Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1260

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Humanities and Social Sciences]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

1260 China’s Health Diplomacy to Strengthen Ties with Africa

Authors: Wanda Luen-Wun Siu, Xiaowen Zhang

Abstract:

The outbreak of COVID-19 epidemic has caused great difficulties for South-South cooperation, but there are also opportunities. China’s health diplomacy has changed from dispatching medical teams, assisting in the construction of hospitals, and to encouraging medical investment in the Africa health sector. This paper adopted a retrospective review of China’s health statecraft in Africa from 1963 to 2020. Findings suggested that China has a preference for aiding Africa health infrastructure and sending medical teams to African countries and it is both socially and financially sustainable. China’s health diplomacy in Africa is a success and has established secure diplomatic relations with African countries, thanks to the medical and health assistance to Africa over 60 years. This research contributes to the literature of health diplomacy and indicates that China’s health aid has fostered cooperation at the medical and diplomatic levels.

Keywords: Africa, bilateral relations, China’s Health Diplomacy, COVID-19.

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1259 China's Strategic Aid Diplomacy to Foster Development of Latin America

Authors: Wanda Luen-Wun Siu, Xiaowen Zhang

Abstract:

This paper adopted a retrospective review of China’s assistance to Latin America from the 1950s to 2020. Findings suggested that China’s assistance to Latin America can be roughly divided into five stages: The 1950s to 1960s was the initial stage of China’s assistance to Latin America, mainly focusing on the establishment of diplomatic relations with Cuba and other Latin American countries. The strategy has a strong ideological basis. The 1980s were the stage of development of China's aid to Latin America, which was characterized by consolidating and expanding diplomatic space, emphasizing the spirit of cooperation of equality, mutual benefit, and common development. The 1990s to 2000s marked the further development of diplomatic relations with Latin American countries, plus domestic market-oriented reforms, emphasizing the importance of economic considerations, and less ideological orientation; and this period also witnessed more Chinese state-owned enterprises going out to invest in Latin America. 2010-2019 marked the further development of Latin American relations. This paper contributes to the literature of diplomacy and health assistance to Latin America and highlights the importance of foreign aid and health assistance in sealing bilateral diplomatic relations.

Keywords: Broad Spectrum Assistance, China, Latin America, bilateral relations.

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1258 Decoding the Construction of Identity and Struggle for Self-Assertion in Toni Morrison and Selected Indian Authors

Authors: Madhuri Goswami

Abstract:

The matrix of power establishes the hegemonic dominance and supremacy of one group through exercising repression and relegation upon the other. However, the injustice done to any race, ethnicity or caste has instigated the protest and resistance through various modes- social campaigns, political movements, literary expression and so on. Consequently, the search for identity, the means of claiming it and strive for recognition have evolved as the persistent phenomena all through the world. In the discourse of protest and minority literature, these two discourses- African American and Indian Dalit- surprisingly, share wrath and anger, hope and aspiration, and quest for identity and struggle for self-assertion. African American and Indian Dalit are two geographically and culturally apart communities that stand together on a single platform. This paper has sought to comprehend the form and investigate the formation of identity in general and in the literary work of Toni Morrison and Indian Dalit writing, particularly i.e. Black identity and Dalit identity. The study has speculated two types of identity namely, individual or self and social or collective identity in the literary province of this marginalized literature. Morrison’s work outsources that self-identity is not merely a reflection of an inner essence; it is constructed through social circumstances and relations. Likewise, Dalit writings too have a fair record of the discovery of self-hood and formation of identity which connects to the realization of self-assertion and worthiness of their culture among Dalit writers. Bama, Pawar, Limbale, Pawde, and Kamble investigate their true self concealed amid societal alienation. The study has found that the struggle for recognition is, in fact, the striving to become the definer, instead of just being defined; and, this striving eventually, leads to the introspection among them. To conclude, Morrison as well as Indian marginalized authors, despite being set quite distant, communicate the relation between individual and community in the context of self-consciousness, self-identification, and (self) introspection. This research opens a scope for further research to find out similar phenomena and trace an analogy in other world literature.

Keywords: Identity, introspection, self-access, struggle for recognition

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1257 The Power of Indigenous Peoples in Decision-Making Processes of Mining Projects: The Pilbara Region

Authors: K. N. Penna, J. P. English

Abstract:

The destruction of the Juukan Gorge rock shelters in 2020 has catalysed impetus within Australian society for a significant change in engagement with Indigenous Peoples, and the approach to Indigenous cultural heritage, both within the Pilbara region and more broadly across Australia. Culture-based and people-centred approaches are inherent to inclusive sustainable development and Free, Prior, Informed Consent, outcomes encouraged by international and local recommendations on the human rights and cultural heritage preservation of Indigenous peoples. In this paper, we present an interpretive model of an evolved process for mining project development, incorporating culture-based and people-centred approaches, based on the Theory U system change method. The evolved process advocates a change in organisational mindset and culture, and a comprehensive understanding of Indigenous Peoples’ culture and values, as the foundations for increasing their influence and achieving mutually beneficial developments.

