Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2407

Search results for: coupling matrix

2407 Anti-Phase Synchronization of Complex Delayed Networks with Output Coupling via Pinning Control

Authors: Chanyuan Gu, Shouming Zhong


Synchronization is a fundamental phenomenon that enables coherent behavior in networks as a result of interactions. The purpose of this research had been to investigate the problem of anti-phase synchronization for complex delayed dynamical networks with output coupling. The coupling configuration is general, with the coupling matrix not assumed to be symmetric or irreducible. The amount of the coupling variables between two connected nodes is flexible, the nodes in the drive and response systems need not to be identical and there is not any extra constraint on the coupling matrix. Some pinning controllers are designed to make the drive-response system achieve the anti-phase synchronization. For the convenience of description, we applied the matrix Kronecker product. Some new criteria are proposed based on the Lyapunov stability theory, linear matrix inequalities (LMI) and Schur complement. Lastly, some simulation examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of our proposed conditions.

Keywords: anti-phase synchronization, complex networks, output coupling, pinning control

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2406 Cross Coupling Sliding Mode Synchronization Control of Dual-Driving Feed System

Authors: Hong Lu, Wei Fan, Yongquan Zhang, Junbo Zhang


A cross coupling sliding synchronization control strategy is proposed for the dual-driving feed system. This technology will minimize the position error oscillation and achieve the precise synchronization performance in the high speed and high precision drive system, especially some high speed and high precision machine. Moreover, a cross coupling compensation matrix is provided to offset the mismatched disturbance and the disturbance observer is established to eliminate the chattering phenomenon. Performance comparisons of proposed dual-driving cross coupling sliding mode control (CCSMC), normal cross coupling control (CCC) strategy with PID control, and electronic virtual main shaft control (EVMSC) strategy with SMC control are investigated by simulation and a dual-driving control system; the results show the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

Keywords: cross coupling matrix, dual motors, synchronization control, sliding mode control

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
2405 Lattice Dynamics of (ND4Br)x(KBr)1-x Mixed Crystals

Authors: Alpana Tiwari, N. K. Gaur


We have incorporated the translational rotational (TR) coupling effects in the framework of three body force shell model (TSM) to develop an extended TSM (ETSM). The dynamical matrix of ETSM has been applied to compute the phonon frequencies of orientationally disordered mixed crystal (ND4Br)x(KBr)1-x in (q00), (qq0) and (qqq) symmetry directions for compositions 0.10≤x≤0.50 at T=300K.These frequencies are plotted as a function of wave vector k. An unusual acoustic mode softening is found along symmetry directions (q00) and (qq0) as a result of translation-rotation coupling.

Keywords: orientational glass, phonons, TR-coupling, lattice dynamics

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2404 E-Bike FE Model Analysis: Connection Stiffness of Elements with Different DOFs

Authors: Lele Zhang, Hui Leng Choo, Alexander Konyukhov, Shuguang Li


Finite Element (FE) model of simplified e-bike structure was generated by main frame with two tiers, which consisted of pipe, mass, beam, and shell elements (pipe 289, beam188, shell 181, shell 281, combin14, link11, mass21). These elements would be introduced and demonstrated using mathematical formulas. Based on coupling theory, constrain equations was proposed. Exporting all the parameters obtained from theory part, the connection stiffness matrix of the whole e-bike structure between each of these elements was detected.

Keywords: coupling theory, stiffness matrix, e-bike, finite element model

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
2403 Effects of Coupling Agent on the Properties of Henequen Microfiber (NF) Filled High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) Composites

Authors: Pravin Gaikwad, Prakash Mahanwar


The main objective of incorporating natural fibers such as Henequen microfibers (NF) into the High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE) polymer matrix is to reduce the cost and to enhance the mechanical as well as other properties. The Henequen microfibers were chopped manually to 5-7mm in length and added into the polymer matrix at the optimized concentration of 8 wt %. In order to facilitate the link between Henequen microfibers (NF) and HDPE matrix, coupling agent such as Glycidoxy (Epoxy) Functional Methoxy Silane (GPTS) at various concentrations from 0.1%, 0.3%, 0.5%, 0.7%, 0.9%, and 1% by weight to the total fibers were added. The tensile strength of the composite increased marginally while % elongation at break of the composites decreased with increase in silane loading by wt %. Tensile modulus and stiffness observed increased at 0.9 wt % GPTS loading. Flexural as well as impact strength of the composite decreased with increase in GPTS loading by weight %. Dielectric strength of the composite also found increased marginally upto 0.5wt % silane loading and thereafter remained constant.

