Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Search results for: nano-hardness

12 Effect of Pretreatment on Quality Parameters of Natural Convection Mixed-Mode Solar Dried Potato

Authors: Kshanaprava Dhalsamant, Punyadarshini P. Tripathy, Shanker L. Shrivastava

Abstract:

With present high global population, the need for rising food usage by minimizing food wastage and investment is highly necessary to achieve food security. The purpose of this study is to enlighten the effect of pre-drying treatment on rehydration, color, texture, nanohardness, microstructure and surface morphology of solar dried potato samples dried in the mixed-mode solar dryer. Locally bought potatoes were cleaned and cut into cylindrical pieces and pretreated with sodium metabisulfite (0.5%) for 10 min before placing them in natural convection solar dryer designed and developed in Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, India. Advanced quality characteristics were studied using Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and nanoindentation method, along with color, texture and water activity. The rehydration indices of solar dried potatoes were significantly biased by pretreatment followed by rehydration temperature. A lower redness index (a*) with a higher value of yellowness index (b*), chroma (C*) and hue angle (h*) were obtained for pretreated samples. Also, the average nanohardness (H) of untreated samples exhibited substantial lower value (18.46%) compared to pretreated samples. Additionally, a creep displacement of 43.27 nm during 20 s dwell time under constant load of 200

Keywords: pretreatment, nanohardness, microstructure, surface morphology

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11 Ni-W-P Alloy Coating as an Alternate to Electroplated Hard Cr Coating

Authors: S. K. Ghosh, C. Srivastava, P. K. Limaye, V. Kain

Abstract:

Electroplated hard chromium is widely known in coatings and surface finishing, automobile and aerospace industries because of its excellent hardness, wear resistance and corrosion properties. However, its precursor, Cr+6 is highly carcinogenic in nature and a consensus has been adopted internationally to eradicate this coating technology with an alternative one. The search for alternate coatings to electroplated hard chrome is continuing worldwide. Various alloys and nanocomposites like Co-W alloys, Ni-Graphene, Ni-diamond nanocomposites etc. have already shown promising results in this regard. Basically, in this study, electroless Ni-P alloys with excellent corrosion resistance was taken as the base matrix and incorporation of tungsten as third alloying element was considered to improve the hardness and wear resistance of the resultant alloy coating. The present work is focused on the preparation of Ni–W–P coatings by electrodeposition with different content of phosphorous and its effect on the electrochemical, mechanical and tribological performances. The results were also compared with Ni-W alloys. Composition analysis by EDS showed deposition of Ni-32.85 wt% W-3.84 wt% P (designated as Ni-W-LP) and Ni-18.55 wt% W-8.73 wt% P (designated as Ni-W-HP) alloy coatings from electrolytes containing of 0.006 and 0.01M sodium hypophosphite respectively. Inhibition of tungsten deposition in the presence of phosphorous was noted. SEM investigation showed cauliflower like growth along with few microcracks. The as-deposited Ni-W-P alloy coating was amorphous in nature as confirmed by XRD investigation and step-wise crystallization was noticed upon annealing at higher temperatures. For all the coatings, the nanohardness was found to increase after heat-treatment and typical nanonahardness values obtained for 400°C annealed samples were 18.65±0.20 GPa, 20.03±0.25 GPa, and 19.17±0.25 for alloy coatings Ni-W, Ni-W-LP and Ni-W-HP respectively. Therefore, the nanohardness data show very promising results. Wear and coefficient of friction data were recorded by applying a different normal load in reciprocating motion using a ball on plate geometry. Post experiment, the wear mechanism was established by detail investigation of wear-scar morphology. Potentiodynamic measurements showed coating with a high content of phosphorous was most corrosion resistant in 3.5wt% NaCl solution.

Keywords: corrosion, electrodeposition, nanohardness, Ni-W-P alloy coating

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10 Mechanical Investigation Approach to Optimize the High-Velocity Oxygen Fuel Fe-Based Amorphous Coatings Reinforced by B4C Nanoparticles

Authors: Behrooz Movahedi

Abstract:

Fe-based amorphous feedstock powders are used as the matrix into which various ratios of hard B4C nanoparticles (0, 5, 10, 15, 20 vol.%) as reinforcing agents were prepared using a planetary high-energy mechanical milling. The ball-milled nanocomposite feedstock powders were also sprayed by means of high-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) technique. The characteristics of the powder particles and the prepared coating depending on their microstructures and nanohardness were examined in detail using nanoindentation tester. The results showed that the formation of the Fe-based amorphous phase was noticed over the course of high-energy ball milling. It is interesting to note that the nanocomposite coating is divided into two regions, namely, a full amorphous phase region and homogeneous dispersion of B4C nanoparticles with a scale of 10–50 nm in a residual amorphous matrix. As the B4C content increases, the nanohardness of the composite coatings increases, but the fracture toughness begins to decrease at the B4C content higher than 20 vol.%. The optimal mechanical properties are obtained with 15 vol.% B4C due to the suitable content and uniform distribution of nanoparticles. Consequently, the changes in mechanical properties of the coatings were attributed to the changes in the brittle to ductile transition by adding B4C nanoparticles.

