Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3618

Search results for: spherical organic particles

3618 Spherical Organic Particle (SOP) Emissions from Fixed-Bed Residential Coal-Burning Devices

Authors: Tafadzwa Makonese, Harold Annegarn, Patricia Forbes


Residential coal combustion is one of the largest sources of carbonaceous aerosols in the Highveld region of South Africa, significantly affecting the local and regional climate. In this study, we investigated single coal burning particles emitted when using different fire-ignition techniques (top-lit up-draft vs bottom-lit up-draft) and air ventilation rates (defined by the number of air holes above and below the fire grate) in selected informal braziers. Aerosol samples were collected on nucleopore filters at the SeTAR Centre Laboratory, University of Johannesburg. Individual particles (~700) were investigated using a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Two distinct forms of spherical organic particles (SOPs) were identified, one less oxidized than the other. The particles were further classified into "electronically" dark and bright, according to China et al. [2014]. EDS analysis showed that 70% of the dark spherical organic particles balls had higher (~60%) relative oxygen content than in the bright SOPs. We quantify the morphology of spherical organic particles and classify them into four categories: ~50% are bare single particles; ~35% particles are aggregated and form diffusion accretion chains; 10% have inclusions; and 5% are deformed due to impaction on filter material during sampling. We conclude that there are two distinct kinds of coal burning spherical organic particles and that dark SOPs are less volatile than bright SOPs. We also show that these spherical organic particles are similar in nature and characteristics to tar balls observed in biomass combustion, and that they have the potential to absorb sunlight thereby affecting the earth’s radiative budget and climate. This study provides insights on the mixing states, morphology, and possible formation mechanisms of these organic particles from residential coal combustion in informal stoves.

Keywords: spherical organic particles, residential coal combustion, fixed-bed, aerosols, morphology, stoves

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3617 Comparison of Regime Transition between Ellipsoidal and Spherical Particle Assemblies in a Model Shear Cell

Authors: M. Hossain, H. P. Zhu, A. B. Yu


This paper presents a numerical investigation of regime transition of flow of ellipsoidal particles and a comparison with that of spherical particle assembly. Particle assemblies constituting spherical and ellipsoidal particle of 2.5:1 aspect ratio are examined at separate instances in similar flow conditions in a shear cell model that is numerically developed based on the discrete element method. Correlations among elastically scaled stress, kinetically scaled stress, coordination number and volume fraction are investigated, and show important similarities and differences for the spherical and ellipsoidal particle assemblies. In particular, volume fractions at points of regime transition are identified for both types of particles. It is found that compared with spherical particle assembly, ellipsoidal particle assembly has higher volume fraction for the quasistatic to intermediate regime transition and lower volume fraction for the intermediate to inertial regime transition. Finally, the relationship between coordination number and volume fraction shows strikingly distinct features for the two cases, suggesting that different from spherical particles, the effect of the shear rate on the coordination number is not significant for ellipsoidal particles. This work provides a glimpse of currently running work on one of the most attractive scopes of research in this field and has a wide prospect in understanding rheology of more complex shaped particles in light of the strong basis of simpler spherical particle rheology.

Keywords: DEM, granular rheology, non-spherical particles, regime transition

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3616 CFD-DEM Modelling of Liquid Fluidizations of Ellipsoidal Particles

Authors: Esmaeil Abbaszadeh Molaei, Zongyan Zhou, Aibing Yu


The applications of liquid fluidizations have been increased in many parts of industries such as particle classification, backwashing of granular filters, crystal growth, leaching and washing, and bioreactors due to high-efficient liquid–solid contact, favorable mass and heat transfer, high operation flexibilities, and reduced back mixing of phases. In most of these multiphase operations the particles properties, i.e. size, density, and shape, may change during the process because of attrition, coalescence or chemical reactions. Previous studies, either experimentally or numerically, mainly have focused on studies of liquid-solid fluidized beds containing spherical particles; however, the role of particle shape on the hydrodynamics of liquid fluidized beds is still not well-known. A three-dimensional Discrete Element Model (DEM) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) are coupled to study the influence of particles shape on particles and liquid flow patterns in liquid-solid fluidized beds. In the simulations, ellipsoid particles are used to study the shape factor since they can represent a wide range of particles shape from oblate and sphere to prolate shape particles. Different particle shapes from oblate (disk shape) to elongated particles (rod shape) are selected to investigate the effect of aspect ratio on different flow characteristics such as general particles and liquid flow pattern, pressure drop, and particles orientation. First, the model is verified based on experimental observations, then further detail analyses are made. It was found that spherical particles showed a uniform particle distribution in the bed, which resulted in uniform pressure drop along the bed height. However for particles with aspect ratios less than one (disk-shape), some particles were carried into the freeboard region, and the interface between the bed and freeboard was not easy to be determined. A few particle also intended to leave the bed. On the other hand, prolate particles showed different behaviour in the bed. They caused unstable interface and some flow channeling was observed for low liquid velocities. Because of the non-uniform particles flow pattern for particles with aspect ratios lower (oblate) and more (prolate) than one, the pressure drop distribution in the bed was not observed as uniform as what was found for spherical particles.

