Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3674

Search results for: tuning parameter selection

3674 Efficient Tuning Parameter Selection by Cross-Validated Score in High Dimensional Models

Authors: Yoonsuh Jung


As DNA microarray data contain relatively small sample size compared to the number of genes, high dimensional models are often employed. In high dimensional models, the selection of tuning parameter (or, penalty parameter) is often one of the crucial parts of the modeling. Cross-validation is one of the most common methods for the tuning parameter selection, which selects a parameter value with the smallest cross-validated score. However, selecting a single value as an "optimal" value for the parameter can be very unstable due to the sampling variation since the sample sizes of microarray data are often small. Our approach is to choose multiple candidates of tuning parameter first, then average the candidates with different weights depending on their performance. The additional step of estimating the weights and averaging the candidates rarely increase the computational cost, while it can considerably improve the traditional cross-validation. We show that the selected value from the suggested methods often lead to stable parameter selection as well as improved detection of significant genetic variables compared to the tradition cross-validation via real data and simulated data sets.

Keywords: cross validation, parameter averaging, parameter selection, regularization parameter search

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3673 Parameter Tuning of Complex Systems Modeled in Agent Based Modeling and Simulation

Authors: Rabia Korkmaz Tan, Şebnem Bora


The major problem encountered when modeling complex systems with agent-based modeling and simulation techniques is the existence of large parameter spaces. A complex system model cannot be expected to reflect the whole of the real system, but by specifying the most appropriate parameters, the actual system can be represented by the model under certain conditions. When the studies conducted in recent years were reviewed, it has been observed that there are few studies for parameter tuning problem in agent based simulations, and these studies have focused on tuning parameters of a single model. In this study, an approach of parameter tuning is proposed by using metaheuristic algorithms such as Genetic Algorithm (GA), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Artificial Bee Colonies (ABC), Firefly (FA) algorithms. With this hybrid structured study, the parameter tuning problems of the models in the different fields were solved. The new approach offered was tested in two different models, and its achievements in different problems were compared. The simulations and the results reveal that this proposed study is better than the existing parameter tuning studies.

Keywords: parameter tuning, agent based modeling and simulation, metaheuristic algorithms, complex systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
3672 A Tuning Method for Microwave Filter via Complex Neural Network and Improved Space Mapping

Authors: Shengbiao Wu, Weihua Cao, Min Wu, Can Liu


This paper presents an intelligent tuning method of microwave filter based on complex neural network and improved space mapping. The tuning process consists of two stages: the initial tuning and the fine tuning. At the beginning of the tuning, the return loss of the filter is transferred to the passband via the error of phase. During the fine tuning, the phase shift caused by the transmission line and the higher order mode is removed by the curve fitting. Then, an Cauchy method based on the admittance parameter (Y-parameter) is used to extract the coupling matrix. The influence of the resonant cavity loss is eliminated during the parameter extraction process. By using processed data pairs (the amount of screw variation and the variation of the coupling matrix), a tuning model is established by the complex neural network. In view of the improved space mapping algorithm, the mapping relationship between the actual model and the ideal model is established, and the amplitude and direction of the tuning is constantly updated. Finally, the tuning experiment of the eight order coaxial cavity filter shows that the proposed method has a good effect in tuning time and tuning precision.

Keywords: microwave filter, scattering parameter, coupling matrix, intelligent tuning

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
3671 Weighted Rank Regression with Adaptive Penalty Function

Authors: Kang-Mo Jung


The use of regularization for statistical methods has become popular. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) framework has become the standard tool for sparse regression. However, it is well known that the LASSO is sensitive to outliers or leverage points. We consider a new robust estimation which is composed of the weighted loss function of the pairwise difference of residuals and the adaptive penalty function regulating the tuning parameter for each variable. Rank regression is resistant to regression outliers, but not to leverage points. By adopting a weighted loss function, the proposed method is robust to leverage points of the predictor variable. Furthermore, the adaptive penalty function gives us good statistical properties in variable selection such as oracle property and consistency. We develop an efficient algorithm to compute the proposed estimator using basic functions in program R. We used an optimal tuning parameter based on the Bayesian information criterion (BIC). Numerical simulation shows that the proposed estimator is effective for analyzing real data set and contaminated data.