Keywords: Henequen microfibers (NF), polymer composites, HDPE, coupling agent, GPTS

Procedia PDF Downloads 375
2402 Adaptive Beamforming with Steering Error and Mutual Coupling between Antenna Sensors

Authors: Ju-Hong Lee, Ching-Wei Liao


Owing to close antenna spacing between antenna sensors within a compact space, a part of data in one antenna sensor would outflow to other antenna sensors when the antenna sensors in an antenna array operate simultaneously. This phenomenon is called mutual coupling effect (MCE). It has been shown that the performance of antenna array systems can be degraded when the antenna sensors are in close proximity. Especially, in a systems equipped with massive antenna sensors, the degradation of beamforming performance due to the MCE is significantly inevitable. Moreover, it has been shown that even a small angle error between the true direction angle of the desired signal and the steering angle deteriorates the effectiveness of an array beamforming system. However, the true direction vector of the desired signal may not be exactly known in some applications, e.g., the application in land mobile-cellular wireless systems. Therefore, it is worth developing robust techniques to deal with the problem due to the MCE and steering angle error for array beamforming systems. In this paper, we present an efficient technique for performing adaptive beamforming with robust capabilities against the MCE and the steering angle error. Only the data vector received by an antenna array is required by the proposed technique. By using the received array data vector, a correlation matrix is constructed to replace the original correlation matrix associated with the received array data vector. Then, the mutual coupling matrix due to the MCE on the antenna array is estimated through a recursive algorithm. An appropriate estimate of the direction angle of the desired signal can also be obtained during the recursive process. Based on the estimated mutual coupling matrix, the estimated direction angle, and the reconstructed correlation matrix, the proposed technique can effectively cure the performance degradation due to steering angle error and MCE. The novelty of the proposed technique is that the implementation procedure is very simple and the resulting adaptive beamforming performance is satisfactory. Simulation results show that the proposed technique provides much better beamforming performance without requiring complicated complexity as compared with the existing robust techniques.

Keywords: adaptive beamforming, mutual coupling effect, recursive algorithm, steering angle error

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2401 2 Stage CMOS Regulated Cascode Distributed Amplifier Design Based On Inductive Coupling Technique in Submicron CMOS Process

Authors: Kittipong Tripetch, Nobuhiko Nakano


This paper proposes one stage and two stage CMOS Complementary Regulated Cascode Distributed Amplifier (CRCDA) design based on Inductive and Transformer coupling techniques. Usually, Distributed amplifier is based on inductor coupling between gate and gate of MOSFET and between drain and drain of MOSFET. But this paper propose some new idea, by coupling with differential primary windings of transformer between gate and gate of MOSFET first stage and second stage of regulated cascade amplifier and by coupling with differential secondary windings transformer of MOSFET between drain and drain of MOSFET first stage and second stage of regulated cascade amplifier. This paper also proposes polynomial modeling of Silicon Transformer passive equivalent circuit from Nanyang Technological University which is used to extract frequency response of transformer. Cadence simulation results are used to verify validity of transformer polynomial modeling which can be used to design distributed amplifier without Cadence. 4 parameters of scattering matrix of 2 port of the propose circuit is derived as a function of 4 parameters of impedance matrix.

Keywords: CMOS regulated cascode distributed amplifier, silicon transformer modeling with polynomial, low power consumption, distribute amplification technique

Procedia PDF Downloads 417
2400 A Tuning Method for Microwave Filter via Complex Neural Network and Improved Space Mapping

Authors: Shengbiao Wu, Weihua Cao, Min Wu, Can Liu


This paper presents an intelligent tuning method of microwave filter based on complex neural network and improved space mapping. The tuning process consists of two stages: the initial tuning and the fine tuning. At the beginning of the tuning, the return loss of the filter is transferred to the passband via the error of phase. During the fine tuning, the phase shift caused by the transmission line and the higher order mode is removed by the curve fitting. Then, an Cauchy method based on the admittance parameter (Y-parameter) is used to extract the coupling matrix. The influence of the resonant cavity loss is eliminated during the parameter extraction process. By using processed data pairs (the amount of screw variation and the variation of the coupling matrix), a tuning model is established by the complex neural network. In view of the improved space mapping algorithm, the mapping relationship between the actual model and the ideal model is established, and the amplitude and direction of the tuning is constantly updated. Finally, the tuning experiment of the eight order coaxial cavity filter shows that the proposed method has a good effect in tuning time and tuning precision.

