Publications | Humanities and Social Sciences
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1286

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Humanities and Social Sciences]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

1286 Scientific Interpretation of “Fertilizing Winds” Mentioned in Verse 15:22 of Al-Quran

Authors: M. M. Rashid


Allah (SWT) bestowed us with the Divine blessing, providing the wonderful source of water as stated in verse 15:22 of Al-Quran. Arabic “Ar-Riaaha Lawaaqiha (ٱلرِّيَـٰحَ لَوَٰقِحَ)” of this verse is translated as “fertilizing winds.” The “fertilizing winds” literally, refer to the winds having the roles: to fertilize something similar to the “zygotes” in humans and animals (formation of clouds in the sky in this case); to produce fertilizers for the plants, crops, etc.; and to pollinate the plants. In this paper, these roles of “fertilizing winds” have been validated by presenting the modern knowledge of science in this regard. Existing interpretations are mostly focused on the “formation of clouds in the sky” while few of them mention about the pollination of trees. The production of fertilizers, in this regard, may also be considered for the interpteration of this verse. It has been observed that the winds contain the necessary components of forming the clouds; the necessary components of producing the fertilizers; and the necessary components to pollinate the plants. The science of meteorology gives us a clear understanding of the formation of clouds. Moreover, we know that the lightning bolts break the nitrogen molecules of winds and the water molecules of vapor to form fertilizers. Pollination is a common role of winds in plant fertilization. All the scientific phenomena presented here give us better interpretations of “fertilizing winds.”

Keywords: Al-Quran, fertilizing winds, meteorology, cloud droplets.

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1285 Convention Refugees in New Zealand: Being Trapped in Immigration Limbo Without the Right to Obtain a Visa

Authors: Saska Alexandria Hayes


Multiple Convention Refugees in New Zealand are stuck in a state of immigration limbo due to a lack of defined immigration policies. The Refugee Convention of 1951 does not give the right to be issued a permanent right to live and work in the country of asylum. A gap in New Zealand's immigration law and policy has left Convention Refugees without the right to obtain a resident or temporary entry visa. The significant lack of literature on this topic suggests that the lack of visa options for Convention Refugees in New Zealand is a widely unknown or unacknowledged issue. Refugees in New Zealand enjoy the right of non-refoulement contained in Article 33 of the Refugee Convention 1951, whether lawful or unlawful. However, a number of rights contained in the Refugee Convention 1951, such as the right to gainful employment and social security, are limited to refugees who maintain lawful immigration status. If a Convention Refugee is denied a resident visa, the only temporary entry visa a Convention Refugee can apply for in New Zealand is discretionary. The appeal cases heard at the Immigration Protection Tribunal establish that Immigration New Zealand has declined resident and discretionary temporary entry visa applications by Convention Refugees for failing to meet the health or character immigration instructions. The inability of a Convention Refugee to gain residency in New Zealand creates a dependence on the issue of discretionary temporary entry visas to maintain lawful status. The appeal cases record that this reliance has led to Convention Refugees' lawful immigration status being in question, temporarily depriving them of the rights contained in the Refugee Convention 1951 of lawful refugees. In one case, the process of applying for a discretionary temporary entry visa led to a lawful Convention Refugee being temporarily deprived of the right to social security, breaching Article 24 of the Refugee Convention 1951. The judiciary has stated a constant reliance on the issue of discretionary temporary entry visas for Convention Refugees can lead to a breach of New Zealand's international obligations under Article 7 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. The appeal cases suggest that, despite successful judicial proceedings, at least three persons have been made to rely on the issue of discretionary temporary entry visas potentially indefinitely. The appeal cases establish that a Convention Refugee can be denied a discretionary temporary entry visa and become unlawful. Unlawful status could ultimately breach New Zealand's obligations under Article 33 of the Refugee Convention 1951 as it would procedurally deny Convention Refugees asylum. It would force them to choose between the right of non-refoulement or leaving New Zealand to seek the ability to access all the human rights contained in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights elsewhere. This paper discusses how the current system has given rise to these breaches and emphasizes a need to create a designated temporary entry visa category for Convention Refugees.

Keywords: Domestic policy, immigration, migration, New Zealand.

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1284 Exploring Anti-Western Sentiment Among Arabs and Its Influence on Support for Russia in the Ukraine Conflict

Authors: Soran Tarkhani


The phenomenon of significant Arab support for Russia's invasion of Ukraine, despite widespread condemnation from Arab leaders, poses a puzzling scenario. This paper delves into the paradox by employing multiple regression analysis on the online reactions of Arab audiences to the conflict as reported by seven major news networks: CNN Arabic, BBC Arabic, Sky News Arabic, France24 Arabic, DW, Aljazeera, and Al-Arabiya. It hypothesizes that this support stems from prevalent anti-Western sentiment within the Arab world. The empirical findings corroborate the hypothesis, providing insight into the underlying motivations for Arab backing of Russia against Ukraine, despite their historical familiarity with the harsh realities of war.