Keywords: adaptive penalty function, robust penalized regression, variable selection, weighted rank regression

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
3670 Parameter Selection for Computationally Efficient Use of the Bfvrns Fully Homomorphic Encryption Scheme

Authors: Cavidan Yakupoglu, Kurt Rohloff


In this study, we aim to provide a novel parameter selection model for the BFVrns scheme, which is one of the prominent FHE schemes. Parameter selection in lattice-based FHE schemes is a practical challenges for experts or non-experts. Towards a solution to this problem, we introduce a hybrid principles-based approach that combines theoretical with experimental analyses. To begin, we use regression analysis to examine the parameters on the performance and security. The fact that the FHE parameters induce different behaviors on performance, security and Ciphertext Expansion Factor (CEF) that makes the process of parameter selection more challenging. To address this issue, We use a multi-objective optimization algorithm to select the optimum parameter set for performance, CEF and security at the same time. As a result of this optimization, we get an improved parameter set for better performance at a given security level by ensuring correctness and security against lattice attacks by providing at least 128-bit security. Our result enables average ~ 5x smaller CEF and mostly better performance in comparison to the parameter sets given in [1]. This approach can be considered a semiautomated parameter selection. These studies are conducted using the PALISADE homomorphic encryption library, which is a well-known HE library. The abstract goes here.

Keywords: lattice cryptography, fully homomorphic encryption, parameter selection, LWE, RLWE

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3669 Suitable Tuning Method Selection for PID Controller Used in Digital Excitation System of Brushless Synchronous Generator

Authors: Deepak M. Sajnekar, S. B. Deshpande, R. M. Mohril


At present many rotary excitation control system are using analog type of Automatic Voltage Regulator which now started to replace with the digital automatic voltage regulator which is provided with PID controller and tuning of PID controller is a challenging task. The cases where digital excitation control system is used tuning of PID controller are still carried out by pole placement method. Tuning of PID controller used for static excitation control system is not challenging because it does not involve exciter time constant. This paper discusses two methods of tuning PID controller i.e. Pole placement method and pole zero cancellation method. GUI prepared for both the methods on the platform of MATLAB. Using this GUI, performance results and time required for tuning for both the methods are compared. Sensitivity of the methods is also presented with parameter variation like loop gain ‘K’ and exciter time constant ‘te’.

Keywords: digital excitation system, automatic voltage regulator, pole placement method, pole zero cancellation method

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3668 Auto-Tuning of CNC Parameters According to the Machining Mode Selection

Authors: Jenq-Shyong Chen, Ben-Fong Yu


CNC(computer numerical control) machining centers have been widely used for machining different metal components for various industries. For a specific CNC machine, its everyday job is assigned to cut different products with quite different attributes such as material type, workpiece weight, geometry, tooling, and cutting conditions. Theoretically, the dynamic characteristics of the CNC machine should be properly tuned match each machining job in order to get the optimal machining performance. However, most of the CNC machines are set with only a standard set of CNC parameters. In this study, we have developed an auto-tuning system which can automatically change the CNC parameters and in hence change the machine dynamic characteristics according to the selection of machining modes which are set by the mixed combination of three machine performance indexes: the HO (high surface quality) index, HP (high precision) index and HS (high speed) index. The acceleration, jerk, corner error tolerance, oscillation and dynamic bandwidth of machine’s feed axes have been changed according to the selection of the machine performance indexes. The proposed auto-tuning system of the CNC parameters has been implemented on a PC-based CNC controller and a three-axis machining center. The measured experimental result have shown the promising of our proposed auto-tuning system.