Keywords: CFD, DEM, ellipsoid, fluidization, multiphase flow, non-spherical, simulation

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3615 Effect of Particle Aspect Ratio and Shape Factor on Air Flow inside Pulmonary Region

Authors: Pratibha, Jyoti Kori


Particles in industry, harvesting, coal mines, etc. may not necessarily be spherical in shape. In general, it is difficult to find perfectly spherical particle. The prediction of movement and deposition of non spherical particle in distinct airway generation is much more difficult as compared to spherical particles. Moreover, there is extensive inflexibility in deposition between ducts of a particular generation and inside every alveolar duct since particle concentrations can be much bigger than the mean acinar concentration. Consequently, a large number of particles fail to be exhaled during expiration. This study presents a mathematical model for the movement and deposition of those non-spherical particles by using particle aspect ratio and shape factor. We analyse the pulsatile behavior underneath sinusoidal wall oscillation due to periodic breathing condition through a non-Darcian porous medium or inside pulmonary region. Since the fluid is viscous and Newtonian, the generalized Navier-Stokes equation in two-dimensional coordinate system (r, z) is used with boundary-layer theory. Results are obtained for various values of Reynolds number, Womersley number, Forchsheimer number, particle aspect ratio and shape factor. Numerical computation is done by using finite difference scheme for very fine mesh in MATLAB. It is found that the overall air velocity is significantly increased by changes in aerodynamic diameter, aspect ratio, alveoli size, Reynolds number and the pulse rate; while velocity is decreased by increasing Forchheimer number.

Keywords: deposition, interstitial lung diseases, non-Darcian medium, numerical simulation, shape factor

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3614 Effect of Alkalinity of Water on the Aggregation of Colloidal Silver Nanoparticles

Authors: Fedda Y. Alzoubi, Ihsan A. Aljarrah


Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are one of the most vital and fascinating nanomaterials among several metallic nanoparticles that are involved in different applications, especially in biomedical applications. Samples of different alkaline water were prepared in order to study the effect of alkalinity of water on the optical properties, size, and morphology of colloidal AgNPs prepared according to the chemical reduction method using the prepared water samples. Ultraviolet-Visible spectrophotometer, Zeta-sizer, and Scanning electron microscope (SEM) have been utilized to carry out this study. Absorption spectra AgNPs in different alkaline water show a surface Plasmon resonance (SPR) peak at the wavelength of 420 nm. The position of this peak is sensitive to the shape of the particles, and in our case, it indicates that the particles are spherical. As the alkalinity increases, the intensity of the SPR peak decreases, indicating the aggregation of particles. Zeta-sizer measurements show that the average diameter for AgNPs in pure water is found to be 53.51 nm, and this value increases as the alkalinity increases. Zeta potential values of samples show that the negatively coated particles are stable in the solution. SEM images insure the spherical shape of the prepared nanoparticles and show that as the alkalinity increases the particles aggregate into larger particles.

Keywords: aggregation, alkalinity, colloid, nanoparticle

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3613 Surface Coating of Polyester Fabrics by Sol Gel Synthesized ZnO Particles

Authors: Merve Küçük, M. Lütfi Öveçoğlu


Zinc oxide particles were synthesized using the sol-gel method and dip coated on polyester fabric. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed a single crystal phase of ZnO particles. Chemical characteristics of the polyester fabric surface were investigated using attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) measurements. Morphology of ZnO coated fabric was analyzed using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). After particle analysis, the aqueous ZnO solution resulted in a narrow size distribution at submicron levels. The deposit of ZnO on polyester fabrics yielded a homogeneous spread of spherical particles. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) results also affirmed the presence of ZnO particles on the polyester fabrics.

Keywords: dip coating, polyester fabrics, sol gel, zinc oxide

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3612 The Spherical Geometric Model of Absorbed Particles: Application to the Electron Transport Study

Authors: A. Bentabet, A. Aydin, N. Fenineche


The mean penetration depth has a most important in the absorption transport phenomena. Analytical model of light ion backscattering coefficients from solid targets have been made by Vicanek and Urbassek. In the present work, we showed a mathematical expression (deterministic model) for Z1/2. In advantage, in the best of our knowledge, relatively only one analytical model exit for electron or positron mean penetration depth in solid targets. In this work, we have presented a simple geometric spherical model of absorbed particles based on CSDA scheme. In advantage, we have showed an analytical expression of the mean penetration depth by combination between our model and the Vicanek and Urbassek theory. For this, we have used the Relativistic Partial Wave Expansion Method (RPWEM) and the optical dielectric model to calculate the elastic cross sections and the ranges respectively. Good agreement was found with the experimental and theoretical data.

