Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 661

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Medical and Health Sciences]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

661 Arteriosclerosis and Periodontitis: Correlation Expressed in the Amount of Fibrinogen in Blood

Authors: Nevila Alliu, Saimir Heta, Ilma Robo, Vera Ostreni


Periodontitis as an oral pathology caused by specific bacterial flora functions as a focal infection for the onset and aggravation of arteriosclerosis. These two distant pathologies, since they affect organs at a distance from each other, communicate with each other with correlation at the level of markers of inflammation in the blood. Fluctuations in the level of fibrinogen in the blood, depending on the active or passive phase of the existing periodontitis, affect the promotion of arteriosclerosis. The study is of the brief communication article type with the aim to analyze the effect of non-surgical periodontal treatment on fluctuations in the level of fibrinogen in the blood. The reduction of fibrinogen's level in blood after non-surgical periodontal treatment of periodontitis in the patient's oral cavity, is a common consequence supported by literature sources. Also, the influence of a high amount of fibrinogen in blood on the occurrence of arteriosclerosis at the same patient, is also another important data that again rely on many sources of literature. Thromboembolism and arteriosclerosis, as risk factors expressed in clinical data, have temporary bacteremia in the blood, which can occur significantly and often between phases of non-surgical periodontal treatment of periodontitis, treatments performed with treatment phases and protocols of predetermined treatment. Arterial thromboembolism has a significant factor, such as high levels of fibrinogen in the blood, which are significantly reduced during the period of non-surgical periodontal treatment.

Keywords: Fibrinogen, refractory periodontitis, atherosclerosis, non-surgical, periodontal treatment.

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660 Dental Ethics versus Malpractice, as Phenomenon with a Growing Trend

Authors: Saimir Heta, Kers Kapaj, Rialda Xhizdari, Ilma Robo


Dealing with emerging cases of dental malpractice with justifications that stem from the clear rules of dental ethics is a phenomenon with an increasing trend in today's dental practice. Dentists should clearly understand how far the limit of malpractice goes, with or without minimal or major consequences, for the affected patient, which can be justified as a complication of dental treatment, in support of the rules of dental ethics in the dental office. Indeed, malpractice can occur in cases of lack of professionalism, but it can also come as a consequence of anatomical and physiological limitations in the implementation of the dental protocols, predetermined and indicated by the patient in the paragraph of the treatment plan in his personal card. Let this article serve as a short communication between readers and interested parties about the problems that dental malpractice can bring to the community. Malpractice should not be seen only as a professional wrong approach, but also as a phenomenon that can occur during dental practice. The aim of this article is presentation of the latest data published in the literature about malpractice. The combination of keywords is done in such a way with the aim to give the necessary space for collecting the right information in the networks of publications about this field, always first from the point of view of the dentist and not from that of the lawyer or jurist. From the findings included in this article, it was noticed that the diversity of approaches towards the phenomenon depends on the different countries based on the legal basis that these countries have. There is a lack of or a small number of articles that touch on this topic, and these articles are presented with a limited amount of data on the same topic. Dental malpractice should not be hidden under the guise of various dental complications that we justify with the strict rules of ethics for patients treated in the dental chair. The individual experience of dental malpractice must be published with the aim of serving as a source of experience for future generations of dentists.

Keywords: Dental ethics, malpractice, professional protocol, random deviation, dental tourism.

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659 Indications and Characteristics of Clinical Application of Periodontal Suturing

Authors: Saimir Heta, Ilma Robo, Vera Ostreni, Glorja Demika, Sonila Kapaj


Suturing, as a procedure of joining the lips of the lembo or wound, is important at the beginning of the healing process. This procedure helps to pass the healing process from the procedure per secundam to the stages of healing per primam, thus logically reducing the healing time of the wound. The purpose of this article is to publish some data on the clinical characteristics of periodontal suturing, presenting the advantages and disadvantages of different types of suture threads. The article is a mini-review type of articles selected from the application of keywords on the PubMed page. The number of articles extracted from this article publication page is in accordance with the 10-year publication time limit. The element that remains in the individual selection of the dentist applying the suture is the selection of the suture material. At a moment when some types of sutures are offered for use, some elements should be considered in the selection of the suture depending on the constituent material, the cross-section of the suture elements, and whether it collects bacteria in the "pits" created by the material. The presence of bacteria is a source of infection and possible delay in the healing of the sutured wound. The marketing of suture types offers a variety of materials, from which the selection of the most suitable suture type for specific application cases is a personal indication of the dental surgeon based on professional experiences and knowledge in this field.

Keywords: Suture, suture material, types of sutures, clinical application.

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658 Temperature Related Alterations to Mineral Levels and Crystalline Structure in Porcine Long Bone: Intense Heat vs. Open Flame

Authors: Caighley Logan, Suzzanne McColl


The outcome of fire related fatalities, along with other research, has found fires can have a detrimental effect to the mineral and crystalline structures within bone. This study focused on the mineral and crystalline structures within porcine bone samples to analyse the changes caused, with the intent of effectively ‘reverse engineering’ the data collected from burned bone samples to discover what may have happened. Using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), the data were collected from a controlled source of intense heat (muffle furnace) and an open fire, based in a living room setting in a standard size shipping container (2.5 m x 2.4 m) of a similar temperature with a known ignition source, a gasoline lighter. This approach is to analyse the changes to the samples and how the changes differ depending on the heat source. Results have found significant differences in the levels of remaining minerals for each type of heat/burning (p =< 0.001), particularly Phosphorus and Calcium, this also includes notable additions of absorbed elements and minerals from the surrounding materials, i.e., Cerium (Ce), Bromine (Br) and Neodymium (Ne). The analysis techniques included provide validated results in conjunction with previous studies.

Keywords: Forensic anthropology, thermal alterations, porcine bone, FTIR, XRF.

