Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1118

Search results for: degrees of freedom

1118 Bioarm, a Prothesis without Surgery

Authors: J. Sagouis, A. Chamel, E. Carre, C. Casasreales, G. Rudnik, M. Cerdan

Abstract:

Robotics provides answers to amputees. The most expensive solutions surgically connect the prosthesis to nerve endings. There are also several types of non-invasive technologies that recover nerve messages passing through the muscles. After analyzing these messages, myoelectric prostheses perform the desired movement. The main goal is to avoid all surgeries, which can be heavy and offer cheaper alternatives. For an amputee, we use valid muscles to recover the electrical signal involved in a muscle movement. EMG sensors placed on the muscle allows us to measure a potential difference, which our program transforms into control for a robotic arm with two degrees of freedom. We have shown the feasibility of non-invasive prostheses with two degrees of freedom. Signal analysis and an increase in degrees of freedom is still being improved.

Keywords: prosthesis, electromyography (EMG), robotic arm, nerve message

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1117 Behavior Analysis Based on Nine Degrees of Freedom Sensor for Emergency Rescue Evacuation Support System

Authors: Maeng-Hwan Hyun, Dae-Man Do, Young-Bok Choi

Abstract:

Around the world, there are frequent incidents of natural disasters, such as earthquakes, tsunamis, floods, and snowstorms, as well as man made disasters such as fires, arsons, and acts of terror. These diverse and unpredictable adversities have resulted in a number of fatalities and injuries. If disaster occurrence can be assessed quickly and information such as the exact location of the disaster and evacuation routes can be provided, victims can promptly move to safe locations, minimizing losses. This paper proposes a behavior analysis method based on a nine degrees-of-freedom (9-DOF) sensor that is effective for the emergency rescue evacuation support system (ERESS), which is being researched with an objective of providing evacuation support during disasters. Based on experiments performed using the acceleration sensor and the gyroscope sensor in the 9-DOF sensor, data are analyzed for human behavior regarding stationary position, walking, running, and during emergency situation to suggest guidelines for system judgment. Using the results of the experiments performed to determine disaster occurrence, it was confirmed that the proposed method quickly determines whether a disaster has occurred.

Keywords: behavior analysis, nine degrees of freedom sensor, emergency rescue, disaster

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1116 Modeling of Complex Structures: Shear Wall with Openings and Stiffened Shells

Authors: Temami Oussama, Bessais Lakhdar, Hamadi Djamal, Abderrahmani Sifeddine

Abstract:

The analysis of complex structures encourages the engineer to make simplifying assumptions, sometimes attempting the analysis of the whole structure as complex as it is, and it can be done using the finite element method (FEM). In the modeling of complex structures by finite elements, various elements can be used: beam element, membrane element, solid element, plates and shells elements. These elements formulated according to the classical formulation and do not generally share the same nodal degrees of freedom, which complicates the development of a compatible model. The compatibility of the elements with each other is often a difficult problem for modeling complicated structure. This compatibility is necessary to ensure the convergence. To overcome this problem, we have proposed finite elements with a rotational degree of freedom. The study used is based on the strain approach formulation with 2D and 3D formulation with different degrees of freedom at each node. For the comparison and confrontation of results; the finite elements available in ABAQUS/Standard are used.

Keywords: compatibility requirement, complex structures, finite elements, modeling, strain approach

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
1115 Human Trafficking: Stand for Freedom

Authors: Madhumitha Rajasekaran

Abstract:

Freedom is a short, powerful word we take for granted every day. It is hard to fully appreciate freedom when we have never had it snatched away from us. We get to choose our jobs, where we live, what we eat. If we are unhappy at work, we have the freedom to quit and find work elsewhere.

Keywords: human trafficking, standing for freedom, social work, social research

Procedia PDF Downloads 316
1114 Gaussian Operations with a Single Trapped Ion

Authors: Bruna G. M. Araújo, Pedro M. M. Q. Cruz

Abstract:

In this letter, we review the literature of the major concepts that govern Gaussian quantum information. As we work with quantum information and computation with continuous variables, Gaussian states are needed to better describe these systems. Analyzing a single ion locked in a Paul trap we use the interaction picture to obtain a toolbox of Gaussian operations with the ion-laser interaction Hamiltionian. This is achieved exciting the ion through the combination of two lasers of distinct frequencies corresponding to different sidebands of the external degrees of freedom. First we study the case of a trap with 1 mode and then the case with 2 modes. In this way, we achieve different continuous variables gates just by changing the external degrees of freedom of the trap and combining the Hamiltonians of blue and red sidebands.