Keywords: Bentabet spherical geometric model, continuous slowing down approximation, stopping powers, ranges, mean penetration depth

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3611 Preparation of Cupric Oxides Nanoparticles for Antibacterial Applications

Authors: Yong-Cin Chen, Meng-Jiy Wang


This study reports to prepare cuprous oxide (Cu2O) particles with different dimension and shape for evaluating the antibacterial applications. In the preparation of Cu2O, the surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), was used as templates to modulate the size of the prepared Cu2O particles. Furthermore, ammonia water was used for adjusting the pH environment that four different shapes of particles including cubic, spherical, octahedral, and star-like Cu2O were synthesized. The physical characteristics of Cu2O particles were evaluated by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV/VIS spectrophotometer, and zeta potential meter/particle size analyzer (ZetaPALS). The resistance to bacteria was investigated against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) by applying the synthesized Cu2O particles that the qualitative analyses were facilitated by measuring the inhibition zone on Agar plate.

Keywords: copper oxide, cupric oxide, nanoparticles, antibacetrial

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3610 Different Methods of Fe3O4 Nano Particles Synthesis

Authors: Arezoo Hakimi, Afshin Farahbakhsh


Herein, we comparison synthesized Fe3O4 using, hydrothermal method, Mechanochemical processes and solvent thermal method. The Hydrothermal Technique has been the most popular one, gathering interest from scientists and technologists of different disciplines, particularly in the last fifteen years. In the hydrothermal method Fe3O4 microspheres, in which many nearly monodisperse spherical particles with diameters of about 400nm, in the mechanochemical method regular morphology indicates that the particles are well crystallized and in the solvent thermal method Fe3O4 nanoparticles have good properties of uniform size and good dispersion.

Keywords: Fe3O4 nanoparticles, hydrothermal method, mechanochemical processes, solvent thermal method

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3609 Objects Tracking in Catadioptric Images Using Spherical Snake

Authors: Khald Anisse, Amina Radgui, Mohammed Rziza


Tracking objects on video sequences is a very challenging task in many works in computer vision applications. However, there is no article that treats this topic in catadioptric vision. This paper is an attempt that tries to describe a new approach of omnidirectional images processing based on inverse stereographic projection in the half-sphere. We used the spherical model proposed by Gayer and al. For object tracking, our work is based on snake method, with optimization using the Greedy algorithm, by adapting its different operators. The algorithm will respect the deformed geometries of omnidirectional images such as spherical neighborhood, spherical gradient and reformulation of optimization algorithm on the spherical domain. This tracking method that we call "spherical snake" permitted to know the change of the shape and the size of object in different replacements in the spherical image.

Keywords: computer vision, spherical snake, omnidirectional image, object tracking, inverse stereographic projection

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3608 Characterization of Atmospheric Aerosols by SEM-EDX in a Rural-Continental Environment: A Seasonal Approach

Authors: Parminder Kaur, Anirban Guha


The vital information on the morphology and composition of the atmospheric aerosols over any region is critical to understanding their climatic and health effects. This study aims at the physicochemical characteristics of atmospheric aerosols at a rural continental site in northeastern India. We collected the aerosol samples from January to December and applied a seasonal approach to investigate the physicochemical properties of aerosol particles. We have used a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to examine the morphology of particles that includes shape, size, and structure information. Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) is used to investigate the elemental composition information. By using the SEM-EDX, we have seen a variation in the morphology of particles and elemental composition from season to season. We have found different particle shapes vary from regular to irregular, including spherical, nearly spherical, triangular, capsule-like, and platy shapes. We have seen various clusters of particles like chain-like structures, porous textures, soot structures, and irregular structures. We have found a size range of particles with a diameter ranging from 0.1 nm to 30 µm. We have found common elements and the significant contribution of elements C, Si, O, and B throughout the year. We have noticed the presence of crustal origin and carbonaceous particles dominating the study region. The maximum presence/counts detected in analyzed samples are from C and then B. We have observed a distinct seasonal variation in the amount of different elements. A small contribution by sea salt origin elements is noticed during the pre, monsoon, and post-monsoon seasons when winds flow from the seaside to the study location. This is supported by our air mass back trajectory results.

