Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 172

Search results for: signature

172 Application of Signature Verification Models for Document Recognition

Authors: Boris M. Fedorov, Liudmila P. Goncharenko, Sergey A. Sybachin, Natalia A. Mamedova, Ekaterina V. Makarenkova, Saule Rakhimova


In modern economic conditions, the question of the possibility of correct recognition of a signature on digital documents in order to verify the expression of will or confirm a certain operation is relevant. The additional complexity of processing lies in the dynamic variability of the signature for each individual, as well as in the way information is processed because the signature refers to biometric data. The article discusses the issues of using artificial intelligence models in order to improve the quality of signature confirmation in document recognition. The analysis of several possible options for using the model is carried out. The results of the study are given, in which it is possible to correctly determine the authenticity of the signature on small samples.

Keywords: signature recognition, biometric data, artificial intelligence, neural networks

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171 Abnormal Features of Two Quasiparticle Rotational Bands in Rare Earths

Authors: Kawalpreet Kalra, Alpana Goel


The behaviour of the rotational bands should be smooth but due to large amount of inertia and decreased pairing it is not so. Many experiments have been done in the last few decades, and a large amount of data is available for comprehensive study in this region. Peculiar features like signature dependence, signature inversion, and signature reversal are observed in many two quasiparticle rotational bands of doubly odd and doubly even nuclei. At high rotational frequencies, signature and parity are the only two good quantum numbers available to label a state. Signature quantum number is denoted by α. Even-angular momentum states of a rotational band have α =0, and the odd-angular momentum states have α =1. It has been observed that the odd-spin members lie lower in energy up to a certain spin Ic; the normal signature dependence is restored afterwards. This anomalous feature is termed as signature inversion. The systematic of signature inversion in high-j orbitals for doubly odd rare earth nuclei have been done. Many unusual features like signature dependence, signature inversion and signature reversal are observed in rotational bands of even-even/odd-odd nuclei. Attempts have been made to understand these phenomena using several models. These features have been analyzed within the framework of the Two Quasiparticle Plus Rotor Model (TQPRM).

Keywords: rotational bands, signature dependence, signature quantum number, two quasiparticle

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170 Offline Signature Verification in Punjabi Based On SURF Features and Critical Point Matching Using HMM

Authors: Rajpal Kaur, Pooja Choudhary


Biometrics, which refers to identifying an individual based on his or her physiological or behavioral characteristics, has the capabilities to the reliably distinguish between an authorized person and an imposter. The Signature recognition systems can categorized as offline (static) and online (dynamic). This paper presents Surf Feature based recognition of offline signatures system that is trained with low-resolution scanned signature images. The signature of a person is an important biometric attribute of a human being which can be used to authenticate human identity. However the signatures of human can be handled as an image and recognized using computer vision and HMM techniques. With modern computers, there is need to develop fast algorithms for signature recognition. There are multiple techniques are defined to signature recognition with a lot of scope of research. In this paper, (static signature) off-line signature recognition & verification using surf feature with HMM is proposed, where the signature is captured and presented to the user in an image format. Signatures are verified depended on parameters extracted from the signature using various image processing techniques. The Off-line Signature Verification and Recognition is implemented using Mat lab platform. This work has been analyzed or tested and found suitable for its purpose or result. The proposed method performs better than the other recently proposed methods.

Keywords: offline signature verification, offline signature recognition, signatures, SURF features, HMM

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169 Rounding Technique's Application in Schnorr Signature Algorithm: Known Partially Most Significant Bits of Nonce

Authors: Wenjie Qin, Kewei Lv


In 1996, Boneh and Venkatesan proposed the Hidden Number Problem (HNP) and proved the most significant bits (MSB) of computational Diffie-Hellman key exchange scheme and related schemes are unpredictable bits. They also gave a method which is a lattice rounding technique to solve HNP in non-uniform model. In this paper, we put forward a new concept that is Schnorr-MSB-HNP. We also reduce the problem of solving Schnorr signature private key with a few consecutive most significant bits of random nonce (used at each signature generation) to Schnorr-MSB-HNP, then we use the rounding technique to solve the Schnorr-MSB-HNP. We have come to the conclusion that if there is a ‘miraculous box’ which inputs the random nonce and outputs 2loglogq (q is a prime number) most significant bits of nonce, the signature private key will be obtained by choosing 2logq signature messages randomly. Thus we get an attack on the Schnorr signature private key.