Keywords: Paul trap, ion-laser interaction, Gaussian operations

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1113 Design and Optimization of a 6 Degrees of Freedom Co-Manipulated Parallel Robot for Prostate Brachytherapy

Authors: Aziza Ben Halima, Julien Bert, Dimitris Visvikis

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose designing and evaluating a parallel co-manipulated robot dedicated to low-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy. We developed 6 degrees of freedom compact and lightweight robot easy to install in the operating room thanks to its parallel design. This robotic system provides a co-manipulation allowing the surgeon to keep control of the needle’s insertion and consequently to improve the acceptability of the plan for the clinic. The best dimension’s configuration was solved by calculating the geometric model and using an optimization approach. The aim was to ensure the whole coverage of the prostate volume and consider the allowed free space around the patient that includes the ultrasound probe. The final robot dimensions fit in a cube of 300 300 300 mm³. A prototype was 3D printed, and the robot workspace was measured experimentally. The results show that the proposed robotic system satisfies the medical application requirements and permits the needle to reach any point within the prostate.

Keywords: medical robotics, co-manipulation, prostate brachytherapy, optimization

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1112 Comparison between the Quadratic and the Cubic Linked Interpolation on the Mindlin Plate Four-Node Quadrilateral Finite Elements

Authors: Dragan Ribarić

Abstract:

We employ the so-called problem-dependent linked interpolation concept to develop two cubic 4-node quadrilateral Mindlin plate finite elements with 12 external degrees of freedom. In the problem-independent linked interpolation, the interpolation functions are independent of any problem material parameters and the rotation fields are not expressed in terms of the nodal displacement parameters. On the contrary, in the problem-dependent linked interpolation, the interpolation functions depend on the material parameters and the rotation fields are expressed in terms of the nodal displacement parameters. Two cubic 4-node quadrilateral plate elements are presented, named Q4-U3 and Q4-U3R5. The first one is modelled with one displacement and two rotation degrees of freedom in every of the four element nodes and the second element has five additional internal degrees of freedom to get polynomial completeness of the cubic form and which can be statically condensed within the element. Both elements are able to pass the constant-bending patch test exactly as well as the non-zero constant-shear patch test on the oriented regular mesh geometry in the case of cylindrical bending. In any mesh shape, the elements have the correct rank and only the three eigenvalues, corresponding to the solid body motions are zero. There are no additional spurious zero modes responsible for instability of the finite element models. In comparison with the problem-independent cubic linked interpolation implemented in Q9-U3, the nine-node plate element, significantly less degrees of freedom are employed in the model while retaining the interpolation conformity between adjacent elements. The presented elements are also compared to the existing problem-independent quadratic linked-interpolation element Q4-U2 and to the other known elements that also use the quadratic or the cubic linked interpolation, by testing them on several benchmark examples. Simple functional upgrading from the quadratic to the cubic linked interpolation, implemented in Q4-U3 element, showed no significant improvement compared to the quadratic linked form of the Q4-U2 element. Only when the additional bubble terms are incorporated in the displacement and rotation function fields, which complete the full cubic linked interpolation form, qualitative improvement is fulfilled in the Q4-U3R5 element. Nevertheless, the locking problem exists even for the both presented elements, like in all pure displacement elements when applied to very thin plates modelled by coarse meshes. But good and even slightly better performance can be noticed for the Q4-U3R5 element when compared with elements from the literature, if the model meshes are moderately dense and the plate thickness not extremely thin. In some cases, it is comparable to or even better than Q9-U3 element which has as many as 12 more external degrees of freedom. A significant improvement can be noticed in particular when modeling very skew plates and models with singularities in the stress fields as well as circular plates with distorted meshes.

Keywords: Mindlin plate theory, problem-independent linked interpolation, problem-dependent interpolation, quadrilateral displacement-based plate finite elements

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1111 From Protector to Violator: Assessing State's Role in Protecting Freedom of Religion in Indonesia

Authors: Manotar Tampubolon

Abstract:

Indonesia is a country that upholds the law, human rights and religious freedom. The freedom that implied in various laws and constitution (Undang-undang 1945) is not necessarily applicable in practice of religious life. In one side, the state has a duty as protector and guarantor of freedom, on the other side, however, it turns into one of the actors of freedom violations of religion minority. State action that interferes freedom of religion is done in various ways both intentionally or negligently or not to perform its obligations in the enforcement of human rights (human rights due diligence). Besides the state, non-state actors such as religious organizations, individuals also become violators of the rights of religious freedom. This article will discuss two fundamental issues that interfere freedom of religion in Indonesia after democratic era. In addition, this article also discusses a comprehensive state policy that discriminates minority religions to manifest their faith.