Keywords: atmospheric aerosols, SEM-EDX, morphology, composition

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3607 Numerical Simulation of Flow and Particle Motion in Liquid – Solid Hydrocyclone

Authors: Seyed Roozbeh Pishva, Alireza Aboudi Asl


In this investigation a hydrocyclone by using for separation particles from fluid in oil and gas, mining and other industries is simulated. Case study is cone – cylindrical and solid - liquid hydrocyclone. The fluid is water and the solid is a type of silis having diameters of 53, 75, 106, 150, 212, 250, and 300 micron. In this investigation CFD method used for analysis flow and movement of particles in hydrocyclone. In this modeling flow is three-dimention, turbulence and RSM model have been used for solving. Particles are three dimensional, spherical and non rotating and for tracking them Lagrangian model is used. The results of this study in addition to analyzing flowfield, obtaining efficiency of hydrocyclone in 5, 7, 12, and 15 percent concentrations and compare them with experimental result that both of them had suitable agreement with each other.

Keywords: hydrocyclone, RSM Model, CFD, copper industry

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3606 Computer Simulation to Investigate Magnetic and Wave-Absorbing Properties of Iron Nanoparticles

Authors: Chuan-Wen Liu, Min-Hsien Liu, Chung-Chieh Tai, Bing-Cheng Kuo, Cheng-Lung Chen, Huazhen Shen


A recent surge in research on magnetic radar absorbing materials (RAMs) has presented researchers with new opportunities and challenges. This study was performed to gain a better understanding of the wave-absorbing phenomenon of magnetic RAMs. First, we hypothesized that the absorbing phenomenon is dependent on the particle shape. Using the Material Studio program and the micro-dot magnetic dipoles (MDMD) method, we obtained results from magnetic RAMs to support this hypothesis. The total MDMD energy of disk-like iron particles was greater than that of spherical iron particles. In addition, the particulate aggregation phenomenon decreases the wave-absorbance, according to both experiments and computational data. To conclude, this study may be of importance in terms of explaining the wave- absorbing characteristic of magnetic RAMs. Combining molecular dynamics simulation results and the theory of magnetization of magnetic dots, we investigated the magnetic properties of iron materials with different particle shapes and degrees of aggregation under external magnetic fields. The MDMD of the materials under magnetic fields of various strengths were simulated. Our results suggested that disk-like iron particles had a better magnetization than spherical iron particles. This result could be correlated with the magnetic wave- absorbing property of iron material.

Keywords: wave-absorbing property, magnetic material, micro-dot magnetic dipole, particulate aggregation

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3605 Evaluation of Particle Settling in Flow Chamber

Authors: Abdulrahman Alenezi, B. Stefan


Abstract— The investigation of fluids containing particles or filaments includes a category of complex fluids and is vital in both theory and application. The forecast of particle behaviors plays a significant role in the existing technology as well as future technology. This paper focuses on the prediction of the particle behavior through the investigation of the particle disentrainment from a pipe on a horizontal air stream. This allows for examining the influence of the particle physical properties on its behavior when falling on horizontal air stream. This investigation was conducted on a device located at the University of Greenwich's Medway Campus. Two materials were selected to carry out this study: Salt and Glass Beads particles. The shape of the Slat particles is cubic where the shape of the Glass Beads is almost spherical. The outcome from the experimental work were presented in terms of distance travelled by the particles according to their diameters as After that, the particles sizes were measured using Laser Diffraction device and used to determine the drag coefficient and the settling velocity.

Keywords: flow experiment, drag coefficient, Particle Settling, Flow Chamber

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3604 Synthesis of Silver Powders Destined for Conductive Paste Metallization of Solar Cells Using Butyl-Carbitol and Butyl-Carbitol Acetate Chemical Reduction

Authors: N. Moudir, N. Moulai-Mostefa, Y. Boukennous, I. Bozetine, N. Kamel, D. Moudir


the study focuses on a novel process of silver powders synthesis for the preparation of conductive pastes used for solar cells metalization. Butyl-Carbitol and butyl-carbitol Acetate have been used as solvents and reducing agents of silver nitrate (AgNO3) as precursor to get silver powders. XRD characterization revealed silver powders with a cubic crystal system. SEM micro graphs showed spherical morphology of the particles. Laser granulometer gives similar particles distribution for the two agents. Using same glass frit and organic vehicle for comparative purposes, two conductive pastes were prepared with the synthesized silver powders for the front-side metalization of multi-crystalline cells. The pastes provided acceptable fill factor of 59.5 % and 60.8 % respectively.

