Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 395

Search results for: perovskite semiconductor

395 Morphology Optimization and Photophysics Study in Air-Processed Perovskite Solar Cells

Authors: Soumitra Satapathi, Anubhav Raghav


Perovskite solar cell technology has passed through a phase of unprecedented growth in the efficiency scale from 3.8% to above 22% within a half decade. This technology has drawn tremendous research interest. It has been observed that performances of perovskite based solar cells are extremely dependent on the morphology and crystallinity of the perovskite layer. It has also been observed that device lifetime depends on the perovskite morphology; devices with larger perovskite grains degrade slowly than those of the smaller ones. Various methods of perovskite growth have been applied to achieve the most appropriate morphology necessary for high efficient solar cells. The recent progress in morphology optimization by various methods emphasizing on grain sizes, stoichiometry, and ambient compatibility as well as photophysics study in air-processed perovskite solar cells will be discussed.

Keywords: perovskite solar cells, morphology optimization, photophysics study, air-processed solar cells

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394 Preparation and Characterization of Hybrid Perovskite Enhanced with PVDF for Pressure Sensing

Authors: Mohamed E. Harb, Enas Moustafa, Shaker Ebrahim, Moataz Soliman


In this paper pressure detectors were synthesized and characterized using hybrid perovskite/PVDF composites as an active layer. Methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI₃) was synthesized from methylammonium iodide (MAI) (CH₃NH₃I) and lead iodide (PbI₂). Composites of perovskite/PVDF using different weight ratio were prepared as the active material. PVDF with weights percentages of 6%, 8%, and 10% was used. All prepared materials were investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transforms infrared spectrum (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A Versastat 4 Potentiostat Galvanostat instrument was used to perform the current-voltage characteristics of the fabricated sensors. The pressure sensors exhibited a voltage increase with applying different forces. Also, the current-voltage characteristics (CV) showed different effects with applying forces. So, the results showed a good pressure sensing performance.

Keywords: perovskite semiconductor, hybrid perovskite, PVDF, Pressure sensing

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393 Key Roles of the N-Type Oxide Layer in Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cells

Authors: Thierry Pauporté


Wide bandgap n-type oxide layers (TiO2, SnO2, ZnO etc.) play key roles in perovskite solar cells. They act as electron transport layers, and they permit the charge separation. They are also the substrate for the preparation of perovskite in the direct architecture. Therefore, they have a strong influence on the perovskite loading, its crystallinity and they can induce a degradation phenomenon upon annealing. The interface between the oxide and the perovskite is important, and the quality of this heterointerface must be optimized to limit the recombination of charges phenomena and performance losses. One can also play on the oxide and use two oxide contact layers for improving the device stability and durability. These aspects will be developed and illustrated on the basis of recent results obtained at Chimie-ParisTech.

Keywords: oxide, hybrid perovskite, solar cells, impedance

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392 High Efficiency Perovskite Solar Cells Fabricated under Ambient Conditions with Mesoporous TiO2/In2O3 Scaffold

Authors: A. Apostolopoulou, D. Sygkridou, A. N. Kalarakis, E. Stathatos


Mesoscopic perovskite solar cells (mp-PSCs) with mesoporous bilayer were fabricated under ambient conditions. The bilayer was formed by capping the mesoporous TiO2 layer with a layer of In2O3. CH3NH3I3-xClx mixed halide perovskite was prepared through the one-step method and was used as the light absorber. The mp-PSCs with the composite TiO2/In2O3 mesoporous layer exhibited optimized electrical parameters, compared with the PSCs that employed only a TiO2 mesoporous layer, with a current density of 23.86 mA/cm2, open circuit voltage of 0.863 V, fill factor of 0.6 and a power conversion efficiency of 11.2%. These results indicate that the formation of a proper semiconductor capping layer over the basic TiO2 mesoporous layer can facilitate the electron transfer, suppress the recombination and subsequently lead to higher charge collection efficiency.