Keywords: microwave filter, scattering parameter, coupling matrix, intelligent tuning

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2399 Study of the Electromagnetic Resonances of a Cavity with an Aperture Using Numerical Method and Equivalent Circuit Method

Authors: Ming-Chu Yin, Ping-An Du


The shielding ability of a shielding cavity is affected greatly by its resonances, which include resonance modes and frequencies. The equivalent circuit method and numerical method of transmission line matrix (TLM) are used to analyze the effect of aperture-cavity coupling on electromagnetic resonances of a cavity with an aperture in this paper. Both theoretical and numerical results show that the resonance modes of a shielding cavity with an aperture can be considered as the combination of cavity and aperture inherent resonance modes with resonance frequencies shifting, and the reason of this shift is aperture-cavity coupling. Because aperture sizes are important parameters to aperture-cavity coupling, variation rules of electromagnetic resonances of a shielding cavity with its aperture sizes are given, which will be useful for the design of shielding cavities.

Keywords: aperture-cavity coupling, equivalent circuit method, resonances, shielding equipment

Procedia PDF Downloads 361
2398 A Constitutive Model of Ligaments and Tendons Accounting for Fiber-Matrix Interaction

Authors: Ratchada Sopakayang, Gerhard A. Holzapfel


In this study, a new constitutive model is developed to describe the hyperelastic behavior of collagenous tissues with a parallel arrangement of collagen fibers such as ligaments and tendons. The model is formulated using a continuum approach incorporating the structural changes of the main tissue components: collagen fibers, proteoglycan-rich matrix and fiber-matrix interaction. The mechanical contribution of the interaction between the fibers and the matrix is simply expressed by a coupling term. The structural change of the collagen fibers is incorporated in the constitutive model to describe the activation of the fibers under tissue straining. Finally, the constitutive model can easily describe the stress-stretch nonlinearity which occurs when a ligament/tendon is axially stretched. This study shows that the interaction between the fibers and the matrix contributes to the mechanical tissue response. Therefore, the model may lead to a better understanding of the physiological mechanisms of ligaments and tendons under axial loading.

Keywords: constitutive model, fiber-matrix, hyperelasticity, interaction, ligament, tendon

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2397 The Second Smallest Eigenvalue of Complete Tripartite Hypergraph

Authors: Alfi Y. Zakiyyah, Hanni Garminia, M. Salman, A. N. Irawati


In the terminology of the hypergraph, there is a relation with the terminology graph. In the theory of graph, the edges connected two vertices. In otherwise, in hypergraph, the edges can connect more than two vertices. There is representation matrix of a graph such as adjacency matrix, Laplacian matrix, and incidence matrix. The adjacency matrix is symmetry matrix so that all eigenvalues is real. This matrix is a nonnegative matrix. The all diagonal entry from adjacency matrix is zero so that the trace is zero. Another representation matrix of the graph is the Laplacian matrix. Laplacian matrix is symmetry matrix and semidefinite positive so that all eigenvalues are real and non-negative. According to the spectral study in the graph, some that result is generalized to hypergraph. A hypergraph can be represented by a matrix such as adjacency, incidence, and Laplacian matrix. Throughout for this term, we use Laplacian matrix to represent a complete tripartite hypergraph. The aim from this research is to determine second smallest eigenvalues from this matrix and find a relation this eigenvalue with the connectivity of that hypergraph.

