Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1150

Search results for: probabilistic constraints

1150 Solutions to Probabilistic Constrained Optimal Control Problems Using Concentration Inequalities

Authors: Tomoaki Hashimoto


Recently, optimal control problems subject to probabilistic constraints have attracted much attention in many research field. Although probabilistic constraints are generally intractable in optimization problems, several methods haven been proposed to deal with probabilistic constraints. In most methods, probabilistic constraints are transformed to deterministic constraints that are tractable in optimization problems. This paper examines a method for transforming probabilistic constraints into deterministic constraints for a class of probabilistic constrained optimal control problems.

Keywords: optimal control, stochastic systems, discrete-time systems, probabilistic constraints

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1149 Conservativeness of Probabilistic Constrained Optimal Control Method for Unknown Probability Distribution

Authors: Tomoaki Hashimoto


In recent decades, probabilistic constrained optimal control problems have attracted much attention in many research field. Although probabilistic constraints are generally intractable in an optimization problem, several tractable methods haven been proposed to handle probabilistic constraints. In most methods, probabilistic constraints are reduced to deterministic constraints that are tractable in an optimization problem. However, there is a gap between the transformed deterministic constraints in case of known and unknown probability distribution. This paper examines the conservativeness of probabilistic constrained optimization method with the unknown probability distribution. The objective of this paper is to provide a quantitative assessment of the conservatism for tractable constraints in probabilistic constrained optimization with the unknown probability distribution.

Keywords: optimal control, stochastic systems, discrete time systems, probabilistic constraints

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1148 Numerical Simulations on Feasibility of Stochastic Model Predictive Control for Linear Discrete-Time Systems with Random Dither Quantization

Authors: Taiki Baba, Tomoaki Hashimoto


The random dither quantization method enables us to achieve much better performance than the simple uniform quantization method for the design of quantized control systems. Motivated by this fact, the stochastic model predictive control method in which a performance index is minimized subject to probabilistic constraints imposed on the state variables of systems has been proposed for linear feedback control systems with random dither quantization. In other words, a method for solving optimal control problems subject to probabilistic state constraints for linear discrete-time control systems with random dither quantization has been already established. To our best knowledge, however, the feasibility of such a kind of optimal control problems has not yet been studied. Our objective in this paper is to investigate the feasibility of stochastic model predictive control problems for linear discrete-time control systems with random dither quantization. To this end, we provide the results of numerical simulations that verify the feasibility of stochastic model predictive control problems for linear discrete-time control systems with random dither quantization.

Keywords: model predictive control, stochastic systems, probabilistic constraints, random dither quantization

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1147 Stochastic Model Predictive Control for Linear Discrete-Time Systems with Random Dither Quantization

Authors: Tomoaki Hashimoto


Recently, feedback control systems using random dither quantizers have been proposed for linear discrete-time systems. However, the constraints imposed on state and control variables have not yet been taken into account for the design of feedback control systems with random dither quantization. Model predictive control is a kind of optimal feedback control in which control performance over a finite future is optimized with a performance index that has a moving initial and terminal time. An important advantage of model predictive control is its ability to handle constraints imposed on state and control variables. Based on the model predictive control approach, the objective of this paper is to present a control method that satisfies probabilistic state constraints for linear discrete-time feedback control systems with random dither quantization. In other words, this paper provides a method for solving the optimal control problems subject to probabilistic state constraints for linear discrete-time feedback control systems with random dither quantization.

Keywords: optimal control, stochastic systems, random dither, quantization

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1146 Constructing a Probabilistic Ontology from a DBLP Data

Authors: Emna Hlel, Salma Jamousi, Abdelmajid Ben Hamadou


Every model for knowledge representation to model real-world applications must be able to cope with the effects of uncertain phenomena. One of main defects of classical ontology is its inability to represent and reason with uncertainty. To remedy this defect, we try to propose a method to construct probabilistic ontology for integrating uncertain information in an ontology modeling a set of basic publications DBLP (Digital Bibliography & Library Project) using a probabilistic model.