Keywords: ambient conditions, high efficiency solar cells, mesoscopic perovskite solar cells, TiO₂ / In₂O₃ bilayer

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391 Investigation of Length Effect on Power Conversion Efficiency of Perovskite Solar Cells Composed of ZnO Nanowires

Authors: W. S. Li, S. T. Yang, H. C. Cheng


The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the perovskite solar cells has been achieved by inserting vertically-aligned ZnO nanowires (NWs) between the cathode and the active layer and shows better solar cells performance. Perovskite solar cells have drawn significant attention due to the superb efficiency and low-cost fabrication process. In this experiment, ZnO nanowires are used as the electron transport layer (ETL) due to its low temperature process. The main idea of this thesis is utilizing the 3D structures of the hydrothermally-grown ZnO nanowires to increase the junction area to improve the photovoltaic performance of the perovskite solar cells. The infiltration and the surface coverage of the perovskite precursor solution changed as tuning the length of the ZnO nanowires. It is revealed that the devices with ZnO nanowires of 150 nm demonstrated the best PCE of 8.46 % under the AM 1.5G illumination (100 mW/cm2).

Keywords: hydrothermally-grown ZnO nanowires, perovskite solar cells, low temperature process, pinholes

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390 Hysteresis Effect in Organometallic Perovskite Solar Cells with Mesoscopic NiO as a Hole Transport Layer

Authors: D. C. Asebiah, D. Saranin, S. Karazhanov, A. R. Tameev, M. Kah


In this paper, the mesoscopic NiO was used as a hole transport layer in the inverted planar organometallic hybrid perovskite solar cell to study the effect of hysteresis. The devices we fabricated have the structures Fluorine Tin Oxide (FTO)/mesoscopic NiO/perovskite/[6,6]-phenyl C₆₁-butyric acid methyl ester (PC₆₁BM) photovoltaic device. The perovskite solar cell was done by toluene air (TLA) method and horn sonication for the dispersion of the NiO nanoparticles in deionized water. The power conversion efficiency was 12.07% under 1.5 AM illumination. We report hysteresis in the in current-voltage dependence of the solar cells with mesoscopic NiO as a hole transport layer.

Keywords: perovskite, mesoscopic, hysteresis, toluene air

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389 Morphology Study of Inverted Planar Heterojunction Perovskite Solar Cells in Sequential Deposition

Authors: Asmat Nawaz, Ali Koray Erdinc, Burak Gultekin, Muhammad Tayyib, Ceylan Zafer, Kaiying Wang, M. Nadeem Akram


In this study, a sequential deposition process is used for the fabrication of PEDOT: PSS based inverted planar perovskite solar cell. A small amount of additive deionized water (DI-H2O) was added into PbI2 + Dimethyl formamide (DMF) precursor solution in order to increase the solubility of PbI2 in DMF, and finally to manipulate the surface morphology of the perovskite films. A morphology transition from needle like structure to hexagonal plates, and then needle-like again has been observed as the DI-H2O was added continuously (0.0 wt% to 3.0wt%). The latter one leads to full surface coverage of the perovskite, which is essential for high performance solar cell.

Keywords: charge carrier diffusion lengths, Methylamonium lead iodide, precursor composition, perovskite solar cell, sequential deposition

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388 Hydrogen Permeability of BSCY Proton-Conducting Perovskite Membrane

Authors: M. Heidari, A. Safekordi, A. Zamaniyan, E. Ganji Babakhani, M. Amanipour


Perovskite-type membrane Ba0.5Sr0.5Ce0.9Y0.1O3-δ (BSCY) was successfully synthesized by liquid citrate method. The hydrogen permeation and stability of BSCY perovskite-type membranes were studied at high temperatures. The phase structure of the powder was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize microstructures of the membrane sintered under various conditions. SEM results showed that increasing in sintering temperature, formed dense membrane with clear grains. XRD results for BSCY membrane that sintered in 1150 °C indicated single phase perovskite structure with orthorhombic configuration, and SEM results showed dense structure with clear grain size which is suitable for permeation tests. Partial substitution of Sr with Ba in SCY structure improved the hydrogen permeation flux through the membrane due to the larger ionic radius of Ba2+. BSCY membrane shows high hydrogen permeation flux of 1.6 ml/min.cm2 at 900 °C and partial pressure of 0.6.

Keywords: hydrogen separation, perovskite, proton conducting membrane.