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657 Physicochemical Activities of Blood Biomarkers Due to Ingestible Radon-222 in Drinking Water and Its Associated Health Consequences

Authors: I. M. Yusuff, A. M. Arogunjo, S. B. Ibikunle, O. M. Oni, P. O. Osho


Generally, water contamination is a serious health concern, affecting millions of people worldwide every year. Among the water contaminants, radon is a radioactive contaminant understudied and under-regulated. It produces many adverse health effects, including cancer. It is a natural gas that cannot be seen, tasted, or smelled. It develops from the radioactive decay of radium found in the rock of soil and has been considered a health hazard due to its radioactivity in nature. To examine its effects and physicochemical characteristics on the blood biomarkers due to its ingestion in drinking water, its concentrations were monitored and measured in treated and untreated water using Electronic Radon Active Detector (RAD7), while human blood samples were collected using the required laboratory tools. The blood samples were collected and examined physicochemically using semi-automated chemistry analyzer to evaluate the chemistry parameters of the blood. Statistically, results obtained were analyzed using T-test of variables at 95% confidence interval. The outcome of results revealed 112.03 Bq/m3, 561.67 Bq/m3 and 2,753.00 Bq/m3 of radon-222 concentrations in the three water samples used respectively. Demographically, chemistry parameters biomarkers of the blood determined displayed some levels of variations due to radon-222 contaminants ingested from untreated water. Also, analyzed results of blood revealed the associations between the physicochemical parameters of the blood biomarkers and volunteers’ health consequences. The consequences observed were more severed with group B volunteers than group A, due to high level of radon contaminants in borehole water consumed by group B than in well water consumed by group A. The percentages of elevated and depressed biomarkers observed differ from initial reference values and, were the dysfunction indicators. They are directly or indirectly associated to human’s state of health. Most significant biomarkers affected were; HCO3, Cl, K, Cr and Na, they are relevant biomarkers in medicine to determine human’s state of health at any point in time.

Keywords: Radioactive, radon, biomarker, ingestion, dysfunction.

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656 The Contribution of Diet and Lifestyle Factors in the Prevalence of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Authors: Alexander Dao, Oscar Wambuguh


Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a heterogeneous functional bowel disease that is characterized by chronic visceral abdominal pain and abnormal bowel function and habits. Its multifactorial pathophysiology and mechanisms are still largely a mystery to the contemporary biomedical community, although there are many hypotheses to try to explain IBS’s presumed physiological, psychosocial, genetic, and environmental etiologies. IBS’s symptomatic presentation is varied and divided into four major subtypes: IBS-C, IBS-D, IBS-M, and IBS-U. Given its diverse presentation and unclear mechanisms, diagnosis is done through a combination of positive identification utilizing the “Rome IV Irritable Bowel Syndrome Criteria'' (Rome IV) diagnostic criteria while also excluding other potential conditions with similar symptoms. Treatment of IBS is focused on the management of symptoms using an assortment of pharmaceuticals, lifestyle changes, and dietary changes, with future potential in microbial treatment and psychotherapy as other therapy methods. Its chronic, heterogeneous nature and disruptive gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are negatively impactful on patients’ daily lives, health systems, and society. However, with a better understanding of the gaps in knowledge and technological advances in IBS’s pathophysiology, management, and treatment options, there is optimism for the millions of people worldwide who are suffering from the debilitating effects of IBS.

Keywords: Irritable bowel syndrome, lifestyle, diet, functional gastrointestinal disorder.

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655 Artificial Intelligence-Based Detection of Individuals Suffering from Vestibular Disorder

Authors: D. Hişam, S. İkizoğlu


Identifying the problem behind balance disorder is one of the most interesting topics in medical literature. This study has considerably enhanced the development of artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms applying multiple machine learning (ML) models to sensory data on gait collected from humans to classify between normal people and those suffering from Vestibular System (VS) problems. Although AI is widely utilized as a diagnostic tool in medicine, AI models have not been used to perform feature extraction and identify VS disorders through training on raw data. In this study, three ML models, the Random Forest Classifier (RF), Extreme Gradient Boosting (XGB), and K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN), have been trained to detect VS disorder, and the performance comparison of the algorithms has been made using accuracy, recall, precision, and f1-score. With an accuracy of 95.28 %, Random Forest (RF) Classifier was the most accurate model.

Keywords: Vestibular disorder, machine learning, random forest classifier, k-nearest neighbor, extreme gradient boosting.

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654 Preventive Interventions for Central Venous Catheter Infections in Intensive Care Units: A Systematic Literature Review

Authors: Jakob Renko, Deja Praprotnik, Kristina Martinovič, Igor Karnjuš


Catheter-related bloodstream infections are a major burden for healthcare and patients. Although infections of this type cannot be completely avoided, they can be reduced by taking preventive measures. The aim of this study is to review and analyze the existing literature on preventive interventions to prevent central venous catheters (CVC) infections. A systematic literature review was carried out. The international databases CINAHL, Medline, PubMed, and Web of Science were searched using the search strategy: "catheter-related infections" AND "intensive care units" AND "prevention" AND "central venous catheter." Articles that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were included in the study. The literature search flow is illustrated by the PRISMA diagram. The descriptive research method was used to analyze the data. Out of 554 search results, 22 surveys were included in the final analysis. We identified seven relevant preventive measures to prevent CVC infections: washing the whole body with chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) solution, disinfecting the CVC entry site with CHG solution, use of CHG or silver dressings, alcohol protective caps, CVC care education, selecting appropriate catheter and multicomponent care bundles. Both single interventions and multicomponent care bundles have been shown to be currently effective measures to prevent CVC infections in adult patients in the ICU. None of the measures identified stood out in terms of their effectiveness. Prevention work to reduce CVC infections in the ICU is a complex process that requires the simultaneous consideration of several factors.

Keywords: Central venous access, critically ill patients, hospital-acquired complications, prevention.

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653 Traumatic Ankle Pain: Adequacy of Clinical Information in X-Ray Request with Reference to the Ottawa Ankle Rule

Authors: Rania Mustafa


This audit was conducted at Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Wythenshawe Hospital Radiology and Accident and Emergency [A&E] Department to assess the appropriateness of clinical information in X-ray requests, specifically in cases of acute ankle injuries. As per the Ottawa Ankle Rules and the recommendations of National Institute for Health and Care Excellence [NICE] and the Royal College of Radiology, we aimed to evaluate the appropriateness of referrals and the thoroughness of clinical information provided by Emergency Department [ED] clinicians for ankle radiography. Our goal was to achieve 100% compliance with these guidelines. The audit involved a comprehensive analysis spanning the period from August 2022 to January 2023, encompassing patient records, radiographic orders, and clinical assessments. Data collection included patient demographics, presenting complaints, clinical assessments, adherence to Ottawa Ankle Rules criteria, and subsequent radiography orders. Here we conducted two audit cycles, involving 38 patients in the first cycle and 86 patients in the second cycle. The data were furtherly filtered to include all patients who were referred from the ED for an ankle Xray with a history of acute trauma and age of more than 18 years. The key finding was that in August 2022, 60% of cases met the Ottawa Ankle Rules criteria accurately, indicating a need for improvement in adherence. However, by January 2023, there was a notable improvement, with 95% of cases accurately meeting the criteria. This significant change reflects an increased alignment with best practices for ankle radiography referrals.