Keywords: classical ontology, probabilistic ontology, uncertainty, Bayesian network

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1145 A Survey on Compression Methods for Table Constraints

Authors: N. Gharbi


Constraint Satisfaction problems are mathematical problems that are often used to model many real-world problems for which we look if there exists a solution satisfying all its constraints. Table constraints are important for modeling parts of many problems since they list all combinations of allowed or forbidden values. However, they admit practical limitations because they are sometimes too large to be represented in a direct way. In this paper, we present a survey of the different categories of the proposed approaches to compress table constraints in order to reduce both space and time complexities.

Keywords: constraint programming, compression, data mining, table constraints

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1144 A Joint Possibilistic-Probabilistic Tool for Load Flow Uncertainty Assessment-Part I: Formulation

Authors: Morteza Aien, Masoud Rashidinejad, Mahmud Fotuhi-Firuzabad


As energetic and environmental issues are getting more and more attention all around the world, the penetration of distributed energy resources (DERs) mainly those harvesting renewable energies (REs) ascends with an unprecedented rate. This matter causes more uncertainties to appear in the power system context; ergo, the uncertainty analysis of the system performance is an obligation. The uncertainties of any system can be represented probabilistically or possibilistically. Since sufficient historical data about all the system variables is not available, therefore, they do not have a probability density function (PDF) and must be represented possibilistiacally. When some of system uncertain variables are probabilistic and some are possibilistic, neither the conventional pure probabilistic nor pure possibilistic methods can be implemented. Hence, a combined solution is appealed. The first of this two-paper series formulates a new possibilistic-probabilistic tool for the load flow uncertainty assessment. The proposed methodology is based on the evidence theory and joint propagation of possibilistic and probabilistic uncertainties. This possibilistic- probabilistic formulation is solved in the second companion paper in an uncertain load flow (ULF) study problem.

Keywords: probabilistic uncertainty modeling, possibilistic uncertainty modeling, uncertain load flow, wind turbine generator

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1143 Probabilistic Approach to Contrast Theoretical Predictions from a Public Corruption Game Using Bayesian Networks

Authors: Jaime E. Fernandez, Pablo J. Valverde


This paper presents a methodological approach that aims to contrast/validate theoretical results from a corruption network game through probabilistic analysis of simulated microdata using Bayesian Networks (BNs). The research develops a public corruption model in a game theory framework. Theoretical results suggest a series of 'optimal settings' of model's exogenous parameters that boost the emergence of corruption. The paper contrasts these outcomes with probabilistic inference results based on BNs adjusted over simulated microdata. Principal findings indicate that probabilistic reasoning based on BNs significantly improves parameter specification and causal analysis in a public corruption game.

Keywords: Bayesian networks, probabilistic reasoning, public corruption, theoretical games

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1142 The Lexicographic Serial Rule

Authors: Thi Thao Nguyen, Andrew McLennan, Shino Takayama


We study the probabilistic allocation of finitely many indivisible objects to finitely many agents. Well known allocation rules for this problem include random priority, the market mechanism proposed by Hylland and Zeckhauser [1979], and the probabilistic serial rule of Bogomolnaia and Moulin [2001]. We propose a new allocation rule, which we call the lexico-graphic (serial) rule, that is tailored for situations in which each agent's primary concern is to maximize the probability of receiving her favourite object. Three axioms, lex efficiency, lex envy freeness and fairness, are proposed and fully characterize the lexicographic serial rule. We also discuss how our axioms and the lexicographic rule are related to other allocation rules, particularly the probabilistic serial rule.

Keywords: Efficiency, Envy free, Lexicographic, Probabilistic Serial Rule

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1141 Applications of Analytical Probabilistic Approach in Urban Stormwater Modeling in New Zealand

Authors: Asaad Y. Shamseldin


Analytical probabilistic approach is an innovative approach for urban stormwater modeling. It can provide information about the long-term performance of a stormwater management facility without being computationally very demanding. This paper explores the application of the analytical probabilistic approach in New Zealand. The paper presents the results of a case study aimed at development of an objective way of identifying what constitutes a rainfall storm event and the estimation of the corresponding statistical properties of storms using two selected automatic rainfall stations located in the Auckland region in New Zealand. The storm identification and the estimation of the storm statistical properties are regarded as the first step in the development of the analytical probabilistic models. The paper provides a recommendation about the definition of the storm inter-event time to be used in conjunction with the analytical probabilistic approach.