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387 Hot Air Flow Annealing of MAPbI₃ Perovskite: Structural and Optical Properties

Authors: Mouad Ouafi, Lahoucine Atourki, Larbi Laanab, Erika Vega, Miguel Mollar, Bernabe Marib, Boujemaa Jaber


Despite the astonishing emergence of the methylammonium lead triiodide perovskite as a promising light harvester for solar cells, their physical properties in solution-processed MAPbI₃ are still crucial and need to be improved. The objective of this work is to investigate the hot airflow effect during the growth of MAPbI₃ films using the spin-coating process on their structural, optical and morphological proprieties. The experimental results show that many physical proprieties of the perovskite strongly depend on the air flow temperature and the optimization which has a beneficial effect on the perovskite quality. In fact, a clear improvement of the crystallinity and the crystallite size of MAPbI₃ perovskite is demonstrated by the XRD analyses, when the airflow temperature is increased up to 100°C. Alternatively, as far as the surface morphology is concerned, SEM micrographs show that significant homogenous nucleation, uniform surface distribution and pin holes free with highest surface coverture of 98% are achieved when the airflow temperature reaches 100°C. At this temperature, the improvement is also observed when considering the optical properties of the films. By contrast, a remarkable degradation of the MAPbI₃ perovskites associated to the PbI₂ phase formation is noticed, when the hot airflow temperature is higher than 100°C, especially 300°C.

Keywords: hot air flow, crystallinity, surface coverage, perovskite morphology

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386 Lead-Free Inorganic Cesium Tin-Germanium Triiodide Perovskites for Photovoltaic Application

Authors: Seyedeh Mozhgan Seyed-Talebi, Javad Beheshtian


The toxicity of lead associated with the lifecycle of perovskite solar cells (PSCs( is a serious concern which may prove to be a major hurdle in the path toward their commercialization. The current proposed lead-free PSCs including Ag(I), Bi(III), Sb(III), Ti(IV), Ge(II), and Sn(II) low-toxicity cations are still plagued with the critical issues of poor stability and low efficiency. This is mainly because of their chemical stability. In the present research, utilization of all inorganic CsSnGeI3 based materials offers the advantages to enhance resistance of device to degradation, reduce the cost of cells, and minimize the carrier recombination. The presence of inorganic halide perovskite improves the photovoltaic parameters of PCSs via improved surface coverage and stability. The inverted structure of simulated devices using a 1D simulator like solar cell capacitance simulator (SCAPS) version 3308 involves TCOHTL/Perovskite/ETL/Au contact layer. PEDOT:PSS, PCBM, and CsSnGeI3 used as hole transporting layer (HTL), electron transporting layer (ETL), and perovskite absorber layer in the inverted structure for the first time. The holes are injected from highly stable and air tolerant Sn0.5Ge0.5I3 perovskite composition to HTM and electrons from the perovskite to ETL. Simulation results revealed a great dependence of power conversion efficiency (PCE) on the thickness and defect density of perovskite layer. Here the effect of an increase in operating temperature from 300 K to 400 K on the performance of CsSnGeI3 based perovskite devices is investigated. Comparison between simulated CsSnGeI3 based PCSs and similar real testified devices with spiro-OMeTAD as HTL showed that the extraction of carriers at the interfaces of perovskite absorber depends on the energy level mismatches between perovskite and HTL/ETL. We believe that optimization results reported here represent a critical avenue for fabricating the stable, low-cost, efficient, and eco-friendly all-inorganic Cs-Sn-Ge based lead-free perovskite devices.

Keywords: hole transporting layer, lead-free, perovskite solar cell, SCAPS-1D, Sn-Ge based

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385 Fabrication of Pure and Doped MAPbI3 Thin Films by One Step Chemical Vapor Deposition Method for Energy Harvesting Applications

Authors: S. V. N. Pammi, Soon-Gil Yoon


In the present study, we report a facile chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method for Perovskite MAPbI3 thin films by doping with Br and Cl. We performed a systematic optimization of CVD parameters such as deposition temperature, working pressure and annealing time and temperature to obtain high-quality films of CH3NH3PbI3, CH3NH3PbI3-xBrx and CH3NH3PbI3-xClx perovskite. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray Diffraction pattern showed that the perovskite films have a large grain size when compared to traditional spin coated thin films. To the best of our knowledge, there are very few reports on highly quality perovskite thin films by various doping such as Br and Cl using one step CVD and there is scope for significant improvement in device efficiency. In addition, their band-gap can be conveniently and widely tuned via doping process. This deposition process produces perovskite thin films with large grain size, long diffusion length and high surface coverage. The enhancement of the output power, CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3) dye films when compared to spin coated films and enhancement in output power by doping in doped films was demonstrated in detail. The facile one-step method for deposition of perovskite thin films shows a potential candidate for photovoltaic and energy harvesting applications.