Keywords: Ankle, injuries, Ottawa Ankle Rule, X-rays.

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652 Development of an Omaha System-Based Remote Intervention Program for Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders among Front-Line Nurses

Authors: Tianqiao Zhang, Ye Tian, Yanliang Yin, Yichao Tian, Suzhai Tian, Weige Sun, Ruoliang Tang


Heavy biomechanical loads at workplaces may lead to high risks of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). However, there is a lack of investigations on the efficacy of the ergonomic interventions with theoretical frameworks. This study aimed to formulate an Omaha System based remote intervention program on the WMSDs among nurses by systematic literature review, interviews, expert consultation. After screening title and abstract, 11 articles out of the initial search results (i.e., n=1,418) were included, 12 nurses were interviewed, and 10 experts were consulted to review the initial intervention program. Modification to the draft included (1) supplementing traditional Chinese medicine practices, (2) adding the use of assistive patient handling equipment, (3) revising the on-line training method, (4) editing and proofreading the main text of the initial program, (5) adding quizzes and exercise scales, (6) it was determined that the associated coursework should be announced promptly with multiple follow-up reminders, and (7) removing bodyweight superman exercise, and peaceful/calm meditation. In the end, the final intervention program was developed.

Keywords: Omaha System, nurses, remote intervention, musculoskeletal disease.

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651 Impact of Standardized Therapeutic Hypothermia Protocol on Neurological Performance after Resuscitation from Cardiac Arrest

Authors: Tahsien Mohamed Okasha, Warda Youssef Mohamed Morsy, Hanan Elsayed Zaghla


We hypothesized that post cardiac arrest patients with Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of less than 8 and who will be exposed to therapeutic hypothermia protocol will exhibit improvement in their neurological performance. 17 subjects were enrolled in this study all over one year. The study was carried out using Quasi-experimental research design. Four tools were used for data collection of this study: Demographic and medical data sheet, Post cardiac arrest health assessment sheet, Bedside Shivering Assessment Scale (BSAS), and Glasgow Pittsburgh cerebral performance category scale (CPC). The mean age was X̅ ± SD = 53 ± 8.122 years, 47.1% were arrested because of cardiac etiology. 35.3% subjects were initially arrested in form of ventricular tachycardia (VT), 23.5% initially arrested in form of ventricular fibrillation (VF), and 29.4% in form of A-Systole. Favorable neurological outcome was seen among 70.6%. There was significant statistical difference in WBC, Platelets, blood gases value, random blood sugar. Also, initial arrest rhythm, etiology of cardiac arrest, and shivering status were significantly correlated with cerebral performance categories score. Therapeutic hypothermia has positive effects on neurological performance among post cardiac arrest patients with GCS score of less than 8. Replication of the study on larger probability sample, with randomized control trial design is recommended with further study for suggesting nursing protocol for patients undergoing therapeutic hypothermia is recommended.

Keywords: Therapeutic hypothermia, neurological performance, after resuscitation from cardiac arrest, initial arrest rhythm.

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650 Appraisal of Trace Elements in Scalp Hair of School Children in Kandal Province, Cambodia

Authors: A. Yavar, S. Sarmani, K. S. Khoo


The analysis of trace elements in human hair provides crucial insights into an individual's nutritional status and environmental exposure. This research aimed to examine the levels of toxic and essential elements in the scalp hair of school children aged 12-17 from three villages (Anglong Romiot (AR), Svay Romiot (SR), and Kampong Kong (KK)) in Cambodia's Kandal province, a region where residents are especially vulnerable to toxic elements, notably arsenic (As), due to their dietary habits, lifestyle, and environmental conditions. The scalp hair samples were analyzed using the k0-Instrumental Neutron Activation method (k0-INAA), with a six-hour irradiation period in the Malaysian Nuclear Agency (MNA) research reactor followed by High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector use to identify the gamma peaks of radionuclides. The analysis identified 31 elements in the human hair from the study area, including As, Au, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Dy, Eu-152m, Hg-197, Hg-203, Ho, Ir, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Pa, Pt-195m, Pt-197, Sb, Sc-46, Sc-47, Sm, Sn-117m, W-181, W-187, Yb-169, Yb-175, Zn, and Zn-69m. The accuracy of the method was verified through the analysis of ERM-DB001-human hair as a Certified Reference Material (CRM), with the results demonstrating consistency with the certified values. Given the prevalent arsenic pollution in the research area, the study also examined the relationship between the concentration of As and other elements using Pearson's correlation test. The outcomes offer a comprehensive resource for future investigations into toxic and essential element presence in the region. In the main body of the paper, a more extensive discussion on the implications of arsenic pollution and the correlations observed is provided to enhance understanding and inform future research directions.

Keywords: Human scalp hair, toxic and essential elements, Kandal Province, Cambodia, k0-Instrumental Neutron Activation Method.

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649 The Relationship between Anthropometric Obesity Indices and Insulin in Children with Metabolic Syndrome

Authors: Mustafa M. Donma, Orkide Donma


The number of indices developed for the evaluation of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) both in adults and pediatric population is ever increasing. These indices can be weight-dependent or weight–independent. Some are extremely sophisticated equations and their clinical utility is questionable in routine clinical practice. The aim of this study was to compare presently available obesity indices and find the most practical one. Their associations with MetS components were also investigated to determine their capacities in differential diagnosis of morbid obesity with and without MetS. Children with normal body mass index (N-BMI) and morbid obesity were recruited for this study. Three groups were constituted. Age- and sex-dependent BMI percentiles for morbid obese (MO) children were above 99 according to World Health Organization tables. Of them, those with MetS findings were evaluated as MetS group. Children, whose values were between 85 and 15, were included in N-BMI group. The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of Tekirdag Namik Kemal University, Faculty of Medicine. Parents filled out informed consent forms to participate in the study. Anthropometric measurements and blood pressure values were recorded. BMI, hip index (HI), conicity index (CI), triponderal mass index (TPMI), body adiposity index (BAI), body shape index (BSI), body roundness index (BRI), abdominal volume index (AVI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and [waist circumference (WC) + hip circumference (HC)]/2 were the formulas examined in this study. Routine biochemical tests including fasting blood glucose (FBG), insulin (INS), blood lipids were performed. Statistical program SPSS was used for the evaluation of study data; p < 0.05 was accepted as the statistical significance degree. HI did not differ among the groups. A statistically significant difference was noted between N-BMI and MetS groups in terms of ABSI. All the other indices were capable of making discrimination between N-BMI-MO, N-BMI- MetS and MO-MetS groups. No correlation was found between FBG and any obesity indices in any groups. The same was true for INS in N-BMI group. Insulin was correlated with BAI, TPMI, CI, BRI, AVI and (WC+HC)/2 in MO group without MetS findings. In the MetS group, the only index, which was correlated with INS, was (WC+HC)/2. These findings have pointed out that complicated formulas may not be required for the evaluation of the alterations among N-BMI and various obesity groups including MetS. The simple easily computable weight-independent index, (WC+HC)/2, was unique, because it was the only index, which exhibits a valuable association with INS in MetS group. It did not exhibit any correlation with other obesity indices showing associations with INS in MO group. It was concluded that (WC+HC)/2 was pretty valuable practicable index for the discrimination of MO children with and without MetS findings.