Keywords: auto-tuning, CNC parameters, machining mode, high speed, high accuracy, high surface quality

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3667 Efficient Model Selection in Linear and Non-Linear Quantile Regression by Cross-Validation

Authors: Yoonsuh Jung, Steven N. MacEachern


Check loss function is used to define quantile regression. In the prospect of cross validation, it is also employed as a validation function when underlying truth is unknown. However, our empirical study indicates that the validation with check loss often leads to choosing an over estimated fits. In this work, we suggest a modified or L2-adjusted check loss which rounds the sharp corner in the middle of check loss. It has a large effect of guarding against over fitted model in some extent. Through various simulation settings of linear and non-linear regressions, the improvement of check loss by L2 adjustment is empirically examined. This adjustment is devised to shrink to zero as sample size grows.

Keywords: cross-validation, model selection, quantile regression, tuning parameter selection

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3666 Parameters Tuning of a PID Controller on a DC Motor Using Honey Bee and Genetic Algorithms

Authors: Saeid Jalilzadeh


PID controllers are widely used to control the industrial plants because of their robustness and simple structures. Tuning of the controller's parameters to get a desired response is difficult and time consuming. With the development of computer technology and artificial intelligence in automatic control field, all kinds of parameters tuning methods of PID controller have emerged in endlessly, which bring much energy for the study of PID controller, but many advanced tuning methods behave not so perfect as to be expected. Honey Bee algorithm (HBA) and genetic algorithm (GA) are extensively used for real parameter optimization in diverse fields of study. This paper describes an application of HBA and GA to the problem of designing a PID controller whose parameters comprise proportionality constant, integral constant and derivative constant. Presence of three parameters to optimize makes the task of designing a PID controller more challenging than conventional P, PI, and PD controllers design. The suitability of the proposed approach has been demonstrated through computer simulation using MATLAB/SIMULINK.

Keywords: controller, GA, optimization, PID, PSO

Procedia PDF Downloads 455
3665 Bayesian Optimization for Reaction Parameter Tuning: An Exploratory Study of Parameter Optimization in Oxidative Desulfurization of Thiophene

Authors: Aman Sharma, Sonali Sengupta


The study explores the utility of Bayesian optimization in tuning the physical and chemical parameters of reactions in an offline experimental setup. A comparative analysis of the influence of the acquisition function on the optimization performance is also studied. For proxy first and second-order reactions, the results are indifferent to the acquisition function used, whereas, while studying the parameters for oxidative desulphurization of thiophene in an offline setup, upper confidence bound (UCB) provides faster convergence along with a marginal trade-off in the maximum conversion achieved. The work also demarcates the critical number of independent parameters and input observations required for both sequential and offline reaction setups to yield tangible results.

Keywords: acquisition function, Bayesian optimization, desulfurization, kinetics, thiophene

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3664 Reducing the Computational Overhead of Metaheuristics Parameterization with Exploratory Landscape Analysis

Authors: Iannick Gagnon, Alain April


The performance of a metaheuristic on a given problem class depends on the class itself and the choice of parameters. Parameter tuning is the most time-consuming phase of the optimization process after the main calculations and it often nullifies the speed advantage of metaheuristics over traditional optimization algorithms. Several off-the-shelf parameter tuning algorithms are available, but when the objective function is expensive to evaluate, these can be prohibitively expensive to use. This paper presents a surrogate-like method for finding adequate parameters using fitness landscape analysis on simple benchmark functions and real-world objective functions. The result is a simple compound similarity metric based on the empirical correlation coefficient and a measure of convexity. It is then used to find the best benchmark functions to serve as surrogates. The near-optimal parameter set is then found using fractional factorial design. The real-world problem of NACA airfoil lift coefficient maximization is used as a preliminary proof of concept. The overall aim of this research is to reduce the computational overhead of metaheuristics parameterization.