Keywords: hydrology, rainfall storm, storm inter-event time, New Zealand, stormwater management

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1140 Efficient Sampling of Probabilistic Program for Biological Systems

Authors: Keerthi S. Shetty, Annappa Basava


In recent years, modelling of biological systems represented by biochemical reactions has become increasingly important in Systems Biology. Biological systems represented by biochemical reactions are highly stochastic in nature. Probabilistic model is often used to describe such systems. One of the main challenges in Systems biology is to combine absolute experimental data into probabilistic model. This challenge arises because (1) some molecules may be present in relatively small quantities, (2) there is a switching between individual elements present in the system, and (3) the process is inherently stochastic on the level at which observations are made. In this paper, we describe a novel idea of combining absolute experimental data into probabilistic model using tool R2. Through a case study of the Transcription Process in Prokaryotes we explain how biological systems can be written as probabilistic program to combine experimental data into the model. The model developed is then analysed in terms of intrinsic noise and exact sampling of switching times between individual elements in the system. We have mainly concentrated on inferring number of genes in ON and OFF states from experimental data.

Keywords: systems biology, probabilistic model, inference, biology, model

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1139 Probabilistic Simulation of Triaxial Undrained Cyclic Behavior of Soils

Authors: Arezoo Sadrinezhad, Kallol Sett, S. I. Hariharan


In this paper, a probabilistic framework based on Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov (FPK) approach has been applied to simulate triaxial cyclic constitutive behavior of uncertain soils. The framework builds upon previous work of the writers, and it has been extended for cyclic probabilistic simulation of triaxial undrained behavior of soils. von Mises elastic-perfectly plastic material model is considered. It is shown that by using probabilistic framework, some of the most important aspects of soil behavior under cyclic loading can be captured even with a simple elastic-perfectly plastic constitutive model.

Keywords: elasto-plasticity, uncertainty, soils, fokker-planck equation, fourier spectral method, finite difference method

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1138 Business Constraints and Growth Potential of Smes: Case Study of Electrical Industry in Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Waseem Akram


The current study attempts to analyze the impact of business constraints on the growth potential and performance of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in the electrical industry of Pakistan. Primary data have been utilized for the study collected from the electrical industry cluster in Sargodha, Pakistan. OLS regression is used to assess the impact of business constraints on the performance of SMEs by controlling the effect of Technology Level, Innovations, and Firm Size. To associate business constraints with the growth potential of SMEs, the study utilized Tetrachoric Correlation and Logistic Regression. Findings reveal that all the business constraints negatively affect the performance of SMEs in the electrical industry except Political Instability. Results of Tetrachoric Correlation show that all the business constraints are negatively correlated with the growth potential of SMEs. Logistic Regression results show that Energy Constraint, Inflation and Price Instability, and Bad Business Practices, all three business constraints cause to reduce the probability of income growth in sample SMEs.

Keywords: SMEs, business constraints, performance, growth potential

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1137 Tree-Based Inference for Regionalization: A Comparative Study of Global Topological Perturbation Methods

Authors: Orhun Aydin, Mark V. Janikas, Rodrigo Alves, Renato Assuncao


In this paper, a tree-based perturbation methodology for regionalization inference is presented. Regionalization is a constrained optimization problem that aims to create groups with similar attributes while satisfying spatial contiguity constraints. Similar to any constrained optimization problem, the spatial constraint may hinder convergence to some global minima, resulting in spatially contiguous members of a group with dissimilar attributes. This paper presents a general methodology for rigorously perturbing spatial constraints through the use of random spanning trees. The general framework presented can be used to quantify the effect of the spatial constraints in the overall regionalization result. We compare several types of stochastic spanning trees used in inference problems such as fuzzy regionalization and determining the number of regions. Performance of stochastic spanning trees is juxtaposed against the traditional permutation-based hypothesis testing frequently used in spatial statistics. Inference results for fuzzy regionalization and determining the number of regions is presented on the Local Area Personal Incomes for Texas Counties provided by the Bureau of Economic Analysis.

