Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 173

Search results for: wheeled inverted pendulum

173 Simulation and Analysis of Inverted Pendulum Controllers

Authors: Sheren H. Salah

Abstract:

The inverted pendulum is a highly nonlinear and open-loop unstable system. An inverted pendulum (IP) is a pendulum which has its mass above its pivot point. It is often implemented with the pivot point mounted on a cart that can move horizontally and may be called a cart and pole. The characteristics of the inverted pendulum make identification and control more challenging. This paper presents the simulation study of several control strategies for an inverted pendulum system. The goal is to determine which control strategy delivers better performance with respect to pendulum’s angle. The inverted pendulum represents a challenging control problem, which continually moves toward an uncontrolled state. For controlling the inverted pendulum. The simulation study that sliding mode control (SMC) control produced better response compared to Genetic Algorithm Control (GAs) and proportional-integral-derivative(PID) control.

Keywords: Inverted Pendulum (IP) Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID), Genetic Algorithm Control (GAs), Sliding Mode Control (SMC)

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172 Static Output Feedback Control of a Two-Wheeled Inverted Pendulum Using Sliding Mode Technique

Authors: Yankun Yang, Xinggang Yan, Konstantinos Sirlantzis, Gareth Howells

Abstract:

This paper presents a static output feedback sliding mode control method to regulate a two-wheeled inverted pendulum system with considerations of matched and unmatched uncertainties. A sliding surface is designed and the associated sliding motion stability is analysed based on the reduced-order dynamics. A static output sliding mode control law is synthesised to drive the system to the sliding surface and maintain a sliding motion afterwards. The nonlinear bounds on the uncertainties are employed in the stability analysis and control design to improve the robustness. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control.

Keywords: two-wheeled inverted pendulum, output feedback sliding mode control, nonlinear systems, robotics

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
171 Robust Model Predictive Controller for Uncertain Nonlinear Wheeled Inverted Pendulum Systems: A Tube-Based Approach

Authors: Tran Gia Khanh, Dao Phuong Nam, Do Trong Tan, Nguyen Van Huong, Mai Xuan Sinh

Abstract:

This work presents the problem of tube-based robust model predictive controller for a class of continuous-time systems in the presence of input disturbances. The main objective is to point out the state trajectory of closed system being maintained inside a sequence of tubes. An estimation of attraction region of the closed system is pointed out based on input state stability (ISS) theory and linearized model in each time interval. The theoretical analysis and simulation results demonstrate the performance of the proposed algorithm for a wheeled inverted pendulum system.

Keywords: input state stability (ISS), tube-based robust MPC, continuous-time nonlinear systems, wheeled inverted pendulum

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
170 The Exploitation of Balancing an Inverted Pendulum System Using Sliding Mode Control

Authors: Sheren H. Salah, Ahmed Y. Ben Sasi

Abstract:

The inverted pendulum system is a classic control problem that is used in universities around the world. It is a suitable process to test prototype controllers due to its high non-linearities and lack of stability. The inverted pendulum represents a challenging control problem, which continually moves toward an uncontrolled state. This paper presents the possibility of balancing an inverted pendulum system using sliding mode control (SMC). The goal is to determine which control strategy delivers better performance with respect to pendulum’s angle and cart's position. Therefore, proportional-integral-derivative (PID) is used for comparison. Results have proven SMC control produced better response compared to PID control in both normal and noisy systems.

Keywords: inverted pendulum (IP), proportional-integral derivative (PID), sliding mode control (SMC), systems and control engineering

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169 Fall Avoidance Control of Wheeled Inverted Pendulum Type Robotic Wheelchair While Climbing Stairs

Authors: Nan Ding, Motoki Shino, Nobuyasu Tomokuni, Genki Murata

Abstract:

The wheelchair is the major means of transport for physically disabled people. However, it cannot overcome architectural barriers such as curbs and stairs. In this paper, the authors proposed a method to avoid falling down of a wheeled inverted pendulum type robotic wheelchair for climbing stairs. The problem of this system is that the feedback gain of the wheels cannot be set high due to modeling errors and gear backlash, which results in the movement of wheels. Therefore, the wheels slide down the stairs or collide with the side of the stairs, and finally the wheelchair falls down. To avoid falling down, the authors proposed a slider control strategy based on skyhook model in order to decrease the movement of wheels, and a rotary link control strategy based on the staircase dimensions in order to avoid collision or slide down. The effectiveness of the proposed fall avoidance control strategy was validated by ODE simulations and the prototype wheelchair.