Keywords: metaheuristics, stochastic optimization, particle swarm optimization, exploratory landscape analysis

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3663 Multiclass Support Vector Machines with Simultaneous Multi-Factors Optimization for Corporate Credit Ratings

Authors: Hyunchul Ahn, William X. S. Wong


Corporate credit rating prediction is one of the most important topics, which has been studied by researchers in the last decade. Over the last decade, researchers are pushing the limit to enhance the exactness of the corporate credit rating prediction model by applying several data-driven tools including statistical and artificial intelligence methods. Among them, multiclass support vector machine (MSVM) has been widely applied due to its good predictability. However, heuristics, for example, parameters of a kernel function, appropriate feature and instance subset, has become the main reason for the critics on MSVM, as they have dictate the MSVM architectural variables. This study presents a hybrid MSVM model that is intended to optimize all the parameter such as feature selection, instance selection, and kernel parameter. Our model adopts genetic algorithm (GA) to simultaneously optimize multiple heterogeneous design factors of MSVM.

Keywords: corporate credit rating prediction, Feature selection, genetic algorithms, instance selection, multiclass support vector machines

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3662 Automatic Threshold Search for Heat Map Based Feature Selection: A Cancer Dataset Analysis

Authors: Carlos Huertas, Reyes Juarez-Ramirez


Public health is one of the most critical issues today; therefore, there is great interest to improve technologies in the area of diseases detection. With machine learning and feature selection, it has been possible to aid the diagnosis of several diseases such as cancer. In this work, we present an extension to the Heat Map Based Feature Selection algorithm, this modification allows automatic threshold parameter selection that helps to improve the generalization performance of high dimensional data such as mass spectrometry. We have performed a comparison analysis using multiple cancer datasets and compare against the well known Recursive Feature Elimination algorithm and our original proposal, the results show improved classification performance that is very competitive against current techniques.

Keywords: biomarker discovery, cancer, feature selection, mass spectrometry

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3661 Improve Closed Loop Performance and Control Signal Using Evolutionary Algorithms Based PID Controller

Authors: Mehdi Shahbazian, Alireza Aarabi, Mohsen Hadiyan


Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controllers are the most widely used controllers in industry because of its simplicity and robustness. Different values of PID parameters make different step response, so an increasing amount of literature is devoted to proper tuning of PID controllers. The problem merits further investigation as traditional tuning methods make large control signal that can damages the system but using evolutionary algorithms based tuning methods improve the control signal and closed loop performance. In this paper three tuning methods for PID controllers have been studied namely Ziegler and Nichols, which is traditional tuning method and evolutionary algorithms based tuning methods, that are, Genetic algorithm and particle swarm optimization. To examine the validity of PSO and GA tuning methods a comparative analysis of DC motor plant is studied. Simulation results reveal that evolutionary algorithms based tuning method have improved control signal amplitude and quality factors of the closed loop system such as rise time, integral absolute error (IAE) and maximum overshoot.

Keywords: evolutionary algorithm, genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization, PID controller

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3660 Design and Simulation a Low Phase Noise CMOS LC VCO for IEEE802.11a WLAN Applications

Authors: Hooman Kaabi, Raziyeh Karkoub


This work proposes a structure of AMOS-varactors. A 5GHz LC-VCO designed in TSMC 0.18μm CMOS to improve phase noise and tuning range performance. The tuning range is from 5.05GHZ to 5.88GHz.The phase noise is -154.9dBc/Hz at 1MHz offset from the carrier. It meets the requirements for IEEE 802.11a WLAN standard.

Keywords: CMOS LC VCO, spiral inductor, varactor, phase noise, tuning range

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3659 Investigation of Extreme Gradient Boosting Model Prediction of Soil Strain-Shear Modulus

Authors: Ehsan Mehryaar, Reza Bushehri


One of the principal parameters defining the clay soil dynamic response is the strain-shear modulus relation. Predicting the strain and, subsequently, shear modulus reduction of the soil is essential for performance analysis of structures exposed to earthquake and dynamic loadings. Many soil properties affect soil’s dynamic behavior. In order to capture those effects, in this study, a database containing 1193 data points consists of maximum shear modulus, strain, moisture content, initial void ratio, plastic limit, liquid limit, initial confining pressure resulting from dynamic laboratory testing of 21 clays is collected for predicting the shear modulus vs. strain curve of soil. A model based on an extreme gradient boosting technique is proposed. A tree-structured parzan estimator hyper-parameter tuning algorithm is utilized simultaneously to find the best hyper-parameters for the model. The performance of the model is compared to the existing empirical equations using the coefficient of correlation and root mean square error.