Keywords: religious freedom, constitution, minority faith, state actor

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1110 Freedom and the Value of Games: How to Overcome the Challenges in the Gamification of Necessary Learning Tasks

Authors: Jonathan May

Abstract:

This paper argues that the value of games relates to the sensation of freedom they create, and this in turn results from their nature as voluntary, non-necessary tasks. Attempts to gamify necessary learning tasks are therefore challenged to create this sensation of freedom and so they often fail to create the pleasure and value found in traditional games. It then demonstrates a route to creating this sensation of freedom through the maximization of varied and creative solutions to such problems.

Keywords: gamification, games, philosophy of games, freedom, voluntary action, necessity, motivation, value of games

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1109 Design of a 4-DOF Robot Manipulator with Optimized Algorithm for Inverse Kinematics

Authors: S. Gómez, G. Sánchez, J. Zarama, M. Castañeda Ramos, J. Escoto Alcántar, J. Torres, A. Núñez, S. Santana, F. Nájera, J. A. Lopez

Abstract:

This paper shows in detail the mathematical model of direct and inverse kinematics for a robot manipulator (welding type) with four degrees of freedom. Using the D-H parameters, screw theory, numerical, geometric and interpolation methods, the theoretical and practical values of the position of robot were determined using an optimized algorithm for inverse kinematics obtaining the values of the particular joints in order to determine the virtual paths in a relatively short time.

Keywords: kinematics, degree of freedom, optimization, robot manipulator

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1108 Freedom with Limitations: The Nature of Free Expression in the European Case-Law

Authors: Laszlo Vari

Abstract:

In the digital age, the spread of the mobile world and the nature of the cyberspace, offers many new opportunities for the prevalence of the fundamental right to free expression, and therefore, for free speech and freedom of the press; however, these new information communication technologies carry many new challenges. Defamation, censorship, fake news, misleading information, hate speech, breach of copyright etc., are only some of the violations, all of which can be derived from the harmful exercise of freedom of expression, all which become more salient in the internet. Here raises the question: how can we eliminate these problems, and practice our fundamental freedom rightfully? To answer this question, we should understand the elements and the characteristic of the nature of freedom of expression, and the role of the actors whose duties and responsibilities are crucial in the prevalence of this fundamental freedom. To achieve this goal, this paper will explore the European practice to understand instructions found in the case-law of the European Court of Human rights for the rightful exercise of freedom of expression.

Keywords: collision of rights, European case-law, freedom opinion and expression, media law, freedom of information, online expression

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1107 Design and Fabrication of a Smart Quadruped Robot

Authors: Shivani Verma, Amit Agrawal, Pankaj Kumar Meena, Ashish B. Deoghare

Abstract:

Over the decade robotics has been a major area of interest among the researchers and scientists in reducing human efforts. The need for robots to replace human work in different dangerous fields such as underground mining, nuclear power station and war against terrorist attack has gained huge attention. Most of the robot design is based on human structure popularly known as humanoid robots. However, the problems encountered in humanoid robots includes low speed of movement, misbalancing in structure, poor load carrying capacity, etc. The simplification and adaptation of the fundamental design principles seen in animals have led to the creation of bio-inspired robots. But the major challenges observed in naturally inspired robot include complexity in structure, several degrees of freedom and energy storage problem. The present work focuses on design and fabrication of a bionic quadruped walking robot which is based on different joint of quadruped mammals like a dog, cheetah, etc. The design focuses on the structure of the robot body which consists of four legs having three degrees of freedom per leg and the electronics system involved in it. The robot is built using readily available plastics and metals. The proposed robot is simple in construction and is able to move through uneven terrain, detect and locate obstacles and take images while carrying additional loads which may include hardware and sensors. The robot will find possible application in the artificial intelligence sector.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, bionic, quadruped robot, degree of freedom

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1106 Efficiency of the Strain Based Approach Formulation for Plate Bending Analysis

Authors: Djamal Hamadi, Sifeddine Abderrahmani, Toufik Maalem, Oussama Temami

Abstract:

In recent years many finite elements have been developed for plate bending analysis. The formulated elements are based on the strain based approach. This approach leads to the representation of the displacements by higher order polynomial terms without the need for the introduction of additional internal and unnecessary degrees of freedom. Good convergence can also be obtained when the results are compared with those obtained from the corresponding displacement based elements, having the same total number of degrees of freedom. Furthermore, the plate bending elements are free from any shear locking since they converge to the Kirchhoff solution for thin plates contrarily for the corresponding displacement based elements. In this paper the efficiency of the strain based approach compared to well known displacement formulation is presented. The results obtained by a new formulated plate bending element based on the strain approach and Kirchhoff theory are compared with some others elements. The good convergence of the new formulated element is confirmed.