Keywords: chemical reduction, conductive paste, silver nitrate, solar cell

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3603 Effect of Aging Time on CeO2 Nanoparticle Size Distribution Synthesized via Sol-Gel Method

Authors: Navid Zanganeh, Hafez Balavi, Farbod Sharif, Mahla Zabet, Marzieh Bakhtiary Noodeh


Cerium oxide (CeO2) also known as cerium dioxide or ceria is a pale yellow-white powder with various applications in the industry from wood coating to cosmetics, filtration, fuel cell electrolytes, gas sensors, hybrid solar cells and catalysts. In this research, attempts were made to synthesize and characterization of CeO2 nano-particles via sol-gel method. In addition, the effect of aging time on the size of particles was investigated. For this purpose, the aging times adjusted 48, 56, 64, and 72 min. The obtained particles were characterized by x-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmitted electron microscopy (TEM), and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET). As a result, XRD patterns confirmed the formation of CeO2 nanoparticles. SEM and TEM images illustrated the nano-particles with cluster shape, spherical and a nano-size range which was in agreement with XRD results. The finest particles (7.3 nm) was obtained at the optimum condition which was aging time of 48 min, calcination temperature at 400 ⁰C, and cerium concentration of 0.004 mol. Average specific surface area of the particles at optimum condition was measured by BET analysis and recorded as 47.57 m2/g.

Keywords: aging time, CeO2 nanoparticles, size distribution, sol-gel

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3602 Design of Jumping Structure of Spherical Robot Based on Archimedes' Helix

Authors: Zhang Zijian


Nowadays, spherical robots have played an important role in many fields, but the insufficient ability of obstacle surmounting limits their wider application fields. To solve this problem, a jumping system of a spherical robot is designed based on Archimedes helix. The jumping system of the robot utilizes the characteristics of Archimedes helix and isovelocity helix to achieve constant speed and stable contraction, which ensures the stability of the system. Also, the jumping action of the robot is realized by instantaneous release of elastic potential energy. In order to verify the effectiveness of the jumping system, we designed a spherical robot and its jumping system. The experimental results show that the jumping system has the advantages of light weight, small size, high energy conversion efficiency, and can realize the spherical jumping function.

Keywords: hopping mechanism, Archimedes' Helix, hopping robot, spherical robot

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3601 An Optimized Method for 3D Magnetic Navigation of Nanoparticles inside Human Arteries

Authors: Evangelos G. Karvelas, Christos Liosis, Andreas Theodorakakos, Theodoros E. Karakasidis


In the present work, a numerical method for the estimation of the appropriate gradient magnetic fields for optimum driving of the particles into the desired area inside the human body is presented. The proposed method combines Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), Discrete Element Method (DEM) and Covariance Matrix Adaptation (CMA) evolution strategy for the magnetic navigation of nanoparticles. It is based on an iteration procedure that intents to eliminate the deviation of the nanoparticles from a desired path. Hence, the gradient magnetic field is constantly adjusted in a suitable way so that the particles’ follow as close as possible to a desired trajectory. Using the proposed method, it is obvious that the diameter of particles is crucial parameter for an efficient navigation. In addition, increase of particles' diameter decreases their deviation from the desired path. Moreover, the navigation method can navigate nanoparticles into the desired areas with efficiency approximately 99%.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, CFD, covariance matrix adaptation evolution strategy, discrete element method, DEM, magnetic navigation, spherical particles

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3600 Production of Spherical Cementite within Bainitic Matrix Microstructures in High Carbon Powder Metallurgy Steels

Authors: O. Altuntaş, A. Güral


The hardness-microstructure relationships of spherical cementite in bainitic matrix obtained by a different heat treatment cycles carried out to high carbon powder metallurgy (P/M) steel were investigated. For this purpose, 1.5 wt.% natural graphite powder admixed in atomized iron powders and the mixed powders were compacted under 700 MPa at room temperature and then sintered at 1150 °C under a protective argon gas atmosphere. The densities of the green and sintered samples were measured via the Archimedes method. A density of 7.4 g/cm3 was obtained after sintering and a density of 94% was achieved. The sintered specimens having primary cementite plus lamellar pearlitic structures were fully quenched from 950 °C temperature and then over-tempered at 705 °C temperature for 60 minutes to produce spherical-fine cementite particles in the ferritic matrix. After by this treatment, these samples annealed at 735 °C temperature for 3 minutes were austempered at 300 °C salt bath for a period of 1 to 5 hours. As a result of this process, it could be able to produced spherical cementite particle in the bainitic matrix. This microstructure was designed to improve wear and toughness of P/M steels. The microstructures were characterized and analyzed by SEM and micro and macro hardness.