Keywords: Anti-Western Sentiment, Arab World, Russia-Ukraine Conflict, social media analysis, political sentiment, international relations, regional influence.

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1283 The Transformative Impact of Telecommunication in Africa: Connecting Nations, Empowering Lives

Authors: I. M. Mungadi, M. S. Argungu


This study delves into the transformative impact of telecommunication in Africa, illuminating its role in connecting nations and empowering lives across the continent. Over recent decades, the rapid expansion of telecommunication infrastructure has become a powerful force, fostering socio-economic growth and development. Beyond the exchange of information, this digital revolution has influenced education, healthcare, commerce, governance, and social interaction. The abstract explores the multifaceted dimensions of telecommunication's influence on Africa, addressing both its positive transformations and the challenges it presents. By examining the dynamic interplay between technological advancements and societal changes, this research contributes to a nuanced understanding of how telecommunication is shaping a more interconnected, informed, and empowered Africa.

Keywords: Transformative, telecommunication, nations, empowering, connecting.

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1282 Queering the (In)Formal Economy: Spatial Recovery and Anti-Vending Local Policies in the Global South

Authors: Lorena Munoz


Since the 1990s, cities in the Global South have implemented revanchist neoliberal urban regeneration policies that cater to urban elites based on “recovering” public space for capital accumulation purposes. These policies often work to reify street vending as survival strategies of ‘last resort’ for marginalized people and as an unorganized, unsystematic economic activities that needs to be disciplined, incorporated and institutionalized into the formal economy. This paper suggests that, by moving away from frameworks that reify formal/informal spheres of the economy, we are able to disrupt and rethink normative understandings of economic practices categorized as ‘informal’. Through queering economies, informal workers center their own understandings of self-value and legitimacy informing their economic lives and contributions to urban life. As such, queering the economy opens up possibilities of rethinking urban redevelopment policies that incorporate rather than remove street vendors, as their economic practices are incorporated into the everyday fabric and aesthetic of urban life.

Keywords: Informal economy, street vending, diverse economies, immigrant informal workers.

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1281 Cultural Policies, Globalisation of Arts, and Impact on Cultural Heritage: A Contextual Analysis of France

Authors: Nasser AlShawaaf, Soo Hee Lee


Arts globalisation represents a different phenomenon than arts commercialisation which was facilitated by local cultural policies. This study examines the causes and effects of globalisation of art museums in France. Building on art literature, we conducted a literature review of cultural policies. Our findings show that the cultural policies of the French government since the 1980s of cultural democratisation, cultural decentralisation, and implementing market principles on the cultural sector are leading to arts globalisation. Although globalisation is producing economic benefits and enhancing cultural reach, however, the damages include artistic values and creativity, cultural heritage and representation, and the museum itself. Art museums and host cities could overcome negative consequences through a hybrid collection display and develop local collections gradually.

Keywords: Cultural policy, cultural decentralisation, cultural globalisation, art museums, contextual analysis, France.

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1280 New Chinese Landscapes in the Works of the Chinese Photographer Yao Lu

Authors: Xiaoling Dai


Many Chinese artists have used digital photography to create works with features of Chinese landscape paintings since the 20th century. The ‘New Mountains and Water’ works created by digital techniques reflect the fusion of photographic techniques and traditional Chinese aesthetic thoughts. Borrowing from Chinese landscape paintings in the Song Dynasty, the Chinese photographer Yao Lu uses digital photography to reflect contemporary environmental construction in his series New Landscapes. By portraying a variety of natural environments brought by urbanization in the contemporary period, Lu deconstructs traditional Chinese paintings and reconstructs contemporary photographic practices. The primary object of this study is to investigate how Chinese photographer Yao Lu redefines and re-interprets the relationship between tradition and contemporaneity. In this study, Yao Lu’s series work New Landscapes is used for photo elicitation, which seeks to broaden understanding of the development of Chinese landscape photography. Furthermore, discourse analysis will be used to evaluate how Chinese social developments influence the creation of photographic practices. Through the visual and discourse analysis, this study aims to excavate the relationship between tradition and contemporaneity in Lu’s works. According to New Landscapes, the study argues that in Lu’s interpretations of landscapes, tradition and contemporaneity are seen to establish a new relationship. Traditional approaches to creation do not become obsolete over time. On the contrary, traditional notions and styles of creation can shed new light on contemporary issues or techniques.