Keywords: connectivity, graph, hypergraph, Laplacian matrix

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2396 Investigation on the Behavior of Conventional Reinforced Coupling Beams

Authors: Akash K. Walunj, Dipendu Bhunia, Samarth Gupta, Prabhat Gupta


Coupled shear walls consist of two shear walls connected intermittently by beams along the height. The behavior of coupled shear walls is mainly governed by the coupling beams. The coupling beams are designed for ductile inelastic behavior in order to dissipate energy. The base of the shear walls may be designed for elastic or ductile inelastic behavior. The amount of energy dissipation depends on the yield moment capacity and plastic rotation capacity of the coupling beams. In this paper, an analytical model of coupling beam was developed to calculate the rotations and moment capacities of coupling beam with conventional reinforcement.

Keywords: design studies, computational model(s), case study/studies, modelling, coupling beam

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2395 Conditions on Expressing a Matrix as a Sum of α-Involutions

Authors: Ric Joseph R. Murillo, Edna N. Gueco, Dennis I. Merino


Let F be C or R, where C and R are the set of complex numbers and real numbers, respectively, and n be a natural number. An n-by-n matrix A over the field F is called an α-involutory matrix or an α-involution if there exists an α in the field such that the square of the matrix is equal to αI, where I is the n-by-n identity matrix. If α is a complex number or a nonnegative real number, then an n-by-n matrix A over the field F can be written as a sum of n-by-n α-involutory matrices over the field F if and only if the trace of that matrix is an integral multiple of the square root of α. Meanwhile, if α is a negative real number, then a 2n-by-2n matrix A over R can be written as a sum of 2n-by-2n α-involutory matrices over R if and only the trace of the matrix is zero. Some other properties of α-involutory matrices are also determined

Keywords: α-involutory Matrices, sum of α-involutory Matrices, Trace, Matrix Theory

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2394 Empirical Investigation for the Correlation between Object-Oriented Class Lack of Cohesion and Coupling

Authors: Jehad Al Dallal


The design of the internal relationships among object-oriented class members (i.e., attributes and methods) and the external relationships among classes affects the overall quality of the object-oriented software. The degree of relatedness among class members is referred to as class cohesion and the degree to which a class is related to other classes is called class coupling. Well designed classes are expected to exhibit high cohesion and low coupling values. In this paper, using classes of three open-source Java systems, we empirically investigate the relation between class cohesion and coupling. In the empirical study, five lack-of-cohesion metrics and eight coupling metrics are considered. The empirical study results show that class cohesion and coupling internal quality attributes are inversely correlated. The strength of the correlation highly depends on the cohesion and coupling measurement approaches.

Keywords: class cohesion measure, class coupling measure, object-oriented class, software quality

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2393 Empirical Exploration for the Correlation between Class Object-Oriented Connectivity-Based Cohesion and Coupling

Authors: Jehad Al Dallal


Attributes and methods are the basic contents of an object-oriented class. The connectivity among these class members and the relationship between the class and other classes play an important role in determining the quality of an object-oriented system. Class cohesion evaluates the degree of relatedness of class attributes and methods, whereas class coupling refers to the degree to which a class is related to other classes. Researchers have proposed several class cohesion and class coupling measures. However, the correlation between class coupling and class cohesion measures have not been thoroughly studied. In this paper, using classes of three open-source Java systems, we empirically investigate the correlation between several measures of connectivity-based class cohesion and coupling. Four connectivity-based cohesion measures and eight coupling measures are considered in the empirical study. The empirical study results show that class connectivity-based cohesion and coupling internal quality attributes are inversely correlated. The strength of the correlation depends highly on the cohesion and coupling measurement approaches.

Keywords: object-oriented class, software quality, class cohesion measure, class coupling measure

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2392 Capacitive Coupling Wireless Power Transfer System with 6.78 MHz Class D Inverter

Authors: Kang Hyun Yi


Wireless power transfer technologies are inductive coupling, magnetic resonance, and capacitive coupling methods, typically. Among them, the capacitive coupling wireless power transfer, also named Capacitive Coupling Wireless Power Transfer (CCWPT), has been researched to overcome the drawbacks of other approaches. The CCWPT has many advantages such as a simple structure, low standing power loss, reduced Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) and the ability to transfer power through metal barriers. In this paper, the CCWPT system with 6.78MHz class D inverter is proposed and analyzed. The proposed system is consisted of the 6.78MHz class D inverter with the LC low pass filter, the capacitor between a transmitter and a receiver and impedance transformers. The system is verified with a prototype for charging mobile devices.

