Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3258

Search results for: opinion detection

3258 Lexical Based Method for Opinion Detection on Tripadvisor Collection

Authors: Faiza Belbachir, Thibault Schienhinski

Abstract:

The massive development of online social networks allows users to post and share their opinions on various topics. With this huge volume of opinion, it is interesting to extract and interpret these information for different domains, e.g., product and service benchmarking, politic, system of recommendation. This is why opinion detection is one of the most important research tasks. It consists on differentiating between opinion data and factual data. The difficulty of this task is to determine an approach which returns opinionated document. Generally, there are two approaches used for opinion detection i.e. Lexical based approaches and Machine Learning based approaches. In Lexical based approaches, a dictionary of sentimental words is used, words are associated with weights. The opinion score of document is derived by the occurrence of words from this dictionary. In Machine learning approaches, usually a classifier is trained using a set of annotated document containing sentiment, and features such as n-grams of words, part-of-speech tags, and logical forms. Majority of these works are based on documents text to determine opinion score but dont take into account if these texts are really correct. Thus, it is interesting to exploit other information to improve opinion detection. In our work, we will develop a new way to consider the opinion score. We introduce the notion of trust score. We determine opinionated documents but also if these opinions are really trustable information in relation with topics. For that we use lexical SentiWordNet to calculate opinion and trust scores, we compute different features about users like (numbers of their comments, numbers of their useful comments, Average useful review). After that, we combine opinion score and trust score to obtain a final score. We applied our method to detect trust opinions in TRIPADVISOR collection. Our experimental results report that the combination between opinion score and trust score improves opinion detection.

Keywords: Tripadvisor, opinion detection, SentiWordNet, trust score

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
3257 A Framework for Review Spam Detection Research

Authors: Mohammadali Tavakoli, Atefeh Heydari, Zuriati Ismail, Naomie Salim

Abstract:

With the increasing number of people reviewing products online in recent years, opinion sharing websites has become the most important source of customers’ opinions. Unfortunately, spammers generate and post fake reviews in order to promote or demote brands and mislead potential customers. These are notably destructive not only for potential customers but also for business holders and manufacturers. However, research in this area is not adequate, and many critical problems related to spam detection have not been solved to date. To provide green researchers in the domain with a great aid, in this paper, we have attempted to create a high-quality framework to make a clear vision on review spam-detection methods. In addition, this report contains a comprehensive collection of detection metrics used in proposed spam-detection approaches. These metrics are extremely applicable for developing novel detection methods.

Keywords: fake reviews, feature collection, opinion spam, spam detection

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
3256 A Supervised Approach for Detection of Singleton Spam Reviews

Authors: Atefeh Heydari, Mohammadali Tavakoli, Naomie Salim

Abstract:

In recent years, we have witnessed that online reviews are the most important source of customers’ opinion. They are progressively more used by individuals and organisations to make purchase and business decisions. Unfortunately, for the reason of profit or fame, frauds produce deceptive reviews to hoodwink potential customers. Their activities mislead not only potential customers to make appropriate purchasing decisions and organisations to reshape their business, but also opinion mining techniques by preventing them from reaching accurate results. Spam reviews could be divided into two main groups, i.e. multiple and singleton spam reviews. Detecting a singleton spam review that is the only review written by a user ID is extremely challenging due to lack of clue for detection purposes. Singleton spam reviews are very harmful and various features and proofs used in multiple spam reviews detection are not applicable in this case. Current research aims to propose a novel supervised technique to detect singleton spam reviews. To achieve this, various features are proposed in this study and are to be combined with the most appropriate features extracted from literature and employed in a classifier. In order to compare the performance of different classifiers, SVM and naive Bayes classification algorithms were used for model building. The results revealed that SVM was more accurate than naive Bayes and our proposed technique is capable to detect singleton spam reviews effectively.