Keywords: Fe-based amorphous, B₄C nanoparticles, nanocomposite coating, HVOF

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9 Elastic Behaviour of Graphene Nanoplatelets Reinforced Epoxy Resin Composites

Authors: V. K. Srivastava

Abstract:

Graphene has recently attracted an increasing attention in nanocomposites applications because it has 200 times greater strength than steel, making it the strongest material ever tested. Graphene, as the fundamental two-dimensional (2D) carbon structure with exceptionally high crystal and electronic quality, has emerged as a rapidly rising star in the field of material science. Graphene, as defined, as a 2D crystal, is composed of monolayers of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycombed network with six-membered rings, which is the interest of both theoretical and experimental researchers worldwide. The name comes from graphite and alkene. Graphite itself consists of many graphite-sheets stacked together by weak van der Waals forces. This is attributed to the monolayer of carbon atoms densely packed into honeycomb structure. Due to superior inherent properties of graphene nanoplatelets (GnP) over other nanofillers, GnP particles were added in epoxy resin with the variation of weight percentage. It is indicated that the DMA results of storage modulus, loss modulus and tan δ, defined as the ratio of elastic modulus and imaginary (loss) modulus versus temperature were affected with addition of GnP in the epoxy resin. In epoxy resin, damping (tan δ) is usually caused by movement of the molecular chain. The tan δ of the graphene nanoplatelets/epoxy resin composite is much lower than that of epoxy resin alone. This finding suggests that addition of graphene nanoplatelets effectively impedes movement of the molecular chain. The decrease in storage modulus can be interpreted by an increasing susceptibility to agglomeration, leading to less energy dissipation in the system under viscoelastic deformation. The results indicates the tan δ increased with the increase of temperature, which confirms that tan δ is associated with magnetic field strength. Also, the results show that the nanohardness increases with increase of elastic modulus marginally. GnP filled epoxy resin gives higher value than the epoxy resin, because GnP improves the mechanical properties of epoxy resin. Debonding of GnP is clearly observed in the micrograph having agglomeration of fillers and inhomogeneous distribution. Therefore, DMA and nanohardness studies indiacte that the elastic modulus of epoxy resin is increased with the addition of GnP fillers.

Keywords: agglomeration, elastic modulus, epoxy resin, graphene nanoplatelet, loss modulus, nanohardness, storage modulus

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8 Structure and Properties of Intermetallic NiAl-Based Coatings Produced by Magnetron Sputtering Technique

Authors: Tatiana S. Ogneva

Abstract:

Aluminum and nickel-based intermetallic compounds have attracted the attention of scientific community as promising materials for heat-resistant and wear-resistant coatings in such manufacturing areas as microelectronics, aircraft and rocket building and chemical industries. Magnetron sputtering makes possible to coat materials without formation of liquid phase and improves the mechanical and functional properties of nickel aluminides due to the possibility of nanoscale structure formation. The purpose of the study is the investigation of structure and properties of intermetallic coatings produced by magnetron sputtering technique. The feature of this work is the using of composite targets for sputtering, which were consisted of two semicircular sectors of cp-Ni and cp-Al. Plates of alumina, silicon, titanium and steel alloys were used as substrates. To estimate sputtering conditions on structure of intermetallic coatings, a series of samples were produced and studied in detail using scanning and transition electron microcopy and X-Ray diffraction. Besides, nanohardness and scratching tests were carried out. The varying parameters were the distance from the substrate to the target, the duration and the power of the sputtering. The thickness of the obtained intermetallic coatings varied from 0.05 to 0.5 mm depending on the sputtering conditions. The X-ray diffraction data indicated that the formation of intermetallic compounds occurred after sputtering without additional heat treatment. Sputtering at a distance not closer than 120 mm led to the formation of NiAl phase. Increase in the power of magnetron from 300 to 900 W promoted the increase of heterogeneity of the phase composition and the appearance of intermetallic phases NiAl, Ni₂Al₃, NiAl₃, and Al under the aluminum side, and NiAl, Ni₃Al, and Ni under the nickel side of the target. A similar trend is observed with increasing the distance of sputtering from 100 to 60 mm. The change in the phase composition correlates with the changing of the atomic composition of the coatings. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the coatings have a nanoscale grain structure. In this case, the substrate material and the distance from the substrate to the magnetron have a significant effect on the structure formation process. The size of nanograins differs from 10 to 83 nm and depends not only on the sputtering modes but also on material of a substrate. Nanostructure of the material influences the level of mechanical properties. The highest level of nanohardness of the coatings deposited during 30 minutes on metallic substrates at a distance of 100 mm reached 12 GPa. It was shown that nanohardness depends on the grain size of the intermetallic compound. Scratching tests of the coatings showed a high level of adhesion of the coating to substrate without any delamination and cracking. The results of the study showed that magnetron sputtering of composite targets consisting of nickel and aluminum semicircles makes it possible to form intermetallic coatings with good mechanical properties directly in the process of sputtering without additional heat treatment.