Keywords: perovskite thin films, chemical vapor deposition, energy harvesting, photovoltaics

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384 Fabrication of Graphene Oxide Based Planar Hetero-Junction Perovskite Solar Cells

Authors: Khursheed Ahmad, Shaikh M. Mobin


In this work, we have developed a highly stable planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells (PSCs) with a architecture (ITO/GO/PEDOT:PSS/MAPbI3/PCBM/Carbon tape). The PSCs was fabricated under air using GO/PEDOT:PSS as hole transport layer while the carbon tape used as a back contact to complete the device. The fabricated PSCs device exhibited good stability and performance in terms of power conversion efficiency of 5.2%. The PSCs devices were exposed to ambient condition for 4 days which shows excellent stability confirmed by XRD analysis. We believed that the stability of the planar heterojunction perovskite solar cell may be due the presence of GO which inhibits the direct contact between PEDOT:PSS and MAPbI3.

Keywords: graphene oxide, perovskite solar cells, hole transport layer, PEDOT:PSS

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383 Surface Modification of TiO2 Layer with Phosphonic Acid Monolayer in Perovskite Solar Cells: Effect of Chain Length and Terminal Functional Group

Authors: Seid Yimer Abate, Ding-Chi Huang, Yu-Tai Tao


In this study, charge extraction characteristics at the perovskite/TiO2 interface in the conventional perovskite solar cell is studied by interface engineering. Self-assembled monolayers of phosphonic acids with different chain length and terminal functional group were used to modify mesoporous TiO2 surface to modulate the surface property and interfacial energy barrier to investigate their effect on charge extraction and transport from the perovskite to the mp-TiO2 and then the electrode. The chain length introduces a tunnelling distance and the end group modulate the energy level alignment at the mp-TiO2 and perovskite interface. The work function of these SAM-modified mp-TiO2 varied from −3.89 eV to −4.61 eV, with that of the pristine mp-TiO2 at −4.19 eV. A correlation of charge extraction and transport with respect to the modification was attempted. The study serves as a guide to engineer ETL interfaces with simple SAMs to improve the charge extraction, carrier balance and device long term stability. In this study, a maximum PCE of ~16.09% with insignificant hysteresis was obtained, which is 17% higher than the standard device.

Keywords: Energy level alignment, Interface engineering, Perovskite solar cells, Phosphonic acid monolayer, Tunnelling distance

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382 Ammonia Sensing Properties of Nanostructured Hybrid Halide Perovskite Thin Film

Authors: Nidhi Gupta, Omita Nanda, Rakhi Grover, Kanchan Saxena


Hybrid perovskite is new class of material which has gained much attention due to their different crystal structure and interesting optical and electrical properties. Easy fabrication, high absorption coefficient, and photoluminescence properties make them a strong candidate for various applications such as sensors, photovoltaics, photodetectors, etc. In perovskites, ions arrange themselves in a special type of crystal structure with chemical formula ABX3, where A is organic species like CH3NH3+, B is metal ion (e.g., Pb, Sn, etc.) and X is halide (Cl-, Br-, I-). In crystal structure, A is present at corner position, B at center of the crystal lattice and halide ions at the face centers. High stability and sensitivity of nanostructured perovskite make them suitable for chemical sensors. Researchers have studied sensing properties of perovskites for number of analytes such as 2,4,6-trinitrophenol, ethanol and other hazardous chemical compounds. Ammonia being highly toxic agent makes it a reason of concern for the environment. Thus the detection of ammonia is extremely important. Our present investigation deals with organic inorganic hybrid perovskite based ammonia sensor. Various methods like sol-gel, solid state synthesis, thermal vapor deposition etc can be used to synthesize Different hybrid perovskites. In the present work, a novel hybrid perovskite has been synthesized by a single step method. Ethylenediammnedihalide and lead halide were used as precursor. Formation of hybrid perovskite was confirmed by FT-IR and XRD. Morphological characterization of the synthesized material was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM analysis revealed the formation of one dimensional nanowire perovskite with mean diameter of 200 nm. Measurements for sensing properties of halide perovskite for ammonia vapor were carried out. Perovskite thin films showed a color change from yellow to orange on exposure of ammonia vapor. Electro-optical measurements show that sensor based on lead halide perovskite has high sensitivity towards ammonia with effective selectivity and reversibility. Sensor exhibited rapid response time of less than 20 seconds.