Keywords: Indigenous Engagement, mining industry, culture-based approach, people-centred approach, Theory U.

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1256 Participation and Strategic Communication of Saudi Food Banks through Twitter to Enhance Food Waste Awareness among Saudi Arabian Citizens

Authors: Nasser Alkorbi, Manuel Hernández-Pérez, Seamus Simpson

Abstract:

Twitter is a platform service that has quickly risen to prominence as the social media platform most preferred for strategic communication campaigns. It is used by most of the Non-Profit Organizations (NPO) in Saudi Arabia, making it the most popular social media platform in the country. Non-Profit Organizations (NPOs) use Twitter to raise awareness of social issues and to communicate with stakeholders. Despite the features Twitter has recently introduced, this paper investigates how NPOs (Foodbanks) in Saudi Arabia use Twitter to raise awareness of food waste, as well as their posting behaviour over a two-year period. By the end of the research, we were able to provide a framework for using Twitter which new or existing NPOs can adopt, as well as helping NPOs (Foodbanks) to recognize and become aware of the impact of Twitter.

Keywords: Awareness, food banks, food waste, Saudi Arabia, social media, Twitter.

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1255 The Pragmatist Basis of Material Hermeneutics

Authors: Juho Lindholm

Abstract:

Practical hermeneutics explores the emergence of meaning in scientific practice. Visual hermeneutics is its subclass which explores the emergence of meaning in instrumentally mediated interactions with scientific objects. There remains to be explained, upon what theory of meaning their discussions are based. Linguistic theories of meaning seem utterly inappropriate for the analysis of the non-linguistic meanings that such hermeneutics invoke. In this article, it will be shown by conceptual analysis that the so-called “pragmatic maxim” provides sufficient resources for the philosophical analysis of such meanings. The “pragmatic maxim” states that the meaning of a thing consists in the potential practical effects of that thing. Because this notion is not confined to language, it can be broadly applied to anything meaningful, including practices and the instruments which are part of practices.

Keywords: Hermeneutics, philosophy of science, pragmatism, theory of meaning.

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1254 Foreign Elements in the Methodologies of Usul Fiqh: Analyzing the Orientalist Thought

Authors: Ariyanti Mustapha

Abstract:

The development of Islamic jurisprudence since the first century of the hijra has fascinated many orientalists to explore the historiography of Islamic legislation. The practice of usul fiqh began during the lifetime of the Prophet Muhammad and was continued by the companions as the legal reasoning due to the absence of the legal injunction in the Qur’an and Sunnah. The orientalists propagated that the Roman and Jewish legislation were transplanted into Islamic jurisprudence and it was the primary reason for its progression. We used qualitative and comparative methods to analyze the orientalists’ views. Results showed that many erroneous facts were propagated by Goldziher and Schacht by claiming the parallels between the principles, methodologies, and fundamental concepts in Islamic jurisprudence and Roman Provincial law. The orientalists claimed that Islamic jurisprudence was derived from the corpus of Jewish Mishnah and Ha-kol. These judgments are used by the orientalists to prove the inferiority of Islamic jurisprudence. Nevertheless, many evidences have proven that Islamic legislation is capable of developing independently without any foreign transplant.

Keywords: Foreign transplant, ijtihad, orientalist, usul fiqh.

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1253 Sexual Trauma and Connecting with the Self: Analyzing Mindfulness Strategies When Dissociation Is Triggered During Masturbation

Authors: Alisha Fisher

Abstract:

Healing from sexual trauma can be a tumultuous process, filled with loneliness, confusion, and many unknowns or surprising road bumps. Survivors of sexual violence will often battle with the post traumatic difficulties following the trauma, some of which involve struggles with reconnecting with sexual pleasure. The goal of this paper is to analyze various papers to identify if there is a connection to survivors navigating the symptom of dissociation during self-sexual pleasuring care through grounding and mindfulness strategies. We conclude that there can be benefits to engaging in strategies of grounding and mindfulness can bring a level of presence to survivor’s mind, and body that can assist with reducing the anxieties and dissociation events dur solo sexual play. As such, service providers of survivors of sexual violence should be discussing the options of solo masturbation experiences mixed with grounding and mindfulness processes for survivors to heal and re-claim their sexual lifestyles.

Keywords: Masturbation healing, sexual violence survivor, survivor healing, survivor masturbation.