Keywords: displacement fields, finite elements, plate bending, Kirchhoff theory, strain based approach

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1105 Academic Freedom Policy: A Case Study

Authors: Marlin Killen

Abstract:

The American Association of University Professors (AAUP) describes academic freedom as essential to the purposes of research and teaching. The importance of academic freedom as a bedrock foundation that supports the work of the professoriate cannot be overstated, and there have been innumerable challenges that have attempted to curtail it. These challenges come from a variety of sources that span legal, ethical, cultural, institutional, and professional perspective and are amplified by social media, traditional media, and political action efforts. Because of these challenges, the development of a comprehensive institutional policy on academic freedom that addresses the principles, practices, and appropriate responses to modern challenges can be a daunting task. This presentation will focus on a case study of a university’s effort to develop an updated, evolving policy on academic freedom that provides a framework and remedies for contemporary challenges to this critical function in higher education.

Keywords: academic freedom, academic freedom policy, higher education policy

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1104 Guidance and Control of a Torpedo Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

Authors: Soheil Arash Moghadam, Abdol R. Kashani Nia, Ali Akrami Zade

Abstract:

Considering numerous applications of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles in various industries, there has been plenty of researches and studies on the motion control of such vehicles. One of the useful aspects for studying is the guidance of these vehicles. In this paper, while presenting motion equations with six degrees of freedom for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles, Proportional Navigation Guidance Law and the first order sliding mode control for TAIPAN AUV was used to address its guidance for the purpose of collision with a moving target.

Keywords: Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV), degree of freedom (DOF), hydrodynamic, line of sight(LOS), proportional navigation guidance(PNG), sliding mode control(SMC)

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1103 Adding a Degree of Freedom to Opinion Dynamics Models

Authors: Dino Carpentras, Alejandro Dinkelberg, Michael Quayle

Abstract:

Within agent-based modeling, opinion dynamics is the field that focuses on modeling people's opinions. In this prolific field, most of the literature is dedicated to the exploration of the two 'degrees of freedom' and how they impact the model’s properties (e.g., the average final opinion, the number of final clusters, etc.). These degrees of freedom are (1) the interaction rule, which determines how agents update their own opinion, and (2) the network topology, which defines the possible interaction among agents. In this work, we show that the third degree of freedom exists. This can be used to change a model's output up to 100% of its initial value or to transform two models (both from the literature) into each other. Since opinion dynamics models are representations of the real world, it is fundamental to understand how people’s opinions can be measured. Even for abstract models (i.e., not intended for the fitting of real-world data), it is important to understand if the way of numerically representing opinions is unique; and, if this is not the case, how the model dynamics would change by using different representations. The process of measuring opinions is non-trivial as it requires transforming real-world opinion (e.g., supporting most of the liberal ideals) to a number. Such a process is usually not discussed in opinion dynamics literature, but it has been intensively studied in a subfield of psychology called psychometrics. In psychometrics, opinion scales can be converted into each other, similarly to how meters can be converted to feet. Indeed, psychometrics routinely uses both linear and non-linear transformations of opinion scales. Here, we analyze how this transformation affects opinion dynamics models. We analyze this effect by using mathematical modeling and then validating our analysis with agent-based simulations. Firstly, we study the case of perfect scales. In this way, we show that scale transformations affect the model’s dynamics up to a qualitative level. This means that if two researchers use the same opinion dynamics model and even the same dataset, they could make totally different predictions just because they followed different renormalization processes. A similar situation appears if two different scales are used to measure opinions even on the same population. This effect may be as strong as providing an uncertainty of 100% on the simulation’s output (i.e., all results are possible). Still, by using perfect scales, we show that scales transformations can be used to perfectly transform one model to another. We test this using two models from the standard literature. Finally, we test the effect of scale transformation in the case of finite precision using a 7-points Likert scale. In this way, we show how a relatively small-scale transformation introduces both changes at the qualitative level (i.e., the most shared opinion at the end of the simulation) and in the number of opinion clusters. Thus, scale transformation appears to be a third degree of freedom of opinion dynamics models. This result deeply impacts both theoretical research on models' properties and on the application of models on real-world data.