Keywords: rounding technique, most significant bits, Schnorr signature algorithm, nonce, Schnorr-MSB-HNP

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
168 Offline Signature Verification Using Minutiae and Curvature Orientation

Authors: Khaled Nagaty, Heba Nagaty, Gerard McKee


A signature is a behavioral biometric that is used for authenticating users in most financial and legal transactions. Signatures can be easily forged by skilled forgers. Therefore, it is essential to verify whether a signature is genuine or forged. The aim of any signature verification algorithm is to accommodate the differences between signatures of the same person and increase the ability to discriminate between signatures of different persons. This work presented in this paper proposes an automatic signature verification system to indicate whether a signature is genuine or not. The system comprises four phases: (1) The pre-processing phase in which image scaling, binarization, image rotation, dilation, thinning, and connecting ridge breaks are applied. (2) The feature extraction phase in which global and local features are extracted. The local features are minutiae points, curvature orientation, and curve plateau. The global features are signature area, signature aspect ratio, and Hu moments. (3) The post-processing phase, in which false minutiae are removed. (4) The classification phase in which features are enhanced before feeding it into the classifier. k-nearest neighbors and support vector machines are used. The classifier was trained on a benchmark dataset to compare the performance of the proposed offline signature verification system against the state-of-the-art. The accuracy of the proposed system is 92.3%.

Keywords: signature, ridge breaks, minutiae, orientation

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167 Two Quasiparticle Rotor Model for Deformed Nuclei

Authors: Alpana Goel, Kawalpreet Kalra


The study of level structures of deformed nuclei is the most complex topic in nuclear physics. For the description of level structure, a simple model is good enough to bring out the basic features which may then be further refined. The low lying level structures of these nuclei can, therefore, be understood in terms of Two Quasiparticle plus axially symmetric Rotor Model (TQPRM). The formulation of TQPRM for deformed nuclei has been presented. The analysis of available experimental data on two quasiparticle rotational bands of deformed nuclei present unusual features like signature dependence, odd-even staggering, signature inversion and signature reversal in two quasiparticle rotational bands of deformed nuclei. These signature effects are well discussed within the framework of TQPRM. The model is well efficient in reproducing the large odd-even staggering and anomalous features observed in even-even and odd-odd deformed nuclei. The effect of particle-particle and the Coriolis coupling is well established from the model. Detailed description of the model with implications to deformed nuclei is presented in the paper.

Keywords: deformed nuclei, signature effects, signature inversion, signature reversal

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166 Signature Verification System for a Banking Business Process Management

Authors: A. Rahaf, S. Liyakathunsia


In today’s world, unprecedented operational pressure is faced by banks that test the efficiency, effectiveness, and agility of their business processes. In a typical banking process, a person’s authorization is usually based on his signature on most all of the transactions. Signature verification is considered as one of the highly significant information needed for any bank document processing. Banks usually use Signature Verification to authenticate the identity of individuals. In this paper, a business process model has been proposed in order to increase the quality of the verification process and to reduce time and needed resources. In order to understand the current process, a survey has been conducted and distributed among bank employees. After analyzing the survey, a process model has been created using Bizagi modeler which helps in simulating the process after assigning time and cost of it. The outcomes show that the automation of signature verification process is highly recommended for a banking business process.

Keywords: business process management, process modeling, quality, Signature Verification

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
165 Triangular Geometric Feature for Offline Signature Verification

Authors: Zuraidasahana Zulkarnain, Mohd Shafry Mohd Rahim, Nor Anita Fairos Ismail, Mohd Azhar M. Arsad


Handwritten signature is accepted widely as a biometric characteristic for personal authentication. The use of appropriate features plays an important role in determining accuracy of signature verification; therefore, this paper presents a feature based on the geometrical concept. To achieve the aim, triangle attributes are exploited to design a new feature since the triangle possesses orientation, angle and transformation that would improve accuracy. The proposed feature uses triangulation geometric set comprising of sides, angles and perimeter of a triangle which is derived from the center of gravity of a signature image. For classification purpose, Euclidean classifier along with Voting-based classifier is used to verify the tendency of forgery signature. This classification process is experimented using triangular geometric feature and selected global features. Based on an experiment that was validated using Grupo de Senales 960 (GPDS-960) signature database, the proposed triangular geometric feature achieves a lower Average Error Rates (AER) value with a percentage of 34% as compared to 43% of the selected global feature. As a conclusion, the proposed triangular geometric feature proves to be a more reliable feature for accurate signature verification.