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1252 Influence Maximization in Dynamic Social Networks and Graphs

Authors: Gkolfo I. Smani, Vasileios Megalooikonomou

Abstract:

Influence and influence diffusion have been studied extensively in social networks. However, most existing literature on this task are limited on static networks, ignoring the fact that the interactions between users change over time. In this paper, the problem of maximizing influence diffusion in dynamic social networks, i.e., the case of networks that change over time is studied. The DM algorithm is an extension of Matrix Influence (MATI) algorithm and solves the Influence Maximization (IM) problem in dynamic networks and is proposed under the Linear Threshold (LT) and Independent Cascade (IC) models. Experimental results show that our proposed algorithm achieves a diffusion performance better by 1.5 times than several state-of-the-art algorithms and comparable results in diffusion scale with the Greedy algorithm. Also, the proposed algorithm is 2.4 times faster than previous methods.

Keywords: Influence maximization, dynamic social networks, diffusion, social influence.

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1251 Post-Modernist Tragi-Comedy: A Study of Tom Stoppard’s Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead

Authors: Azza Taha Zaki

Abstract:

The death of tragedy is probably one of the most distinctive literary controversies of the twentieth century. There is common critical consent that tragedy in the classical sense of the word is no longer possible. Thinkers, philosophers and critics such as Nietzsche, Durrenmatt and George Steiner have all agreed that the decline of the genre in the modern age is due to the total lack of a unified world image and the absence of a shared vision in a fragmented and ideologically diversified world. The production of Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead in 1967 marked the rise of the genre of tragi-comedy as a more appropriate reflection of the spirit of the age. At the hands of such great dramatists as Tom Stoppard (1937- ), the revived genre was not used as an extra comic element to give some comic relief to an otherwise tragic text, but it was given a postmodernist touch to serve the interpretation of the dilemma of man in the postmodernist world. This paper will study features of postmodernist tragi-comedy in Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead as one of the most important plays in the modern British theatre and investigate Stoppard’s vision of man and life as influenced by postmodernist thought and philosophy.

Keywords: British, drama, postmodernist, Stoppard, tragi-comedy.

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1250 The Influence of the Normative Gender Binary in Diversity Management: Including Gender Diversity in Human Resources

Authors: Robin C. Ladwig

Abstract:

Human resources, especially diversity management, play a significant role in the recruitment, retainment, and management of transgender and gender diverse individuals in organisations. Although, the inclusion of transgender and gender diversity as part of gender identity diversity has been mostly neglected within the diversity management practice and research. One reason is cisnormative gender binarism that limits inclusive diversity and human resource management which leads to the exclusion and discrimination of transgender and gender diverse employees. This qualitative multi-method research found three stages of diversity management to engage with transgender and gender diversity in the organisational context: intuitive, reactive, and proactive. While the influence of cisnormative gender binarism and the awareness of transgender and gender diversity varies between these three forms, the application of the queering approach to diversity management could increase the inclusion of gender identity diversity beyond the gender binary.

Keywords: Cisnormativity, diversity management, gender binarism, transgender, gender diversity.

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1249 Woman, House, Identity: The Study of the Role of House in Constructing the Contemporary Dong Minority Woman’s Identity

Authors: Sze Wai Veera Fung, Peter W. Ferretto

Abstract:

Similar to most ethnic groups in China, men of the Dong minority hold the primary position in policymaking, moral authority, social values, and the control of the property. As the spatial embodiment of the patriarchal ideals, the house plays a significant role in producing and reproducing the distinctive gender status within the Dong society. Nevertheless, Dong women do not see their home as a cage of confinement, nor do they see themselves as a victim of oppression. For these women with reference to their productive identity, a house is a dwelling place with manifold meanings, including a proof of identity, an economic instrument, and a public resource operating on the community level. This paper examines the role of the house as a central site for identity construction and maintenance for the southern dialect Dong minority women in Hunan, China. Drawing on recent interviews with the Dong women, this study argues that women as productive individuals have a strong influence on the form of their house and the immediate environment, regardless of the male-dominated social construct of the Dong society. The aim of this study is not to produce a definitive relationship between women, house, and identity. Rather, it seeks to offer an alternative lens into the complexity and diversity of gender dynamics operating in and beyond the boundary of the house in the context of contemporary rural China.

Keywords: Conception of home, Dong minority, house, rural China, woman’s identity.

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1248 Fastest Growing Crime with Invisible Chains: A Review of Escaping Sex Trafficking Frameworks in Canada

Authors: Alisha Fisher

Abstract:

Survivors of sex trafficking often report extensive harm not just from the violence itself, but multiple levels such as internalized shame, societal misunderstandings, and the process of reporting, exiting, and healing. The aim of this article is to examine the multi-layered approach to supporting survivors who are exiting sex trafficking through immediate, short-term, and long-term care approaches. We present a systematic review of the current barriers structurally, psychosocially, and psychologically through a Canadian perspective, and apply them to the interventions within the service continuum, basic needs, and further needs and supports to consider. This article suggests that ongoing and additional funding to survivor’s support services, specialized police and heath care training, and increased prevention and public education on the realities of sex trafficking in Canada is a necessity for survivor healing, and the prevention of further harm.