Keywords: regionalization, constrained clustering, probabilistic inference, fuzzy clustering

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1136 Preserving Privacy in Workflow Delegation Models

Authors: Noha Nagy, Hoda Mokhtar, Mohamed El Sherkawi


The popularity of workflow delegation models and the increasing number of workflow provenance-aware systems motivate the need for finding more strict delegation models. Such models combine different approaches for enhanced security and respecting workflow privacy. Although modern enterprises seek conformance to workflow constraints to ensure correctness of their work, these constraints pose a threat to security, because these constraints can be good seeds for attacking privacy even in secure models. This paper introduces a comprehensive Workflow Delegation Model (WFDM) that utilizes provenance and workflow constraints to prevent malicious delegate from attacking workflow privacy as well as extending the delegation functionalities. In addition, we argue the need for exploiting workflow constraints to improve workflow security models.

Keywords: workflow delegation models, secure workflow, workflow privacy, workflow provenance

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1135 Optimizing the Probabilistic Neural Network Training Algorithm for Multi-Class Identification

Authors: Abdelhadi Lotfi, Abdelkader Benyettou


In this work, a training algorithm for probabilistic neural networks (PNN) is presented. The algorithm addresses one of the major drawbacks of PNN, which is the size of the hidden layer in the network. By using a cross-validation training algorithm, the number of hidden neurons is shrunk to a smaller number consisting of the most representative samples of the training set. This is done without affecting the overall architecture of the network. Performance of the network is compared against performance of standard PNN for different databases from the UCI database repository. Results show an important gain in network size and performance.

Keywords: classification, probabilistic neural networks, network optimization, pattern recognition

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1134 Comparison between Deterministic and Probabilistic Stability Analysis, Featuring Consequent Risk Assessment

Authors: Isabela Moreira Queiroz


Slope stability analyses are largely carried out by deterministic methods and evaluated through a single security factor. Although it is known that the geotechnical parameters can present great dispersal, such analyses are considered fixed and known. The probabilistic methods, in turn, incorporate the variability of input key parameters (random variables), resulting in a range of values of safety factors, thus enabling the determination of the probability of failure, which is an essential parameter in the calculation of the risk (probability multiplied by the consequence of the event). Among the probabilistic methods, there are three frequently used methods in geotechnical society: FOSM (First-Order, Second-Moment), Rosenblueth (Point Estimates) and Monte Carlo. This paper presents a comparison between the results from deterministic and probabilistic analyses (FOSM method, Monte Carlo and Rosenblueth) applied to a hypothetical slope. The end was held to evaluate the behavior of the slope and consequent risk analysis, which is used to calculate the risk and analyze their mitigation and control solutions. It can be observed that the results obtained by the three probabilistic methods were quite close. It should be noticed that the calculation of the risk makes it possible to list the priority to the implementation of mitigation measures. Therefore, it is recommended to do a good assessment of the geological-geotechnical model incorporating the uncertainty in viability, design, construction, operation and closure by means of risk management. 

Keywords: probabilistic methods, risk assessment, risk management, slope stability

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1133 Probabilistic and Stochastic Analysis of a Retaining Wall for C-Φ Soil Backfill

Authors: André Luís Brasil Cavalcante, Juan Felix Rodriguez Rebolledo, Lucas Parreira de Faria Borges


A methodology for the probabilistic analysis of active earth pressure on retaining wall for c-Φ soil backfill is described in this paper. The Rosenblueth point estimate method is used to measure the failure probability of a gravity retaining wall. The basic principle of this methodology is to use two point estimates, i.e., the standard deviation and the mean value, to examine a variable in the safety analysis. The simplicity of this framework assures to its wide application. For the calculation is required 2ⁿ repetitions during the analysis, since the system is governed by n variables. In this study, a probabilistic model based on the Rosenblueth approach for the computation of the overturning probability of failure of a retaining wall is presented. The obtained results have shown the advantages of this kind of models in comparison with the deterministic solution. In a relatively easy way, the uncertainty on the wall and fill parameters are taken into account, and some practical results can be obtained for the retaining structure design.