Keywords: wireless power transfer, capacitive coupling power transfer, class D inverter, 6.78MHz

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2391 Manufacturing and Characterization of Ni-Matrix Composite Reinforced with Ti3SiC2 and Ti2AlC; and Al-Matrix with Ti2SiC

Authors: M. Hadji, N. Chiker, Y. Hadji, A. Haddad


In this paper, we report for the first time on the synthesis and characterization of novel MAX phases (Ti3SiC2, Ti2AlC) reinforced Ni-matrix and Ti2AlC reinforced Al-matrix. The stability of MAX phases in Al-matrix and Ni-matrix at a temperature of 985°C has been investigated. All the composites were cold pressed and sintered at a temperature of 985°C for 20min in H2 environment, except (Ni/Ti3SiC2) who was sintered at 1100°C for 1h.Microstructure analysis by scanning electron microscopy and phase analysis by X-Ray diffraction confirmed that there was minimal interfacial reaction between MAX particles and Ni, thus Al/MAX samples shown that MAX phases was totally decomposed at 985°C.The Addition of MAX enhanced the Al-matrix and Ni-matrix.

Keywords: MAX phase, microstructures, composites, hardness, SEM

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2390 Inverse Matrix in the Theory of Dynamical Systems

Authors: Renata Masarova, Bohuslava Juhasova, Martin Juhas, Zuzana Sutova


In dynamic system theory a mathematical model is often used to describe their properties. In order to find a transfer matrix of a dynamic system we need to calculate an inverse matrix. The paper contains the fusion of the classical theory and the procedures used in the theory of automated control for calculating the inverse matrix. The final part of the paper models the given problem by the Matlab.

Keywords: dynamic system, transfer matrix, inverse matrix, modeling

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2389 Substrate Coupling in Millimeter Wave Frequencies

Authors: Vasileios Gerakis, Fontounasios Christos, Alkis Hatzopoulos


A study of the impact of metal guard rings on the coupling between two square metal pads is presented. The structure is designed over a bulk silicon substrate with epitaxial layer, so the coupling through the substrate is also involved. A lightly doped profile is adopted and is simulated by means of an electromagnetic simulator for various pad distances and different metal layers, assuming a 65 nm bulk CMOS technology. The impact of various guard ring design (geometrical) parameters is examined. Furthermore, the increase of isolation (resulting in reduction of the noise coupling) between the pads by cutting the ring, or by using multiple rings, is also analyzed. S parameters are used to compare the various structures.

Keywords: guard rings, metal pad coupling, millimeter wave frequencies, substrate noise,

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2388 Comparison Analysis of CFD Turbulence Fluid Numerical Study for Quick Coupling

Authors: JoonHo Lee, KyoJin An, JunSu Kim, Young-Chul Park


In this study, the fluid flow characteristics and performance numerical study through CFD model of the Non-split quick coupling for flow control in hydraulic system equipment for the aerospace business group focused to predict. In this study, we considered turbulence models for the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics for the CFD model of the Non-split Quick Coupling for aerospace business. In addition to this, the adequacy of the CFD model were verified by comparing with standard value. Based on this analysis, accurate the fluid flow characteristics can be predicted. It is, therefore, the design of the fluid flow characteristic contribute the reliability for the Quick Coupling which is required in industries on the basis of research results.

Keywords: CFD, FEM, quick coupling, turbulence

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2387 Detection of Coupling Misalignment in a Rotor System Using Wavelet Transforms

Authors: Prabhakar Sathujoda


Vibration analysis of a misaligned rotor coupling bearing system has been carried out while decelerating through its critical speed. The finite element method (FEM) is used to model the rotor system and simulate flexural vibrations. A flexible coupling with a frictionless joint is considered in the present work. The continuous wavelet transform is used to extract the misalignment features from the simulated time response. Subcritical speeds at one-half, one-third, and one-fourth the critical speed have appeared in the wavelet transformed vibration response of a misaligned rotor coupling bearing system. These features are also verified through a parametric study.