Keywords: hybrid perovskite, ammonia, sensor, nanostructure, thin film

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381 Full Potential Calculation of Structural and Electronic Properties of Perovskite BiAlO3 and BiGaO3

Authors: M. Harmel, H. Khachai


The first principles within the full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method were applied to study the structural and electronic properties of cubic perovskite-type compounds BiAlO3 and BiGaO3. The lattice constant, bulk modulus, its pressure derivative, band structure and density of states were obtained. The results show that BiGaO3 should exhibit higher hardness and stiffness than BiAlO3. The Al–O or Ga–O bonds are typically covalent with a strong hybridization as well as Bi–O ones that have a significant ionic character. Both materials are weakly ionic and exhibit wide and indirect band gaps, which are typical of insulators.

Keywords: DFT, Ab initio, electronic structure, Perovskite structure, ferroelectrics

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380 Computational Study on the Crystal Structure, Optoelectronic Properties of Perovskites A2BX6 for Photovoltaic Applications

Authors: Meriem Harmel


The optoelectronic properties and high power conversion efficiency make lead halide perovskites ideal material for solar cell applications. However, the toxic nature of lead and instability of organic cation are the two key challenges in the emerging perovskite solar cells. To overcome these challenges, we present our study about finding potential alternatives to lead in the form of A2BX6 perovskite using the first principles DFT-based calculations. The highly accurate modified Becke Johnson (mBJ) and hybrid functional (HSE06) have been used to investigate the Main Document Click here to view linked References optoelectronic and thermoelectric properties of A2PdBr6 (A = K, Rb, and Cs) perovskite. The results indicate that different A-cations in A2PdBr6 can significantly alter their electronic and optical properties. Calculated band structures indicate semiconducting nature, with band gap values of 1.84, 1.53, and 1.54 eV for K2PdBr6, Rb2PdBr6, and Cs2PdBr6, respectively. We find strong optical absorption in the visible region with small effective masses for A2PdBr6. The ideal band gap and optimum light absorption suggest Rb2PdBr6 and Cs2PdBr6 potential candidates for the light absorption layer in perovskite solar cells. Additionally.

Keywords: solar cell, lead free double perovskite, seebeck coefficient, electronic band structiure

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379 From Synthesis to Application of Photovoltaic Perovskite Nanowires

Authors: László Forró


The organolead halide perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 and its derivatives are known to be very efficient light harvesters revolutionizing the field of solid-state solar cells. The major research area in this field is photovoltaic device engineering although other applications are being explored, as well. Recently, we have shown that nanowires of this photovoltaic perovskite can be synthesized which in association with carbon nanostructures (carbon nanotubes and graphene) make outstanding composites with rapid and strong photo-response. They can serve as conducting electrodes, or as central components of detectors. The performance of several miniature devices based on these composite structures will be demonstrated. Our latest findings on the guided growth of perovskite nanowires by solvatomorph graphoepitaxy will be presented. This method turned out to be a fairly simple approach to overcome the spatially random surface nucleation. The process allows the synthesis of extremely long (centimeters) and thin (a few nanometers) nanowires with a morphology defined by the shape of nanostructured open fluidic channels. This low-temperature solution-growth method could open up an entirely new spectrum of architectural designs of organometallic-halide-perovskite-based heterojunctions and tandem solar cells, LEDs and other optoelectronic devices. Acknowledgment: This work is done in collaboration with Endre Horvath, Massimo Spina, Alla Arakcheeva, Balint Nafradi, Eric Bonvin1, Andrzej Sienkievicz, Zsolt Szekrenyes, Hajnalka Tohati, Katalin Kamaras, Eduard Tutis, Laszlo Mihaly and Karoly Holczer The research is supported by the ERC Advanced Grant (PICOPROP670918).

Keywords: photovoltaics, perovskite, nanowire, photodetector

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378 First Principle Calculations of Magnetic and Electronic Properties of Double Perovskite Ba2MnMoO6

Authors: B. Bouadjemi, S. Bentata, W. Benstaali, A. Souidi, A. Abbad, T. Lantri, Z. Aziz, A. Zitouni


The electronic and magnetic structures of double perovskite Ba2MnMoO6 are systematically investigated using the first principle method of the Full Potential Linear Augmented Plane Waves Plus the Local Orbitals (FP-LAPW+LO) within the Local Spin Density Approximation (LSDA) and the Generalized Gradient Approximation (GGA). In order to take into account the strong on-site Coulomb interaction, we included the Hubbard correlation terms: LSDA+U and GGA+U approaches. Whereas half-metallic ferromagnetic character is observed due to dominant Mn spin-up and Mo spin-down contributions insulating ground state is obtained. The LSDA+U and GGA+U calculations yield better agreement with the theoretical and the experimental results than LSDA and GGA do.