Keywords: biometrics, euclidean classifier, features extraction, offline signature verification, voting-based classifier

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164 Secure Proxy Signature Based on Factoring and Discrete Logarithm

Authors: H. El-Kamchouchi, Heba Gaber, Fatma Ahmed, Dalia H. El-Kamchouchi


A digital signature is an electronic signature form used by an original signer to sign a specific document. When the original signer is not in his office or when he/she travels outside, he/she delegates his signing capability to a proxy signer and then the proxy signer generates a signing message on behalf of the original signer. The two parties must be able to authenticate one another and agree on a secret encryption key, in order to communicate securely over an unreliable public network. Authenticated key agreement protocols have an important role in building a secure communications network between the two parties. In this paper, we present a secure proxy signature scheme over an efficient and secure authenticated key agreement protocol based on factoring and discrete logarithm problem.

Keywords: discrete logarithm, factoring, proxy signature, key agreement

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163 Separating Permanent and Induced Magnetic Signature: A Simple Approach

Authors: O. J. G. Somsen, G. P. M. Wagemakers


Magnetic signature detection provides sensitive detection of metal objects, especially in the natural environment. Our group is developing a tabletop setup for magnetic signatures of various small and model objects. A particular issue is the separation of permanent and induced magnetization. While the latter depends only on the composition and shape of the object, the former also depends on the magnetization history. With common deperming techniques, a significant permanent signature may still remain, which confuses measurements of the induced component. We investigate a basic technique of separating the two. Measurements were done by moving the object along an aluminum rail while the three field components are recorded by a detector attached near the center. This is done first with the rail parallel to the Earth magnetic field and then with anti-parallel orientation. The reversal changes the sign of the induced- but not the permanent magnetization so that the two can be separated. Our preliminary results on a small iron block show excellent reproducibility. A considerable permanent magnetization was indeed present, resulting in a complex asymmetric signature. After separation, a much more symmetric induced signature was obtained that can be studied in detail and compared with theoretical calculations.

Keywords: magnetic signature, data analysis, magnetization, deperming techniques

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162 Examination of Forged Signatures Printed by Means of Fabrication in Terms of Their Relation to the Perpetrator

Authors: Salim Yaren, Nergis Canturk


Signatures are signs that are handwritten by person in order to confirm values such as information, amount, meaning, time and undertaking that bear on a document. It is understood that the signature of a document and the accuracy of the information on the signature is accepted and approved. Forged signatures are formed by forger without knowing and seeing original signature of person that forger will imitate and as a result of his/her effort for hiding typical characteristics of his/her own signatures. Forged signatures are often signed by starting with the initials of the first and last name or persons of the persons whose fake signature will be signed. The similarities in the signatures are completely random. Within the scope of the study, forged signatures are collected from 100 people both their original signatures and forged signatures signed referring to 5 imaginary people. These signatures are compared for 14 signature analyzing criteria by 2 signature analyzing experts except the researcher. 1 numbered analyzing expert who is 9 year experience in his/her field evaluated signatures of 39 (39%) people right and of 25 (25%) people wrong and he /she made any evaluations for signatures of 36 (36%) people. 2 numbered analyzing expert who is 16 year experienced in his/her field evaluated signatures of 49 (49%) people right and 28 (28%) people wrong and he /she made any evaluations for signatures of 23 (23%) people. Forged signatures that are signed by 24 (24%) people are matched by two analyzing experts properly, forged signatures that are signed by 8 (8%) people are matched wrongfully and made up signatures that are signed by 12 (12%) people couldn't be decided by both analyzing experts. Signatures analyzing is a subjective topic so that analyzing and comparisons take form according to education, knowledge and experience of the expert. Consequently, due to the fact that 39% success is achieved by analyzing expert who has 9 year professional experience and 49% success is achieved by analyzing expert who has 16 year professional experience, it is seen that success rate is directly proportionate to knowledge and experience of the expert.