Keywords: classification algorithms, Naïve Bayes, opinion review spam detection, singleton review spam detection, support vector machine

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
3255 Independent Audit in Brazilian Companies Listed on B3: An Analysis of Companies That Received Qualified Opinion and Disclaimer of Opinion

Authors: Diego Saldo Alves, Marcelo Paveck Ayub

Abstract:

The quality of accounting information is very important for the decision-making of managers, investors government and other information users. The opinion of the independent audit has a significant influence on the decision-making, especially the investors. Therefore, the aim of this study is to analyze the reasons that companies listed on Brazilian Stock Exchange B3, if they received qualified opinion and disclaimer of opinion of the independent auditors. We analyzed the reports of the independent auditors of 23 Brazilian companies listed in B3 that received qualified opinion and disclaimer of opinion between the years 2012 and 2017. The findings show that the companies do not comply the International Financial Reporting Standard, IFRS, also they did not provide documentation to prove the operations performed, did not account expenses, problems in corporate governance and internal controls.

Keywords: audit, disclaimer of opinion, independent auditors, qualified opinion

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
3254 Effects of Initial State on Opinion Formation in Complex Social Networks with Noises

Authors: Yi Yu, Vu Xuan Nguyen, Gaoxi Xiao

Abstract:

Opinion formation in complex social networks may exhibit complex system dynamics even when based on some simplest system evolution models. An interesting and important issue is the effects of the initial state on the final steady-state opinion distribution. By carrying out extensive simulations and providing necessary discussions, we show that, while different initial opinion distributions certainly make differences to opinion evolution in social systems without noises, in systems with noises, given enough time, different initial states basically do not contribute to making any significant differences in the final steady state. Instead, it is the basal distribution of the preferred opinions that contributes to deciding the final state of the systems. We briefly explain the reasons leading to the observed conclusions. Such an observation contradicts with a long-term belief on the roles of system initial state in opinion formation, demonstrating the dominating role that opinion mutation can play in opinion formation given enough time. The observation may help to better understand certain observations of opinion evolution dynamics in real-life social networks.

Keywords: opinion formation, Deffuant model, opinion mutation, consensus making

Procedia PDF Downloads 91
3253 The Magnitude Scale Evaluation of Cross-Platform Internet Public Opinion

Authors: Yi Wang, Xun Liang

Abstract:

This paper introduces a model of internet public opinion waves, which describes the message propagation and measures the influence of a detected event. We collect data on public opinion propagation from different platforms on the internet, including micro-blogs and news. Then, we compare the spread of public opinion to the seismic waves and correspondently define the P-wave and S-wave and other essential attributes and characteristics in the process. Further, a model is established to evaluate the magnitude scale of the events. In the end, a practical example is used to analyze the influence of network public opinion and test the reasonability and effectiveness of the proposed model.

Keywords: internet public opinion waves (IPOW), magnitude scale, cross-platform, information propagation

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
3252 Feature-Based Summarizing and Ranking from Customer Reviews

Authors: Dim En Nyaung, Thin Lai Lai Thein

Abstract:

Due to the rapid increase of Internet, web opinion sources dynamically emerge which is useful for both potential customers and product manufacturers for prediction and decision purposes. These are the user generated contents written in natural languages and are unstructured-free-texts scheme. Therefore, opinion mining techniques become popular to automatically process customer reviews for extracting product features and user opinions expressed over them. Since customer reviews may contain both opinionated and factual sentences, a supervised machine learning technique applies for subjectivity classification to improve the mining performance. In this paper, we dedicate our work is the task of opinion summarization. Therefore, product feature and opinion extraction is critical to opinion summarization, because its effectiveness significantly affects the identification of semantic relationships. The polarity and numeric score of all the features are determined by Senti-WordNet Lexicon. The problem of opinion summarization refers how to relate the opinion words with respect to a certain feature. Probabilistic based model of supervised learning will improve the result that is more flexible and effective.

Keywords: opinion mining, opinion summarization, sentiment analysis, text mining

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
3251 Review for Identifying Online Opinion Leaders

Authors: Yu Wang

Abstract:

Nowadays, Internet enables its users to share the information online and to interact with others. Facing with numerous information, these Internet users are confused and begin to rely on the opinion leaders’ recommendations. The online opinion leaders are the individuals who have professional knowledge, who utilize the online channels to spread word-of-mouth information and who can affect the attitudes or even the behavior of their followers to some degree. Because utilizing the online opinion leaders is seen as an important approach to affect the potential consumers, how to identify them has become one of the hottest topics in the related field. Hence, in this article, the concepts and characteristics are introduced, and the researches related to identifying opinion leaders are collected and divided into three categories. Finally, the implications for future studies are provided.