Keywords: Chinese aesthetics, contemporaneity, New Landscapes, tradition, Yao Lu.

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1279 Aspects of Semiotics in Contemporary Design: A Case Study on Dice Brand

Authors: Laila Zahran Mohammed Alsibani


The aim of the research is to understand the aspects of semiotics in contemporary designs by redesigning an Omani donut brand with localized cultural identity. To do so, visual identity samples of Dice brand of donuts in Oman has been selected to be a case study. This study conducted based on semiotic theory by using mixed method research tools which are: documentation analysis, interview and survey. The literature review concentrates on key areas of semiotics in visual elements used in the brand designs. Also, it spotlights on the categories of semiotics in visual design. In addition, this research explores the visual cues in brand identity. The objectives of the research are to investigate the aspects of semiotics in providing meaning to visual cues and to identify visual cues for each visual element. It is hoped that this study will have the contribution to a better understanding of the different ways of using semiotics in contemporary designs. Moreover, this research can be a reference for further studies in understanding and explaining current and future design trends. Future research can also focus on how brand-related signs are perceived by consumers.

Keywords: Brands, semiotics, visual arts, visual communication.

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1278 Khilafat from Khilafat-e-Rashida: The Only Form of Governance to Unite Muslim Countries

Authors: Zoaib Mirza


Half of the Muslim countries in the world have declared Islam the state religion in their constitutions. Yet, none of these countries have implemented authentic Islamic laws in line with the Quran (Holy Book), practices of Prophet Mohammad (P.B.U.H) called the Sunnah, and his four successors known as the Rightly Guided - Khalifa. Since their independence, these countries have adopted different government systems like Democracy, Dictatorship, Republic, Communism, and Monarchy. Instead of benefiting the people, these government systems have put these countries into political, social, and economic crises. These Islamic countries do not have equal representation and membership in worldwide political forums. Western countries lead these forums. Therefore, it is now imperative for the Muslim leaders of all these countries to collaborate, reset, and implement the original Islamic form of government, which led to the prosperity and success of people, including non-Muslims, 1400 years ago. They should unite as one nation under Khalifat, which means establishing the authority of Allah (SWT) and following the divine commandments related to the social, political, and economic systems. As they have declared Islam in their constitution, they should work together to apply the divine framework of the governance revealed by Allah (SWT) and implemented by Prophet Mohammad (P.B.U.H) and his four successors called Khalifas. This paper provides an overview of the downfall and the end of the Khalifat system by 1924, the ways in which the West caused political, social, and economic crises in the Muslim countries, and finally, a summary of the social, political, and economic systems implemented by the Prophet Mohammad (P.B.U.H) and his successors, Khalifas, called the Rightly Guided – Hazrat Abu Bakr (RA), Hazrat Omar (RA), Hazrat Usman (RA), and Hazrat Ali (RA).

Keywords: Khalifat, Khilafat-e-Rashida, The Rightly Guided, colonization, capitalism, neocolonization, government systems.

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1277 Religion and Sustainable Development: A Comparative Study of Buddhist and Christian Farmers’ Contribution to the Environmental Protection in Taiwan

Authors: Jijimon Alakkalam Joseph


The UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development claims to be a comprehensive and integrated plan of action for prosperity for people and the planet, including almost all dimensions of human existence. Nevertheless, the religious dimension of human existence has been kept away from development discussions. Care for the earth is one of the vital aspects of sustainable development. Farmers all over the world contribute much to environmental protection. Most farmers are religious believers and religious ideologies influence their agricultural practices. This nexus between faith and agriculture has forced policymakers to include religion in development discussions. This paper delves deeper into this religion and sustainable development connection. Buddhism and Christianity have contributed much to environmental protection in Taiwan. However, interviews conducted among 40 Taiwanese farmers (10 male and female farmers from Buddhism and Christianity) show that their faith experiences make them relate to the natural environment differently. Most of the Buddhist farmers interviewed admitted that they chose their religious adherence, while most of the Christian farmers inherited their faith. The in-depth analysis of the interview data collected underlines the close relationship between religion and sustainable development. More importantly, concerning their intention to care for the earth, farmers whose religious adherence is ‘chosen’ are self-motivated and more robust compared to those whose religious adherence is ‘inherited’.

Keywords: Buddhism, Christianity, environmental protection, sustainable development.