Keywords: EPW, fall avoidance control, skyhook, wheeled inverted pendulum

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
168 Balancing and Synchronization Control of a Two Wheel Inverted Pendulum Vehicle

Authors: Shiuh-Jer Huang, Shin-Ham Lee, Sheam-Chyun Lin

Abstract:

A two wheel inverted pendulum (TWIP) vehicle is built with two hub DC motors for motion control evaluation. Arduino Nano micro-processor is chosen as the control kernel for this electric test plant. Accelerometer and gyroscope sensors are built in to measure the tilt angle and angular velocity of the inverted pendulum vehicle. Since the TWIP has significantly hub motor dead zone and nonlinear system dynamics characteristics, the vehicle system is difficult to control by traditional model based controller. The intelligent model-free fuzzy sliding mode controller (FSMC) was employed as the main control algorithm. Then, intelligent controllers are designed for TWIP balance control, and two wheels synchronization control purposes.

Keywords: balance control, synchronization control, two-wheel inverted pendulum, TWIP

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167 Study of Gait Stability Evaluation Technique Based on Linear Inverted Pendulum Model

Authors: Kang Sungjae

Abstract:

This research proposes a gait stability evaluation technique based on the linear inverted pendulum model and moving support foot Zero Moment Point. With this, an improvement towards the gait analysis of the orthosis walk is validated. The application of Lagrangian mechanics approximation to the solutions of the dynamics equations for the linear inverted pendulum does not only simplify the solution, but it provides a smooth Zero Moment Point for the double feet support phase. The Zero Moment Point gait analysis techniques mentioned above validates reference trajectories for the center of mass of the gait orthosis, the timing of the steps and landing position references for the swing feet. The stability evaluation technique are tested with a 6 DOF powered gait orthosis. The results obtained are promising for implementations.

Keywords: locomotion, center of mass, gait stability, linear inverted pendulum model

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166 Nonlinear Control of Mobile Inverted Pendulum: Theory and Experiment

Authors: V. Sankaranarayanan, V. Amrita Sundari, Sunit P. Gopal

Abstract:

This paper presents the design and implementation of a nonlinear controller for the point to point control of a mobile inverted pendulum (MIP). The controller is designed based on the kinematic model of the MIP to stabilize all the four coordinates. The stability of the closed-loop system is proved using Lyapunov stability theory. The proposed controller is validated through numerical simulations and also implemented in a laboratory prototype. The results are presented to evaluate the performance of the proposed closed loop system.

Keywords: mobile inverted pendulum, switched control, nonlinear systems, lyapunov stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
165 Design and Motion Control of a Two-Wheel Inverted Pendulum Robot

Authors: Shiuh-Jer Huang, Su-Shean Chen, Sheam-Chyun Lin

Abstract:

Two-wheel inverted pendulum robot (TWIPR) is designed with two-hub DC motors for human riding and motion control evaluation. In order to measure the tilt angle and angular velocity of the inverted pendulum robot, accelerometer and gyroscope sensors are chosen. The mobile robot’s moving position and velocity were estimated based on DC motor built in hall sensors. The control kernel of this electric mobile robot is designed with embedded Arduino Nano microprocessor. A handle bar was designed to work as steering mechanism. The intelligent model-free fuzzy sliding mode control (FSMC) was employed as the main control algorithm for this mobile robot motion monitoring with different control purpose adjustment. The intelligent controllers were designed for balance control, and moving speed control purposes of this robot under different operation conditions and the control performance were evaluated based on experimental results.

Keywords: balance control, speed control, intelligent controller, two wheel inverted pendulum

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
164 Fuzzy Control and Pertinence Functions

Authors: Luiz F. J. Maia

Abstract:

This paper presents an approach to fuzzy control, with the use of new pertinence functions, applied in the case of an inverted pendulum. Appropriate definitions of pertinence functions to fuzzy sets make possible the implementation of the controller with only one control rule, resulting in a smooth control surface. The fuzzy control system can be implemented with analog devices, affording a true real-time performance.