Keywords: electronic structure, double perovskite, first principles, Ba2MnMoO6, half-metallic

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377 Perovskite-Type La1−xCaxAlO3 (x=0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6) as Active Anode Materials for Methanol Oxidation in Alkaline Solutions

Authors: M. Diafi, M. Omari, B. Gasmi


Perovskite-type La1−xCaxAlO3 were synthesized at 1000◦C by a co- precipitation method. The synthesized oxide powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the oxide powders were produced in the form of films on pretreated Ni-supports by an oxide-slurry painting technique their electrocatalytic activities towards methanol oxidation in alkaline solutions at 25°C using cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, and anodic Tafel polarization techniques. The oxide catalysts followed the rhombohedral hexagonal crystal geometry. The rate of electro-oxidation of methanol was found to increase with increasing substitution of La by Ca in the oxide matrix. The reaction indicated a Tafel slope of ~2.303RT/F, The electrochemical apparent activation energy (〖∆H〗_el^(°#)) was observed to decrease on increasing Ca content. The results point out the optimum electrode activity and stability of the Ca is x=0.6 of composition.

Keywords: electrocatalysis, oxygen evolution, perovskite-type La1−x Cax AlO3, methanol oxidation

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376 Barrier Lowering in Contacts between Graphene and Semiconductor Materials

Authors: Zhipeng Dong, Jing Guo


Graphene-semiconductor contacts have been extensively studied recently, both as a stand-alone diode device for potential applications in photodetectors and solar cells, and as a building block to vertical transistors. Graphene is a two-dimensional nanomaterial with vanishing density-of-states at the Dirac point, which differs from conventional metal. In this work, image-charge-induced barrier lowering (BL) in graphene-semiconductor contacts is studied and compared to that in metal Schottky contacts. The results show that despite of being a semimetal with vanishing density-of-states at the Dirac point, the image-charge-induced BL is significant. The BL value can be over 50% of that of metal contacts even in an intrinsic graphene contacted to an organic semiconductor, and it increases as the graphene doping increases. The dependences of the BL on the electric field and semiconductor dielectric constant are examined, and an empirical expression for estimating the image-charge-induced BL in graphene-semiconductor contacts is provided.

Keywords: graphene, semiconductor materials, schottky barrier, image charge, contacts

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375 In situ Investigation of PbI₂ Precursor Film Formation and Its Subsequent Conversion to Mixed Cation Perovskite

Authors: Dounya Barrit, Ming-Chun Tang, Hoang Dang, Kai Wang, Detlef-M. Smilgies, Aram Amassian


Several deposition methods have been developed for perovskite film preparation. The one-step spin-coating process has emerged as a more popular option thanks to its ability to produce films of different compositions, including mixed cation and mixed halide perovskites, which can stabilize the perovskite phase and produce phases with desired band gap. The two-step method, however, is not understood in great detail. There is a significant need and opportunity to adopt the two-step process toward mixed cation and mixed halide perovskites, but this requires deeper understanding of the two-step conversion process, for instance when using different cations and mixtures thereof, to produce high-quality perovskite films with uniform composition. In this work, we demonstrate using in situ investigations that the conversion of PbI₂ to perovskite is largely dictated by the state of the PbI₂ precursor film in terms of its solvated state. Using time-resolved grazing incidence wide-angle X-Ray scattering (GIWAXS) measurements during spin coating of PbI₂ from a DMF (Dimethylformamide) solution we show the film formation to be a sol-gel process involving three PbI₂-DMF solvate complexes: disordered precursor (P₀), ordered precursor (P₁, P₂) prior to PbI₂ formation at room temperature after 5 minutes. The ordered solvates are highly metastable and eventually disappear, but we show that performing conversion from P₀, P₁, P₂ or PbI₂ can lead to very different conversion behaviors and outcomes. We compare conversion behaviors by using MAI (Methylammonium iodide), FAI (Formamidinium Iodide) and mixtures of these cations, and show that conversion can occur spontaneously and quite rapidly at room temperature without requiring further thermal annealing. We confirm this by demonstrating improvements in the morphology and microstructure of the resulting perovskite films, using techniques such as in situ quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring, SEM and XRD.