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1276 The Contribution of Translation to Arabic and Islamic Civilization during the Golden Age: 661-1258

Authors: Smail Hadj Mahammed


Translation is not merely a process of conveying the meaning from one particular language into another to overcome language barriers and ensure a good understanding; it is also a work of civilization and progress. Without the translation of Greek, Indian and Persian works, Arabic and Islamic Civilization would not have taken off, and without the translations of Arabic works into Latin, and then into European languages, the scientific and technological revolution of the modern world would not have taken place. In this context, the present paper seeks to investigate how the translation movement contributed to the Arabic and Islamic Civilizations during the Golden Age. The paper consists of three major parts: the first part provides a brief historical overview of the translation movement during the golden age, which witnessed two important eras: the Umayyad and Abbasid eras. The second part shows the main reasons why translation was a prominent cultural activity during the Golden Age and why it gained great interest from the Arabs. The last part highlights the constructive contribution of translation to the Arabic and Islamic Civilization during the period (661–1258). The results demonstrate that Arabic translation movement during the Golden Age had significantly assisted in enriching the Arabic and Islamic civilizations considering the major and important scientific works of old Greek, Indian and Persian civilizations which had been absorbed.

Keywords: Arabic and Islamic civilization, contribution, golden age, translation.

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1275 Cultivating Docile Bodies in The Matrix Trilogy

Authors: Julian Iliev


Currently, philosophical interpretations of The Matrix trilogy have seen a decline. This study examines the human pods and growing fields in The Matrix trilogy. Their functionality is juxtaposed to Michel Foucault’s concept of docile bodies, linking fictional and contemporary worlds. The comparison illustrates the effects of body manipulation. This paradigm is scrutinized through the power of invisibility. The invisibility of the human pods and fields parallels the hidden algorithms employed by contemporary tech giants. The utilization and secondary manipulation of user’s data are further veiled in secrecy.

Keywords: Docile bodies, film trilogies, Matrix movies, Michel Foucault, visibility, invisibility.

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1274 The Duties of the Immortals and the Name of Anauša or Anušiya

Authors: Behzad Moeini Sam, Sara Mohammadi Avandi, Fatemeh Farhadi


One of the reasons for the success of the Achaemenids was the innovation and precise organization used in the administrative and military fields. Of course, these organizations had their roots in the previous governments that had changed in these borrowings. The units of the Achaemenid army are also among the cases that have their origins in the ancient East. In this article, the attempt is to find the sources of the Immortal Army based on the writings of old and current authors and archaeological documents, and the name mentioned by Herodotus. Of course, linguistic sources have also been used for better conclusions than the indicated sources. This paper emphasizes linguistic data to lead to a better deduction. Thus, it was included that about ‘anauša’ is more probable than anušiya.

Keywords: Army, immortal, Achaemenid, Anauša, Anušiya.

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1273 Epic Consciousness: A Possibility for Epic Expression in Post-War American Literature During the Age of Late Capitalism

Authors: Safwa Yargui


This research is about the quest for a post-war American epic poem in the age of late capitalism. This paper explores the possibility of an epic poem in the context of post-war late capitalist America, despite the prevailing scholarly scepticism regarding the existence of epic poetry after Milton’s Paradise Lost. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the possibility of a post-war American epic through the argument of epic consciousness by distinguishing the scholarly views on the impossibility of an epic poem and the counterargument of epic consciousness which contends that American epic poetry is possible. Epic consciousness provides a significant nuance to the reading of the post-war American epic by focusing on the epic’s responsiveness to late capitalism, via various language forms; cultural manifestations; and conscious distortions of late capitalist media-related language; in addition to the epic’ conscious inclusion of the process of writing a post-war epic that requires a direct engagement with American-based materials. By focusing on interdisciplinary theoretical approaches, this paper includes both socio-cultural literary theories as well as literary and epic approaches developed by scholars that respectively contextualise the late capitalist situation and the question of post-war American epic poetry. In examining the role of consciousness, this paper aims to suggest a re-thinking of the post-war American epic that is capable of self-commitment, for the purpose of achieving a new sense of epic poetry in post-war late capitalist America.

Keywords: American epic, epic consciousness, late capitalism, post-war poetry.

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1272 The Suffering God and Its Relevance to the Understanding of Human Suffering in Jürgen Moltmann’s Theology

Authors: Aldrin R. Logdat


This paper explores Jürgen Moltmann’s The Crucified God, focusing on his concept of a suffering God and its relevance to the understanding of suffering in the world. Moltmann argues that the crucifixion of Jesus Christ, understood as a Trinitarian event, provides a response to the problem of suffering in the world. Through a dialectical theological method, Moltmann suggests that God’s omnipotence is revealed in the impotency of the crucified one, and that the Son's abandonment by the Father confirms their unity to act in response to the world's suffering. Human suffering has been assumed and transformed by God, and through the event of the cross, all those who suffer can participate in the fullness of life in the Trinity. Moltmann’s theology suggests that God identifies with those who suffer, and the resurrection provides the possibility of justification for those who follow Christ's invitation to obedience.