Keywords: Fasting blood glucose, insulin, metabolic syndrome, obesity indices.

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648 An Index for the Differential Diagnosis of Morbid Obese Children with and without Metabolic Syndrome

Authors: Mustafa M. Donma, Orkide Donma


Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a severe health problem caused by morbid obesity, the severest form of obesity. The components of MetS are rather stable in adults. However, the diagnosis of MetS in morbid obese (MO) children still constitutes a matter of discussion. The aim of this study was to develop a formula, which facilitated the diagnosis of MetS in MO children and was capable of discriminating MO children with and without MetS findings. The study population comprised MO children. Age and sex-dependent body mass index (BMI) percentiles of the children were above 99. Increased blood pressure, elevated fasting blood glucose (FBG), elevated triglycerides (TRG) and/or decreased high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in addition to central obesity were listed as MetS components for each child. Two groups were constituted. In the first group, there were 42 MO children without MetS components. Second group was composed of 44 MO children with at least two MetS components. Anthropometric measurements including weight, height, waist and hip circumferences were performed during physical examination. BMI and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values were calculated. Informed consent forms were obtained from the parents of the children. Institutional Non-Interventional Clinical Studies Ethics Committee approved the study design. Routine biochemical analyses including FBG, insulin (INS), TRG, HDL-C were performed. The performance and the clinical utility of Diagnostic Obesity Notation Model Assessment Metabolic Syndrome Index (DONMA MetS index) [(INS/FBG)/(HDL-C/TRG)*100] was tested. Appropriate statistical tests were applied to the study data. p value smaller than 0.05 was defined as significant. MetS index values were 41.6 ± 5.1 in MO group and 104.4 ± 12.8 in MetS group. Corresponding values for HDL-C values were 54.5 ± 13.2 mg/dl and 44.2 ± 11.5 mg/dl. There was a statistically significant difference between the groups (p < 0.001). Upon evaluation of the correlations between MetS index and HDL-C values, a much stronger negative correlation was found in MetS group (r = -0.515; p = 0.001) in comparison with the correlation detected in MO group (r = -0.371; p = 0.016). From these findings, it was concluded that the statistical significance degree of the difference between MO and MetS groups was highly acceptable for this recently introduced MetS index. This was due to the involvement of all of the biochemically defined MetS components into the index. This is particularly important because each of these four parameters used in the formula is a cardiac risk factor. Aside from discriminating MO children with and without MetS findings, MetS index introduced in this study is important from the cardiovascular risk point of view in MetS group of children.

Keywords: Fasting blood glucose, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, insulin, metabolic syndrome, morbid obesity, triglycerides.

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647 The Link between Anthropometry and Fat-Based Obesity Indices in Pediatric Morbid Obesity

Authors: Mustafa M. Donma, Orkide Donma


Anthropometric measurements are essential for obesity studies. Waist circumference (WC) is the most frequently used measure and along with hip circumference (HC), it is used in most equations derived for the evaluation of obese individuals. Morbid obesity (MO) is the most severe clinical form of obesity and such individuals may also exhibit some clinical findings leading to metabolic syndrome (MetS). Then, it becomes a requirement to discriminate MO children with MetS (MOMetS+) from MO children without MetS (MOMetS-). Almost all obesity indices can differentiate obese (OB) children from children with normal body mass index (N-BMI). However, not all of them are capable of making this distinction. The aim of this study was to find out the clinical availability of (waist circumference + hip circumference)/2 ((WC+HC)/2) for the differential diagnosis of MOMetS+ and MOMetS- and to compare the possible preponderance of it over some other anthropometric or fat-based obesity indices. 45 MOMetS+ and 45 MOMetS- children were included in the study. Participants have submitted informed consent forms. The study protocol was approved by the Non-interventional Clinical Studies Ethics Committee of Tekirdag Namik Kemal University. Anthropometric measurements were performed. BMI, waist-to-hip circumference (WHR), (WC+HC)/2, trunk-to-leg fat ratio (TLFR), trunk-to-appendicular fat ratio (TAFR), trunk fat+leg fat/2 ((trunk+leg fat)/2), diagnostic obesity notation model assessment index-2 (D2I) and fat mass index (FMI) were calculated for both groups. Study data were analyzed statistically and 0.05 for p value was accepted as the statistical significance degree. Statistically higher BMI, WC, (WC+HC)/2, (trunk+leg fat)/2 values were found in MOMetS+ children than MOMetS- children. No statistically significant difference was detected for WHR, TLFR, TAFR, D2I and FMI between two groups. The lack of difference between the groups in terms of FMI and D2I pointed out the fact that the recently developed fat-based index; (trunk+leg fat)/2 gives much more valuable information during the evaluation of MOMetS+ and MOMetS- children. Upon evaluation of the correlations, (WC+HC)/2 was strongly correlated with D2I and FMI in both MOMetS+ and MOMetS- groups. Neither D2I nor FMI was correlated with W/H. Strong correlations were calculated between (WC+HC)/2 and (trunk+leg fat)/2 in both MOMetS- (r = 0.961; p < 0.001) and MOMetS+ (r = 0.936; p < 0.001) groups. Partial correlations between (WC+HC)/2 and (trunk+leg fat)/2 after controlling the effect of basal metabolic rate were r = 0.726; p < 0.001 in MOMetS- group and r = 0.932; p < 0.001 in MOMetS+ group. The correlation in the latter group was higher than the first group. In conclusion, recently developed anthropometric obesity index (WC+HC)/2 and fat-based obesity index (trunk+leg fat)/2 were of preponderance over the previously introduced classical obesity indices such as WHR, D2I and FMI during the differential diagnosis of MOMetS+ and MOMetS- children.