Keywords: forensic signature, forensic signature analysis, signature analysis criteria, forged signature

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161 An Efficient Proxy Signature Scheme Over a Secure Communications Network

Authors: H. El-Kamchouchi, Heba Gaber, Fatma Ahmed, Dalia H. El-Kamchouchi


Proxy signature scheme permits an original signer to delegate his/her signing capability to a proxy signer, and then the proxy signer generates a signing message on behalf of the original signer. The two parties must be able to authenticate one another and agree on a secret encryption key, in order to communicate securely over an unreliable public network. Authenticated key agreement protocols have an important role in building secure communications network between the two parties. In this paper, we present a secure proxy signature scheme over an efficient and secure authenticated key agreement protocol based on the discrete logarithm problem.

Keywords: proxy signature, warrant partial delegation, key agreement, discrete logarithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
160 A Secure Digital Signature Scheme with Fault Tolerance Based on the Improved RSA System

Authors: H. El-Kamchouchi, Heba Gaber, Fatma Ahmed, Dalia H. El-Kamchouchi


Fault tolerance and data security are two important issues in modern communication systems. In this paper, we propose a secure and efficient digital signature scheme with fault tolerance based on the improved RSA system. The proposed scheme for the RSA cryptosystem contains three prime numbers and overcome several attacks possible on RSA. By using the Chinese Reminder Theorem (CRT) the proposed scheme has a speed improvement on the RSA decryption side and it provides high security also.

Keywords: digital signature, fault tolerance, RSA, security analysis

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159 Alternative Key Exchange Algorithm Based on Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm Certificate and Usage in Applications

Authors: A. Andreasyan, C. Connors


The Elliptic Curve Digital Signature algorithm-based X509v3 certificates are becoming more popular due to their short public and private key sizes. Moreover, these certificates can be stored in Internet of Things (IoT) devices, with limited resources, using less memory and transmitted in network security protocols, such as Internet Key Exchange (IKE), Transport Layer Security (TLS) and Secure Shell (SSH) with less bandwidth. The proposed method gives another advantage, in that it increases the performance of the above-mentioned protocols in terms of key exchange by saving one scalar multiplication operation.

Keywords: cryptography, elliptic curve digital signature algorithm, key exchange, network security protocol

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158 A New Approach to Predicting Physical Biometrics from Behavioural Biometrics

Authors: Raid R. O. Al-Nima, S. S. Dlay, W. L. Woo


A relationship between face and signature biometrics is established in this paper. A new approach is developed to predict faces from signatures by using artificial intelligence. A multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network is used to generate face details from features extracted from signatures, here face is the physical biometric and signatures is the behavioural biometric. The new method establishes a relationship between the two biometrics and regenerates a visible face image from the signature features. Furthermore, the performance efficiencies of our new technique are demonstrated in terms of minimum error rates compared to published work.

Keywords: behavioural biometric, face biometric, neural network, physical biometric, signature biometric

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157 Study of the S-Bend Intake Hammershock Based on Improved Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation

Authors: Qun-Feng Zhang, Pan-Pan Yan, Jun Li, Jun-Qing Lei


Numerical investigation of hammershock propagation in the S-bend intake caused by engine surge has been conducted by using Improved Delayed Detach-Eddy Simulation (IDDES). The effects of surge signatures on hammershock characteristics are obtained. It was shown that once the hammershock is produced, it moves upward to the intake entrance quickly with constant speed, however, the strength of hammershock keeps increasing. Meanwhile, being influenced by the centrifugal force, the hammershock strength on the larger radius side is much larger. Hammershock propagation speed and strength are sensitive to the ramp upgradient of surge signature. A larger ramp up gradient results in higher propagation speed and greater strength. Nevertheless, ramp down profile of surge signature have no obvious effect on the propagation speed and strength of hammershock. Increasing the maximum value of surge signature leads to enhance in the intensity of hammershock, they approximately match quadratic function distribution law.