Keywords: retaining wall, active earth pressure, backfill, probabilistic analysis

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1132 Design of Visual Repository, Constraint and Process Modeling Tool Based on Eclipse Plug-Ins

Authors: Rushiraj Heshi, Smriti Bhandari


Master Data Management requires creation of Central repository, applying constraints on Repository and designing processes to manage data. Designing of Repository, constraints on repository and business processes is very tedious and time consuming task for large Enterprise. Hence Visual Repository, constraints and Process (Workflow) modeling is the most critical step in Master Data Management.In this paper, we realize a Visual Modeling tool for implementing Repositories, Constraints and Processes based on Eclipse Plugin using GMF/EMF which follows principles of Model Driven Engineering (MDE).

Keywords: EMF, GMF, GEF, repository, constraint, process

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1131 Convex Restrictions for Outage Constrained MU-MISO Downlink under Imperfect Channel State Information

Authors: A. Preetha Priyadharshini, S. B. M. Priya


In this paper, we consider the MU-MISO downlink scenario, under imperfect channel state information (CSI). The main issue in imperfect CSI is to keep the probability of each user achievable outage rate below the given threshold level. Such a rate outage constraints present significant and analytical challenges. There are many probabilistic methods are used to minimize the transmit optimization problem under imperfect CSI. Here, decomposition based large deviation inequality and Bernstein type inequality convex restriction methods are used to perform the optimization problem under imperfect CSI. These methods are used for achieving improved output quality and lower complexity. They provide a safe tractable approximation of the original rate outage constraints. Based on these method implementations, performance has been evaluated in the terms of feasible rate and average transmission power. The simulation results are shown that all the two methods offer significantly improved outage quality and lower computational complexity.

Keywords: imperfect channel state information, outage probability, multiuser- multi input single output, channel state information

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1130 Quick Similarity Measurement of Binary Images via Probabilistic Pixel Mapping

Authors: Adnan A. Y. Mustafa


In this paper we present a quick technique to measure the similarity between binary images. The technique is based on a probabilistic mapping approach and is fast because only a minute percentage of the image pixels need to be compared to measure the similarity, and not the whole image. We exploit the power of the Probabilistic Matching Model for Binary Images (PMMBI) to arrive at an estimate of the similarity. We show that the estimate is a good approximation of the actual value, and the quality of the estimate can be improved further with increased image mappings. Furthermore, the technique is image size invariant; the similarity between big images can be measured as fast as that for small images. Examples of trials conducted on real images are presented.

Keywords: big images, binary images, image matching, image similarity

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1129 A Joint Possibilistic-Probabilistic Tool for Load Flow Uncertainty Assessment-Part II: Case Studies

Authors: Morteza Aien, Masoud Rashidinejad, Mahmud Fotuhi-Firuzabad


Power systems are innately uncertain systems. To face with such uncertain systems, robust uncertainty assessment tools are appealed. This paper inspects the uncertainty assessment formulation of the load flow (LF) problem considering different kinds of uncertainties, developed in its companion paper through some case studies. The proposed methodology is based on the evidence theory and joint propagation of possibilistic and probabilistic uncertainties. The load and wind power generation are considered as probabilistic uncertain variables and the electric vehicles (EVs) and gas turbine distributed generation (DG) units are considered as possibilistic uncertain variables. The cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the system output parameters obtained by the pure probabilistic method lies within the belief and plausibility functions obtained by the joint propagation approach. Furthermore, the imprecision in the DG parameters is explicitly reflected by the gap between the belief and plausibility functions. This gap, due to the epistemic uncertainty on the DG resources parameters grows as the penetration level increases.

Keywords: electric vehicles, joint possibilistic- probabilistic uncertainty modeling, uncertain load flow, wind turbine generator

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1128 Exploring the Relationship among Job Stress, Travel Constraints, and Job Satisfaction of the Employees in Casino Hotels: The Case of Macau