Keywords: Suffering, Crucifixion, Trinitarian, Moltmann’s Theology.

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1271 Politic Iconography: The Sky and Pants of Nicolas-Antoine Taunay (1755-1830)

Authors: Bárbara Dantas


Nicolas-Antoine Taunay had everything to have a quiet life with his family, his colleagues from the Paris Academy of Art, and as a renowned painter of the French Court, but the conjuncture was quite complicated in those final years of the eighteenth century and first decades of the 19th century. The painter had to adapt to various political and social ruptures: from royalty to the French Revolution, from the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte to the empire of King John VI. We wish to insert Taunay in its context through the analysis of his portrait made by a colleague of the profession and of a Brazilian landscape painted of his own (1816-1821) and, in which he represented himself. Finally, the intention is to find in these two paintings how Nicolas-Antoine Taunay faced himself and in the middle that surrounded him in the traffic that was forced to make it between Paris and Rio de Janeiro.

Keywords: Nicolas-Antoine Taunay, politic iconography, French Art, Brazilian Art, 19th century.

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1270 The Indo-European and Old Iranian Fire and Its Relations with the Lur Fire

Authors: Behzad Moeini Sam, Sara Mohammadi Avandi, Afroz Kianpor


The rituals of fire among the Iranians originate in the general Proto-Indo-European and Indo-Iranian eras when they lived in regions known as the Pontic-Caspian (Indo-Europeans) and Kazakhstan (the Andronovo culture belonging to the Indo-Iranian tribes), and we can get to know about their vulgar heritage despite their separation from each other during several millennia. The early Aryan settlers of Iran had brought their cults to their new home and were bequeathed to them by their Indo-Iranian ancestors. Tradition speaks of several great sacred Iranian fires consecrated by the pre-Zoroastrian kings. Ātar or fire is comparable to the Vedic Agni Atar's functions and elaborately are delineated in the Later Avesta. This paper aims to show the fire cults among the Iranian Lur tribes who originate in the past. Therefore, it will be searched for rituals equally in Indo-European and Indo-Iranian Periods and Old Iranian Texts and their frequency among the Lur tribes. In addition to the library books, we tried to interview the chiefs of Lur tribes. Finally, we concluded that the fire among the Lur Tribes is a sequence of beliefs of the Proto-Indo-European and Indo-Iranian Periods reflected in Old and Middle Iranian texts.

Keywords: Indo-European, Ancient Iran, Fire, Lur, Zoroastrian.

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1269 Gods, Spirits, and Rituals: Amplifying Mangyans’ Indigenous Wisdom and Resilience in the Age of Pandemic and Ecological Catastrophes

Authors: Aldrin R. Logdat


Like mostly Filipinos, Mangyans have to face various ecological conundrums and sicknesses in order to survive. In these challenging times, it is the fear of life that grasps so alarmingly that even indigenous communities are not excused. Given this reality, this paper deals with the local cultural knowledge and customs of Mangyans, the indigenous people in the island of Mindoro, Philippines, that let them face calamities and crises with great resolve. For the Mangyans, their collective wisdom and tradition of resilience make them survive the stiffest challenges that come in their lives. The Mangyans believe in the existence of one Supreme Being, Ambuwaw, who created them and the world and who is continually sustaining their existence. The presence of the divine is experienced in terms of his omnipotence, pervading their everyday life, and manifesting himself in physically observable phenomena such as deliverance from calamities or sicknesses, blessing of the harvest, and other forms. They believe that there are bad spirits roaming the land called Bukaw in the spirit-world. Ecological catastrophes are regarded as being caused by these bad spirits. To drive away these, Mangyans perform a ritual called Tawtaw. Knowing how Mangyans steadfastly confront challenges in life and how they prosper despite having meager means and being significantly less equipped for and dependent on contemporary technologies is enlightening. Their worldview (pananaw) which shapes and informs their customs and traditions (kaugalian) is what they refer to as their indigenous survival wisdom and it is actualized through unique communal behaviors (kinagawian).

Keywords: Indigenous survival wisdom, Mangyans, resilience, tradition and customs.