Keywords: control surface, fuzzy control, Inverted pendulum, pertinence functions

Procedia PDF Downloads 322
163 Adaptive Optimal Controller for Uncertain Inverted Pendulum System: A Dynamic Programming Approach for Continuous Time System

Authors: Dao Phuong Nam, Tran Van Tuyen, Do Trong Tan, Bui Minh Dinh, Nguyen Van Huong

Abstract:

In this paper, we investigate the adaptive optimal control law for continuous-time systems with input disturbances and unknown parameters. This paper extends previous works to obtain the robust control law of uncertain systems. Through theoretical analysis, an adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) based optimal control is proposed to stabilize the closed-loop system and ensure the convergence properties of proposed iterative algorithm. Moreover, the global asymptotic stability (GAS) for closed system is also analyzed. The theoretical analysis for continuous-time systems and simulation results demonstrate the performance of the proposed algorithm for an inverted pendulum system.

Keywords: approximate/adaptive dynamic programming, ADP, adaptive optimal control law, input state stability, ISS, inverted pendulum

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162 Balancing a Rotary Inverted Pendulum System Using Robust Generalized Dynamic Inverse: Design and Experiment

Authors: Ibrahim M. Mehedi, Uzair Ansari, Ubaid M. Al-Saggaf, Abdulrahman H. Bajodah

Abstract:

This paper presents a methodology for balancing a rotary inverted pendulum system using Robust Generalized Dynamic Inversion (RGDI) under influence of parametric variations and external disturbances. In GDI control, dynamic constraints are formulated in the form of asymptotically stable differential equation which encapsulates the control objectives. The constraint differential equations are based on the deviation function of the angular position and its rates from their reference values. The constraint dynamics are inverted using Moore-Penrose Generalized Inverse (MPGI) to realize the control expression. The GDI singularity problem is addressed by augmenting a dynamic scale factor in the interpretation of MPGI which guarantee asymptotically stable position tracking. An additional term based on Sliding Mode Control is appended within GDI control to make it robust against parametric variations, disturbances and tracking performance deterioration due to generalized inversion scaling. The stability of the closed loop system is ensured by using positive definite Lyapunov energy function that guarantees semi-global practically stable position tracking. Numerical simulations are conducted on the dynamic model of rotary inverted pendulum system to analyze the efficiency of proposed RGDI control law. The comparative study is also presented, in which the performance of RGDI control is compared with Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) and is verified through experiments. Numerical simulations and real-time experiments demonstrate better tracking performance abilities and robustness features of RGDI control in the presence of parametric uncertainties and disturbances.

Keywords: generalized dynamic inversion, lyapunov stability, rotary inverted pendulum system, sliding mode control

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161 Numerical and Experimental Investigation of a Mechanical System with a Pendulum

Authors: Andrzej Mitura, Krzysztof Kecik, Michal Augustyniak

Abstract:

This paper presents a numerical and experimental research of a nonlinear two degrees of freedom system. The tested system consists of a mechanical oscillator (the primary subsystem) with the attached pendulum (the secondary subsystem). The oscillator is suspended on a linear (or nonlinear) coil spring and a nonlinear magnetorheorogical damper and it is excited kinematically. Added pendulum can be used to reduce vibration of a primary subsystem or to energy harvesting. The numerical and experimental investigations showed that the pendulum can perform several types of motion, for example: chaotic motion, constant position in lower or upper (stable inverted pendulum), rotation, symmetrical or asymmetrical swinging vibrations. The main objective of this study is to determine an influence of system parameters for increasing the zone when the pendulum rotates. As a final effect a semi-active control method to change the pendulum solution on the rotation is proposed. To the implementation of this method the magnetorheorogical damper is applied. Continuous rotation of the pendulum is desirable for recovery of energy. The work is financed by Grant no. 0234/IP2/2011/71 from the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education in years 2012-2014.

Keywords: autoparametric vibrations, chaos and rotation control, magnetorheological damper

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160 Decoupled Dynamic Control of Unicycle Robot Using Integral Linear Quadratic Regulator and Sliding Mode Controller

Authors: Shweda Mohan, J. L. Nandagopal, S. Amritha

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the dynamic modelling of unicycle robot. Two main concepts used for balancing unicycle robot are: reaction wheel pendulum and inverted pendulum. The pitch axis is modelled as inverted pendulum and roll axis is modelled as reaction wheel pendulum. The unicycle yaw dynamics is not considered which makes the derivation of dynamics relatively simple. For the roll controller, sliding-mode controller has been adopted and optimal methods are used to minimize switching-function chattering. For pitch controller, an LQR controller has been implemented to drive the unicycle robot to follow the desired velocity trajectory. The pitching and rolling balance could be achieved by two DC motors. Unicycle robot is a non-holonomic, non-linear, static unbalance system that has the minimal number of point contact to the ground, therefore, it is a perfect platform for researchers to study motion and balance control. These real-time solutions will be a viable solution for advanced robotic systems and controls.