Keywords: online opinion leaders, user attributes analysis, text mining analysis, network structure analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 146
3250 The Research on Association between Social Media and Audit Opinion

Authors: Meiqun Yin, Jidong Zhang, Fan Liu

Abstract:

The paper investigates the impact of social media on audit opinion. The numbers of posting and reposting negative reports from SINA Micro-blog are collected to measure the influence of social media. The research collected the samples from Chinese public firms from 2012 to 2014. It is found that the numbers of posting and reposting negative reports in SINA Micro-Blog would significantly relate to the qualified opinion while controlling firm size. Another finding is that the numbers of posting and reposting negative reports would be much more significantly impact on audit opinion if the firm received a qualified opinion in the previous period. It is also found that the involvement of more independent directors has no relationship with the influence of social media on audit opinion.

Keywords: association, social media, audit opinion, SINA Micro-Blog

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
3249 Dynamic Transmission Modes of Network Public Opinion on Subevents Clusters of an Emergent Event

Authors: Yuan Xu, Xun Liang, Meina Zhang

Abstract:

The rise and attenuation of the public opinion broadcast of an emergent accident, in the social network, has a close relationship with the dynamic development of its subevents cluster. In this article, we take Tianjin Port explosion's subevents as an example to research the dynamic propagation discipline of Internet public opinion in a sudden accident, and analyze the overall structure of dynamic propagation to propose four different routes for subevents clusters propagation. We also generate network diagrams for the dynamic public opinion propagation, analyze each propagation type specifically. Based on this, suggestions on the supervision and guidance of Internet public opinion broadcast can be made.

Keywords: network dynamic transmission modes, emergent subevents clusters, Tianjin Port explosion, public opinion supervision

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
3248 Hybrid Hierarchical Clustering Approach for Community Detection in Social Network

Authors: Radhia Toujani, Jalel Akaichi

Abstract:

Social Networks generally present a hierarchy of communities. To determine these communities and the relationship between them, detection algorithms should be applied. Most of the existing algorithms, proposed for hierarchical communities identification, are based on either agglomerative clustering or divisive clustering. In this paper, we present a hybrid hierarchical clustering approach for community detection based on both bottom-up and bottom-down clustering. Obviously, our approach provides more relevant community structure than hierarchical method which considers only divisive or agglomerative clustering to identify communities. Moreover, we performed some comparative experiments to enhance the quality of the clustering results and to show the effectiveness of our algorithm.

Keywords: agglomerative hierarchical clustering, community structure, divisive hierarchical clustering, hybrid hierarchical clustering, opinion mining, social network, social network analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
3247 Efficient Signal Detection Using QRD-M Based on Channel Condition in MIMO-OFDM System

Authors: Jae-Jeong Kim, Ki-Ro Kim, Hyoung-Kyu Song

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose an efficient signal detector that switches M parameter of QRD-M detection scheme is proposed for MIMO-OFDM system. The proposed detection scheme calculates the threshold by 1-norm condition number and then switches M parameter of QRD-M detection scheme according to channel information. If channel condition is bad, the parameter M is set to high value to increase the accuracy of detection. If channel condition is good, the parameter M is set to low value to reduce complexity of detection. Therefore, the proposed detection scheme has better trade off between BER performance and complexity than the conventional detection scheme. The simulation result shows that the complexity of proposed detection scheme is lower than QRD-M detection scheme with similar BER performance.