Authors: Tao Zhang


Job stress appears nearly everywhere especially in the hospitality industry because employees in this industry usually have to work long time and try to meet conflicting demands of their customers, managers, and company. To reduce job stress, employees of casino hotels try to perform leisure activities or tourism. However, casino employees often meet many obstacles or constraints when they plan to travel. Until now, there is little understanding as to why casino hotel employees often face many travel constraints or leisure barriers. What is more, few studies explore the relationship between travel constraints and job stress of casino employees. Therefore, this study is to explore the construct of casino hotel employees' travel constraints and the relationship among job stress, travel constraints, and job satisfaction. Using convenient sampling method, this study planned to investigate 500 front line employees and managers of ten casino hotels in Macau. A total of 500 questionnaires were distributed, and 414 valid questionnaires were received. The return rate of valid questionnaires is 82.8%. Several statistical techniques such as factor analysis, t-test, one-way ANOVA, and regression analysis were applied to analyze the collected data. The findings of this study are as follows. Firstly, by using factor analysis, this study found the travel constraints of casino employees include intrapersonal constraints, interpersonal constraints, and structural constraints. Secondly, by using regression analysis, the study found travel constraints are positively related with job stress while negatively related with job satisfaction. This means reducing travel constraints may create a chance for casino employees to travel so that they could reduce job stress, therefore raise their job satisfaction. Thirdly, this research divided the research samples into three groups by the degree of job stress. The three groups are low satisfaction group, medium satisfaction group, and high satisfaction group. The means values of these groups were compared by t-test. Results showed that there are significant differences of the means values of interpersonal constraints between low satisfaction group and high satisfaction group. This suggests positive interpersonal relationship especially good family member relationship reduce not only job stress but also travel constraints of casino employees. Interestingly, results of t-test showed there is not a significant difference of the means values of structural constraints between low satisfaction group and high satisfaction group. This suggests structural constraints are outside variables which may be related with tourism destination marketing. Destination marketing organizations (DMO) need use all kinds of tools and techniques to promote their tourism destinations so as to reduce structural constraints of casino employees. This research is significant for both theoretical and practical fields. From the theoretical perspective, the study found the internal relationship between travel constraints, job stress, and job satisfaction and the different roles of three dimensions of travel constraints. From the practical perspective, the study provides useful methods to reduce travel constraints and job stress, therefore, raise job satisfaction of casino employees.

Keywords: hotel, job satisfaction, job stress, travel constraints

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1127 Modeling of Production Lines Systems with Layout Constraints

Authors: Sadegh Abebi


There are problems with estimating time of product process of products, especially when there is variable serving time, like control stage. These problems will cause overestimation of process time. Layout constraints, reworking constraints and inflexible product schedule in multi product lines, needs a precise planning to reduce volume in particular situation of line stock. In this article, by analyzing real queue systems with layout constraints and by using concepts and principles of Markov chain in queue theory, a hybrid model has been presented. This model can be a base to assess queue systems with probable parameters of service. Here by presenting a case study, the proposed model will be described. so, production lines of a home application manufacturer will be analyzed.

Keywords: Queuing theory, Markov Chain, layout, line balance

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1126 Relaxing Convergence Constraints in Local Priority Hysteresis Switching Logic

Authors: Mubarak Alhajri


This paper addresses certain inherent limitations of local priority hysteresis switching logic. Our main result establishes that under persistent excitation assumption, it is possible to relax constraints requiring strict positivity of local priority and hysteresis switching constants. Relaxing these constraints allows the adaptive system to reach optimality which implies the performance improvement. The unconstrained local priority hysteresis switching logic is examined and conditions for global convergence are derived.

Keywords: adaptive control, convergence, hysteresis constant, hysteresis switching

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1125 Probabilistic Graphical Model for the Web

Authors: M. Nekri, A. Khelladi


The world wide web network is a network with a complex topology, the main properties of which are the distribution of degrees in power law, A low clustering coefficient and a weak average distance. Modeling the web as a graph allows locating the information in little time and consequently offering a help in the construction of the research engine. Here, we present a model based on the already existing probabilistic graphs with all the aforesaid characteristics. This work will consist in studying the web in order to know its structuring thus it will enable us to modelize it more easily and propose a possible algorithm for its exploration.