Keywords: degrees of freedom, empirical validation, opinion scale, opinion dynamics

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1102 Freedom of Information and Freedom of Expression

Authors: Amin Pashaye Amiri

Abstract:

Freedom of information, according to which the public has a right to have access to government-held information, is largely considered as a tool for improving transparency and accountability in governments, and as a requirement of self-governance and good governance. So far, more than ninety countries have recognized citizens’ right to have access to public information. This recognition often took place through the adoption of an act referred to as “freedom of information act”, “access to public records act”, and so on. A freedom of information act typically imposes a positive obligation on a government to initially and regularly release certain public information, and also obliges it to provide individuals with information they request. Such an act usually allows governmental bodies to withhold information only when it falls within a limited number of exemptions enumerated in the act such as exemptions for protecting privacy of individuals and protecting national security. Some steps have been taken at the national and international level towards the recognition of freedom of information as a human right. Freedom of information was recognized in a few countries as a part of freedom of expression, and therefore, as a human right. Freedom of information was also recognized by some international bodies as a human right. The Inter-American Court of Human Rights ruled in 2006 that Article 13 of the American Convention on Human Rights, which concerns the human right to freedom of expression, protects the right of all people to request access to government information. The European Court of Human Rights has recently taken a considerable step towards recognizing freedom of information as a human right. However, in spite of the measures that have been taken, public access to government information is not yet widely accepted as an international human right. The paper will consider the degree to which freedom of information has been recognized as a human right, and study the possibility of widespread recognition of such a human right in the future. It will also examine the possible benefits of such recognition for the development of the human right to free expression.

Keywords: freedom of information, freedom of expression, human rights, government information

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1101 Effective Charge Coupling in Low Dimensional Doped Quantum Antiferromagnets

Authors: Suraka Bhattacharjee, Ranjan Chaudhury

Abstract:

The interaction between the charge degrees of freedom for itinerant antiferromagnets is investigated in terms of generalized charge stiffness constant corresponding to nearest neighbour t-J model and t1-t2-t3-J model. The low dimensional hole doped antiferromagnets are the well known systems that can be described by the t-J-like models. Accordingly, we have used these models to investigate the fermionic pairing possibilities and the coupling between the itinerant charge degrees of freedom. A detailed comparison between spin and charge couplings highlights that the charge and spin couplings show very similar behaviour in the over-doped region, whereas, they show completely different trends in the lower doping regimes. Moreover, a qualitative equivalence between generalized charge stiffness and effective Coulomb interaction is also established based on the comparisons with other theoretical and experimental results. Thus it is obvious that the enhanced possibility of fermionic pairing is inherent in the reduction of Coulomb repulsion with increase in doping concentration. However, the increased possibility can not give rise to pairing without the presence of any other pair producing mechanism outside the t-J model. Therefore, one can conclude that the t-J-like models themselves solely are not capable of producing conventional momentum-based superconducting pairing on their own.

Keywords: generalized charge stiffness constant, charge coupling, effective Coulomb interaction, t-J-like models, momentum-space pairing

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1100 Developing A Third Degree Of Freedom For Opinion Dynamics Models Using Scales

Authors: Dino Carpentras, Alejandro Dinkelberg, Michael Quayle

Abstract:

Opinion dynamics models use an agent-based modeling approach to model people’s opinions. Model's properties are usually explored by testing the two 'degrees of freedom': the interaction rule and the network topology. The latter defines the connection, and thus the possible interaction, among agents. The interaction rule, instead, determines how agents select each other and update their own opinion. Here we show the existence of the third degree of freedom. This can be used for turning one model into each other or to change the model’s output up to 100% of its initial value. Opinion dynamics models represent the evolution of real-world opinions parsimoniously. Thus, it is fundamental to know how real-world opinion (e.g., supporting a candidate) could be turned into a number. Specifically, we want to know if, by choosing a different opinion-to-number transformation, the model’s dynamics would be preserved. This transformation is typically not addressed in opinion dynamics literature. However, it has already been studied in psychometrics, a branch of psychology. In this field, real-world opinions are converted into numbers using abstract objects called 'scales.' These scales can be converted one into the other, in the same way as we convert meters to feet. Thus, in our work, we analyze how this scale transformation may affect opinion dynamics models. We perform our analysis both using mathematical modeling and validating it via agent-based simulations. To distinguish between scale transformation and measurement error, we first analyze the case of perfect scales (i.e., no error or noise). Here we show that a scale transformation may change the model’s dynamics up to a qualitative level. Meaning that a researcher may reach a totally different conclusion, even using the same dataset just by slightly changing the way data are pre-processed. Indeed, we quantify that this effect may alter the model’s output by 100%. By using two models from the standard literature, we show that a scale transformation can transform one model into the other. This transformation is exact, and it holds for every result. Lastly, we also test the case of using real-world data (i.e., finite precision). We perform this test using a 7-points Likert scale, showing how even a small scale change may result in different predictions or a number of opinion clusters. Because of this, we think that scale transformation should be considered as a third-degree of freedom for opinion dynamics. Indeed, its properties have a strong impact both on theoretical models and for their application to real-world data.