Keywords: Hip circumference, metabolic syndrome, morbid obesity, waist circumference.

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646 The Evaluation of Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Children with Morbid Obesity

Authors: Mustafa M. Donma, Orkide Donma


Cardiovascular (CV) pathology is one of the expected consequences of excessive fat gain. The role of zinc (Zn) in thyroid hormone metabolism (THM) is a matter of debate. Both thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and Zn levels are subject to variation in obese individuals. Zn participates in THM. It is closely related to TSH. Since thyroid hormones are required for Zn absorption, hypothyroidism can lead to Zn deficiency and vice versa. Zn exhibits protective effects on CV health and it is inversely correlated with CV markers in childhood obesity. The association between subclinical hypothyroidism (SCHT) and metabolic disorders is under investigation due to its clinical importance. SCHT is defined as the elevated serum TSH levels in the presence of normal free thyroxin (T4) concentrations. The aim of this study is to evaluate the associations between TSH levels and Zn concentrations in SCHT cases detected in morbid obese (MO) children with and without metabolic syndrome (MetS) [(MOMetS+ and MOMetS-)], respectively. 42 children were present in each study group. Informed consent forms were obtained. Tekrdag Namik Kemal University Faculty of Medicine Non-Interventional Clinical Investigations Ethical Committee approved the study protocol. World Health Organization criteria were used for obesity classification. Children with age and sex-dependent body mass index percentile values above 99 were defined as MO. Children exhibiting at least two of MetS criteria were included in MOMetS+ group. Elevated fasting blood glucose, elevated triglycerides (TRG)/decreased high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations, elevated blood pressure values in addition to central obesity were listed as MetS criteria. Anthropometric measures were recorded. Routine biochemical analyses were performed. In MOMetS- group 13, in MOMetS+ group 15 children were with SCHT. Statistical analyses were performed. p < 0.05 was accepted as statistically significant. In MOMetS- and MOMetS+ groups, TSH levels were 4.1 ± 2.9 mU/L and 4.6 ± 3.1 mU/L, respectively. Corresponding values for SCHT cases were 7.3 ± 3.1 mU/L and 8.0 ± 2.7 mU/L. Free T4 levels were within normal limits. Zn concentrations were negatively correlated with TSH levels in both groups. Significant negative correlation calculated in MOMetS+ group (r = -0.909; p < 0.001) was much stronger than that found in MOMetS- group (r = -0.706; p < 0.05). This strong correlation (r = -0.909; p < 0.001) calculated for cases with SCHT in MOMetS+ group was much lower in the same group (r = -0.793; p < 0.001) when all cases were considered. In conclusion, the presence of strong correlations between TSH and Zn in SCHT in both MOMetS- and MOMetS+ groups have pointed out that MO children were under the threat of CV pathologies. The detection of the much stronger correlation in MOMetS+ group in comparison with the correlation found in MOMetS- group was the indicator of greater CV risk due to the presence of MetS. In MOMetS+ group, correlation in SCHT cases found higher than correlation calculated for all cases confirmed much higher CV risk due to the contribution of SCHT.

Keywords: Cardiovascular risk, child morbid obesity, subclinical hypothyroidism, zinc.

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645 Interpretation of Two Indices for the Prediction of Cardiovascular Risk in Pediatric Obesity

Authors: Mustafa M. Donma, Orkide Donma


Obesity and weight gain are associated with increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases and the progression of liver fibrosis. Aspartate transaminase–to-platelet count ratio index (APRI) and fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) were primarily considered as the formulas capable of differentiating hepatitis from cirrhosis. However, to the best of our knowledge, their status in children is not clear. The aim of this study is to determine APRI and FIB-4 status in obese (OB) children and compare them with values found in children with normal body mass index (N-BMI). A total of 68 children examined in the outpatient clinics of the Pediatrics Department in Tekirdag Namik Kemal University Medical Faculty were included in the study. Two groups were constituted. In the first group, 35 children with N-BMI, whose age- and sex-dependent BMI indices vary between 15 and 85 percentiles, were evaluated. The second group comprised 33 OB children whose BMI percentile values were between 95 and 99. Anthropometric measurements and routine biochemical tests were performed. Using these parameters, values for the related indices, BMI, APRI, and FIB-4, were calculated. Appropriate statistical tests were used for the evaluation of the study data. The statistical significance degree was accepted as p < 0.05. In the OB group, values found for APRI and FIB-4 were higher than those calculated for the N-BMI group. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the N-BMI and OB groups in terms of APRI and FIB-4. A similar pattern was detected for triglyceride (TRG) values. The correlation coefficient and degree of significance between APRI and FIB-4 were r = 0.336 and p = 0.065 in the N-BMI group. On the other hand, they were r = 0.707 and p = 0.001 in the OB group. Associations of these two indices with TRG have shown that this parameter was strongly correlated (p < 0.001) both with APRI and FIB-4 in the OB group, whereas no correlation was calculated in children with N-BMI. TRG are associated with an increased risk of fatty liver, which can progress to severe clinical problems such as steatohepatitis, which can lead to liver fibrosis. TRG are also independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease. In conclusion, the lack of correlation between TRG and APRI as well as FIB-4 in children with N-BMI, along with the detection of strong correlations of TRG with these indices in OB children, was the indicator of the possible onset of the tendency towards the development of fatty liver in OB children. This finding also pointed out the potential risk for cardiovascular pathologies in OB children. The nature of the difference between APRI vs. FIB-4 correlations in N-BMI and OB groups (no correlation vs. high correlation), respectively, may be the indicator of the importance of involving age and alanine transaminase parameters in addition to AST and PLT in the formula designed for FIB-4.

Keywords: APRI, FIB-4, obesity, triglycerides.