Keywords: MIMO-OFDM, QRD-M, channel condition, BER

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
3246 Moderating Effect of Owner's Influence on the Relationship between the Probability of Client Failure and Going Concern Opinion Issuance

Authors: Mohammad Noor Hisham Osman, Ahmed Razman Abdul Latiff, Zaidi Mat Daud, Zulkarnain Muhamad Sori

Abstract:

The problem that Malaysian auditors do not issue going concern opinion (GC opinion) to seriously financially distressed companies is still a pressing issue. Policy makers, particularly the Financial Statement Review Committee (FSRC) of Malaysian Institute of Accountant, have raised this issue as early as in 2009. Similar problem happened in the US, UK, and many developing countries. It is important for auditors to issue GC opinion properly because such opinion is one signal about the viability of a company much needed by stakeholders. There are at least two unanswered questions or research gaps in the literature on determinants of GC opinion. Firstly, is client’s probability of failure associated with GC opinion issuance? Secondly, to what extent influential owners (management, family, and institution) moderate the association between client probability of failure and GC opinion issuance. The objective of this study is, therefore, twofold; (1) To examine the extent of the relationship between the probability of client failure and the issuance of GC opinion and (2) To examine the level of management, family, and institutional ownerships moderate the association between client probability of failure and the issuance of GC opinion. This study is quantitative in nature, and the sources of data are secondary (mainly company’s annual reports). A total of four hypotheses have been developed and tested on data accumulated from annual reports of seriously financially distressed Malaysian public listed companies. Data from 2006 to 2012 on a sample of 644 observations have been analyzed using panel logistic regression. It is found that certainty (rather than probability) of client failure affects the issuance of GC opinion. In addition, it is found that only the level of family ownership does positively moderate the relationship between client probability of failure and GC opinion issuance. This study is a contribution to auditing literature as its findings can enhance our understanding about audit quality; particularly on the variables that are associated with the issuance of GC opinion. The findings of this study shed light on the roles family owners in GC opinion issuance process, and this would open ways for the researcher to suggest measures that can be used to tackle the problem of auditors do not want to issue GC opinion to financially distressed clients. The measures to be suggested can be useful to policy makers in formulating future promulgations.

Keywords: audit quality, auditing, auditor characteristics, going concern opinion, Malaysia

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
3245 Reduced Complexity of ML Detection Combined with DFE

Authors: Jae-Hyun Ro, Yong-Jun Kim, Chang-Bin Ha, Hyoung-Kyu Song

Abstract:

In multiple input multiple output-orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) systems, many detection schemes have been developed to improve the error performance and to reduce the complexity. Maximum likelihood (ML) detection has optimal error performance but it has very high complexity. Thus, this paper proposes reduced complexity of ML detection combined with decision feedback equalizer (DFE). The error performance of the proposed detection scheme is higher than the conventional DFE. But the complexity of the proposed scheme is lower than the conventional ML detection.

Keywords: detection, DFE, MIMO-OFDM, ML

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3244 The Role of British Public Opinion in the Process of the Great Britain’s Involvement in the Crimean War

Authors: Aysen Muderrisoglu

Abstract:

As a result of the policies constituted and pursued by Russia which aimed to gain territory and power at Ottoman expense, Crimean War broke out in 1853. Nevertheless, the Eastern policies of Russia were in contradiction with the interests of Great Britain which was the great power of the era. Yet, it did hesitate to be confronted with Russian on its route to India, so the Ottoman territorial integrity was defended. In that period, Tzar Nicholas II, to begin with, tried to eliminate a probable opposition coming from the British side, and then tried its chance to build up cooperation with Britain on the territories of the sick man. As a more positive relation was being observed between these two states before the Crimean War, Great Britain initially had adopted a neutral policy. However, in the end, Britain entered the war against Russia due to the efforts of the opposing side in the British Parliament and the rising pressure of the public opinion. The article aims to examine the role of British public opinion in the process of Great Britain’s Involvement in this war. Also, the article will try to find an answer to the following question: to what extent did the public opinion become effective on the foreign policy-making of Great Britain before the war?

Keywords: British press, Crimean war, Great Britain, public opinion

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
3243 An Architecture for New Generation of Distributed Intrusion Detection System Based on Preventive Detection

Authors: H. Benmoussa, A. A. El Kalam, A. Ait Ouahman

Abstract:

The design and implementation of intrusion detection systems (IDS) remain an important area of research in the security of information systems. Despite the importance and reputation of the current intrusion detection systems, their efficiency and effectiveness remain limited as they should include active defense approach to allow anticipating and predicting intrusions before their occurrence. Consequently, they must be readapted. For this purpose we suggest a new generation of distributed intrusion detection system based on preventive detection approach and using intelligent and mobile agents. Our architecture benefits from mobile agent features and addresses some of the issues with centralized and hierarchical models. Also, it presents advantages in terms of increasing scalability and flexibility.