Keywords: degrees of freedom, empirical validation, opinion scale, opinion dynamics

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1099 A Review on the Problems of Constructing a Theory of Quantum Gravity

Authors: Amber Jamal, Imran Siddiqui, Syed Tanveer Iqbal

Abstract:

This review is aimed to shed some light on problems constructing a theory of spacetime and geometry in terms of all quantum degrees of freedom called ‘Quantum Gravity’. Such a theory, which is effective at all scales of distances and energies, describes the enigma of the beginning of the Universe, its possible end, and reducing to general relativity at large distances but in a semi-classical approximation. Furthermore, the theory of quantum gravity also describes the Universe as a whole and provides a description of most fundamental questions that have puzzled scientists for decades, such as: what is space, what is time, and what is the fundamental structure of the Universe, is the spacetime discrete, if it is, where does the continuum of spacetime come from at low energies and macroscopic scales and where does it emerge from its fundamentally discrete building blocks? Quantum Field Theory (QFT) is a framework which describes the microscopic properties and dynamics of the basic building blocks of any condensed matter system. In QFT, atoms are quanta of continuous fields. At smaller scales or higher energies, the continuum description of spacetime fails. Therefore, a new description is required in terms of microscopic constituents (atoms or molecules). The objective of this scientific endeavor is to discuss the above-mentioned problems rigorously and to discuss possible way-out of the problems.

Keywords: QFT, quantum degrees of freedom, quantum gravity, semi-classical approximation

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1098 Two Spherical Three Degrees of Freedom Parallel Robots 3-RCC and 3-RRS Static Analysis

Authors: Alireza Abbasi Moshaii, Shaghayegh Nasiri, Mehdi Tale Masouleh

Abstract:

The main purpose of this study is static analysis of two three-degree of freedom parallel mechanisms: 3-RCC and 3-RRS. Geometry of these mechanisms is expressed and static equilibrium equations are derived for the whole chains. For these mechanisms due to the equal number of equations and unknowns, the solution is as same as 3-RCC mechanism. Mathematical software is used to solve the equations. In order to prove the results obtained from solving the equations of mechanisms, their CAD model has been simulated and their static is analysed in ADAMS software. Due to symmetrical geometry of the mechanisms, the force and external torque acting on the end-effecter have been considered asymmetric to prove the generality of the solution method. Finally, the results of both softwares, for both mechanisms are extracted and compared as graphs. The good achieved comparison between the results indicates the accuracy of the analysis.

Keywords: robotic, static analysis, 3-RCC, 3-RRS

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1097 High Rise Building Vibration Control Using Tuned Mass Damper

Authors: T. Vikneshvaran, A. Aminudin, U. Alyaa Hashim, Waziralilah N. Fathiah, D. Shakirah Shukor

Abstract:

This paper presents the experimental study conducted on a structure of three-floor height building model. Most vibrations are undesirable and can cause damages to the buildings, machines and people all around us. The vibration wave from earthquakes, construction and winds have high potential to bring damage to the buildings. Excessive vibrations can result in structural and machinery failures. This failure is related to the human life and environment around it. The effect of vibration which causes failure and damage to the high rise buildings can be controlled in real life by implementing tuned mass damper (TMD) into the structure of the buildings. This research aims to study the effect and performance improvement achieved by applying TMD into the building structure. A structure model of three degrees of freedom (3DOF) is designed to demonstrate the performance of TMD to the designed model. The model designed is the physical representation of actual building structure in real life. It is constructed at a reduced scale and will be used for the experiment. Thus, the result obtained will be more accurate to compared with the real life effect. Based on the result from experimental study, by applying TMD to the structure model, the forces of vibration and the displacement mode of the building reduced. Thus, the reduced in vibration of the building helps to maintain the good condition of the building.