Keywords: Continuous Wavelet Transform, Flexible Coupling, Rotor System, Sub Critical Speed

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2386 Introduction of the Fluid-Structure Coupling into the Force Analysis Technique

Authors: Océane Grosset, Charles Pézerat, Jean-Hugh Thomas, Frédéric Ablitzer


This paper presents a method to take into account the fluid-structure coupling into an inverse method, the Force Analysis Technique (FAT). The FAT method, also called RIFF method (Filtered Windowed Inverse Resolution), allows to identify the force distribution from local vibration field. In order to only identify the external force applied on a structure, it is necessary to quantify the fluid-structure coupling, especially in naval application, where the fluid is heavy. This method can be decomposed in two parts, the first one consists in identifying the fluid-structure coupling and the second one to introduced it in the FAT method to reconstruct the external force. Results of simulations on a plate coupled with a cavity filled with water are presented.

Keywords: aeroacoustics, fluid-structure coupling, inverse methods, naval, turbulent flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 390
2385 On Block Vandermonde Matrix Constructed from Matrix Polynomial Solvents

Authors: Malika Yaici, Kamel Hariche


In control engineering, systems described by matrix fractions are studied through properties of block roots, also called solvents. These solvents are usually dealt with in a block Vandermonde matrix form. Inverses and determinants of Vandermonde matrices and block Vandermonde matrices are used in solving problems of numerical analysis in many domains but require costly computations. Even though Vandermonde matrices are well known and method to compute inverse and determinants are many and, generally, based on interpolation techniques, methods to compute the inverse and determinant of a block Vandermonde matrix have not been well studied. In this paper, some properties of these matrices and iterative algorithms to compute the determinant and the inverse of a block Vandermonde matrix are given. These methods are deducted from the partitioned matrix inversion and determinant computing methods. Due to their great size, parallelization may be a solution to reduce the computations cost, so a parallelization of these algorithms is proposed and validated by a comparison using algorithmic complexity.

Keywords: block vandermonde matrix, solvents, matrix polynomial, matrix inverse, matrix determinant, parallelization

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2384 Mutual Coupling Reduction between Patch Antenna Array Elements Using Metamaterial Z Shaped Resonators

Authors: Oossama Tabbabi, Mondher Labidi, Fethi Choubani, J. David


Modern wireless communication systems require compact design, low cost and simple structure antennas to insure reliability, agility, and high efficiency characteristics. This paper presents a microstrip antenna array designed for 8 GHz applications. To reduce the mutual coupling effects, a Z shape metamaterial structure was imprinted in the microstrip antenna array composed of two elements. Simulation results show the improvement of mutual coupling by adding Z shape metamaterial structure to the antenna substrate. The proposed structure reduces mutual coupling by 19 dB. The simulation has been performed by using HFSS simulator.

Keywords: antenna array, compact design, modern wireless communication, mutual coupling effects

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
2383 Wave Interaction with Defects in Pressurized Composite Structures

Authors: R. K. Apalowo, D. Chronopoulos, V. Thierry


A wave finite element (WFE) and finite element (FE) based computational method is presented by which the dispersion properties as well as the wave interaction coefficients for one-dimensional structural system can be predicted. The structural system is discretized as a system comprising a number of waveguides connected by a coupling joint. Uniform nodes are ensured at the interfaces of the coupling element with each waveguide. Then, equilibrium and continuity conditions are enforced at the interfaces. Wave propagation properties of each waveguide are calculated using the WFE method and the coupling element is modelled using the FE method. The scattering of waves through the coupling element, on which damage is modelled, is determined by coupling the FE and WFE models. Furthermore, the central aim is to evaluate the effect of pressurization on the wave dispersion and scattering characteristics of the prestressed structural system compared to that which is not prestressed. Numerical case studies are exhibited for two waveguides coupled through a coupling joint.

Keywords: Finite Element, Prestressed Structures, Wave Finite Element, Wave Propagation Properties, Wave Scattering Coefficients.

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
2382 Improving the Optoacoustic Signal by Monitoring the Changes of Coupling Medium

Authors: P. Prasannakumar, L. Myoung Young, G. Seung Kye, P. Sang Hun, S. Chul Gyu


In this paper, we discussed the coupling medium in the optoacoustic imaging. The coupling medium is placed between the scanned object and the ultrasound transducers. Water with varying temperature was used as the coupling medium. The water temperature is gradually varied between 25 to 40 degrees. This heating process is taken with care in order to avoid the bubble formation. Rise in the photoacoustic signal is noted through an unfocused transducer with frequency of 2.25 MHz as the temperature increases. The temperature rise is monitored using a NTC thermistor and the values in degrees are calculated using an embedded evaluation kit. Also the temperature is transmitted to PC through a serial communication. All these processes are synchronized using a trigger signal from the laser source.