Keywords: hammershock, IDDES, S-bend, surge signature

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156 Implementing Fault Tolerance with Proxy Signature on the Improvement of RSA System

Authors: H. El-Kamchouchi, Heba Gaber, Fatma Ahmed, Dalia H. El-Kamchouchi


Fault tolerance and data security are two important issues in modern communication systems. During the transmission of data between the sender and receiver, errors may occur frequently. Therefore, the sender must re-transmit the data to the receiver in order to correct these errors, which makes the system very feeble. To improve the scalability of the scheme, we present a proxy signature scheme with fault tolerance over an efficient and secure authenticated key agreement protocol based on the improved RSA system. Authenticated key agreement protocols have an important role in building a secure communications network between the two parties.

Keywords: fault tolerance, improved RSA, key agreement, proxy signature

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155 A Watermarking Signature Scheme with Hidden Watermarks and Constraint Functions in the Symmetric Key Setting

Authors: Yanmin Zhao, Siu Ming Yiu


To claim the ownership for an executable program is a non-trivial task. An emerging direction is to add a watermark to the program such that the watermarked program preserves the original program’s functionality and removing the watermark would heavily destroy the functionality of the watermarked program. In this paper, the first watermarking signature scheme with the watermark and the constraint function hidden in the symmetric key setting is constructed. The scheme uses well-known techniques of lattice trapdoors and a lattice evaluation. The watermarking signature scheme is unforgeable under the Short Integer Solution (SIS) assumption and satisfies other security requirements such as the unremovability security property.

Keywords: short integer solution (SIS) problem, symmetric-key setting, watermarking schemes, watermarked signatures

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154 A Secure Proxy Signature Scheme with Fault Tolerance Based on RSA System

Authors: H. El-Kamchouchi, Heba Gaber, Fatma Ahmed, Dalia H. El-Kamchouchi


Due to the rapid growth in modern communication systems, fault tolerance and data security are two important issues in a secure transaction. During the transmission of data between the sender and receiver, errors may occur frequently. Therefore, the sender must re-transmit the data to the receiver in order to correct these errors, which makes the system very feeble. To improve the scalability of the scheme, we present a secure proxy signature scheme with fault tolerance over an efficient and secure authenticated key agreement protocol based on RSA system. Authenticated key agreement protocols have an important role in building a secure communications network between the two parties.

Keywords: proxy signature, fault tolerance, rsa, key agreement protocol

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153 Intrusion Detection and Prevention System (IDPS) in Cloud Computing Using Anomaly-Based and Signature-Based Detection Techniques

Authors: John Onyima, Ikechukwu Ezepue


Virtualization and cloud computing are among the fast-growing computing innovations in recent times. Organisations all over the world are moving their computing services towards the cloud this is because of its rapid transformation of the organization’s infrastructure and improvement of efficient resource utilization and cost reduction. However, this technology brings new security threats and challenges about safety, reliability and data confidentiality. Evidently, no single security technique can guarantee security or protection against malicious attacks on a cloud computing network hence an integrated model of intrusion detection and prevention system has been proposed. Anomaly-based and signature-based detection techniques will be integrated to enable the network and its host defend themselves with some level of intelligence. The anomaly-base detection was implemented using the local deviation factor graph-based (LDFGB) algorithm while the signature-based detection was implemented using the snort algorithm. Results from this collaborative intrusion detection and prevention techniques show robust and efficient security architecture for cloud computing networks.

Keywords: anomaly-based detection, cloud computing, intrusion detection, intrusion prevention, signature-based detection

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152 Cryptographic Attack on Lucas Based Cryptosystems Using Chinese Remainder Theorem

Authors: Tze Jin Wong, Lee Feng Koo, Pang Hung Yiu


Lenstra’s attack uses Chinese remainder theorem as a tool and requires a faulty signature to be successful. This paper reports on the security responses of fourth and sixth order Lucas based (LUC4,6) cryptosystem under the Lenstra’s attack as compared to the other two Lucas based cryptosystems such as LUC and LUC3 cryptosystems. All the Lucas based cryptosystems were exposed mathematically to the Lenstra’s attack using Chinese Remainder Theorem and Dickson polynomial. Result shows that the possibility for successful Lenstra’s attack is less against LUC4,6 cryptosystem than LUC3 and LUC cryptosystems. Current study concludes that LUC4,6 cryptosystem is more secure than LUC and LUC3 cryptosystems in sustaining against Lenstra’s attack.