Keywords: degrees-of-freedom, displacement mode, natural frequency, tuned mass damper

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1096 Nonlinear Vibration of FGM Plates Subjected to Acoustic Load in Thermal Environment Using Finite Element Modal Reduction Method

Authors: Hassan Parandvar, Mehrdad Farid

Abstract:

In this paper, a finite element modeling is presented for large amplitude vibration of functionally graded material (FGM) plates subjected to combined random pressure and thermal load. The material properties of the plates are assumed to vary continuously in the thickness direction by a simple power law distribution in terms of the volume fractions of the constituents. The material properties depend on the temperature whose distribution along the thickness can be expressed explicitly. The von Karman large deflection strain displacement and extended Hamilton's principle are used to obtain the governing system of equations of motion in structural node degrees of freedom (DOF) using finite element method. Three-node triangular Mindlin plate element with shear correction factor is used. The nonlinear equations of motion in structural degrees of freedom are reduced by using modal reduction method. The reduced equations of motion are solved numerically by 4th order Runge-Kutta scheme. In this study, the random pressure is generated using Monte Carlo method. The modeling is verified and the nonlinear dynamic response of FGM plates is studied for various values of volume fraction and sound pressure level under different thermal loads. Snap-through type behavior of FGM plates is studied too.

Keywords: nonlinear vibration, finite element method, functionally graded material (FGM) plates, snap-through, random vibration, thermal effect

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1095 The Ordinary Way of the Appeal in Penalty Part

Authors: Abdelkadir Elhaouari

Abstract:

The priciest thing in human life since his birth is his freedom, basing on this idea, the conflict exists till now, the fight against oppression, injustice, tyranny and slavery, searching for freedom and political resistances, and this makes the freedom is deeply related to the defense for its existence all over years. This project attempts using any way to preserve this freedom, and building and maintaining bases and rules to organize this life. Appeal is a one of the most important method that human uses to protect his freedom, and we will mention in this thesis our attempt to clarify this aspect to the individual. We can say that the law does not know just one color or one logic, and is not based on one rule to be taken by heart, but the law is neutrality, the diversity, abstraction and diligence diversity. The penal law is a valued law and it deserves to be studied and searched more… so that to attempt to master it. Our thesis is just a brief explanation of an important point in this law, where we attempt to clarify and simplify the image to the normal person, so that he can preserve his rights, and we hope that we had succeeded to choose the right topic for that.

Keywords: appeal, penalization, judgement, criminal

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1094 Ambiguity in Anti-conversion Laws in the Indian States – A Limitation to the Freedom of Religion Guaranteed under the Constitution of India

Authors: Roy Alex, Dr. Shampa I Dev

Abstract:

Abstract Nine out of twenty-eight states in India have enacted anti-conversion laws to regulate religious conversions by use of force, allurement, inducement, or fraudulent means. The vagueness of the definitions of the terms used in these laws makes them inconsistent with the provisions of the right to freedom of religion guaranteed by the Constitution. It is a critical question whether these laws protect the religious freedom of groups that are “vulnerable” to missionary inducements, or are they restricting the freedom of citizens to propagate their religion to others or change their religious identity? This article looks into the constitutionality of the anti-conversion laws passed in the Indian States and argues that these laws limit the freedom of religion guaranteed under Article 25 of the Constitution of India. The ambiguity in the anti-conversion laws passed in various states of India is brought out by critically analyzing multiple cases charged under anti-conversion laws.

Keywords: Freedom of Religion, Anti-conversion Laws, allurement, inducement, and fraudulent means.

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1093 Economic Analysis of Interaction Freedom, Institutions and Development in the countries of North Africa: Amartya Sen Approach of Capability

Authors: Essardi Omar, Razzouk Redouane

Abstract:

The concept of freedom requires notice of countries all over the world to consider welfare and the quality of life. Despite, many economics efforts in the field of development literature, they have often failed to incorporate the ideas of freedom and rights into their theoretical and empirical work. However, with Amartya Sen’s approach of capability and researches, we can provide a basis for moving forward in theory and measure of development. Indeed, with an approach based on the correlation and the analysis of data, particularly on the tool of principle component analysis, we are going to study assessments of World Bank, Freedom House, Fraster institute, and MINEFE experts. Our empirical objective is to reveal the existence of the institutional and freedom characteristics related to the development of the emergent countries. In order to help us to explain the recent performance reached by Central and Eastern Europe and Latine America in compared with the case of countries of North Africa. To do this, first we will try to build indicators based on dilemma liberties /institutions. Second we will introduce institutional variables and freedom variables to make comparisons in freedom, quality of institutions and development in the countries observed.