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1268 A Design of an Augmented Reality Based Virtual Heritage Application

Authors: Stephen Barnes, Ian Mills, Frances Cleary


Augmented and Virtual Reality based applications offer many benefits for the heritage and tourism sector. This technology provides a platform to showcase the regions of interest to people without the need for them to be physically present, which has had a positive impact on enticing tourists to visit those locations. However, the technology also provides the opportunity to present historical artefacts in a form that accurately represents their original, intended appearance. Three sites of interest were identified in the Lingaun Valley in South East Ireland wherein virtual representations of site specific artefacts of interest were created via a multidisciplinary team encompassing archaeology, art history, 3D modelling, design and software development. The collated information has been presented to users via an Augmented Reality mobile based application that provides information in an engaging manner that encourages an interest in history as well as visits to the sites in the Lingaun Valley.

Keywords: Augmented Reality, Virtual Heritage, 3D modelling, archaeology, virtual representation.

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1267 Oil Exploitation, Environmental Injustice and Decolonial Nonrecognition: Exploring the Historical Accounts of Host Communities in South-Eastern Nigeria

Authors: Ejikeme Kanu


This research explores the environmental justice of host communities in south-eastern Nigeria whose source of livelihood has been destroyed due to oil exploitation. Environmental justice scholarship in the area often adopts Western liberal ideology from a more macro level synthesis (Niger Delta). This study, therefore, explored the sufficiency or otherwise of the adoption of Western liberal ideology in the framing of Environmental Justice (EJ) in the area which neglects the impact of colonialism and cultural domination. Archival research supplemented by secondary analysis of literature guided this study. Drawing from data analysis, the paper first argues that micro-level studies are required to either validate or invalidate the studies done at the macro-level (Niger Delta) which has often been used to generalise around environmental injustice done within the host communities even though the communities (South-eastern) differ significantly from (South-south) in terms of language, culture, the socio-political and economic formation which indicate that the drivers of EJ may differ among them. Secondly, the paper argues that EJ framing from the Western worldview adopted in the study area is insufficient to understand environmental injustice suffered in the study area and there is the need for EJ framing that will consider the impact of colonialism and nonrecognition of the cultural identities of the host communities which breed EJ. The study, therefore, concludes by drawing from decolonial theory to consider how the framing of EJ would move beyond the western liberal EJ to Indigenous EJ.

Keywords: Culture, decolonial, environmental justice, indigenous environmental justice, nonrecognition.

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1266 The Prostitute’s Body in Diasporic Space: Sexualized China and Chineseness in Yu Dafu’s Sinking and Yan Geling’s The Lost Daughter of Happiness

Authors: Haizhi Wu


Sexualization brings together the interdependent experiences of prostitution and diaspora, establishing a masculine structure where a female’s body mediates the hegemony and sexuality of men from different races. Between eroticism and homesickness, writers of the Chinese diaspora develop sensual approaches to reflect on the diasporic experience and sexual frustration. Noticeably, Yu Dafu in Sinking and Yan Geling in The Lost Daughter of Happiness both take an interest in sexual encounters between an immature teen client and an erotically powerful prostitute in Japan or America, both countries considered colonizers in Chinese history. Both are utilizing the metaphor of body-space interplay to hint at the out-of-text transnational interactions, two writers, however, present distinct understandings of their bond with history and memory of the semi-colonial, semi-feudal China. Examining prostitutes’ bodies in multi-layer diasporic spaces, the central analysis of this paper works on the sexual, colonial, and historical representations of this bodily symbol and the prostitution’s engagement in negotiating with diaspora and “Chineseness”.

Keywords: Chineseness, Diasporic spaces, Prostitutes’s bodies, Sexualization.

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1265 Creative Art Practice in Response to Climate Change: How Art Transforms and Frames New Approaches to Speculative Ecological and Sustainable Futures

Authors: Wenwen Liu, Robert Burton, Simon McKeown


Climate change is seriously threatening human security and development, leading to global warming and economic, political, and social chaos. Many artists have created visual responses that challenge perceptions on climate change, actively guiding people to think about the climate issues and potential crises after urban industrialization and explore positive solutions. This project is an interdisciplinary and intertextual study where art practice is informed by culture, philosophy, psychology, ecology, and science. By correlating theory and artistic practice, it studies how art practice creates a visual way of understanding climate issues and uses art as a way of exploring speculative futures. In the context of practical-based research, arts-based practice as research and creative practice as interdisciplinary research are applied alternately to seek the original solution and new knowledge. Through creative art practice, this project has established visual ways of looking at climate change and has developed it into a model to generate more possibilities, an alternative social imagination. It not only encourages people to think and find a sustainable speculative future conducive to all species but also proves that people have the ability to realize positive futures.