Keywords: in situ GIWAXS, lead iodide, mixed cation, perovskite solar cell, sol-gel process, solvate phase

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374 Synthesis of Iron-Based Perovskite Type Catalysts from Rust Wastes as a Source of Iron

Authors: M. P. Joshi, F. Deganello, L. F. Liotta, V. La Parola, G. Pantaleo


For the first time, commercial iron nitrate was replaced by rust wastes, as a source of Iron for the preparation of LaFeO₃ powders by solution combustion synthesis (SCS). A detailed comparison with a reference powder obtained by SCS, starting from a commercial iron nitrate, was also performed. Several techniques such as X-ray diffraction combined with Rietveld refinement, mass plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption measurements, temperature programmed reduction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform analysis and scanning electron microscopy were used for the characterization of the rust wastes as well as of the perovskite powders. The performance of this ecofriendly material was evaluated by testing the activity and selectivity in the propylene oxidation, in order to use it for the benefit of the environment. Characterization and performance results clearly evidenced limitations and peculiarities of this new approach.

Keywords: perovskite type catalysts, solution combustion synthesis, X-ray diffraction, rust wastes

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373 Electrotechnology for Silicon Refining: Plasma Generator and Arc Furnace Installations and Theoretical Base

Authors: Ashot Navasardian, Mariam Vardanian, Vladik Vardanian


The photovoltaic and the semiconductor industries are in growth and it is necessary to supply a large amount of silicon to maintain this growth. Since silicon is still the best material for the manufacturing of solar cells and semiconductor components so the pure silicon like solar grade and semiconductor grade materials are demanded. There are two main routes for silicon production: metallurgical and chemical. In this article, we reviewed the electrotecnological installations and systems for semiconductor manufacturing. The main task is to design the installation which can produce SOG Silicon from river sand by one work unit.

Keywords: metallurgical grade silicon, solar grade silicon, impurity, refining, plasma

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372 Study of a Fabry-Perot Resonator

Authors: F. Hadjaj, A. Belghachi, A. Halmaoui, M. Belhadj, H. Mazouz


A laser is essentially an optical oscillator consisting of a resonant cavity, an amplifying medium and a pumping source. In semiconductor diode lasers, the cavity is created by the boundary between the cleaved face of the semiconductor crystal and air and also has reflective properties as a result of the differing refractive indices of the two media. For a GaAs-air interface a reflectance of 0.3 is typical and therefore the length of the semiconductor junction forms the resonant cavity. To prevent light, being emitted in unwanted directions from the junction and Sides perpendicular to the required direction are roughened. The objective of this work is to simulate the optical resonator Fabry-Perot and explore its main characteristics, such as FSR, Finesse, Linewidth, Transmission and so on that describe the performance of resonator.

Keywords: Fabry-Perot Resonator, laser diod, reflectance, semiconductor

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371 Study on Filter for Semiconductor of Minimizing Damage by X-Ray Laminography

Authors: Chan Jong Park, Hye Min Park, Jeong Ho Kim, Ki Hyun Park, Koan Sik Joo


This research used the MCNPX simulation program to evaluate the utility of a filter that was developed to minimize the damage to a semiconductor device during defect testing with X-ray. The X-ray generator was designed using the MCNPX code, and the X-ray absorption spectrum of the semiconductor device was obtained based on the designed X-ray generator code. To evaluate the utility of the filter, the X-ray absorption rates of the semiconductor device were calculated and compared for Ag, Rh, Mo and V filters with thicknesses of 25μm, 50μm, and 75μm. The results showed that the X-ray absorption rate varied with the type and thickness of the filter, ranging from 8.74% to 49.28%. The Rh filter showed the highest X-ray absorption rates of 29.8%, 15.18% and 8.74% for the above-mentioned filter thicknesses. As shown above, the characteristics of the X-ray absorption with respect to the type and thickness of the filter were identified using MCNPX simulation. With these results, both time and expense could be saved in the production of the desired filter. In the future, this filter will be produced, and its performance will be evaluated.