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644 Study on the Presence of Protozoal Coinfections among Patients with Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia in Bulgaria

Authors: N. Tsvetkova, R. Harizanov A. Ivanova, I. Rainova, N. Yancheva-Petrova, D. Strashimirov, R. Enikova, M. Videnova, E. Kaneva, I. Kaftandjiev, V. Levterova, I. Simeonovski, N. Yanev, G. Hinkov


The Pneumocystis jirovecii (P. jirovecii) and protozoan of the genera Acanthamoeba, Cryptosporidium, and Toxoplasma gondii are opportunistic pathogens that can cause life-threatening infections in immunocompromised patients. Aim of the study was to evaluate the coinfection rate with opportunistic protozoal agents among Bulgarian patients diagnosed with P. jirovecii pneumonia. 38 pulmonary samples were collected from 38 patients (28 HIV-infected) with P. jirovecii infection. P. jirovecii DNA was detected by real-time PCR targeting the large mitochondrial subunit ribosomal RNA gene. Acanthamoeba was determined by genus-specific conventional PCR assay. Real-time PCR for the detection of a Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium DNA fragment was used. Pneumocystis DNA was detected in all 38 specimens; 28 (73.7%) were from HIV-infected patients. Three (10,7%) of them were coinfected with T. gondii and 1 (3.6%) with Cryptosporidium. In the group of non-HIV-infected (n = 10), Cryptosporidium DNA was detected in an infant (10%). Acanthamoeba DNA was not found in the tested samples. The current study showed a relatively low rate of coinfections of Cryptosporidium spp./T. gondii and P. jirovecii in the Bulgarian patients studied.

Keywords: Coinfection, opportunistic protozoal agents, Pneumocystis jirovecii, pulmonary infections.

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643 Overall Function and Symptom Impact of Self-Applied Myofascial Release in Adult Patients with Fibromyalgia: A Seven-Week Pilot Study

Authors: Domenica Tambasco, Riina Bray


Fibromyalgia is a chronic condition characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain, fatigue, and reduced function. Management of symptoms include medications, physical treatments and mindfulness therapies. Myofascial Release is a modality that has been successfully applied in various musculoskeletal conditions. However, to the author’s best knowledge, it is not yet recognized as a self-management therapy option in Fibromyalgia. In this study, we investigated whether Self-applied Myofascial Release (SMR) is associated with overall improved function and symptoms in Fibromyalgia. Eligible adult patients with a confirmed diagnosis of Fibromyalgia at Women’s College Hospital were recruited to SMR. Sessions ran for 1 hour once a week for 7 weeks, led by the same two physiotherapists knowledgeable in this physical treatment modality. The main outcome measure was an overall impact score for function and symptoms based on the validated assessment tool for fibromyalgia, the Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQR), measured pre- and post-intervention. Both descriptive and analytical methods were applied and reported. We analyzed results using a paired t-test to determine if there was a statistically significant difference in mean FIQR scores between initial (pre-intervention) and final (post-intervention) scores. A clinically significant difference in FIQR was defined as a reduction in score by 10 or more points. Our pilot study showed that SMR appeared to be a safe and effective intervention for our fibromyalgia participants and the overall impact on function and symptoms occurred in only 7 weeks. Further studies with larger sample sizes comparing SMR to other physical treatment modalities (such as stretching) in an randomized control trial (RCT) are recommended.

Keywords: Fibromyalgia, myofascial release, fibromyalgia impact questionnaire, fibromyalgia assessment status.

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642 Evaluation of European Surveys in the Area of Health and Safety at Work and Identification of Risks in the Labor Environment

Authors: Alena Dadova, Katarina Holla, Anna Cidlinova, Linda Makovicka Osvaldova, Jiri Vala, Samuel Kockar


Occupational health and safety (OHS) is an area in which procedures and applications are constantly evolving and changing through legislation and new directives and guidelines. In this way, the relevant organizations strive to ensure continuous progress and the advantage of up-to-date information to ensure safety and prevent occupational accidents. Three ESENER surveys have been carried out in the European Union, led by the Agency for Safety and Health at Work (EU-OSHA). On the basis of surveys, it was determined how European workplaces manage risks and how they manage the field of safety and health protection at work. Thousands of companies and organizations in the European Union were involved in the surveys. Organizations and businesses were presented with a questionnaire that focused on the following topics: the impact of general risks on the field of OSH and the possibility of their management, psychosocial risks and other factors such as stress, harassment and bullying, and employee participation in OSH procedures. The article is dedicated to the fundamental conclusions from these surveys and their subsequent connection with the strategic intent of the Strategic Framework of European Union for the years 2021-2027. In the conclusion, emerging risks are identified and the EU will soon have to deal with them.

Keywords: ESENER, emerging risks, strategic framework in OSH, EU.

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641 Vancomycin and Rifaximin Combination Therapy for Diarrhoea Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome: An Observational Study

Authors: P. Murphy, D. Vasic, A. W. Gunaratne, T. Tugonon, M. Ison, C. Pagonis, E. T. Sitchon, A. Le Busque, T. J. Borody


Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a gastrointestinal disorder characterized by an alteration in bowel movements. There are three different types of IBS: diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D), constipation-predominant IBS (IBS-C) and IBS with mixed bowel habit (IBS-M). Antimicrobials are increasingly being used as treatment for all types of IBS. Due to this increased use and subsequent success, the gut microbiome as a factor in the etiology of IBS is becoming more apparent. Accepted standard treatment has focused on IBS-C and involves either vancomycin or rifaximin. Here, we report on a cohort of 18 patients treated with both vancomycin and rifaximin for IBS-D. These patients’ records were reviewed retrospectively. In this cohort, patients were aged between 24-74 years (mean 44 years) and nine were female. At baseline all patients had diarrhea, four with mucus and one with blood. Other reported symptoms include abdominal pain (n = 11) bloating (n = 9), flatulence (n = 7), fatigue (n = 4) and nausea (n = 3). Patient’s treatments were personalized according to their symptom severity and tolerability and were treated with a combination of rifaximin (500-3000 mg/d) and vancomycin (500 mg-1500 mg/d) for an ongoing period. Follow-ups were conducted between 2-32 weeks. Of all patients, 89% reported improvement of at least 1 symptom, one reported no change and one patient’s symptoms got worse. The success of this combination treatment could be due to the different mechanisms of action undertaken by each medication. Vancomycin works by inhibiting the cell wall of the bacteria and rifaximin by inhibiting protein synthesis. This success in treatment validates the idea that IBS-D may be driven by a bacterial infection of the gastrointestinal microbiome. As IBS-D presents similarly to Clostridium difficile and symptom improvement can occur with the same treatment as Clostridium difficile of rifaximin and vancomycin, there is reason to suggest that the infectious agent could be an unidentified strain of Clostridium. Although these results offer some validity to the theory, more research is required.

Keywords: Clostridium difficile infection, diarrhea predominant irritable bowel syndrome, microbiome, vancomycin/rifaximin combination.

