provides a more compact translation for Ada programs compared to the other approaches based on simple Petri nets or Colored Petri nets (CPNs). Such translation doesn-t reduce only the size of program, but reduces also the number of program states. We show also, how this compact Ada-ECATNet may be reduced again by applying reduction rules on it. This double reduction of Ada-ECATNet permits a considerable minimization of the memory space and run time of corresponding Maude program.

Keywords: Ada tasking, ECATNets, Algebraic Petri Nets, Compact Representation, Analysis, Rewriting Logic, Maude.

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7 Automatic Translation of Ada-ECATNet Using Rewriting Logic

Authors: N. Boudiaf

Abstract:

One major difficulty that faces developers of concurrent and distributed software is analysis for concurrency based faults like deadlocks. Petri nets are used extensively in the verification of correctness of concurrent programs. ECATNets are a category of algebraic Petri nets based on a sound combination of algebraic abstract types and high-level Petri nets. ECATNets have 'sound' and 'complete' semantics because of their integration in rewriting logic and its programming language Maude. Rewriting logic is considered as one of very powerful logics in terms of description, verification and programming of concurrent systems We proposed previously a method for translating Ada-95 tasking programs to ECATNets formalism (Ada-ECATNet) and we showed that ECATNets formalism provides a more compact translation for Ada programs compared to the other approaches based on simple Petri nets or Colored Petri nets. We showed also previously how the ECATNet formalism offers to Ada many validation and verification tools like simulation, Model Checking, accessibility analysis and static analysis. In this paper, we describe the implementation of our translation of the Ada programs into ECATNets.

Keywords: Ada tasking, Analysis, Automatic Translation, ECATNets, Maude, Rewriting Logic.

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6 A Fault Tolerant Token-based Algorithm for Group Mutual Exclusion in Distributed Systems

Authors: Abhishek Swaroop, Awadhesh Kumar Singh

Abstract:

The group mutual exclusion (GME) problem is a variant of the mutual exclusion problem. In the present paper a token-based group mutual exclusion algorithm, capable of handling transient faults, is proposed. The algorithm uses the concept of dynamic request sets. A time out mechanism is used to detect the token loss; also, a distributed scheme is used to regenerate the token. The worst case message complexity of the algorithm is n+1. The maximum concurrency and forum switch complexity of the algorithm are n and min (n, m) respectively, where n is the number of processes and m is the number of groups. The algorithm also satisfies another desirable property called smooth admission. The scheme can also be adapted to handle the extended group mutual exclusion problem.

Keywords: Dynamic request sets, Fault tolerance, Smoothadmission, Transient faults.

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5 An Exploratory Environment for Concurrency Control Algorithms

Authors: Jinhua Guo

Abstract:

Designing, implementing, and debugging concurrency control algorithms in a real system is a complex, tedious, and errorprone process. Further, understanding concurrency control algorithms and distributed computations is itself a difficult task. Visualization can help with both of these problems. Thus, we have developed an exploratory environment in which people can prototype and test various versions of concurrency control algorithms, study and debug distributed computations, and view performance statistics of distributed systems. In this paper, we describe the exploratory environment and show how it can be used to explore concurrency control algorithms for the interactive steering of distributed computations.

Keywords: Consistency, Distributed Computing, InteractiveSteering, Simulation, Visualization

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4 A New Approach for Recoverable Timestamp Ordering Schedule

Authors: Hassan M. Najadat

Abstract:

A new approach for timestamp ordering problem in serializable schedules is presented. Since the number of users using databases is increasing rapidly, the accuracy and needing high throughput are main topics in database area. Strict 2PL does not allow all possible serializable schedules and so does not result high throughput. The main advantages of the approach are the ability to enforce the execution of transaction to be recoverable and the high achievable performance of concurrent execution in central databases. Comparing to Strict 2PL, the general structure of the algorithm is simple, free deadlock, and allows executing all possible serializable schedules which results high throughput. Various examples which include different orders of database operations are discussed.

Keywords: Concurrency control, schedule, timestamp, transaction.

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3 Replicating Data Objects in Large-scale Distributed Computing Systems using Extended Vickrey Auction

Authors: Samee Ullah Khan, Ishfaq Ahmad

Abstract:

This paper proposes a novel game theoretical technique to address the problem of data object replication in largescale distributed computing systems. The proposed technique draws inspiration from computational economic theory and employs the extended Vickrey auction. Specifically, players in a non-cooperative environment compete for server-side scarce memory space to replicate data objects so as to minimize the total network object transfer cost, while maintaining object concurrency. Optimization of such a cost in turn leads to load balancing, fault-tolerance and reduced user access time. The method is experimentally evaluated against four well-known techniques from the literature: branch and bound, greedy, bin-packing and genetic algorithms. The experimental results reveal that the proposed approach outperforms the four techniques in both the execution time and solution quality.

Keywords: Auctions, data replication, pricing, static allocation.

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2 A Distributed Group Mutual Exclusion Algorithm for Soft Real Time Systems

Authors: Abhishek Swaroop, Awadhesh Kumar Singh

Abstract:

The group mutual exclusion (GME) problem is an interesting generalization of the mutual exclusion problem. Several solutions of the GME problem have been proposed for message passing distributed systems. However, none of these solutions is suitable for real time distributed systems. In this paper, we propose a token-based distributed algorithms for the GME problem in soft real time distributed systems. The algorithm uses the concepts of priority queue, dynamic request set and the process state. The algorithm uses first come first serve approach in selecting the next session type between the same priority levels and satisfies the concurrent occupancy property. The algorithm allows all n processors to be inside their CS provided they request for the same session. The performance analysis and correctness proof of the algorithm has also been included in the paper.

Keywords: Concurrency, Group mutual exclusion, Priority, Request set, Token.

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1 A Programming Solution for Moving Mobile Transaction

Authors: Osman Mohammed Hegazy, Ali Hamed El Bastawissy, Romani Farid Ibrahim

Abstract:

In this paper, our concern is the management of mobile transactions in the shared area among many servers, when the mobile user moves from one cell to another in online partiallyreplicated distributed mobile database environment. We defined the concept of transaction and classified the different types of transactions. Based on this analysis, we propose an algorithm that handles the disconnection due to moving among sites.

Keywords: Concurrency, mobile database, transaction processing, two phase locking.

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