Keywords: X-ray, MCNPX, filter, semiconductor, damage

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370 Investigation of Al/Si, Au/Si and Au/GaAs Interfaces by Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy

Authors: Abdulnasser S. Saleh


The importance of metal-semiconductor interfaces comes from the fact that most electronic devices are interconnected using metallic wiring that forms metal–semiconductor contacts. The properties of these contacts can vary considerably depending on the nature of the interface with the semiconductor. Variable-energy positron annihilation spectroscopy has been applied to study interfaces in Al/Si, Au/Si, and Au/GaAs structures. A computational modeling by ROYPROF program is used to analyze Doppler broadening results in order to determine kinds of regions that positrons are likely to sample. In all fittings, the interfaces are found 1 nm thick and act as an absorbing sink for positrons diffusing towards them and may be regarded as highly defective. Internal electric fields were found to influence positrons diffusing to the interfaces and unable to force them cross to the other side. The materials positron affinities are considered in understanding such motion. The results of these theoretical fittings have clearly demonstrated the sensitivity of interfaces in any fitting attempts of analyzing positron spectroscopy data and gave valuable information about metal-semiconductor interfaces.

Keywords: interfaces, semiconductor, positron, defects

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369 Robust Half-Metallicity and Magnetic Properties of Cubic PrMnO3 Perovskite

Authors: B. Bouadjemi, S. Bentata, W. Benstaali, A. Abbad, T. Lantri, A. Zitouni


The purpose of this study was to investigate the structural,electronic and magnetic properties of the cubic praseodymium oxides perovskites PrMnO3. It includes our calculations based on the use of the density functional theory (DFT) with both generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and GGA+U approaches, The spin polarized electronic band structures and densities of states aswellas the integer value of the magnetic moment of the unit cell (6 μB) illustrate that PrMnO3 is half-metallic ferromagnetic. The study shows that the robust half-metallicity makes the cubic PrMnO3 a promising candidate for application in spintronics.

Keywords: Perovskite, DFT, electronic properties, Magnetic moment, half-metallic

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368 Processing and Characterization of (Pb0.55Ca0.45) (Fe0.5Nb0.5)O3 and (Pb0.45Ca0.55) (Fe0.5Nb0.5) O3 Dielectric Ceramics

Authors: Shalini Bahel, Maalti Puri, Sukhleen Bindra Narang


Ceramic samples of (Pb0.55Ca0.45) (Fe0.5Nb0.5)O3 and (Pb0.45Ca0.55)(Fe0.5Nb0.5)O3 were synthesized by columbite precursor method and characterized for structural and dielectric properties. Both the synthesized samples have perovskite structure with tetragonal symmetry. The variations in relative permittivity and loss tangent were measured as a function of frequency at room temperature. Both the relative permittivity and loss tangent decreased with increase in frequency. A reasonably high value of relative permittivity of 63.46, loss tangent of 0.0067 at 15 MHz and temperature coefficient of relative permittivity of -82 ppm/˚C was obtained for (Pb0.45Ca0.55) (Fe0.5Nb0.5) O3.

Keywords: loss tangent, perovskite, relative permittivity, X-ray diffraction

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367 Synthesis, Characterization and Gas Sensing Applications of Perovskite CaZrO3 Nanoparticles

Authors: B. M. Patil


Calcium Zirconate (CaZrO3) has high protonic conductivities at elevated temperature in water or hydrogen atmosphere. Undoped calcium zirconate acts as a p-type semiconductor in air. In this paper, we reported synthesis of CaZrO3 nanoparticles via modified molecular precursor method. The precursor calcium zirconium oxalate (CZO) was synthesized by exchange reaction between freshly generated aqueous solution of sodium zirconyl oxalate and calcium acetate at room temperature. The controlled pyrolysis of CZO in air at 700°C for one hour resulted in the formation nanocrystalline CaZrO3 powder. CaZrO3 obtained by the present method was characterized by Simultaneous thermogravimetry and differential thermogravimetry (TG-DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infra-red spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The pellets of synthesized CaZrO3 fabricated, sintered at 1000°C for 5 hr and tested as sensors for NO2 and NH3 gases.

Keywords: CaZrO3, CZO, NO2, NH3

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366 Trions in Semiconductor Quantum Dot System

Authors: Jayden Leonard, Nguyen Que Huong


In this work, we study the Trion state in a spherical quantum dot of a direct band gap semiconductor with a shell of organic material. The electronic structure of the Trion due to degenerate valence band will be considered. The coupling between the wannier exciton inside the dot and the Frenkel exciton in the shell will make the Trion state become hybrid. The competition between “semiconductor” and “organic” phases of the Trion and the transitions between them depend on Parameters of the system such as the materials, the size of the dot and the thickness of the shell, etc… and could be manipulated using those parameters.

Keywords: trion, exciton, quantum dot, heterostructure

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