Keywords: powder metallurgy steel, bainite, cementite, austempering and spheroidization heat treatment

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3599 Effect of Filler Size and Shape on Positive Temperature Coefficient Effect

Authors: Eric Asare, Jamie Evans, Mark Newton, Emiliano Bilotti


Two types of filler shapes (sphere and flakes) and three different sizes are employed to study the size effect on PTC. The composite is prepared using a mini-extruder with high-density polyethylene (HDPE) as the matrix. A computer modelling is used to fit the experimental results. The percolation threshold decreases with decreasing filler size and this was observed for both the spherical particles as well as the flakes. This was caused by the decrease in interparticle distance with decreasing filler size. The 100 µm particles showed a larger PTC intensity compared to the 5 µm particles for the metal coated glass sphere and flake. The small particles have a large surface area and agglomeration and this makes it difficult for the conductive network to e disturbed. Increasing the filler content decreased the PTC intensity and this is due to an increase in the conductive network within the polymer matrix hence more energy is needed to disrupt the network.

Keywords: positive temperature coefficient (PTC) effect, conductive polymer composite (CPC), electrical conductivity

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3598 Innovative Design of Spherical Robot with Hydraulic Actuator

Authors: Roya Khajepour, Alireza B. Novinzadeh


In this paper, the spherical robot is modeled using the Band-Graph approach. This breed of robots is typically employed in expedition missions to unknown territories. Its motion mechanism is based on convection of a fluid in a set of three donut vessels, arranged orthogonally in space. This robot is a non-linear, non-holonomic system. This paper utilizes the Band-Graph technique to derive the torque generation mechanism in a spherical robot. Eventually, this paper describes the motion of a sphere due to the exerted torque components.

Keywords: spherical robot, Band-Graph, modeling, torque

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3597 Studies on Organic and Inorganic Micro/Nano Particle Reinforced Epoxy Composites

Authors: Daniel Karthik, Vijay Baheti, Jiri Militky, Sundaramurthy Palanisamy


Fibre based nano particles are presently considered as one of the potential filler materials for the improvement of mechanical and physical properties of polymer composites. Due to high matrix-filler interfacial area there will be uniform and homogeneous dispersion of nanoparticles. In micro/nano filler reinforced composites, resin material is usually tailored by organic or inorganic nanoparticles to have improved matrix properties. The objective of this study was to compare the potential of reinforcement of different organic and inorganic micro/nano fillers in epoxy composites. Industrial and agricultural waste of fibres like Agave Americana, cornhusk, jute, basalt, carbon, glass and fly ash was utilized to prepare micro/nano particles. Micro/nano particles were obtained using high energy planetary ball milling process in dry condition. Milling time and ball size were kept constant throughout the ball milling process. Composites were fabricated by hand lay method. Particle loading was kept constant to 3% wt. for all composites. In present study, loading of fillers was selected as 3 wt. % for all composites. Dynamic mechanical properties of the nanocomposite films were performed in three-point bending mode with gauge length and sample width of 50 mm and 10 mm respectively. The samples were subjected to an oscillating frequency of 1 Hz, 5 Hz and 10 Hz and 100 % oscillating amplitude in the temperature ranges of 30°C to 150°C at the heating rate of 3°C/min. Damping was found to be higher with the jute composites. Amongst organic fillers lowest damping factor was observed with Agave Americana particles, this means that Agave americana fibre particles have betters interface adhesion with epoxy resin. Basalt, fly ash and glass particles have almost similar damping factors confirming better interface adhesion with epoxy.

Keywords: ball milling, damping factor, matrix-filler interface, particle reinforcements

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3596 Microplastic Storages in Riverbed Sediments: Experimental on the Settling Process and Its Deposits

Authors: Alvarez Barrantes, Robert Dorrell, Christopher Hackney, Anne Baar, Roberto Fernandez, Daniel Parsons


Microplastic particles entering fluvial environments are deposited with natural sediments. Their settling properties can change by the absorption or adsorption of contaminants, organic matter, and organisms. These deposits include positively, neutrally, and negatively buoyant particles. This study aims to understand how plastic particles of different densities interact with natural sediments as they settle and how they are stored within the sediment deposit. The results of this study contribute to a better understanding of the deposition of microplastic particles and associated pollution in rivers. A set of 48 experiments was designed to investigate the settling process of microplastic particles in freshwater. The experimental work describes the vertical variation of cohesive and/or non-cohesive sediment versus microplastic densities in deposited sediment. The experiment consisted of adding microplastic particles, sediment, and water in a waterproof carton tube of a height of 24 cm and a diameter of 5 cm. The plastic selected is positively, neutrally, and negatively buoyant. The sediments consist of sand and clay with four different concentrations. The mixture of materials was shaken until is thoroughly mixed and left to settle for 24 hours. After the settlement, the tubes were frozen at -20 °C to be able to cut them and measure the thickness of the deposits and analyze the sediment and plastic distribution. The most representative experiments were repeated in a glass tube of the same size; to analyse the influences of current flows and depositional process. Finally, the glass tube experiments were used to study organic materials adsorption in plastic, settling the sample for four months. Defined microplastic layers were identified as the density of the plastic change. Preliminary results show that most of the positive buoyancy particles floated, neutral buoyancy particles form a layer above the sediment and negative buoyancy particles mixed with the sediment. The vertical grain size distribution of the deposits was analysed to determine deposition variation with and without plastic. It is expected that the positively buoyant particles are trapped in the sediment by the currents flows and sink due to organic material adsorption. Finally, the experiments will explain how microplastic particles, including positively buoyant ones, are stored in natural sediment deposits.