Keywords: Canada Sex Trafficking, exiting sex trafficking, sex trafficking survivors, sex trafficking supports.

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1247 The Islamic Hadiths on Female Circumcision and the Symbolism of Solomon’s Temple

Authors: Richard L. Worthington

Abstract:

Female ‘circumcision’ (FGC/FGM) in Islam is based primarily upon the ‘hadiths,’ which are the sayings of Muhammad. While it is usual to attack such hadiths in order to stop female ‘circumcision,’ yet those practicing female ‘circumcision’ merely react against such an attack. However, there is a new approach, called ‘Temple Theology,’ which reads religious stories in the light of how the rituals and politics of Solomon’s temple were encoded in those stories. For example, one hadith tells us not to cut severely in circumcising a woman. However, the Menorah lampstand was symbolized as a woman, and so ‘circumcising’ a woman could be re-interpreted as merely referring to trimming the wicks of the lamps. Similarly, another hadith mentions that when a man is within the four parts of a woman (her arms and legs) that the couple should bathe because their circumcised parts have met (implying that the woman was circumcised). However, the bronze ‘Sea’ basin of Solomon’s temple, used for immersion (‘bathing’), had four sides, implying that the circumcised parts relate to temple symbolism. The hadiths relating to the fitra – Islamic practices which include circumcision – and to Hagar being circumcised by Sarah are likewise interpreted. This approach implies that the hadiths can be respected without giving them a literal interpretation. In this way, it is hoped that those devout Muslims who defend female ‘circumcision’ can re-evaluate their position in a positive way from within their own tradition, as opposed to being seemingly hounded by non-Muslims.

Keywords: Female circumcision, Fitra, Hadith, Temple theology.

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1246 From “Discipline and Punish” to the Necessity for the Establishment of Greek Theatre: A Political Study of the Formation of Theatre Spaces in Ancient Greece Based on Michel Foucault’s Ideas

Authors: Payam Foroutan Yekta

Abstract:

The formation of theatre in ancient Greece and the different reasons and arguments about it are still left as an interesting case of discussion, and the origin of the Greek drama is usually sought in the Dionysus Festival. One fundamental element for the transformation of ritual into theatre was the establishment of theatre or places specifically used for performing Greek drama. Despite the theories of social Darwinists in the field of theatre historiography, the present study takes as its point of departure the hypothesis that the procedure of the transformation of Dionysus rituals to theatre has not been an evolutionary one. Our arguments will be based on Michel Foucault’s theory in his seminal book Discipline and Punish, where he holds “power” to be always aiming at the regulation of formless and unpredictable masses in order to predict their movements and behaviours. Thus, it could be argued that by founding theatra, in less than two centuries, Athens’s political system has transformed the primitive, violent and chaotic Dionysus rituals, turning them into theatre in order to control the society as much as possible.

Keywords: Dionysus Rituals, Greek Drama, Theatron, Michel Foucault, Discipline and Punish, Political System.

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1245 Influence of Online Sports Events on Betting among Nigerian Youth

Authors: B. O. Diyaolu

Abstract:

The opportunity provided by advances in technology as regard to sports betting is so numerous. Nigerian youth are not left out especially with the use of phones and visit to sports betting outlets. Today, it is more difficult to differentiate a true fan as there are quite a number of them that became fans as a result of betting on live games. This study investigated the influence of online sports events on betting among Nigerian youth. A descriptive survey research design was used and the population consists of all Nigerian youth that engages in betting and lives within the southwest zone of Nigeria. A simple random sampling technique was used to pick three states from the southwest zone of Nigeria. 2500 respondents comprising of males and females were sampled from the three states. A structured questionnaire on Online Sports Event Contribution to Sports Betting (OSECSB) was used. The instrument consists of three sections. Section A seeks information on the demographic data of the respondents. Section B seeks information on online sports events while section C was used to extract information on sports betting. The modified instrument which consists of 14 items has a reliability coefficient of 0.74. The hypothesis was tested at 0.05 significance level. The completed questionnaire was collated, coded, and analyzed using descriptive statistics of frequency counts, percentage and pie chart, and inferential statistics of multiple regressions. The findings of this study revealed that online sports betting is a significant predictor of an increase in sports betting among Nigerian youth. The media and television, as well as globalization and the internet, coupled with social media and various online platforms, have all contributed to the immense increase in sports betting. The increase in the advertisement of the betting platform during live matches, especially football, is becoming more alarming. In most organized international events, the media attention, as well as sponsorship rights, are now been given to one or two betting platforms. There is a need for all stakeholders to put in place school-based intervention programs to reorientate our youth about the consequences of addiction to betting. Such programs must include meta-analyses and emotional control towards sports betting.

Keywords: Betting platform, Nigerian fans, Nigerian youth, sports betting.