Keywords: Lucas sequence, Dickson polynomial, faulty signature, corresponding signature, congruence

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151 Calculation of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and the Spectral Signature of Coffee Crops: Benefits of Image Filtering on Mixed Crops

Authors: Catalina Albornoz, Giacomo Barbieri


Crop monitoring has shown to reduce vulnerability to spreading plagues and pathologies in crops. Remote sensing with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) has made crop monitoring more precise, cost-efficient and accessible. Nowadays, remote monitoring involves calculating maps of vegetation indices by using different software that takes either Truecolor (RGB) or multispectral images as an input. These maps are then used to segment the crop into management zones. Finally, knowing the spectral signature of a crop (the reflected radiation as a function of wavelength) can be used as an input for decision-making and crop characterization. The calculation of vegetation indices using software such as Pix4D has high precision for monoculture plantations. However, this paper shows that using this software on mixed crops may lead to errors resulting in an incorrect segmentation of the field. Within this work, authors propose to filter all the elements different from the main crop before the calculation of vegetation indices and the spectral signature. A filter based on the Sobel method for border detection is used for filtering a coffee crop. Results show that segmentation into management zones changes with respect to the traditional situation in which a filter is not applied. In particular, it is shown how the values of the spectral signature change in up to 17% per spectral band. Future work will quantify the benefits of filtering through the comparison between in situ measurements and the calculated vegetation indices obtained through remote sensing.

Keywords: coffee, filtering, mixed crop, precision agriculture, remote sensing, spectral signature

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150 Combination between Intrusion Systems and Honeypots

Authors: Majed Sanan, Mohammad Rammal, Wassim Rammal


Today, security is a major concern. Intrusion Detection, Prevention Systems and Honeypot can be used to moderate attacks. Many researchers have proposed to use many IDSs ((Intrusion Detection System) time to time. Some of these IDS’s combine their features of two or more IDSs which are called Hybrid Intrusion Detection Systems. Most of the researchers combine the features of Signature based detection methodology and Anomaly based detection methodology. For a signature based IDS, if an attacker attacks slowly and in organized way, the attack may go undetected through the IDS, as signatures include factors based on duration of the events but the actions of attacker do not match. Sometimes, for an unknown attack there is no signature updated or an attacker attack in the mean time when the database is updating. Thus, signature-based IDS fail to detect unknown attacks. Anomaly based IDS suffer from many false-positive readings. So there is a need to hybridize those IDS which can overcome the shortcomings of each other. In this paper we propose a new approach to IDS (Intrusion Detection System) which is more efficient than the traditional IDS (Intrusion Detection System). The IDS is based on Honeypot Technology and Anomaly based Detection Methodology. We have designed Architecture for the IDS in a packet tracer and then implemented it in real time. We have discussed experimental results performed: both the Honeypot and Anomaly based IDS have some shortcomings but if we hybridized these two technologies, the newly proposed Hybrid Intrusion Detection System (HIDS) is capable enough to overcome these shortcomings with much enhanced performance. In this paper, we present a modified Hybrid Intrusion Detection System (HIDS) that combines the positive features of two different detection methodologies - Honeypot methodology and anomaly based intrusion detection methodology. In the experiment, we ran both the Intrusion Detection System individually first and then together and recorded the data from time to time. From the data we can conclude that the resulting IDS are much better in detecting intrusions from the existing IDSs.

Keywords: security, intrusion detection, intrusion prevention, honeypot, anomaly-based detection, signature-based detection, cloud computing, kfsensor

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149 Secure Network Coding against Content Pollution Attacks in Named Data Network

Authors: Tao Feng, Xiaomei Ma, Xian Guo, Jing Wang


Named Data Network (NDN) is one of the future Internet architecture, all nodes (i.e., hosts, routers) are allowed to have a local cache, used to satisfy incoming requests for content. However, depending on caching allows an adversary to perform attacks that are very effective and relatively easy to implement, such as content pollution attack. In this paper, we use a method of secure network coding based on homomorphic signature system to solve this problem. Firstly ,we use a dynamic public key technique, our scheme for each generation authentication without updating the initial secret key used. Secondly, employing the homomorphism of hash function, intermediate node and destination node verify the signature of the received message. In addition, when the network topology of NDN is simple and fixed, the code coefficients in our scheme are generated in a pseudorandom number generator in each node, so the distribution of the coefficients is also avoided. In short, our scheme not only can efficiently prevent against Intra/Inter-GPAs, but also can against the content poisoning attack in NDN.