Keywords: XGBoost, hyper-parameter tuning, soil shear modulus, dynamic response

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3658 Method for Tuning Level Control Loops Based on Internal Model Control and Closed Loop Step Test Data

Authors: Arnaud Nougues


This paper describes a two-stage methodology derived from internal model control (IMC) for tuning a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller for levels or other integrating processes in an industrial environment. Focus is the ease of use and implementation speed which are critical for an industrial application. Tuning can be done with minimum effort and without the need for time-consuming open-loop step tests on the plant. The first stage of the method applies to levels only: the vessel residence time is calculated from equipment dimensions and used to derive a set of preliminary proportional-integral (PI) settings with IMC. The second stage, re-tuning in closed-loop, applies to levels as well as other integrating processes: a tuning correction mechanism has been developed based on a series of closed-loop simulations with model errors. The tuning correction is done from a simple closed-loop step test and the application of a generic correlation between observed overshoot and integral time correction. A spin-off of the method is that an estimate of the vessel residence time (levels) or open-loop process gain (other integrating process) is obtained from the closed-loop data.

Keywords: closed-loop model identification, IMC-PID tuning method, integrating process control, on-line PID tuning adaptation

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3657 A Multiobjective Damping Function for Coordinated Control of Power System Stabilizer and Power Oscillation Damping

Authors: Jose D. Herrera, Mario A. Rios


This paper deals with the coordinated tuning of the Power System Stabilizer (PSS) controller and Power Oscillation Damping (POD) Controller of Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) in a multi-machine power systems. The coordinated tuning is based on the critical eigenvalues of the power system and a model reduction technique where the Hankel Singular Value method is applied. Through the linearized system model and the parameter-constrained nonlinear optimization algorithm, it can compute the parameters of both controllers. Moreover, the parameters are optimized simultaneously obtaining the gains of both controllers. Then, the nonlinear simulation to observe the time response of the controller is performed.

Keywords: electromechanical oscillations, power system stabilizers, power oscillation damping, hankel singular values

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3656 A Tool Tuning Approximation Method: Exploration of the System Dynamics and Its Impact on Milling Stability When Amending Tool Stickout

Authors: Nikolai Bertelsen, Robert A. Alphinas, Klaus B. Orskov


The shortest possible tool stickout has been the traditional go-to approach with expectations of increased stability and productivity. However, experimental studies at Danish Advanced Manufacturing Research Center (DAMRC) have proven that for some tool stickout lengths, there exist local productivity optimums when utilizing the Stability Lobe Diagrams for chatter avoidance. This contradicts with traditional logic and the best practices taught to machinists. This paper explores the vibrational characteristics and behaviour of a milling system over the tool stickout length. The experimental investigation has been conducted by tap testing multiple endmills where the tool stickout length has been varied. For each length, the modal parameters have been recorded and mapped to visualize behavioural tendencies. Furthermore, the paper explores the correlation between the modal parameters and the Stability Lobe Diagram to outline the influence and importance of each parameter in a multi-mode system. The insights are conceptualized into a tool tuning approximation solution. It builds on an almost linear change in the natural frequencies when amending tool stickout, which results in changed positions of the Chatter-free Stability Lobes. Furthermore, if the natural frequency of two modes become too close, it will onset of the dynamic absorber effect phenomenon. This phenomenon increases the critical stable depth of cut, allowing for a more stable milling process. Validation tests on the tool tuning approximation solution have shown varying success of the solution. This outlines the need for further research on the boundary conditions of the solution to understand at which conditions the tool tuning approximation solution is applicable. If the conditions get defined, the conceptualized tool tuning approximation solution outlines an approach for quick and roughly approximating tool stickouts with the potential for increased stiffness and optimized productivity.