Keywords: freedoms, institutions, development, approach of capability, principle component analysis

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1092 The Impact of Financial News and Press Freedom on Abnormal Returns around Earnings Announcements in Greater China

Authors: Yu-Chen Wei, Yang-Cheng Lu, I-Chi Lin

Abstract:

This study examines the impacts of news sentiment and press freedom on abnormal returns during the earnings announcement in greater China including the Shanghai, Shenzhen and Taiwan stock markets. The news sentiment ratio is calculated by using the content analysis of semantic orientation. The empirical results show that news released prior to the event date may decrease the cumulative abnormal returns prior to the earnings announcement regardless of whether it is released in China or Taiwan. By contrast, companies with optimistic financial news may increase the cumulative abnormal returns during the announcement date. Furthermore, the difference in terms of press freedom is considered in greater China to compare the impact of press freedom on abnormal returns. The findings show that, the freer the press is, the more negatively significant will be the impact of news on the abnormal returns, which means that the press freedom may decrease the ability of the news to impact the abnormal returns. The intuition is that investors may receive alternative news related to each company in the market with greater press freedom, which proves the efficiency of the market and reduces the possible excess returns.

Keywords: news, press freedom, Greater China, earnings announcement, abnormal returns

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1091 Freedom of Expression and Its Restriction in Audiovisual Media

Authors: Sevil Yildiz

Abstract:

Audio visual communication is a type of collective expression. Collective expression activity informs the masses, gives direction to opinions and establishes public opinion. Due to these characteristics, audio visual communication must be subjected to special restrictions. This has been stipulated in both the Constitution and the European Human Rights Agreement. This paper aims to review freedom of expression and its restriction in audio visual media. For this purpose, the authorisation of the Radio and Television Supreme Council to impose sanctions as an independent administrative authority empowered to regulate the field of audio visual communication has been reviewed with regard to freedom of expression and its limits.

Keywords: audio visual media, freedom of expression, its limits, radio and television supreme council

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1090 Freedom of Speech, Dissent and the Right to be Governed By Consensus are Inherent Rights Under Classical Islamic Law

Authors: Ziyad Motala

Abstract:

It is often proclaimed by leasers in Muslim majority countries that Islamic Law does not permit dissent against a ruler. This paper will evaluate and discuss freedom of speech and dissent as found in concrete prophetic examples during the time of the Prophet Muhammad. It will further look at the examples and practices during the time of the four Noble Caliphs, the immediate successors to the Prophet Muhammad. It will argue that the positivist position of absolute obedience to a ruler is inconsistent with the prophetic tradition. The examples of the Prophet and his immediate four successors (whose lessons Sunni Islam considers to be a source of Islamic Law) demonstrates among the earliest example of freedom of speech and dissent in human history. That tradition frowned upon an inert and uninvolved citizenry. It will conclude with lessons for modern day Muslim majority countries arguing with empirical evidence that freedom of speech, dissent and the right to be governed by consensus versus coercion are fundamental requisites of Islamic law.

Keywords: islamic law, demoracy, freedom of speech, right to dissent

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1089 Reminiscence Bump in Autobiographical Memory of Freedom Fighters in Bangladesh

Authors: Eamin Zahan Heanoy, Asheek Mohammad Shimul

Abstract:

The purpose of the present study was to address theoretical issues of reminiscence bump in autobiographical memory using the freedom fighters of Bangladesh as participants. It was assumed that they had a lot of negative memories during the liberation war in 1971 and those events would reflect the construction of reminiscence bump. Three hundred and twenty (320) freedom fighters were selected using mixed method (purposive and random) sampling technique. The freedom fighters were taken from 10 randomly chosen districts of 64. The participants recalled and dated autobiographical memories from across the lifespan. The age of the participants was between 50 to 80+ years. Memories were encoded at the time of the age when the events occurred. As expected the reminiscence bump, preferential recall of memories from second and third decade was observed. Results indicate that the bump for the participants was found 16 to 26 years. And most remarkably, they recalled most of the memories from 1971, the liberation war. Different retrieval curve has been found for male and female participants. The results have been discussed in the light of recent developments in reminiscence bump research.

Keywords: autobiographical memory, freedom fighters, liberation war, reminiscence bump

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