Keywords: Intrusion Detection System (IDS), preventive detection, mobile agents, distributed architecture

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3242 Self-Regulation in Composition Writing: The Case of Variation of Self-Regulation Dispositions in Opinion Essay and Technical Writing

Authors: Dave Kenneth Tayao Cayado, Carlo P. Magno, Venice Cristine Dangaran

Abstract:

The present study determines whether there will be differences in the self-regulation dispositions that learners utilize when writing different types of composition. There were 7 self-regulation factors that were used to develop a scale in this study such as memory strategy, goal setting, self-evaluation, seeking assistance, learning responsibility, environmental structuring, and organizing. The scale was made specific for writing a composition. The researcher-made scale was administered to 150 participants who all came from a university in the Philippines. The participants were asked to write two compositions namely opinion essay and research introduction/review of related literature. The zero-order correlation revealed that all the factors of self-regulation are correlated with one another. However, only seeking assistance and self-evaluation are correlated with opinion essay and technical writing is not correlated to any of the self-regulation factors. However, when path analysis was used, it was shown that seeking assistance can predict opinion essay scores whereas memory strategy, self-evaluation, and organizing can predict technical writing scores.

Keywords: opinion essay, self-regulation, technical writing, writing skills

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3241 Video Based Ambient Smoke Detection By Detecting Directional Contrast Decrease

Authors: Omair Ghori, Anton Stadler, Stefan Wilk, Wolfgang Effelsberg

Abstract:

Fire-related incidents account for extensive loss of life and material damage. Quick and reliable detection of occurring fires has high real world implications. Whereas a major research focus lies on the detection of outdoor fires, indoor camera-based fire detection is still an open issue. Cameras in combination with computer vision helps to detect flames and smoke more quickly than conventional fire detectors. In this work, we present a computer vision-based smoke detection algorithm based on contrast changes and a multi-step classification. This work accelerates computer vision-based fire detection considerably in comparison with classical indoor-fire detection.

Keywords: contrast analysis, early fire detection, video smoke detection, video surveillance

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
3240 Developing A Third Degree Of Freedom For Opinion Dynamics Models Using Scales

Authors: Dino Carpentras, Alejandro Dinkelberg, Michael Quayle

Abstract:

Opinion dynamics models use an agent-based modeling approach to model people’s opinions. Model's properties are usually explored by testing the two 'degrees of freedom': the interaction rule and the network topology. The latter defines the connection, and thus the possible interaction, among agents. The interaction rule, instead, determines how agents select each other and update their own opinion. Here we show the existence of the third degree of freedom. This can be used for turning one model into each other or to change the model’s output up to 100% of its initial value. Opinion dynamics models represent the evolution of real-world opinions parsimoniously. Thus, it is fundamental to know how real-world opinion (e.g., supporting a candidate) could be turned into a number. Specifically, we want to know if, by choosing a different opinion-to-number transformation, the model’s dynamics would be preserved. This transformation is typically not addressed in opinion dynamics literature. However, it has already been studied in psychometrics, a branch of psychology. In this field, real-world opinions are converted into numbers using abstract objects called 'scales.' These scales can be converted one into the other, in the same way as we convert meters to feet. Thus, in our work, we analyze how this scale transformation may affect opinion dynamics models. We perform our analysis both using mathematical modeling and validating it via agent-based simulations. To distinguish between scale transformation and measurement error, we first analyze the case of perfect scales (i.e., no error or noise). Here we show that a scale transformation may change the model’s dynamics up to a qualitative level. Meaning that a researcher may reach a totally different conclusion, even using the same dataset just by slightly changing the way data are pre-processed. Indeed, we quantify that this effect may alter the model’s output by 100%. By using two models from the standard literature, we show that a scale transformation can transform one model into the other. This transformation is exact, and it holds for every result. Lastly, we also test the case of using real-world data (i.e., finite precision). We perform this test using a 7-points Likert scale, showing how even a small scale change may result in different predictions or a number of opinion clusters. Because of this, we think that scale transformation should be considered as a third-degree of freedom for opinion dynamics. Indeed, its properties have a strong impact both on theoretical models and for their application to real-world data.