Keywords: microplastic adsorption process, microplastic deposition in natural sediment, microplastic pollution in rivers, storages of positive buoyancy microplastic particles

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3595 Tungsten-Based Powders Produced in Plasma Systems

Authors: Andrey V. Samokhin, Nikolay V. Alekseev, Mikhail A. Sinaiskii


The report presents the results of R&D of plasma-chemical production of W, W-Cu, W-Ni-Fe nanopowders as well as spherical micropowders of these compounds for their use in modern 3D printing technologies. Plasma-chemical synthesis of nanopowdersis based on the reduction of tungsten oxide compounds powders in a stream of hydrogen-containing low-temperature thermal plasma generated in an electric arc plasma torch. The synthesis of W-Cu and W-Ni-Fe nanocompositesiscarried out using the reduction of a mixture of the metal oxides. Using the synthesized tungsten-based nanocomposites powders, spherical composite micropowders with a submicron structure canbe manufactured by spray dryinggranulation of nanopowder suspension and subsequent densification and spheroidization of granules by melting in a low-temperature thermal plasma flow. The DC arc plasma systems are usedfor the synthesis of nanopowdersas well as for the spheroidization of microgranuls. Plasma systems have a capacity of up to 1 kg/h for nanopowder and up to 5 kg/h for spheroidized powder. All synthesized nanopowders consist of aggregated particles with sizes less than 100 nm, and nanoparticles of W-Cu and W-Ni-Fe composites have core (W) –shell (Cu or Ni-Fe) structures. The resulting dense spherical microparticles with a size of 20-60 microns have a submicron structure with a uniform distribution of metals over the particle volume. The produced tungsten-based nano- and spherical micropowderscan be used to develop new materials and manufacture products using advanced modern technologies.

Keywords: plasma, powders, production, tungsten-based

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3594 Gimbal Structure for the Design of 3D Flywheel System

Authors: Cheng-En Tsai, Chung-Chun Hsiao, Fu-Yuan Chang, Liang-Lun Lan, Jia-Ying Tu


New design of three dimensional (3D) flywheel system based on gimbal and gyro mechanics is proposed. The 3D flywheel device utilizes the rotational motion of three spherical shells and the conservation of angular momentum to achieve planar locomotion. Actuators mounted to the ring-shape frames are installed within the system to drive the spherical shells to rotate, for the purpose of steering and stabilization. Similar to the design of 2D flywheel system, it is expected that the spherical shells may function like a “flyball” to store and supply mechanical energy; additionally, in comparison with typical single-wheel and spherical robots, the 3D flywheel can be used for developing omnidirectional robotic systems with better mobility. The Lagrangian method is applied to derive the equation of motion of the 3D flywheel system, and simulation studies are presented to verify the proposed design.

Keywords: Gimbal, spherical robot, gyroscope, Lagrangian formulation, flyball

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3593 Modeling Bessel Beams and Their Discrete Superpositions from the Generalized Lorenz-Mie Theory to Calculate Optical Forces over Spherical Dielectric Particles

Authors: Leonardo A. Ambrosio, Carlos. H. Silva Santos, Ivan E. L. Rodrigues, Ayumi K. de Campos, Leandro A. Machado


In this work, we propose an algorithm developed under Python language for the modeling of ordinary scalar Bessel beams and their discrete superpositions and subsequent calculation of optical forces exerted over dielectric spherical particles. The mathematical formalism, based on the generalized Lorenz-Mie theory, is implemented in Python for its large number of free mathematical (as SciPy and NumPy), data visualization (Matplotlib and PyJamas) and multiprocessing libraries. We also propose an approach, provided by a synchronized Software as Service (SaaS) in cloud computing, to develop a user interface embedded on a mobile application, thus providing users with the necessary means to easily introduce desired unknowns and parameters and see the graphical outcomes of the simulations right at their mobile devices. Initially proposed as a free Android-based application, such an App enables data post-processing in cloud-based architectures and visualization of results, figures and numerical tables.