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1244 Theory about the Gebel El-Arak Knife: An Egyptian Knife with Canaanite Relief

Authors: Doaa El-Shereef

Abstract:

Gebel Al-Arak knife with its fine engravings on the two faces of the handle is the proof about the relationship between the Egyptians and the Canaanites during Naqada II. The Canaanites lived with the Egyptians in Abydos and they fought each other for power and the war scene on the knife prove that the Canaanites and the Egyptians wore the same outfit and they are only different by their hair style. The research discusses and analyzes many primary sources in Egypt, like wall inscriptions and palettes that prove the strong land relation and sea trade between Canaan and Egypt during Chalcolithic Age (4500-3500 BC). While no primary sources in Egypt prove the relationship between Egypt and Mesopotamia in the period to which the knife of Gebel Al-Arak belongs, between 3300-3100 BC, there were no battles or maritime trade exchanges between them. The engravings on the knife belong to the Canaanites and their God El (Master of Animals) and describing their victory over the Egyptians in this amphibious battle. The research aims to prove a theory that the Gebel Al-Arak knife is an Egyptian-made knife and the influences of the knife engravings were Canaanite, not Mesopotamian. The methodology of the study is historical methodology which is used to gather and analyze evidence and various historical data retrieved from history and interpret what the evidence reveals about things that occurred in history.

Keywords: Canaan, Egypt, Gebel el-Arak Knife, Louvre.

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1243 Infection in the Sentence: The Castration of a Black Woman's Dream of Authorship as Manifested in Buchi Emecheta's Second Class Citizen

Authors: Aseel Hatif Jassam, Hadeel Hatif Jassam

Abstract:

The paper discusses the phallocentric discourse that is challenged by women in general and women of color in particular in spite of the simultaneity of oppression due to race, class, and gender in the diaspora. Therefore, the paper gives a brief account of women's experience in the light of postcolonial feminist theory. The paper also casts light on the theories of Luce Irigaray and Helen Cixous, two feminist theorists who support and advise women to have their own discourse to challenge the infectious patriarchal sentence advocated by Sigmund Freud and Harold Bloom's model of literary history. Black women authors like Buchi Emecheta as well as her alter ego Adah, a Nigerian-born girl and the protagonist of her semi-autobiographical novel, Second Class Citizen, suffer from this phallocentric and oppressive sentence and displacement as they migrate from Nigeria, a former British colony where they feel marginalized, to North London with the hope of realizing their dreams. Yet in the British diaspora, they get culturally shocked and continue to suffer from further marginalization due to class and race and are insulted and inferiorized ironically by their patriarchal husbands who try to put an end to their dreams of authorship. With the phallocentric belief that women are not capable of self-representation in the background of their mindsets, the violent Sylvester Onwordi and Francis Obi, the husbands of both Emecheta and Adah respectively have practiced oppression on them by burning their own authoritative voices, represented by the novels they write while they are struggling with their economically atrocious living experiences in the British diaspora.

Keywords: Authorship, British diaspora, discourse, phallocentric, patriarchy.

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1242 Comparative Canadian Online News Coverage Analysis of Sex Trafficking Reported Cases in Ontario and Nova Scotia

Authors: Alisha Fisher

Abstract:

Sex trafficking is a worldwide crisis that requires trauma-informed and survivor-centered media attention to accurate disseminate information. Much of the previous literature of sex trafficking tends to focus on frequency of incidents, intervention, and support strategies for survivors, with few of them looking to how the media is conducting their reporting on sex trafficking cases to the public. Utilizing data of reports from the media of cases of sex trafficking in the two Canadian provinces with the highest cases of sex trafficking, Ontario and Nova Scotia, we sought to analyze the similarities and differences of how sex trafficking cases were being reported. A total of 20 articles were examined, with 10 based within the province of Ontario and the remaining 10 from the province of Nova Scotia. We coded in two processes, first, who the article was about, and second, the framing and content inclusion. The results suggest that there is high usage, and reliance of voices and images of authority, with male people of color being shown as the perpetrators, and white women being shown as the survivors. These findings can aid in the expansion of trauma-informed, survivor-centered media literacy of reports of sex trafficking to provide accurate insights, and further developing robust methods to intersectional approaches to reporting cases of sex trafficking.

Keywords: Sex Trafficking, media coverage, canada sex trafficking, content analysis.

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1241 Indigenous Engagement: Towards a Culturally Sensitive Approach for Inclusive Economic Development

Authors: K. N. Penna, E. J. Hoffman, T. R. Carter

Abstract:

This paper suggests that cultural landscape management plans in an Indigenous context are more effective if designed by taking into consideration context-related social and cultural aspects, adopting people-centred and cultural-based approaches for instance. In relation to working in Indigenous and mining contexts, we draw upon and contribute to international policies on human rights that promote the development of management plans that are co-designed through genuine engagement processes. We suggest that the production of management plans that are built upon culturally relevant frameworks leads to more inclusive economic development, a greater sense of trust, and shared managerial responsibilities. In this paper, three issues related to Indigenous engagement and cultural landscape management plans will be addressed: (1) the need for effective communication channels between proponents and Traditional Owners (Australian original Aboriginal peoples who inhabited specific regions), (2) the use of a culturally sensitive approach to engage local representatives in the decision-making processes, and (3) how design of new management plans can help in establishing shared management.