Keywords: decoupled dynamics, linear quadratic regulator (LQR) control, Lyapunov function sliding mode control, unicycle robot, velocity and trajectory control

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159 Modeling of a Pendulum Test Including Skin and Muscles under Compression

Authors: M. J. Kang, Y. N. Jo, H. H. Yoo

Abstract:

Pendulum tests were used to identify a stretch reflex and diagnose spasticity. Some researches tried to make a mathematical model to simulate the motions. Thighs are subject to compressive forces due to gravity during a pendulum test. Therefore, it affects knee trajectories. However, the most studies on the pendulum tests did not consider that conditions. We used Kelvin-Voight model as compression model of skin and muscles. In this study, we investigated viscoelastic behaviors of skin and muscles using gelatin blocks from experiments of the vibration of the compliantly supported beam. Then we calculated a dynamic stiffness and loss factors from the experiment and estimated a damping coefficient of the model. We also did pendulum tests of human lower limbs to validate the stiffness and damping coefficient of a skin model. To simulate the pendulum motion, we derive equations of motion. We used stretch reflex activation model to estimate muscle forces induced by the stretch reflex. To validate the results, we compared the activation with electromyography signals during experiments. The compression behavior of skin and muscles in this study can be applied to analyze sitting posture as wee as developing surgical techniques.

Keywords: Kelvin-Voight model, pendulum test, skin and muscles under compression, stretch reflex

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158 Neural Adaptive Controller for a Class of Nonlinear Pendulum Dynamical System

Authors: Mohammad Reza Rahimi Khoygani, Reza Ghasemi

Abstract:

In this paper, designing direct adaptive neural controller is applied for a class of a nonlinear pendulum dynamic system. The radial basis function (RBF) is used for the Neural network (NN). The adaptive neural controller is robust in presence of external and internal uncertainties. Both the effectiveness of the controller and robustness against disturbances are the merits of this paper. The promising performance of the proposed controllers investigates in simulation results.

Keywords: adaptive control, pendulum dynamical system, nonlinear control, adaptive neural controller, nonlinear dynamical, neural network, RBF, driven pendulum, position control

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157 Designing Intelligent Adaptive Controller for Nonlinear Pendulum Dynamical System

Authors: R. Ghasemi, M. R. Rahimi Khoygani

Abstract:

This paper proposes the designing direct adaptive neural controller to apply for a class of a nonlinear pendulum dynamic system. The radial basis function (RBF) neural adaptive controller is robust in presence of external and internal uncertainties. Both the effectiveness of the controller and robustness against disturbances are importance of this paper. The simulation results show the promising performance of the proposed controller.

Keywords: adaptive neural controller, nonlinear dynamical, neural network, RBF, driven pendulum, position control

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156 Investigating the Form of the Generalised Equations of Motion of the N-Bob Pendulum and Computing Their Solution Using MATLAB

Authors: Divij Gupta

Abstract:

Pendular systems have a range of both mathematical and engineering applications, ranging from modelling the behaviour of a continuous mass-density rope to utilisation as Tuned Mass Dampers (TMD). Thus, it is of interest to study the differential equations governing the motion of such systems. Here we attempt to generalise these equations of motion for the plane compound pendulum with a finite number of N point masses. A Lagrangian approach is taken, and we attempt to find the generalised form for the Euler-Lagrange equations of motion for the i-th bob of the N -bob pendulum. The co-ordinates are parameterized as angular quantities to reduce the number of degrees of freedom from 2N to N to simplify the form of the equations. We analyse the form of these equations up to N = 4 to determine the general form of the equation. We also develop a MATLAB program to compute a solution to the system for a given input value of N and a given set of initial conditions.