Keywords: named data networking, content polloution attack, network coding signature, internet architecture

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148 Mitigating Denial of Service Attacks in Information Centric Networking

Authors: Bander Alzahrani


Information-centric networking (ICN) using architectures such as Publish-Subscribe Internet Routing Paradigm (PSIRP) is one of the promising candidates for a future Internet, has recently been under the spotlight by the research community to investigate the possibility of redesigning the current Internet architecture to solve many issues such as routing scalability, security, and quality of services issues.. The Bloom filter-based forwarding is a source-routing approach that is used in the PSIRP architecture. This mechanism is vulnerable to brute force attacks which may lead to denial-of-service (DoS) attacks. In this work, we present a new forwarding approach that keeps the advantages of Bloom filter-based forwarding while mitigates attacks on the forwarding mechanism. In practice, we introduce a special type of forwarding nodes called Edge-FW to be placed at the edge of the network. The role of these node is to add an extra security layer by validating and inspecting packets at the edge of the network against brute-force attacks and check whether the packet contains a legitimate forwarding identifier (FId) or not. We leverage Certificateless Aggregate Signature (CLAS) scheme with a small size of 64-bit which is used to sign the FId. Hence, this signature becomes bound to a specific FId. Therefore, malicious nodes that inject packets with random FIds will be easily detected and dropped at the Edge-FW node when the signature verification fails. Our preliminary security analysis suggests that with the proposed approach, the forwarding plane is able to resist attacks such as DoS with very high probability.

Keywords: bloom filter, certificateless aggregate signature, denial-of-service, information centric network

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147 Detailed Observations on Numerically Invariant Signatures

Authors: Reza Aghayan


Numerically invariant signatures were introduced as a new paradigm of the invariant recognition for visual objects modulo a certain group of transformations. This paper shows that the current formulation suffers from noise and indeterminacy in the resulting joint group-signatures and applies the n-difference technique and the m-mean signature method to minimize their effects. In our experimental results of applying the proposed numerical scheme to generate joint group-invariant signatures, the sensitivity of some parameters such as regularity and mesh resolution used in the algorithm will also be examined. Finally, several interesting observations are made.

Keywords: Euclidean and affine geometry, differential invariant G-signature curves, numerically invariant joint G-signatures, object recognition, noise, indeterminacy

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146 Using Signature Assignments and Rubrics in Assessing Institutional Learning Outcomes and Student Learning

Authors: Leigh Ann Wilson, Melanie Borrego


The purpose of institutional learning outcomes (ILOs) is to assess what students across the university know and what they do not. The issue is gathering this information in a systematic and usable way. This presentation will explain how one institution has engineered this process for both student success and maximum faculty curriculum and course design input. At Brandman University, there are three levels of learning outcomes: course, program, and institutional. Institutional Learning Outcomes (ILOs) are mapped to specific courses. Faculty course developers write the signature assignments (SAs) in alignment with the Institutional Learning Outcomes for each course. These SAs use a specific rubric that is applied consistently by every section and every instructor. Each year, the 12-member General Education Team (GET), as a part of their work, conducts the calibration and assessment of the university-wide SAs and the related rubrics for one or two of the five ILOs. GET members, who are senior faculty and administrators who represent each of the university's schools, lead the calibration meetings. Specifically, calibration is a process designed to ensure the accuracy and reliability of evaluating signature assignments by working with peer faculty to interpret rubrics and compare scoring. These calibration meetings include the full time and adjunct faculty members who teach the course to ensure consensus on the application of the rubric. Each calibration session is chaired by a GET representative as well as the course custodian/contact where the ILO signature assignment resides. The overall calibration process GET follows includes multiple steps, such as: contacting and inviting relevant faculty members to participate; organizing and hosting calibration sessions; and reviewing and discussing at least 10 samples of student work from class sections during the previous academic year, for each applicable signature assignment. Conversely, the commitment for calibration teams consist of attending two virtual meetings lasting up to three hours in duration. The first meeting focuses on interpreting the rubric, and the second meeting involves comparing scores for sample work and sharing feedback about the rubric and assignment. Next, participants are expected to follow all directions provided and participate actively, and respond to scheduling requests and other emails within 72 hours. The virtual meetings are recorded for future institutional use. Adjunct faculty are paid a small stipend after participating in both calibration meetings. Full time faculty can use this work on their annual faculty report for "internal service" credit.