Keywords: degrees of freedom, empirical validation, opinion scale, opinion dynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
3239 Intrusion Detection Techniques in NaaS in the Cloud: A Review

Authors: Rashid Mahmood

Abstract:

The network as a service (NaaS) usage has been well-known from the last few years in the many applications, like mission critical applications. In the NaaS, prevention method is not adequate as the security concerned, so the detection method should be added to the security issues in NaaS. The authentication and encryption are considered the first solution of the NaaS problem whereas now these are not sufficient as NaaS use is increasing. In this paper, we are going to present the concept of intrusion detection and then survey some of major intrusion detection techniques in NaaS and aim to compare in some important fields.

Keywords: IDS, cloud, naas, detection

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
3238 The Role of Online Deliberation on Citizens’ Attitudes

Authors: Amalia Triantafillidoy, Georgios Lappas, Prodromos Yannas, Alexandros Kleftodimos

Abstract:

In this paper an experiment was conducted to assess the impact of online deliberation on citizens’ attitudes. Specifically, this research compared pre and post deliberation opinions of participants who deliberated online via an asynchronous platform regarding the issue of political opinion polls. Results indicate that online deliberation had a positive effect on citizens’ attitudes since it was found that following deliberation participants changed their views regarding public opinion polls. Specifically, online deliberation improved discussants perceptions regarding the reliability of polls, while suppressing their negative views about the misuse of polls by media, polling organizations and politicians.

Keywords: attitudes change, e-democracy, online deliberation, opinion polls

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
3237 Social Media and Political Expression: Examining Affordances and Spiral of Silence Theories

Authors: Mustafa Oz

Abstract:

This study compares how do people express their opinions on the Facebook versus on Twitter. It was sought to understand whether people were more willing to express their opinions on some social media channels than others. It was assumed that fear of isolation and affordances may influence users’ opinion expression behaviors on social media websites. Thus two most popular social media websites, Twitter and Facebook, were compared. This study aims to provide the comprehensive understanding of political expression on social media platforms. An online survey (N=535) was conducted to understand respondents’ opinion expression behaviors. Overall, the results suggested that people were more likely to express their opinion on Twitter than Facebook when they think the majority does not support their opinion. The study concluded that people operate differently on Facebook versus Twitter.

Keywords: social media, spiral of silence, affordances, political expression

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
3236 Opinion Mining and Sentiment Analysis on DEFT

Authors: Najiba Ouled Omar, Azza Harbaoui, Henda Ben Ghezala

Abstract:

Current research practices sentiment analysis with a focus on social networks, DEfi Fouille de Texte (DEFT) (Text Mining Challenge) evaluation campaign focuses on opinion mining and sentiment analysis on social networks, especially social network Twitter. It aims to confront the systems produced by several teams from public and private research laboratories. DEFT offers participants the opportunity to work on regularly renewed themes and proposes to work on opinion mining in several editions. The purpose of this article is to scrutinize and analyze the works relating to opinions mining and sentiment analysis in the Twitter social network realized by DEFT. It examines the tasks proposed by the organizers of the challenge and the methods used by the participants.

Keywords: opinion mining, sentiment analysis, emotion, polarity, annotation, OSEE, figurative language, DEFT, Twitter, Tweet

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
3235 Adding a Degree of Freedom to Opinion Dynamics Models

Authors: Dino Carpentras, Alejandro Dinkelberg, Michael Quayle

Abstract:

Within agent-based modeling, opinion dynamics is the field that focuses on modeling people's opinions. In this prolific field, most of the literature is dedicated to the exploration of the two 'degrees of freedom' and how they impact the model’s properties (e.g., the average final opinion, the number of final clusters, etc.). These degrees of freedom are (1) the interaction rule, which determines how agents update their own opinion, and (2) the network topology, which defines the possible interaction among agents. In this work, we show that the third degree of freedom exists. This can be used to change a model's output up to 100% of its initial value or to transform two models (both from the literature) into each other. Since opinion dynamics models are representations of the real world, it is fundamental to understand how people’s opinions can be measured. Even for abstract models (i.e., not intended for the fitting of real-world data), it is important to understand if the way of numerically representing opinions is unique; and, if this is not the case, how the model dynamics would change by using different representations. The process of measuring opinions is non-trivial as it requires transforming real-world opinion (e.g., supporting most of the liberal ideals) to a number. Such a process is usually not discussed in opinion dynamics literature, but it has been intensively studied in a subfield of psychology called psychometrics. In psychometrics, opinion scales can be converted into each other, similarly to how meters can be converted to feet. Indeed, psychometrics routinely uses both linear and non-linear transformations of opinion scales. Here, we analyze how this transformation affects opinion dynamics models. We analyze this effect by using mathematical modeling and then validating our analysis with agent-based simulations. Firstly, we study the case of perfect scales. In this way, we show that scale transformations affect the model’s dynamics up to a qualitative level. This means that if two researchers use the same opinion dynamics model and even the same dataset, they could make totally different predictions just because they followed different renormalization processes. A similar situation appears if two different scales are used to measure opinions even on the same population. This effect may be as strong as providing an uncertainty of 100% on the simulation’s output (i.e., all results are possible). Still, by using perfect scales, we show that scales transformations can be used to perfectly transform one model to another. We test this using two models from the standard literature. Finally, we test the effect of scale transformation in the case of finite precision using a 7-points Likert scale. In this way, we show how a relatively small-scale transformation introduces both changes at the qualitative level (i.e., the most shared opinion at the end of the simulation) and in the number of opinion clusters. Thus, scale transformation appears to be a third degree of freedom of opinion dynamics models. This result deeply impacts both theoretical research on models' properties and on the application of models on real-world data.

Keywords: degrees of freedom, empirical validation, opinion scale, opinion dynamics

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3234 Securing Web Servers by the Intrusion Detection System (IDS)

Authors: Yousef Farhaoui

Abstract:

An IDS is a tool which is used to improve the level of security. We present in this paper different architectures of IDS. We will also discuss measures that define the effectiveness of IDS and the very recent works of standardization and homogenization of IDS. At the end, we propose a new model of IDS called BiIDS (IDS Based on the two principles of detection) for securing web servers and applications by the Intrusion Detection System (IDS).

Keywords: intrusion detection, architectures, characteristic, tools, security, web server

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
3233 Suggestion for Malware Detection Agent Considering Network Environment

Authors: Ji-Hoon Hong, Dong-Hee Kim, Nam-Uk Kim, Tai-Myoung Chung

Abstract:

Smartphone users are increasing rapidly. Accordingly, many companies are running BYOD (Bring Your Own Device: Policies to bring private-smartphones to the company) policy to increase work efficiency. However, smartphones are always under the threat of malware, thus the company network that is connected smartphone is exposed to serious risks. Most smartphone malware detection techniques are to perform an independent detection (perform the detection of a single target application). In this paper, we analyzed a variety of intrusion detection techniques. Based on the results of analysis propose an agent using the network IDS.

Keywords: android malware detection, software-defined network, interaction environment, android malware detection, software-defined network, interaction environment

Procedia PDF Downloads 361
3232 Improved Skin Detection Using Colour Space and Texture

Authors: Medjram Sofiane, Babahenini Mohamed Chaouki, Mohamed Benali Yamina

Abstract:

Skin detection is an important task for computer vision systems. A good method for skin detection means a good and successful result of the system. The colour is a good descriptor that allows us to detect skin colour in the images, but because of lightings effects and objects that have a similar colour skin, skin detection becomes difficult. In this paper, we proposed a method using the YCbCr colour space for skin detection and lighting effects elimination, then we use the information of texture to eliminate the false regions detected by the YCbCr colour skin model.