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640 The Effect of Aerobic Training and Taxol Consumption on IL 8 and PAI-1 in Cervical Cancer

Authors: Alireza Barari, Maryam Firoozi, Maryam Ebrahimzadeh, Romina Roohani Ardeshiri, Maryam Kamarloeei


Background: The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of six-week aerobic training and taxol consumption on interleukin-8 and Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in mice with cervical cancer. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 40 female C57 mice with cervical cancer, eight weeks old, were randomly divided into 4 groups including: control, taxol supplement, training, and training-taxol supplement. The implantation of cancerous tumors was performed under the skin at the upper of the pelvis. The program training was included: endurance training for six weeks, 3 sessions per week and 50 minutes per session, at the speed of 14-18 m/s. Taxol supplement at a dose of 60 mg/kg per day was injected intraperitoneally. Data analysis was performed using t-test and one-way ANOVA and if statistically significant, Bonferroni post hoc was used at the significance level p < .05. Results: The results showed that there was a significant difference between the levels of interleukin 8 (P < 0.05, F = 12.25) and the PAI-1 (P < 0.05, P = 0.10737 between the 4 groups. The results of this study showed a significant difference between the control group and the training - complementary group. Six weeks of aerobic training and taxol consumption have a significant effect on the level of PAI-1 and interleukin-8 mice with cervical cancer. Conclusion: Considering the effect of training on these variables, this type of exercise can be used as a complementary therapeutic approach with other therapies for cervical cancer.

Keywords: Cervical cancer, taxol, endurance training, interleukin 8, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1.

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639 Effects of Chlorhexidine in Application to Hybrid Layers

Authors: Ilma Robo, Saimir Heta, Edona Hasanaj, Vera Ostreni


The hybrid layer (HL), the way it is created and how it is protected against degradation over time, is the key to the clinical success of a composite restoration. The composite supports the dentinal structure exactly with the realized surface of micro-retention. Thus, this surface is in direct proportion to its size versus the duration of clinical use of composite dental restoration. Micro-retention occurs between dentin or acidified enamel and adhesive resin extensions versus pre-prepared spaces, such as hollow dentinal tubules. The way the adhesive resin binds to the acidified dentinal structure depends on the physical or chemical factors of this interrelationship between two structures with very different characteristics. During the acidification process, a precursor to the placement of the adhesive resin layer, activation of metalloproteinases of dental origin occurs, enzymes which are responsible for the degradation of the HL. These enzymes have expressed activity depending on the presence of Zn2+ or Ca2+ ions. There are several ways to inhibit these enzymes, and consequently, there are several ways to inhibit the degradation process of the HL. The study aim is to evaluate chlorhexidine (CHX) as a solution element, inhibitor of dentin activated metalloproteinases, as a result of the application of acidification. This study aims to look at this solution in advantage or contraindication theories, already published in the literature.

Keywords: Hybrid layer, chlorhexidine, degradation, smear layer.

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638 Specific Biomarker Level and Function Outcome Changes in Treatment of Patients with Frozen Shoulder Using Dextrose Prolotherapy Injection

Authors: Nuralam Sam, Irawan Yusuf, Irfan Idris, Endi Adnan


Frozen shoulder (FS) is an insidious, painful condition caused by an inflammatory condition that causes fibrosis of the glenohumeral joint capsule, which causes progressive stiffness and restriction of the active and passive range of motion (ROM) of the shoulder. The studies of FS are still limited. This single-blinded randomized controlled trial involved participants with FS. The study participants were divided into two groups. The Prolotherapy group was the study group, and the Normal Saline (NS) group was the control group. Both groups were given injections at weeks 0, 2, 4, and 6. Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and Tissue Inhibitor Metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) were measured at week six and week 12 after the last injection. The Disabilities of The Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) Score and ROM were measured at weeks 0, 2, 4, and 6 before and after injection and week 12. Comparative analysis was performed using repeated measures Paired T-Test, and data processing to assess correlation was using ANOVA. The result showed a significant decrease in The Disability of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) score in prolotherapy injection patients in each measurement week (p < 0.05). While the measurement of ROM, each direction of shoulder motion showed a significant difference in average each week, from week 0 to week 6 (p < 0.05). Dextrose prolotherapy injection results significantly improved the functional outcome of the shoulder joint and ROM. They did not show significant results in assessing the specific biomarker, MMP-1, and TIMP-1, in tissue repair. This study suggests an alternative to injection prolotherapy in FS patients; it has minimal adverse effects and is efficient in time and cost.

Keywords: Frozen Shoulder, ROM, DASH Score, prolotherapy, MMP-1, TIMP-1.

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637 Characteristics and Outcomes of COVID-19 Related Stroke: A Cohort Study

Authors: Kasra Afsahi, Maryam Soheilifar


Cerebrovascular accident (CVA) is a neurological side effect of COVID-19 disease wit high rate in pandemics. Effect of COVID-19 disease on disorder is unclear. In this cohort, patients with COVID-19 disease were assessed. 60 CVA cases were assessed in a referral hospital in 2020. The major factor was mortality and the cases were those with and without death. The groups were compared for all features about mortality in the patients with COVID-19 and CVA. Totally 23 out of 60 cases (38.3%) were expired. In univariate analysis there was significant association for death by ischemic heart disease (P = 0.015), high-severity stroke (P = 0.012), high C-reactive protein (CRP) (P = 0.001), high ESR (P = 0.009), pleural effusion (P = 0.005), pericardial effusion (P = 0.027), cardiomegaly (P = 0.005), ground glass opacity (P = 0.001), and consolidation (P = 0.001). Among these factors, there was significant association only for CRP (P = 0.001) and consolidation (P = 0.003) in multivariate analysis. Mortality in the cases with COVID-19-related CVA is one-third and it has relationship to elevated CRP and finding the consolidation in the computerized tomography scan of the lungs.

Keywords: COVID-19, stroke, prognosis, C-reactive protein, CRP.

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636 Psychological Impact of Radiation Versus Its Physiological Effects: Radiation Workers’ Perspective in Medical Centers

Authors: Muhammad Waqar, Touqir Ahmad Afridi, Quratulain Soomro


Radiation is a ghost causing unimaginable physical damage, but its harm is not inevitable. The panic created by previously reported worst-case scenarios i.e., Three Mile Island, Fukushima, Chernobyl, has adversely affected the attitude of radiation workers towards the profession. The psychological effect of radiation-related catastrophes creates an invisible barrier that reduces the efficiency of radiation workers. Careful handling and proper monitoring of radiation decreases the hazards of radiation and proves that the psychological impairment of radiation is myriad fold adverse than its physiological damage. Thermoluminescent Dosimeter (TLD) badges with unique identity numbers were provided to 36 radiation workers for a period of one year (2021). TLDs were read quarterly, and doses were recorded for every radiation worker. Annual doses were recorded and compared with national and international standards. Moreover, the period for which an individual worker is expected to reach one year limit of 20 mSv was also calculated. The highest radiation dose for the radiation worker in 2021 was found at 3.2 mSv, which was 16% of the permissible annual dose limit. The average occupational radiation doses ranged from 1.0 mSv to 3.20 mSv. 64% of the employees did not exceed the 10% of the annual limit, receiving less than 2 mSv. The least time for 20 mSv completion was found 6.25 years for the hot-lab technician. As a whole, the 20 mSv completion period ranged from 6.25 to 20 years. We concluded that the annual professional radiation doses were well within the permissible limits of Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority (PNRA) and International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The fear of radiation is unnecessary and it creates reluctance towards performing their assigned duties and it is also not favorable for the institute. It must be abolished through education and training sessions.