Keywords: assessment, assurance of learning, course design, institutional learning outcomes, rubrics, signature assignments

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145 TRNG Based Key Generation for Certificateless Signcryption

Authors: S.Balaji, R.Sujatha, M. Ramakrishnan


Signcryption is a cryptographic primitive that fulfills both the functions of digital signature and public key encryption simultaneously in low cost when compared with the traditional signature-then-encryption approach. In this paper, we propose a novel mouse movement based key generation technique to generate secret keys which is secure against the outer and insider attacks. Tag Key Encapsulation Mechanism (KEM) process is implemented using True Random Number Generator (TRNG) method. This TRNG based key is used for data encryption in the Data Encapsulation Mechanism (DEM). We compare the statistical reports of the proposed system with the previous methods which implements TKEM based on pseudo random number generator

Keywords: pseudo random umber generator, signcryption, true random number generator, node deployment

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144 Trabecular Texture Analysis Using Fractal Metrics for Bone Fragility Assessment

Authors: Khaled Harrar, Rachid Jennane


The purpose of this study is the discrimination of 28 postmenopausal with osteoporotic femoral fractures from an age-matched control group of 28 women using texture analysis based on fractals. Two pre-processing approaches are applied on radiographic images; these techniques are compared to highlight the choice of the pre-processing method. Furthermore, the values of the fractal dimension are compared to those of the fractal signature in terms of the classification of the two populations. In a second analysis, the BMD measure at proximal femur was compared to the fractal analysis, the latter, which is a non-invasive technique, allowed a better discrimination; the results confirm that the fractal analysis of texture on calcaneus radiographs is able to discriminate osteoporotic patients with femoral fracture from controls. This discrimination was efficient compared to that obtained by BMD alone. It was also present in comparing subgroups with overlapping values of BMD.

Keywords: osteoporosis, fractal dimension, fractal signature, bone mineral density

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143 Latest Generation Conducted Electrical Weapon Dart Design: Signature Marking and Removal for the Emergency Medicine Professional

Authors: J. D. Ho, D. M. Dawes, B. Driver


Introduction: TASER Conducted Electrical Weapons (CEWs) are the dominant CEWs in use and have been used in modern police and military operations since the late 1990s as a form of non-lethal weaponry. The 3rd generation of CEWs has been recently introduced and is known as The TASER 7. This new CEW will be replacing current CEW technology and has a new dart design that is important for emergency medical professionals to be familiar with because it requires a different method of removal and will leave a different marking pattern in human tissue than they may have been previously familiar with. features of this new dart design include: higher velocity impact, larger impact surface area, break away dart body segment, dual back-barb retention, newly designed removal process. As the TASER 7 begins to be deployed by the police and military personnel, these new features make it imperative that emergency medical professionals become familiar with the signature markings that this new dart design will make on human tissue and how to remove them. Methods: Multiple observational studies using high speed photography were used to record impact patterns of the new dart design on fresh tissue and also the newly recommended dart removal process. Both animal and human subjects were used to test this dart design prior to production release. Results: Data presented will include dart design overview, flight pattern accuracy, impact analysis, and dart removal example. Tissue photographs will be presented to demonstrate examples of signature TASER 7 dart markings that emergency medical professionals can expect to see. Conclusion: This work will provide the reader with an understanding of this newest generation CEW dart design, its key features, its signature marking pattern that can be expected and a recommendation of how to remove it from human tissue.

Keywords: TASER 7, conducted electrical weapon, dart mark, dart removal

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