Keywords: clustering coefficient, preferential attachment, small world, web community

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1124 Stochastic Richelieu River Flood Modeling and Comparison of Flood Propagation Models: WMS (1D) and SRH (2D)

Authors: Maryam Safrai, Tewfik Mahdi


This article presents the stochastic modeling of the Richelieu River flood in Quebec, Canada, occurred in the spring of 2011. With the aid of the one-dimensional Watershed Modeling System (WMS (v.10.1) and HEC-RAS (v.4.1) as a flood simulator, the delineation of the probabilistic flooded areas was considered. Based on the Monte Carlo method, WMS (v.10.1) delineated the probabilistic flooded areas with corresponding occurrence percentages. Furthermore, results of this one-dimensional model were compared with the results of two-dimensional model (SRH-2D) for the evaluation of efficiency and precision of each applied model. Based on this comparison, computational process in two-dimensional model is longer and more complicated versus brief one-dimensional one. Although, two-dimensional models are more accurate than one-dimensional method, but according to existing modellers, delineation of probabilistic flooded areas based on Monte Carlo method is achievable via one-dimensional modeler. The applied software in this case study greatly responded to verify the research objectives. As a result, flood risk maps of the Richelieu River with the two applied models (1d, 2d) could elucidate the flood risk factors in hydrological, hydraulic, and managerial terms.

Keywords: flood modeling, HEC-RAS, model comparison, Monte Carlo simulation, probabilistic flooded area, SRH-2D, WMS

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1123 Infilling Strategies for Surrogate Model Based Multi-disciplinary Analysis and Applications to Velocity Prediction Programs

Authors: Malo Pocheau-Lesteven, Olivier Le Maître


Engineering and optimisation of complex systems is often achieved through multi-disciplinary analysis of the system, where each subsystem is modeled and interacts with other subsystems to model the complete system. The coherence of the output of the different sub-systems is achieved through the use of compatibility constraints, which enforce the coupling between the different subsystems. Due to the complexity of some sub-systems and the computational cost of evaluating their respective models, it is often necessary to build surrogate models of these subsystems to allow repeated evaluation these subsystems at a relatively low computational cost. In this paper, gaussian processes are used, as their probabilistic nature is leveraged to evaluate the likelihood of satisfying the compatibility constraints. This paper presents infilling strategies to build accurate surrogate models of the subsystems in areas where they are likely to meet the compatibility constraint. It is shown that these infilling strategies can reduce the computational cost of building surrogate models for a given level of accuracy. An application of these methods to velocity prediction programs used in offshore racing naval architecture further demonstrates these method's applicability in a real engineering context. Also, some examples of the application of uncertainty quantification to field of naval architecture are presented.

Keywords: infilling strategy, gaussian process, multi disciplinary analysis, velocity prediction program

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1122 Trace Network: A Probabilistic Relevant Pattern Recognition Approach to Attribution Trace Analysis

Authors: Jian Xu, Xiaochun Yun, Yongzheng Zhang, Yafei Sang, Zhenyu Cheng


Network attack prevention is a critical research area of information security. Network attack would be oppressed if attribution techniques are capable to trace back to the attackers after the hacking event. Therefore attributing these attacks to a particular identification becomes one of the important tasks when analysts attempt to differentiate and profile the attacker behind a piece of attack trace. To assist analysts in expose attackers behind the scenes, this paper researches on the connections between attribution traces and proposes probabilistic relevance based attribution patterns. This method facilitates the evaluation of the plausibility relevance between different traceable identifications. Furthermore, through analyzing the connections among traces, it could confirm the existence probability of a certain organization as well as discover its affinitive partners by the means of drawing relevance matrix from attribution traces.

Keywords: attribution trace, probabilistic relevance, network attack, attacker identification

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1121 A Social Network Analysis for Formulating Construction Defect Generation Mechanisms

Authors: Hamad Aljassmi, Sangwon Han


Various solutions for preventing construction defects have been suggested. However, a construction company may have difficulties adopting all these suggestions due to financial and practical constraints. Based on this recognition, this paper aims to identify the most significant defect causes and formulate their defect generation mechanism in order to help a construction company to set priorities of its defect prevention strategies. For this goal, we conducted a questionnaire survey of 106 industry professionals and identified five most significant causes including: (1) organizational culture, (2) time pressure and constraints, (3) workplace quality system, (4) financial constraints upon operational expenses and (5) inadequate employee training or learning opportunities.

Keywords: defect, quality, failure, risk

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