Keywords: Bessel Beams and Frozen Waves, Generalized Lorenz-Mie Theory, Numerical Methods, optical forces

Procedia PDF Downloads 309
3592 Organic Rejection and Membrane Fouling with Inorganic Alumina Membrane for Industrial Wastewater Treatment

Authors: Rizwan Ahmad, Soomin Chang, Daeun Kwon, Jeonghwan Kim


Interests in an inorganic membrane are growing rapidly for industrial wastewater treatment due to its excellent chemical and thermal stability over polymeric membrane. Nevertheless, understanding of the membrane rejection and fouling rate caused by the deposit of contaminants on membrane surface and within membrane pores through inorganic porous membranes still requires much attention. Microfiltration alumina membranes were developed and applied for the industrial wastewater treatment to investigate rejection efficiency of organic contaminant and membrane fouling at various operational conditions. In this study, organic rejection and membrane fouling were investigated by using the alumina flat-tubular membrane developed for the treatment of industrial wastewaters. The flat-tubular alumina membranes were immersed in a fluidized membrane reactor added with granular activated carbon (GAC) particles. Fluidization was driven by recirculating a bulk industrial wastewater along membrane surface through the reactor. In the absence of GAC particles, for hazardous anionic dye contaminants, functional group characterized by the organic contaminant was found as one of the main factors affecting both membrane rejection and fouling rate. More fouling on the membrane surface led to the existence of dipolar characterizations and this was more pronounced at lower solution pH, thereby improving membrane rejection accordingly. Similar result was observed with a real metal-plating wastewater. Strong correlation was found that higher fouling rate resulted in higher organic rejection efficiency. Hydrophilicity exhibited by alumina membrane improved the organic rejection efficiency of the membrane due to the formation of hydrophilic fouling layer deposited on it. In addition, less surface roughness of alumina membrane resulted in less fouling rate. Regardless of the operational conditions applied in this study, fluidizing the GAC particles along the surface of alumina membrane was very effective to enhance organic removal efficiency higher than 95% and provide an excellent tool to reduce membrane fouling. Less than 0.1 bar as suction pressure was maintained with the alumina membrane at 25 L/m²hr of permeate set-point flux during the whole operational periods without performing any backwashing and chemical enhanced cleaning for the membrane.

Keywords: alumina membrane, fluidized membrane reactor, industrial wastewater, membrane fouling, rejection

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
3591 Ferro-Substituted Silicate Calcium Materials, a Novel Bio-Ceramic Using Hyperthermia for Bone Cancer Therapy

Authors: Hassan Gheisari


Ferro silicate calcium nano particles are prepared through the sol-gel method using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a chelating agent. The powder as prepared is annealed at three different temperatures (900 ºC, 1000 ºC and 1100 ºC) for 3 h. The XRD patterns of the samples indicate broad peaks and the full width at half maximum decreased with increasing annealing temperature. FTIR spectra of the samples confirm the presence of metal - oxygen complexes within the structure. The average particle size obtained from PSA curve demonstrates ultrafine particles. SEM micrographs indicate the particles synthesized have spherical morphology. The saturation magnetization (Ms) and remnant magnetization (Mr) of the samples show dependence on particle size and crystallinity of the samples. The highest saturation magnetization is achieved for the sample annealed at 1100 ºC having maximum average particle size. The high saturation magnetization of the samples suggests the present method is suitable for obtaining nano particles magnetic ferro bioceramic which is desirable for practical applications such as hyperthermia bone cancer therapy.

Keywords: hyperthermia, bone cancer, bio ceramic, magnetic materials, sol– gel, silicate calcium

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
3590 Trions in Semiconductor Quantum Dot System

Authors: Jayden Leonard, Nguyen Que Huong


In this work, we study the Trion state in a spherical quantum dot of a direct band gap semiconductor with a shell of organic material. The electronic structure of the Trion due to degenerate valence band will be considered. The coupling between the wannier exciton inside the dot and the Frenkel exciton in the shell will make the Trion state become hybrid. The competition between “semiconductor” and “organic” phases of the Trion and the transitions between them depend on Parameters of the system such as the materials, the size of the dot and the thickness of the shell, etc… and could be manipulated using those parameters.

Keywords: trion, exciton, quantum dot, heterostructure

Procedia PDF Downloads 97
3589 Microscopic Visualization of the Ice Slurry Ice Particles

Authors: Juan José Milón Guzmán, Herbert Jesús Del Carpio Beltrán, Sergio Leal Braga


Visualizations of ice particles of ice slurry are performed. The form and size of ice particles is investigated by optical microscopy. It permits to evaluate statistically the geometrical shapes of the ice crystals. The observed particle size corresponds with the different solutes (sugar, salt, propylene glycol).

Keywords: ice slurry, visualization, ice particles, solutes

Procedia PDF Downloads 277