Keywords: classical mechanics, differential equation, lagrangian analysis, pendulum

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155 Vibration Analysis of Pendulum in a Viscous Fluid by Analytical Methods

Authors: Arash Jafari, Mehdi Taghaddosi, Azin Parvin

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In this study, a vibrational differential equation governing on swinging single-degree-of-freedom pendulum in a viscous fluid has been investigated. The damping process is characterized according to two different regimes: at first, damping in stationary viscous fluid, in the second, damping in flowing viscous fluid with constant velocity. Our purpose is to enhance the ability of solving the mentioned nonlinear differential equation with a simple and innovative approach. Comparisons are made between new method and Numerical Method (rkf45). The results show that this method is very effective and simple and can be applied for other nonlinear problems.

Keywords: oscillating systems, angular frequency and damping ratio, pendulum at fluid, locus of maximum

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154 Influence of Recombination of Free and Trapped Charge Carriers on the Efficiency of Conventional and Inverted Organic Solar Cells

Authors: Hooman Mehdizadeh Rad, Jai Singh

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Organic solar cells (OSCs) have been actively investigated in the last two decades due to their several merits such as simple fabrication process, low-cost manufacturing, and lightweight. In this paper, using the optical transfer matrix method (OTMM) and solving the drift-diffusion equations processes of recombination are studied in inverted and conventional bulk heterojunction (BHJ) OSCs. Two types of recombination processes are investigated: 1) recombination of free charge carriers using the Langevin theory and 2) of trapped charge carriers in the tail states with exponential energy distribution. These recombination processes are incorporated in simulating the current- voltage characteristics of both conventional and inverted BHJ OSCs. The results of this simulation produces a higher power conversion efficiency in the inverted structure in comparison with conventional structure, which agrees well with the experimental results.

Keywords: conventional organic solar cells, exponential tail state recombination, inverted organic solar cells, Langevin recombination

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153 Nano-Texturing of Single Crystalline Silicon via Cu-Catalyzed Chemical Etching

Authors: A. A. Abaker Omer, H. B. Mohamed Balh, W. Liu, A. Abas, J. Yu, S. Li, W. Ma, W. El Kolaly, Y. Y. Ahmed Abuker

Abstract:

We have discovered an important technical solution that could make new approaches in the processing of wet silicon etching, especially in the production of photovoltaic cells. During its inferior light-trapping and structural properties, the inverted pyramid structure outperforms the conventional pyramid textures and black silicone. The traditional pyramid textures and black silicon can only be accomplished with more advanced lithography, laser processing, etc. Importantly, our data demonstrate the feasibility of an inverted pyramidal structure of silicon via one-step Cu-catalyzed chemical etching (CCCE) in Cu (NO3)2/HF/H2O2/H2O solutions. The effects of etching time and reaction temperature on surface geometry and light trapping were systematically investigated. The conclusion shows that the inverted pyramid structure has ultra-low reflectivity of ~4.2% in the wavelength of 300~1000 nm; introduce of Cu particles can significantly accelerate the dissolution of the silicon wafer. The etching and the inverted pyramid structure formation mechanism are discussed. Inverted pyramid structure with outstanding anti-reflectivity includes useful applications throughout the manufacture of semi-conductive industry-compatible solar cells, and can have significant impacts on industry colleagues and populations.

Keywords: Cu-catalyzed chemical etching, inverted pyramid nanostructured, reflection, solar cells

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152 Self-Organizing Map Network for Wheeled Robot Movement Optimization

Authors: Boguslaw Schreyer

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The paper investigates the application of the Kohonen’s Self-Organizing Map (SOM) to the wheeled robot starting and braking dynamic states. In securing wheeled robot stability as well as minimum starting and braking time, it is important to ensure correct torque distribution as well as proper slope of braking and driving moments. In this paper, a correct movement distribution has been formulated, securing optimum adhesion coefficient and good transversal stability of a wheeled robot. A neural tuner has been proposed to secure the above properties, although most of the attention is attached to the SOM network application. If the delay of the torque application or torque release is not negligible, it is important to change the rising and falling slopes of the torque. The road/surface condition is also paramount in robot dynamic states control. As the road conditions may randomly change in time, application of the SOM network has been suggested in order to classify the actual road conditions.