Keywords: Climate change, creative practice as interdisciplinary research, arts-based practice as research, creative art practice, speculative future.

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1264 On the Difference between Cultural and Religious Identities: A Case Study of Christianity and Islam in Some African and Asian Countries

Authors: Mputu Ngandu Simon


Culture and religion are two of the most significant markers of an individual or group`s identity. Religion finds its expression in a given culture and culture is the costume in which a religion is dressed. In other words, there is a crucial relationship between religion and culture which should not be ignored. On the one hand, religion influences the way in which a culture is consumed. A person`s consumption of a certain cultural practice is influenced by his/her religious identity. On the other hand, the cultural identity plays an important role on how a religion is practiced by its adherents. Some cultural practices become more credible when interpreted in religious terms just as religious doctrines and dogmas need cultural interpretation to be understood by a given people, in a given context. This relationship goes so deep that sometimes the boundaries between culture and religion become blurred and people end up mixing religion and culture. In some cases, the two are considered to be one and the same thing. However, despite this apparent sameness, religion and culture are two distinct aspects of identity and they should always be considered as such. One results from knowledge while the other has beliefs as its foundation. This paper explores the difference between cultural and religious identities by drawing from existing literature on this topic as a whole, before applying that knowledge to two specific case studies: Christianity among San people of Botswana, Namibia, Angola, Zambia, Lesotho, Zimbabwe, and South Africa, and Islam in Somalia, Kenya, Ethiopia, Djibouti and Iran.

Keywords: Belief, identity, knowledge, culture, religion.

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1263 Descriptive Study of Libyan Steles of Grande Kabylia, Algeria

Authors: Samia Ait Ali Yahia


The Libyan steles contain a good number of inscriptions. We find them on blocks of sandstone in the northern part of Grande Kabylia, Algeria. Three Libyan steles recently discovered are added to the currently known and published documents which enrich the Libyan heritage of this region. The aim of this article is to make a descriptive study of the Libyan inscriptions of these steles in order to better understand the characteristics of each stele by comparing them to the different stele already known in the region. It is certain that if other similar specimens were to be added to those we already possess, knowledge of the Libyan would gradually become clearer. The Kabylia region is certainly full of these remains that have not yet been brought to light.

Keywords: Libyan stele, Libyan inscriptions, Paintings, Engraving, Kaylie.

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1262 Technologies of Transportation and Communication: Impact in Colonial Punjab

Authors: Mandakini Thakur, Sheena Pall


Technology had been intimately related to colonialism as colonizers found the tools of technology essential to penetrate, organize and develop the unexplored geographical areas which they conquered. Transportation and communication technologies played an important role in consolidating the British rule in India as these were essential components required for quick movement of goods, troops and securing co-ordination between authorities and officials at various levels. The province of Punjab in British India was annexed by the British in 1949 and they immediately started to introduce western technologies of transport and communication for transportation of agricultural produce, security of defence forces and acquiring comprehensive, accurate, and frequent information from every quarter of the region. This paper describes the introduction of western technologies of road and bridge construction, railways, telegraph, telephone, radio transmission and printing press by the British in Colonial Punjab. These technologies created appreciable impact on the colonial Punjabi society which has been highlighted. The paper is intended to contribute to the much needed aspect of History of Technology in colonial Punjab.

Keywords: Colonial Punjab, technology, transportation, communication.

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1261 China’s Health Silk Road in the Southeast Asia and Europe during COVID-19

Authors: Wanda Luen-Wun Siu, Xiaowen Zhang


The COVID-19 pandemic has presented an opportune time for China to deploy its health diplomacy around the world. This paper focused on China’s health diplomacy along the path of its Health Silk Road, with particular emphasis on the Southeast Asia and Europe amid COVID-19. This paper employed a retrospective literature review, analyzed China’s health diplomacy in such regions to cultivate bilateral and multilateral relationships. Findings argued that such health diplomacy is a success and China has taken the helm of international public health patronage. This research contributes to the literature in health diplomacy and suggests that amid the ever changing international order, China has exerted great effort in its health diplomacy and established itself as a responsible world power.

Keywords: China’s health silk road, COVID-19, Europe, Middle East.

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1260 China’s Health Diplomacy to Strengthen Ties with Africa

Authors: Wanda Luen-Wun Siu, Xiaowen Zhang


The outbreak of COVID-19 epidemic has caused great difficulties for South-South cooperation, but there are also opportunities. China’s health diplomacy has changed from dispatching medical teams, assisting in the construction of hospitals, and to encouraging medical investment in the Africa health sector. This paper adopted a retrospective review of China’s health statecraft in Africa from 1963 to 2020. Findings suggested that China has a preference for aiding Africa health infrastructure and sending medical teams to African countries and it is both socially and financially sustainable. China’s health diplomacy in Africa is a success and has established secure diplomatic relations with African countries, thanks to the medical and health assistance to Africa over 60 years. This research contributes to the literature of health diplomacy and indicates that China’s health aid has fostered cooperation at the medical and diplomatic levels.