Keywords: embedded, optoacoustic, ultrasound , unfocused transducer

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2381 Carbonylative Cross Coupling of 2-Bromopyridine with Different Boronic Acids under Carbon Monoxide Atmosphere

Authors: N. Touj, M. Sauthier, L. Mansour, N. Hamdi


The palladium NHC complexes are one of the most interesting and widely investigated complexes in different catalytic transformations, especially C–C bond. Thus, the use of N-heterocyclic carbenes associated with palladium has been reported as efficient catalysts for the carbonyl coupling under mild and varied conditions. Herein, we report the synthesis, characterization, and cytotoxic activities of two new families of benzimidazolium salts. Then we studied the use of this class of benzimidazolium salts as a ligand in the carbonylative cross-coupling of 2-bromopyridine with different boronic acids under CO atmosphere to form unsymmetrical arylpyridine ketones.

Keywords: NHC-Pd(II) catalysts, carbonylative Suzuki cross-coupling reaction, arylboronic acids, 2-bromopyridine, unsymmetrical arylpyridine ketones

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2380 Effect of Coupling Media on Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity in Concrete: A Preliminary Investigation

Authors: Sura Al-Khafaji, Phil Purnell


Measurement of the ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) is an important tool in diagnostic examination of concrete. In this method piezoelectric transducers are normally held in direct contact with the concrete surface. The current study aims to test the hypothesis that a preferential coupling effect might exist i.e. that the speed of sound measured depends on the couplant used. In this study, different coupling media of varying acoustic impedance were placed between the transducers and concrete samples made with constant aggregate content but with different compressive strengths. The preliminary results show that using coupling materials (both solid and a range of liquid substances) has an effect on the pulse velocity measured in a given concrete. The effect varies depending on the material used. The UPV measurements with solid coupling were higher than these from the liquid coupling at all strength levels. The tests using couplants generally recorded lower UPV values than the conventional test, except when carbon fiber composite was used, which retuned higher values. Analysis of variances (ANOVA) was performed to confirm that there are statistically significant differences between the measurements recorded using a conventional system and a coupled system.

Keywords: compressive strength, coupling effect, statistical analysis, ultrasonic

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
2379 On Direct Matrix Factored Inversion via Broyden's Updates

Authors: Adel Mohsen


A direct method based on the good Broyden's updates for evaluating the inverse of a nonsingular square matrix of full rank and solving related system of linear algebraic equations is studied. For a matrix A of order n whose LU-decomposition is A = LU, the multiplication count is O (n3). This includes the evaluation of the LU-decompositions of the inverse, the lower triangular decomposition of A as well as a “reduced matrix inverse”. If an explicit value of the inverse is not needed the order reduces to O (n3/2) to compute to compute inv(U) and the reduced inverse. For a symmetric matrix only O (n3/3) operations are required to compute inv(L) and the reduced inverse. An example is presented to demonstrate the capability of using the reduced matrix inverse in treating ill-conditioned systems. Besides the simplicity of Broyden's update, the method provides a mean to exploit the possible sparsity in the matrix and to derive a suitable preconditioner.

Keywords: Broyden's updates, matrix inverse, inverse factorization, solution of linear algebraic equations, ill-conditioned matrices, preconditioning

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2378 A Review on Aluminium Metal Matric Composites

Authors: V. Singh, S. Singh, S. S. Garewal


Metal matrix composites with aluminum as the matrix material have been heralded as the next great development in advanced engineering materials. Aluminum metal matrix composites (AMMC) refer to the class of light weight high performance material systems. Properties of AMMCs can be tailored to the demands of different industrial applications by suitable combinations of matrix, reinforcement and processing route. AMMC finds its application in automotive, aerospace, defense, sports and structural areas. This paper presents an overview of AMMC material systems on aspects relating to processing, types and applications with case studies.

Keywords: aluminum metal matrix composites, applications of aluminum metal matrix composites, lighting material processing of aluminum metal matrix composites

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