Keywords: Culture-Centred Approach, Holons’ Hierarchy, Inclusive Economic Development, Indigenous Engagement.

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1240 Properties of Bacterial Nanocellulose for Scenic Arts

Authors: B. Suárez, G. Forman

Abstract:

Kombucha (a symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeast) produces material capable of acquiring multiple shapes and textures that change significantly under different environment or temperature variations (e.g., when it is exposed to wet conditions), properties that may be explored in the scenic industry. This paper presents an analysis of its specific characteristics, exploring them as a non-conventional material for arts and performance. Costume Design uses surfaces as a powerful way of expression to represent concepts and stories; it may apply the unique features of nano bacterial cellulose (NBC) as assets in this artistic context. A mix of qualitative and quantitative (interventionist) methodology approaches were used such as review of relevant literature to deepen knowledge on the research topic (crossing bibliography from different fields of studies: biology, art, costume design, etc.); as well as descriptive methods: laboratorial experiments, document quantities, observation to identify material properties and possibilities used to express a multiple narrative ideas, concepts and feelings. The results confirmed that NBC is an interactive and versatile material viable to be used in an alternative scenic context; its unique aesthetic and performative qualities, which change in contact to moisture, are resources that can be used to show a visual and poetic impact on stage.

Keywords: Biotechnological materials, contemporary dance, costume design, nano bacterial cellulose, performing arts.

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1239 The Use of Symbolic Signs in Modern Ukrainian Monumental Church Painting: Classification and Hidden Semantics

Authors: Khlystun Yuliia Igorivna

Abstract:

Monumental church paintings are often perceived either as the interior decoration of the temple or as the "Gospel for the illiterate," as the temple painting often contains scenes from Holy Scripture. In science the painting of the Orthodox Church is mainly the subject of study of art critics, but from the point of view of culturology and semiotics, it is insufficiently studied. The symbolism of monumental church painting is insufficiently revealed. The aim of this paper is to give a description of symbolic signs, to classify them, to give examples for each type of sign from the paintings of modern temples of Eastern Ukraine, on the basis of semiotic analysis of iconographic plots used in monumental church painting. We offer own classification of symbols of monumental church painting, using examples from the murals of modern Orthodox churches in Eastern Ukraine, mainly from the Donetsk region. When analyzing the semantics of symbolic signs, the following methods of the culturological approach were used: semiotic, iconological, iconographic, hermeneutic, culturological, descriptive, comparative-historical, visual-analytical. When interpreting the meanings of symbolic signs, scientific, cultural and theological literature were used. Photos taken by the author have been added to the article.

Keywords: Iconography, painting of Orthodox Church, Orthodox Church, semiotic signs in modern iconography, classification of symbols in painting of Orthodox Church.

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1238 The Reintegration of the Past as Self-Realisation: Zhao Tao in Jia Zhangke’s Films

Authors: Haotian Wu

Abstract:

This article examines the figure Zhao Tao in Jia Zhangke’s films in light of Carl Jung’s psychoanalytical theory. Zhao is a recurring aesthetic trope in Jia’s films, and the characters she plays often have an intimate relationship with the past. Nevertheless, this relationship has not been systematically investigated, especially its symbolism of the typical relationship between the past and the self in post-social China. To fill this research gap, the article will explore how Zhao’s characters discover, preserve, and adapt the past in I Wish I knew (2010), Mountains May Depart (2015), and Ash Is Purest White (2018). Through a Jungian lens, these three levels of engagement with the past will be demonstrated as corresponding with Jung’s psychoanalytical theory of self-realisation, which entails the confrontation with the shadow, the embodiment of the archetype, and individuation. Thus, by articulating a film-philosophy dialogue between Jia and Jung, this article will develop a philosophy of self-realisation based on the symbolism of Zhao. Through the reintegration of the past, the individuals can overcome the fragmentation of temporality and selfhood in the postmodern world and achieve self-realisation.

Keywords: Jia Zhangke, Jung, psychoanalysis, self-realisation.