Keywords: milling, modal parameters, stability lobes, tap testing, tool tuning

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3655 Tuning of Fixed Wing Micro Aerial Vehicles Using Tethered Setup

Authors: Shoeb Ahmed Adeel, Vivek Paul, K. Prajwal, Michael Fenelon


Techniques have been used to tether and stabilize a multi-rotor MAV but carrying out the same process to a fixed wing MAV is a novel method which can be utilized in order to reduce damage occurring to the fixed wing MAVs while conducting flight test trials and PID tuning. A few sensors and on board controller is required to carry out this experiment in horizontal and vertical plane of the vehicle. Here we will be discussing issues such as sensitivity of the air vehicle, endurance and external load of the string acting on the vehicle.

Keywords: MAV, PID tuning, tethered flight, UAV

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3654 Self-Tuning Robot Control Based on Subspace Identification

Authors: Mathias Marquardt, Peter Dünow, Sandra Baßler


The paper describes the use of subspace based identification methods for auto tuning of a state space control system. The plant is an unstable but self balancing transport robot. Because of the unstable character of the process it has to be identified from closed loop input-output data. Based on the identified model a state space controller combined with an observer is calculated. The subspace identification algorithm and the controller design procedure is combined to a auto tuning method. The capability of the approach was verified in a simulation experiments under different process conditions.

Keywords: auto tuning, balanced robot, closed loop identification, subspace identification

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3653 A Two-Stage Bayesian Variable Selection Method with the Extension of Lasso for Geo-Referenced Data

Authors: Georgiana Onicescu, Yuqian Shen


Due to the complex nature of geo-referenced data, multicollinearity of the risk factors in public health spatial studies is a commonly encountered issue, which leads to low parameter estimation accuracy because it inflates the variance in the regression analysis. To address this issue, we proposed a two-stage variable selection method by extending the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (Lasso) to the Bayesian spatial setting, investigating the impact of risk factors to health outcomes. Specifically, in stage I, we performed the variable selection using Bayesian Lasso and several other variable selection approaches. Then, in stage II, we performed the model selection with only the selected variables from stage I and compared again the methods. To evaluate the performance of the two-stage variable selection methods, we conducted a simulation study with different distributions for the risk factors, using geo-referenced count data as the outcome and Michigan as the research region. We considered the cases when all candidate risk factors are independently normally distributed, or follow a multivariate normal distribution with different correlation levels. Two other Bayesian variable selection methods, Binary indicator, and the combination of Binary indicator and Lasso were considered and compared as alternative methods. The simulation results indicated that the proposed two-stage Bayesian Lasso variable selection method has the best performance for both independent and dependent cases considered. When compared with the one-stage approach, and the other two alternative methods, the two-stage Bayesian Lasso approach provides the highest estimation accuracy in all scenarios considered.

Keywords: Lasso, Bayesian analysis, spatial analysis, variable selection

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3652 Assessment Power and Oscillation Damping Using the POD Controller and Proposed FOD Controller

Authors: Tohid Rahimi, Yahya Naderi, Babak Yousefi, Seyed Hossein Hoseini


Today’s modern interconnected power system is highly complex in nature. In this, one of the most important requirements during the operation of the electric power system is the reliability and security. Power and frequency oscillation damping mechanism improve the reliability. Because of power system stabilizer (PSS) low speed response against of major fault such as three phase short circuit, FACTs devise that can control the network condition in very fast time, are becoming popular. However, FACTs capability can be seen in a major fault present when nonlinear models of FACTs devise and power system equipment are applied. To realize this aim, the model of multi-machine power system with FACTs controller is developed in MATLAB/SIMULINK using Sim Power System (SPS) blockiest. Among the FACTs device, Static synchronous series compensator (SSSC) due to high speed changes its reactance characteristic inductive to capacitive, is effective power flow controller. Tuning process of controller parameter can be performed using different method. However, Genetic Algorithm (GA) ability tends to use it in controller parameter tuning process. In this paper, firstly POD controller is used to power oscillation damping. But in this station, frequency oscillation dos not has proper damping situation. Therefore, FOD controller that is tuned using GA is using that cause to damp out frequency oscillation properly and power oscillation damping has suitable situation.