Keywords: slip control, SOM network, torque distribution, wheeled Robot

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
151 Studies on Affecting Factors of Wheel Slip and Odometry Error on Real-Time of Wheeled Mobile Robots: A Review

Authors: D. Vidhyaprakash, A. Elango

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In real-time applications, wheeled mobile robots are increasingly used and operated in extreme and diverse conditions traversing challenging surfaces such as a pitted, uneven terrain, natural flat, smooth terrain, as well as wet and dry surfaces. In order to accomplish such tasks, it is critical that the motion control functions without wheel slip and odometry error during the navigation of the two-wheeled mobile robot (WMR). Wheel slip and odometry error are disrupting factors on overall WMR performance in the form of deviation from desired trajectory, navigation, travel time and budgeted energy consumption. The wheeled mobile robot’s ability to operate at peak performance on various work surfaces without wheel slippage and odometry error is directly connected to four main parameters, which are the range of payload distribution, speed, wheel diameter, and wheel width. This paper analyses the effects of those parameters on overall performance and is concerned with determining the ideal range of parameters for optimum performance.

Keywords: wheeled mobile robot, terrain, wheel slippage, odometryerror, trajectory

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150 Analysis and Design of Exo-Skeleton System Based on Multibody Dynamics

Authors: Jatin Gupta, Bishakh Bhattacharya

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With the aging process, many people start suffering from the problem of weak limbs resulting in mobility disorders and loss of sensory and motor function of limbs. Wearable robotic devices are viable solutions to help people suffering from these issues by augmenting their strength. These robotic devices, popularly known as exoskeletons aides user by providing external power and controlling the dynamics so as to achieve desired motion. Present work studies a simplified dynamic model of the human gait. A four link open chain kinematic model is developed to describe the dynamics of Single Support Phase (SSP) of the human gait cycle. The dynamic model is developed integrating mathematical models of the motion of inverted and triple pendulums. Stance leg is modeled as inverted pendulum having single degree of freedom and swing leg as triple pendulum having three degrees of freedom viz. thigh, knee, and ankle joints. The kinematic model is formulated using forward kinematics approach. Lagrangian approach is used to formulate governing dynamic equation of the model. For a system of nonlinear differential equations, numerical method is employed to obtain system response. Reference trajectory is generated using human body simulator, LifeMOD. For optimal mechanical design and controller design of exoskeleton system, it is imperative to study parameter sensitivity of the system. Six different parameters viz. thigh, shank, and foot masses and lengths are varied from 85% to 115% of the original value for the present work. It is observed that hip joint of swing leg is the most sensitive and ankle joint of swing leg is the least sensitive one. Changing link lengths causes more deviation in system response than link masses. Also, shank length and thigh mass are most sensitive parameters. Finally, the present study gives an insight on different factors that should be considered while designing a lower extremity exoskeleton.

Keywords: lower limb exoskeleton, multibody dynamics, energy based formulation, optimal design

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149 Efficient Control of Some Dynamic States of Wheeled Robots

Authors: Boguslaw Schreyer

Abstract:

In some types of wheeled robots it is important to secure starting acceleration and deceleration maxima while at the same time maintaining transversal stability. In this paper torque distribution between the front and rear wheels as well as the timing of torque application have been calculated. Both secure an optimum traction coefficient. This paper also identifies required input signals to a control unit, which controls the torque values and timing. Using a three dimensional, two mass model of a robot developed by the author a computer simulation was performed confirming the calculations presented in this paper. These calculations were also implemented and confirmed during military robot testing.

Keywords: robot dynamics, torque distribution, traction coefficient, wheeled robots

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148 Control Law Design of a Wheeled Robot Mobile

Authors: Ghania Zidani, Said Drid, Larbi Chrifi-Alaoui, Abdeslam Benmakhlouf, Souad Chaouch

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In this paper, we focus on the study for path tracking control of unicycle-type Wheeled Mobile Robots (WMR), by applying the Backstepping technic. The latter is a relatively new technic for nonlinear systems. To solve the problem of constraints nonholonomics met in the path tracking of such robots, an adaptive Backstepping based nonlinear controller is developed. The stability of the controller is guaranteed, using the Lyapunov theory. Simulation results show that the proposed controller achieves the objective and ensures good path tracking.

Keywords: Backstepping control, kinematic and dynamic controllers, Lyapunov methods, nonlinear control systems, Wheeled Mobile Robot (WMR).