Keywords: TLD, thermoluminescent dosimeter, psychological impact, radiation dose, annual dose limit, PNRA, ICRP, IAEA.

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635 Verifying the Supremacy of Volume Modulated Arc Therapy Over Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy: Pelvis Malignancies’ Perspective

Authors: M. Umar Farooq, T. Ahmad Afridi, M. Zia-Ul-Islam Arsalan, U. Hussain Haider, S. Ullah


Cancer, a leading fatal disease worldwide, can be treated with various techniques including radiation therapy. It involves the use of ionizing radiation to target cancer cells. On basis of source placement, radiation therapy is of two types i.e., Brachytherapy and External Beam Radiotherapy (EBRT). EBRT has evolved from 2-D conventional therapy to 3-D Conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) and then Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT). IMRT improves dose conformity and sparing of organs at risk. Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) is a modern technique that uses treatment delivery in arcs with rotation of the gantry. In this report, a dosimetry comparison was performed between IMRT and VMAT. This study was conducted in the Radiotherapy Department of the Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Oncology Lahore (INMOL). Ten patients with Prostate Carcinoma were selected for this study to compare the methods. Simulation of these patients was done with help of a CT Simulator. All target volumes and organs were delineated by the oncologists. Then suitable fields/arcs were applied which cover volumes effectively. This was followed by the optimization of plans for both techniques for every patient. Finally, a comparison of evaluating parameters e.g., Conformity Index (CI), Volume Coverage, Homogeneity Index (HI), Organ Doses, and MUs (Monitor Units) was performed. We obtained better results of target conformity indices from VMAT (CI = 1.16) than IMRT (CI = 1.24). VMAT was better in organ sparing too. Also, VMAT shows fewer MUs (733 MUs) as compared to IMRT (2149 MUs). From this study, it is concluded that VMAT is a better treatment technique than IMRT. This technique will enhance treatment efficiency as it takes less time in obtaining the required results. Also, a very less scatter dose will be delivered to the patient.

Keywords: 2-D Conventional Radiotherapy, 3-D Conformal Radiotherapy, Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy, Prostate Carcinoma, Radiotherapy, Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy.

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634 Preliminary Study of the Phonological Development in Three- and Four-Year-Old Bulgarian Children

Authors: Tsvetomira Braynova, Miglena Simonska


The article presents the results of a research of phonological processes in three- and four-year-old children. A test, created for the purpose of the study, was developed and conducted among 120 children. The study included three areas of research - at the level of words (96 words), at the level of sentence repetition (10 sentences) and at the level of generating own speech from a picture (15 pictures). The test also gives us additional information about the articulation errors of the assessed children. The main purpose of the research is to analyze all phonological processes that occur at this age in Bulgarian children and to identify which are typical and atypical for this age. The results show that the most common phonology errors that children make are: sound substitution, elision of sound, metathesis of sound, elision of syllable, elision of consonants clustered in a syllable. Measuring the correlation between average length of repeated speech and average length of generated speech, the analysis does not prove that the more words a child can repeat in part “repeated speech”, the more words they can be expected to generate in part “generating sentence”. The results of this study show that the task of naming a word provides sufficient and representative information to assess the child's phonology.

Keywords: Articulation, phonology, speech, language development.

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633 The Effect of Different Pre-Treatment Methods on the Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Tubes: An in vitro Study

Authors: A. C. B. C. J. Fernandes, V. C. de Jesus, S. Noruziaan, O. F. G. G. Vilela, K. K. Somarin, R. França, F. H. S. L. Pinheiro


Objective: This in vitro study aimed to evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic tubes after different enamel pre-treatments. Materials and Methods: A total of 39 crown halves were randomly divided into 3 groups (n = 13). Group I (control group) was exposed to prophy paste (PP), 37% phosphoric acid (PA), and a self-etching primer (SEP). Group II received no prophylaxis, but only PA and SEP. Group III was exposed to PP and SEP. The SBS was used to evaluate the bond strength of the orthodontic tubes one year after bonding. One-way ANOVA and Tukey’s post-hoc test were used to compare SBS values between the three groups. The statistical significance was set to 5%. Results: The difference in SBS values of groups I (36.672 ± 9.315 Mpa), II (34.242 ± 9.986 Mpa), and III (39.055 ± 5.565 Mpa) were not statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: This study suggests that chairside time can be significantly reduced with the use of PP and a SEP without compromising adhesion. Further evidence is needed by means of a split-mouth design trial.

Keywords: Shear bond strength, orthodontic tubes, self-etching primer, pumice, prophy.

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632 Placement of Implants in Palatum of a Teenager without Maxillary Incisor Teeth

Authors: Luan Mavriqi, Ilma Robo, Emin Kuzimi, Egresa Baca


The process of skeletal growth in an adolescent significantly affects the displacement of implants placed in the palatine suture. The problems caused by this process have an impact on the dental function and aesthetics of the affected data. If fixed prostheses are placed based on implants, the whole structure would impede maxillary growth. This is the significant difference between the maxilla and the mandible, as the lower jaw has no growth process that affects the movement of the implants or the latter to inhibit the growth of the jaw. In a teenager patient an accident occurred accompanied by loss of maxillary central incisors. The main complaint of patients is aesthetics and phonetics. Dental history of patients refers to the presence of a Maryland bridge that was accompanied by dissatisfaction on the part of the patient. Implant placement is not indicated as jaw augmentation may lead to displacement of the implant. The treatment plan includes the placement of implants in the palatum where this bone thickness allows as a this article only the first stage of treatment is presented. Implant treatment is ongoing, will be followed by the second phase of treatment when the patient has reached the age of 18 years.

Keywords: Implants, palatum, adolescent, primary incisor teeth.

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