Keywords: power oscillation damping (POD), frequency oscillation damping (FOD), Static synchronous series compensator (SSSC), Genetic Algorithm (GA)

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3651 Speed Control of DC Motor Using Optimization Techniques Based PID Controller

Authors: Santosh Kumar Suman, Vinod Kumar Giri


The goal of this paper is to outline a speed controller of a DC motor by choice of a PID parameters utilizing genetic algorithms (GAs), the DC motor is extensively utilized as a part of numerous applications such as steel plants, electric trains, cranes and a great deal more. DC motor could be represented by a nonlinear model when nonlinearities such as attractive dissemination are considered. To provide effective control, nonlinearities and uncertainties in the model must be taken into account in the control design. The DC motor is considered as third order system. Objective of this paper three type of tuning techniques for PID parameter. In this paper, an independently energized DC motor utilizing MATLAB displaying, has been outlined whose velocity might be examined utilizing the Proportional, Integral, Derivative (KP, KI , KD) addition of the PID controller. Since, established controllers PID are neglecting to control the drive when weight parameters be likewise changed. The principle point of this paper is to dissect the execution of optimization techniques viz. The Genetic Algorithm (GA) for improve PID controllers parameters for velocity control of DC motor and list their points of interest over the traditional tuning strategies. The outcomes got from GA calculations were contrasted and that got from traditional technique. It was found that the optimization techniques beat customary tuning practices of ordinary PID controllers.

Keywords: DC motor, PID controller, optimization techniques, genetic algorithm (GA), objective function, IAE

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3650 Efficient Relay Selection Scheme Utilizing OVSF Code in Cooperative Communication System

Authors: Yeong-Seop Ahn, Myoung-Jin Kim, Young-Min Ko, Hyoung-Kyu Song


This paper proposes a relay selection scheme utilizing an orthogonal variable spreading factor (OVSF) code in a cooperative communication. The relay selection scheme influences on the communication performance in the cooperative communication. Conventional relay selection schemes such as the best harmonic mean relay selection scheme or the threshold-based relay selection scheme should know information such as channel state information (CSI) in advance. The proposed relay selection scheme does not require information in advance by using a reference signal utilizing the OVSF code. The simulation result shows that bit error rate (BER) performance of proposed relay selection scheme is similar to the best harmonic mean relay selection scheme that is known as one of the optimal relay selection schemes.

Keywords: cooperative communication, relay selection, OFDM, OVSF code

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3649 Multi-Criteria Test Case Selection Using Ant Colony Optimization

Authors: Niranjana Devi N.


Test case selection is to select the subset of only the fit test cases and remove the unfit, ambiguous, redundant, unnecessary test cases which in turn improve the quality and reduce the cost of software testing. Test cases optimization is the problem of finding the best subset of test cases from a pool of the test cases to be audited. It will meet all the objectives of testing concurrently. But most of the research have evaluated the fitness of test cases only on single parameter fault detecting capability and optimize the test cases using a single objective. In the proposed approach, nine parameters are considered for test case selection and the best subset of parameters for test case selection is obtained using Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Rough Set. Test case selection is done in two stages. The first stage is the fuzzy entropy-based filtration technique, used for estimating and reducing the ambiguity in test case fitness evaluation and selection. The second stage is the ant colony optimization-based wrapper technique with a forward search strategy, employed to select test cases from the reduced test suite of the first stage. The results are evaluated using the Coverage parameters, Precision, Recall, F-Measure, APSC, APDC, and SSR. The experimental evaluation demonstrates that by this approach considerable computational effort can be avoided.