Keywords: skin detection, YCbCr, GLCM, texture, human skin

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
3231 Validating the Micro-Dynamic Rule in Opinion Dynamics Models

Authors: Dino Carpentras, Paul Maher, Caoimhe O'Reilly, Michael Quayle

Abstract:

Opinion dynamics is dedicated to modeling the dynamic evolution of people's opinions. Models in this field are based on a micro-dynamic rule, which determines how people update their opinion when interacting. Despite the high number of new models (many of them based on new rules), little research has been dedicated to experimentally validate the rule. A few studies started bridging this literature gap by experimentally testing the rule. However, in these studies, participants are forced to express their opinion as a number instead of using natural language. Furthermore, some of these studies average data from experimental questions, without testing if differences existed between them. Indeed, it is possible that different topics could show different dynamics. For example, people may be more prone to accepting someone's else opinion regarding less polarized topics. In this work, we collected data from 200 participants on 5 unpolarized topics. Participants expressed their opinions using natural language ('agree' or 'disagree') and the certainty of their answer, expressed as a number between 1 and 10. To keep the interaction based on natural language, certainty was not shown to other participants. We then showed to the participant someone else's opinion on the same topic and, after a distraction task, we repeated the measurement. To produce data compatible with standard opinion dynamics models, we multiplied the opinion (encoded as agree=1 and disagree=-1) with the certainty to obtain a single 'continuous opinion' ranging from -10 to 10. By analyzing the topics independently, we observed that each one shows a different initial distribution. However, the dynamics (i.e., the properties of the opinion change) appear to be similar between all topics. This suggested that the same micro-dynamic rule could be applied to unpolarized topics. Another important result is that participants that change opinion tend to maintain similar levels of certainty. This is in contrast with typical micro-dynamics rules, where agents move to an average point instead of directly jumping to the opposite continuous opinion. As expected, in the data, we also observed the effect of social influence. This means that exposing someone with 'agree' or 'disagree' influenced participants to respectively higher or lower values of the continuous opinion. However, we also observed random variations whose effect was stronger than the social influence’s one. We even observed cases of people that changed from 'agree' to 'disagree,' even if they were exposed to 'agree.' This phenomenon is surprising, as, in the standard literature, the strength of the noise is usually smaller than the strength of social influence. Finally, we also built an opinion dynamics model from the data. The model was able to explain more than 80% of the data variance. Furthermore, by iterating the model, we were able to produce polarized states even starting from an unpolarized population. This experimental approach offers a way to test the micro-dynamic rule. This also allows us to build models which are directly grounded on experimental results.

Keywords: experimental validation, micro-dynamic rule, opinion dynamics, update rule

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3230 Real-Time Detection of Space Manipulator Self-Collision

Authors: Zhang Xiaodong, Tang Zixin, Liu Xin

Abstract:

In order to avoid self-collision of space manipulators during operation process, a real-time detection method is proposed in this paper. The manipulator is fitted into a cylinder enveloping surface, and then the detection algorithm of collision between cylinders is analyzed. The collision model of space manipulator self-links can be detected by using this algorithm in real-time detection during the operation process. To ensure security of the operation, a safety threshold is designed. The simulation and experiment results verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm for a 7-DOF space manipulator.

Keywords: space manipulator, collision detection, self-collision, the real-time collision detection

Procedia PDF Downloads 370
3229 Iris Detection on RGB Image for Controlling Side Mirror

Authors: Norzalina Othman, Nurul Na’imy Wan, Azliza Mohd Rusli, Wan Noor Syahirah Meor Idris

Abstract:

Iris detection is a process where the position of the eyes is extracted from the face images. It is a current method used for many applications such as for security purpose and drowsiness detection. This paper proposes the use of eyes detection in controlling side mirror of motor vehicles. The eyes detection method aims to make driver easy to adjust the side mirrors automatically. The system will determine the midpoint coordinate of eyes detection on RGB (color) image and the input signal from y-coordinate will send it to controller in order to rotate the angle of side mirror on vehicle. The eye position was cropped and the coordinate of midpoint was successfully detected from the circle of iris detection using Viola Jones detection and circular Hough transform methods on RGB image. The coordinate of midpoint from the experiment are tested using controller to determine the angle of rotation on the side mirrors.

Keywords: iris detection, midpoint coordinates, RGB images, side mirror

Procedia PDF Downloads 335