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147 Assessment of Runway Micro Texture Using Surface Laser Scanners: An Explorative Study

Authors: Gerard Van Es

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In this study, the use of a high resolution surface laser scanner to assess the micro texture of runway surfaces was investigated experimentally. Micro texture is one of the important surface components that helps to provide high braking friction between aircraft tires and a wet runway surface. Algorithms to derive different parameters that characterise micro texture was developed. Surface scans with a high resolution laser scanner were conducted on 40 different runway (like) surfaces. For each surface micro texture parameters were calculated from the laser scan data. These results were correlated with results obtained from a British pendulum tester that was used on the same surface. Results obtained with the British pendulum tester are generally considered to be indicative for the micro texture related friction characteristics. The results show that a meaningful correlation can be found between different parameters that characterise micro texture obtained with the laser scanner and the British pendulum tester results. Surface laser scanners are easier to operate and give more consistent results than a British pendulum tester. Therefore for airport operators surface laser scanners can be a useful tool to determine if their runway becomes slippery when wet due to a smooth micro texture.

Keywords: runway friction, micro texture, aircraft braking performance, slippery runways

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146 Investigation the Impact of Flipped Learning on Developing Meta-Cognitive Ability in Chemistry Courses of Science Education Students

Authors: R. Herscu-Kluska

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The rise of the flipped or inverted classroom meet the conceptual needs of our time. The evidence of increased student satisfaction and course grades improvement promoted the flipped learning approach. Due to the successful outcomes of the inverted classroom, the flipped learning became a pedagogy and educational rising strategy among all education sciences. The aim of this study is to analyze the effect of flipped classroom on higher order learning in chemistry courses since it has been suggested that in higher education courses, class time should focus on knowledge application. The results of this study indicate improving meta-cognitive thinking and learning skills. The students showed better ability to cope with higher order learning assignments during the actual class time, using inverted classroom strategy. These results suggest that flipped learning can be used as an effective pedagogy and educational strategy for developing higher order thinking skills, proved to contribute to building lifelong learning.

Keywords: chemistry education, flipped classroom, flipped learning, inverted classroom, science education

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145 Improving the Teaching of Mathematics at University Using the Inverted Classroom Model: A Case in Greece

Authors: G. S. Androulakis, G. Deli, M. Kaisari, N. Mihos

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Teaching practices at the university level have changed and developed during the last decade. Implementation of inverted classroom method in secondary education consists of a well-formed basis for academic teachers. On the other hand, distance learning is a well-known field in education research and widespread as a method of teaching. Nonetheless, the new pandemic found many Universities all over the world unprepared, which made adaptations to new methods of teaching a necessity. In this paper, we analyze a model of an inverted university classroom in a distance learning context. Thus, the main purpose of our research is to investigate students’ difficulties as they transit to a new style of teaching and explore their learning development during a semester totally different from others. Our teaching experiment took place at the Business Administration department of the University of Patras, in the context of two courses: Calculus, a course aimed at first-year students, and Statistics, a course aimed at second-year students. Second-year students had the opportunity to attend courses in the university classroom. First-year students started their semester with distance learning. Using a comparative study of these two groups, we explored significant differences in students’ learning procedures. Focused group interviews, written tests, analyses of students’ dialogues were used in a mixed quantity and quality research. Our analysis reveals students’ skills, capabilities but also a difficulty in following, non-traditional style of teaching. The inverted classroom model, according to our findings, offers benefits in the educational procedure, even in a distance learning environment.

Keywords: distance learning, higher education, inverted classroom, mathematics teaching

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144 Particle Filter Implementation of a Non-Linear Dynamic Fall Model

Authors: T. Kobayashi, K. Shiba, T. Kaburagi, Y. Kurihara

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For the elderly living alone, falls can be a serious problem encountered in daily life. Some elderly people are unable to stand up without the assistance of a caregiver. They may become unconscious after a fall, which can lead to serious aftereffects such as hypothermia, dehydration, and sometimes even death. We treat the subject as an inverted pendulum and model its angle from the equilibrium position and its angular velocity. As the model is non-linear, we implement the filtering method with a particle filter which can estimate true states of the non-linear model. In order to evaluate the accuracy of the particle filter estimation results, we calculate the root mean square error (RMSE) between the estimated angle/angular velocity and the true values generated by the simulation. The experimental results give the highest accuracy RMSE of 0.0141 rad and 0.1311 rad/s for the angle and angular velocity, respectively.

Keywords: fall, microwave Doppler sensor, non-linear dynamics model, particle filter

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