Keywords: ant colony optimization, fuzzy entropy, interval type-2 fuzzy rough set, test case selection

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3648 Analysis of the Engineering Judgement Influence on the Selection of Geotechnical Parameters Characteristic Values

Authors: K. Ivandic, F. Dodigovic, D. Stuhec, S. Strelec


A characteristic value of certain geotechnical parameter results from an engineering assessment. Its selection has to be based on technical principles and standards of engineering practice. It has been shown that the results of engineering assessment of different authors for the same problem and input data are significantly dispersed. A survey was conducted in which participants had to estimate the force that causes a 10 cm displacement at the top of a axially in-situ compressed pile. Fifty experts from all over the world took part in it. The lowest estimated force value was 42% and the highest was 133% of measured force resulting from a mentioned static pile load test. These extreme values result in significantly different technical solutions to the same engineering task. In case of selecting a characteristic value of a geotechnical parameter the importance of the influence of an engineering assessment can be reduced by using statistical methods. An informative annex of Eurocode 1 prescribes the method of selecting the characteristic values of material properties. This is followed by Eurocode 7 with certain specificities linked to selecting characteristic values of geotechnical parameters. The paper shows the procedure of selecting characteristic values of a geotechnical parameter by using a statistical method with different initial conditions. The aim of the paper is to quantify an engineering assessment in the example of determining a characteristic value of a specific geotechnical parameter. It is assumed that this assessment is a random variable and that its statistical features will be determined. For this purpose, a survey research was conducted among relevant experts from the field of geotechnical engineering. Conclusively, the results of the survey and the application of statistical method were compared.

Keywords: characteristic values, engineering judgement, Eurocode 7, statistical methods

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3647 Tuning of the Thermal Capacity of an Envelope for Peak Demand Reduction

Authors: Isha Rathore, Peeyush Jain, Elangovan Rajasekar


The thermal capacity of the envelope impacts the cooling and heating demand of a building and modulates the peak electricity demand. This paper presents the thermal capacity tuning of a building envelope to minimize peak electricity demand for space cooling. We consider a 40 m² residential testbed located in Hyderabad, India (Composite Climate). An EnergyPlus model is validated using real-time data. A Parametric simulation framework for thermal capacity tuning is created using the Honeybee plugin. Diffusivity, Thickness, layer position, orientation and fenestration size of the exterior envelope are parametrized considering a five-layered wall system. A total of 1824 parametric runs are performed and the optimum wall configuration leading to minimum peak cooling demand is presented.

Keywords: thermal capacity, tuning, peak demand reduction, parametric analysis

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3646 A Robust PID Load Frequency Controller of Interconnected Power System Using SDO Software

Authors: Pasala Gopi, P. Linga Reddy


The response of the load frequency control problem in an multi-area interconnected electrical power system is much more complex with increasing size, changing structure and increasing load. This paper deals with Load Frequency Control of three area interconnected Power system incorporating Reheat, Non-reheat and Reheat turbines in all areas respectively. The response of the load frequency control problem in an multi-area interconnected power system is improved by designing PID controller using different tuning techniques and proved that the PID controller which was designed by Simulink Design Optimization (SDO) Software gives the superior performance than other controllers for step perturbations. Finally the robustness of controller was checked against system parameter variations

Keywords: load frequency control, pid controller tuning, step load perturbations, inter connected power system

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3645 Merit Measures and Validation in Employee Evaluation and Selection

Authors: Wilson P. R. Malebye, Solly M. Seeletse


Applicants for space in selection problems are usually compared subjectively, and the selection made are not reliable and often cannot be verified scientifically. The paper illustrates objective selection by involving a mathematical measure in selecting a candidate applying for a job, and then using other two independent measures, validates the choice made. The scientific process followed is SToR (SAW, TOPSIS, WP) in which Simple Additive Weighting (SAW) is used to select, and the TOPSIS (technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution) and weighted product (WP) are used to validate. A practical exercise was obtained from a factual selection problem in a recruitment task undertaken in an organization in which the authors consulted, and their Human Resources (HR) department wanted to check if their selection was justifiable. The result was that our approach was consistent and convincing to that HR, and theirs was not because our selection was satisfactory while theirs could not be corroborated using any method.

Keywords: candidate selection, SToR, SW, TOPSIS, WP

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