Keywords: Africa, bilateral relations, China’s Health Diplomacy, COVID-19.

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1259 China's Strategic Aid Diplomacy to Foster Development of Latin America

Authors: Wanda Luen-Wun Siu, Xiaowen Zhang


This paper adopted a retrospective review of China’s assistance to Latin America from the 1950s to 2020. Findings suggested that China’s assistance to Latin America can be roughly divided into five stages: The 1950s to 1960s was the initial stage of China’s assistance to Latin America, mainly focusing on the establishment of diplomatic relations with Cuba and other Latin American countries. The strategy has a strong ideological basis. The 1980s were the stage of development of China's aid to Latin America, which was characterized by consolidating and expanding diplomatic space, emphasizing the spirit of cooperation of equality, mutual benefit, and common development. The 1990s to 2000s marked the further development of diplomatic relations with Latin American countries, plus domestic market-oriented reforms, emphasizing the importance of economic considerations, and less ideological orientation; and this period also witnessed more Chinese state-owned enterprises going out to invest in Latin America. 2010-2019 marked the further development of Latin American relations. This paper contributes to the literature of diplomacy and health assistance to Latin America and highlights the importance of foreign aid and health assistance in sealing bilateral diplomatic relations.

Keywords: Broad Spectrum Assistance, China, Latin America, bilateral relations.

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1258 Decoding the Construction of Identity and Struggle for Self-Assertion in Toni Morrison and Selected Indian Authors

Authors: Madhuri Goswami


The matrix of power establishes the hegemonic dominance and supremacy of one group through exercising repression and relegation upon the other. However, the injustice done to any race, ethnicity or caste has instigated the protest and resistance through various modes- social campaigns, political movements, literary expression and so on. Consequently, the search for identity, the means of claiming it and strive for recognition have evolved as the persistent phenomena all through the world. In the discourse of protest and minority literature, these two discourses- African American and Indian Dalit- surprisingly, share wrath and anger, hope and aspiration, and quest for identity and struggle for self-assertion. African American and Indian Dalit are two geographically and culturally apart communities that stand together on a single platform. This paper has sought to comprehend the form and investigate the formation of identity in general and in the literary work of Toni Morrison and Indian Dalit writing, particularly i.e. Black identity and Dalit identity. The study has speculated two types of identity namely, individual or self and social or collective identity in the literary province of this marginalized literature. Morrison’s work outsources that self-identity is not merely a reflection of an inner essence; it is constructed through social circumstances and relations. Likewise, Dalit writings too have a fair record of the discovery of self-hood and formation of identity which connects to the realization of self-assertion and worthiness of their culture among Dalit writers. Bama, Pawar, Limbale, Pawde, and Kamble investigate their true self concealed amid societal alienation. The study has found that the struggle for recognition is, in fact, the striving to become the definer, instead of just being defined; and, this striving eventually, leads to the introspection among them. To conclude, Morrison as well as Indian marginalized authors, despite being set quite distant, communicate the relation between individual and community in the context of self-consciousness, self-identification, and (self) introspection. This research opens a scope for further research to find out similar phenomena and trace an analogy in other world literature.

Keywords: Identity, introspection, self-access, struggle for recognition

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1257 The Power of Indigenous Peoples in Decision-Making Processes of Mining Projects: The Pilbara Region

Authors: K. N. Penna, J. P. English


The destruction of the Juukan Gorge rock shelters in 2020 has catalysed impetus within Australian society for a significant change in engagement with Indigenous Peoples, and the approach to Indigenous cultural heritage, both within the Pilbara region and more broadly across Australia. Culture-based and people-centred approaches are inherent to inclusive sustainable development and Free, Prior, Informed Consent, outcomes encouraged by international and local recommendations on the human rights and cultural heritage preservation of Indigenous peoples. In this paper, we present an interpretive model of an evolved process for mining project development, incorporating culture-based and people-centred approaches, based on the Theory U system change method. The evolved process advocates a change in organisational mindset and culture, and a comprehensive understanding of Indigenous Peoples’ culture and values, as the foundations for increasing their influence and achieving mutually beneficial developments.

Keywords: Indigenous Engagement, mining industry, culture-based approach, people-centred approach, Theory U.

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