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1237 Whooeaism: A Concept of Origin of Religion among the Jarawas of Andaman Islands, India

Authors: Awdhesh Narayan Sharma

Abstract:

The concept and practice of whooeaism exist among the Jarawas of Andaman Islands of India. The Jarawas are one of the simplest populations of the world and truly represent the hunting and food gathering stage. The study is conducted among the Jarawas of Kadamtala region, which is situated approximately in the western part of the south and middle Andaman Islands, India. The Jarawa tribe belongs to Negrito race and is one of the particularly vulnerable tribal groups of the Andaman Islands. The present study is based on 45 Jarawas of Kadamtala region. The observations have been conducted through the semi-participant observation method and informal interview method. It has been observed that there are neither any beliefs and practices related to supernatural power nor any concept related to the soul, manaism, demonology, totemism, animatism etc. They only have faith on Whooea, i.e., a small bone of their deceased ancestors and they wear it by the help of a bark band around the neck and shoulder or around the waist, especially during hunting or fishing and food gathering time. The Jarawas either keep the whooea in higher places or hang it and they make sure that it must not touch the earth. The beliefs and practices related to whooea may be designated as Whooeaism. It may be concluded that in of spite of various existing theories related to the origin of religion viz. Animism, Animatism, Manaism and totemism and others, the origin of religion initially developed from the Whooeaism and then other concepts of religion evolved gradually by the manifestation of human beliefs and assumptions.

Keywords: Andaman Islands, Jarawas, origin, religion, Whooea.

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1236 Domestic Violence against Children and Trafficking in Human Beings: Two Worrying Phenomena in Kosovo

Authors: Adile Shaqiri, Arjeta Shaqiri Latifi

Abstract:

Domestic violence, trafficking with human beings especially violence against children, is a worldwide problem. Hence, it remains one of the most widespread forms of violence in Kosovo and which often continues to be described as a "closed door issue". Recognition, acceptance and prioritization of cases of domestic violence definitely require a much greater awareness of individuals in institutions for the risks, consequences and costs that the lack of such a well-coordinated response brings to the country. Considering that children are the future and the wealth of the country, violence and neglect against them should be treated as carefully as possible. The purpose of this paper is to identify steps towards prevention of the domestic violence and trafficking with human beings, so that the reflection of the consequences and the psychological flow do not reflect to a large extent in society. In this study is described: How is the phenomenon of domestic violence related to trafficking in human beings? The methods used are: historical, comparative, qualitative. Data derived from the relevant institutions were presented, i.e., by the actors who are the first reactors as well as the policy makers. Although these phenomena are present in all countries of the world, Kosovo is no exception and therefore comparisons of the development of child abuse have been made with other countries in the region as well. Since Kosovo is a country in transition, a country with a relatively high level of education, low economic development, high unemployment, political instability, dysfunctional legal infrastructure, it can be concluded that the potential for the development of negative phenomena is present and inevitable. Thus, during the research, the stages of development of these phenomena are analyzed, determining the causes and consequences which come from abuse, neglect of children and the impact on trafficking in human beings. The Kosovar family (parental responsibility), culture and religion, social services, the dignity of the abused child, etc. were analyzed. The review was also done on the legislation, educational institutions (curricula), governmental and non-governmental institutions their responsibilities and cooperation towards combating child abuse and trafficking. It is worth noting that during the work on paper, recommendations and conclusions have been drawn where it is concluded that we need an environment with educational reforms, stability in the political environment, economic development, a review of social policies, greater awareness of society, more adequate information through media, so that information and awareness could penetrate even in the most remote places of Kosovo society.

Keywords: Awareness, education, information, society, violence.

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1235 The Event of the World in Martin Heidegger’s Early Hermeneutical Phenomenology

Authors: Guelfo Carbone

Abstract:

The paper focuses on Heidegger’s 1919-1920 early research in order to point out his hermeneutical phenomenology of the life-world, arguing that the concept of world (Welt) is the main philosophical trigger for the phenomenology of factical life. Accordingly, the argument of the paper is twofold: First, the phenomenological hermeneutics of facticity is preceded both chronologically and philosophically by an original phenomenological investigation of life-world, in which the world is construed as the context of the givenness of life. Second, the phenomenology of life-world anticipates the question of being (Seinsfrage), but it also follows it, once this latter is shattered, the question of world as event remaining at the very core of Heidegger’s last meditations on the dominion of technology and the post-metaphysical abode of human beings on earth.

Keywords: Life-world, Heidegger, phenomenology, hermeneutics.

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1234 Libretto Thematology in Rossini's Operas and Its Formation by the Composer

Authors: Areti Tziboula, Anna-Maria Rentzeperi-Tsonou

Abstract:

The present study examines the way Gioachino Rossini’s librettos are selected and formed demonstrating the evolutionary trajectory of the composer during his operatic career. Rossini, a dominant figure in the early 19th century Italian opera, is demanding in his choice of librettos and has a preference for subjects inspired by European literature, of his time or earlier. He begins his operatic career with farsae and operas buffae, but he mainly continues with operas seriae, to end it with a grand opera that conforms to the spirit of romanticism as manifested in Paris of his time. His farsae, operas buffae and comic operas in general are representative of the trends of the time: in some the irrational and the exaggeration prevail, in others the upheavals, others are semi-serious and emotional with a happy ending and others are comedies with more realistic characters, but usually the styles are mixed and complement each other. The stories that refer to his modern era unfold mocking human characters, beliefs attitudes and their expressions in every day habits, satirizing current affairs, presenting innovative elements in dramatic intervention and dealing with a variety of social and national issues. Count Ory, his final comic work, consists of a complex witty urban comic opera entwined with romantic sensitivity. The themes he chooses for his operas seriae are characterized by tragic passion, take place in the era of the Trojan War, the Roman Empire, the Middle Ages, and the Age of the Crusades and are set in Italy, England, Poland, Greece, Switzerland, Israel and Egypt. In his early works he sketches the characters remotely, objectively and with static, reflexive emotional expression and a happy ending. Then he continues with operas for the San Carlo Theater, which are characterized by experimentation and innovation to end up his Italian operatic career with the ostensibly backward but in fact tragic Semiramis followed in Paris by William Tell, his ultimate dramatic achievement. There are indirect references to burning issues of his era but the censorship of the time does not allow direct reference to topics that would upset the status quo. In addition, Rossini lives in a temporal period of peace after the Napoleonic Wars and by temperament he resists openly engaging in political strife. Furthermore, the need for survival necessitates the search for the more profitable contracts. In conclusion, Rossini, as a liberal personality, shapes his librettos without interruptions or setbacks, with ideas that come out after a lot of thought and a strong sense of purpose. He moves from the moral and aesthetic clarity of the classic tradition of his early works to a more elaborate and morally ambiguous romantic style in a moderate and hesitant way.

Keywords: Gioachino Rossini, libretto, nineteenth century music, opera.

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1233 U-Turn on the Bridge to Freedom: An Interaction Process Analysis of Task and Relational Messages in Totalistic Organization Exit Conversations on Online Discussion Boards

Authors: Nancy DiTunnariello, Jenna L. Currie-Mueller

Abstract:

Totalistic organizations include organizations that operate by playing a prominent role in the life of its members through embedding values and practices. The Church of Scientology (CoS) is an example of a religious totalistic organization and has recently garnered attention because of the questionable treatment of members by those with authority, particularly when members try to leave the Church. The purpose of this study was to analyze exit communication and evaluate the task and relational messages discussed on online discussion boards for individuals with a previous or current connection to the totalistic CoS. Using organizational exit phases and interaction process analysis (IPA), researchers coded 30 boards consisting of 14,179 thought units from the Exscn.net website. Findings report that all stages of exit were present, and post-exit surfaced most often. Posts indicated more tasks than relational messages, where individuals mainly provided orientation/information. After a discussion of the study’s contributions, limitations and directions for future research are explained.

Keywords: Bales’ IPA, organizational exit, relational messages, scientology, task messages, totalistic organizations.

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1232 Bedouin Weaving Techniques: Source of Textile Innovation

Authors: Omaymah AlAzhari

Abstract:

Nomadic tribes have always had the need to relocate and build shelters, moving from one site to another in search of food, water, and natural resources. They are affected by weather and seasonal changes and consequently started innovating textiles to build better shelters. Their solutions came from the observation of their natural environment, material, and surroundings. ‘AlRahala’ Nomadic Bedouin tribes from the Middle East and North African region have used textiles as a fundamental architectural element in their tent structure, ‘Bayt AlShar’ (House of Hair). The nomadic tribe has innovated their textile to create a fabric that is more suited to change in climatic and weather conditions. They used sheep, goat, or camel hair to weave the textiles to make their shelters. The research is based on existing literature on the weaving technicalities used by these tribes, based on their available materials encountered during travel. To conclude how they create the traditional textiles and use in the tents are a rich source of information for designers to create innovative solutions of modern-day textiles and environmentally responsive products.

Keywords: AlRahala Nomadic Tribes, Bayt AlShar, tent structure, textile innovation.

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1231 Experiences and Coping of Adults with Death of Siblings during Childhood in Chinese Context: Implications for Therapeutic Interventions

Authors: Sze Yee Lee

Abstract:

The death of a sibling in childhood leads to significant impacts on both personal and family development of the surviving siblings, however, both short-term and long-term effects of sibling loss in Chinese societies such as Hong Kong have been inadequately documented in the literature. This paper explores the experience of encountering siblings’ death during childhood with the use of semi-structured interviews. Through thematic analysis, the author explores the impacts on surviving siblings’ emotions, coping styles, struggles and challenges and personal development. Furthermore, the influences on family dynamics are explored thoroughly, including the changes in family atmosphere, family roles, family relationship, family communication and parenting styles. More importantly, the author identifies (i) existing continuing bonds; (ii) crying; (iii) adequate social support; (iv) hiding own emotions as a gesture of protecting parents as the crucial elements pertinent to surviving siblings’ successful adaptation in the face of sibling loss. In addition, “child-centered” and “family-centered” service implications of families with a sibling's death in a Chinese context are discussed.

Keywords: Surviving children, sibling’s death, child-centered, family-centered.

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