Keywords: intermetallic coatings, magnetron sputtering, mechanical properties, structure

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7 Synthesis Using Sintering and Characterisation of FeCrCoNiZn Alloy Using SEM and Nanoindentation

Authors: Steadyman Chikumba, Vasudeva Vereedhi Rao

Abstract:

This paper reports on the synthesis of FeCrCoNiZn and its characterisation using SEM and nanoindentation. The high entropy alloy FeCrCoNiZn was fabricated using spark plasma sintering at a temperature of 1100ᵒC from powders mixed for 9 hours. The powders mixture was equimolar, and the resultant microstructure had a single crystalline structure when studied under SEM. Several nano Vickers hardness measurements were taken on a polished surface etched by Nital solution. The hardness ranged from 711 Vickers to a maximum of 1773.2. The alloy FeCrCoNiZn showed a nano hardness of 1070 Vickers and a modulus of elasticity of 460.4 MPa. The process managed to fabricate a very hard material that can find applications where wear resistance is desired.

Keywords: high entropy alloy, FeCrVNiZn, nanohardness, SEM

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6 Nano Effects of Nitrogen Ion Implantation on TiN Hard Coatings Deposited by Physical Vapour Deposition and Ion Beam Assisted Deposition

Authors: Branko Skoric, Aleksandar Miletic, Pal Terek, Lazar Kovacevic, Milan Kukuruzovic

Abstract:

In this paper, we present the results of a study of TiN thin films which are deposited by a Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD) and Ion Beam Assisted Deposition (IBAD). In the present investigation the subsequent ion implantation was provided with N5+ ions. The ion implantation was applied to enhance the mechanical properties of surface. The thin film deposition process exerts a number of effects such as crystallographic orientation, morphology, topography, densification of the films. A variety of analytic techniques were used for characterization, such as scratch test, calo test, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX).

Keywords: coating, super hard, ion implantation, nanohardness

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5 Multipass Scratch Characterization of TiNbVN Thin Coatings Deposited by Magnetron Sputtering

Authors: Hikmet Cicek

Abstract:

Transition metal nitrides are widely used as protective coatings on machine parts and cutting tools to protect the surfaces from abrasion and corrosion for decades. In this study, the ternary TiNbVN thin coatings were produced with closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering system and their structural, mechanical and fatigue-like (multi-pass scratch test) properties were investigated. Two different substrates (M2 and H13 steels) were used to explore substrates effects. X-Ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscope, and energy dispersive spectroscopy were used for the structural and chemical analysis of the coatings. Nanohardness tests were proceed for mechanical properties. The fatigue-like properties of the coatings obtained from the multi-scratch test under three different cycle passes. The results showed that TiNbVN films have excellent fatigue resistance and the coatings deposited on M2 steel substrate have higher hardness and better fatigue resistance.

Keywords: physical vapor deposition, fatigue, metal nitride, multipass scratch test

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4 Nanoindentation and Physical Properties of Polyvinyl Chloride/Styrene Co-Maleic Anhydride Blend Reinforced by Organo-Bentonite

Authors: D. E. Abulyazied, S. M. Mokhtar, A. M. Motawie

Abstract:

Polymer blends represent an important class of materials in engineering applications. The incorporation of clay nanofiller may provide new opportunities for this type of materials to enhance their applications. This article reports on the effects of clay on the structure and properties of polymer blends nanocomposites, based on Polyvinyl chloride PVC and styrene co-maleic anhydride SMA blend. Modification of the Egyptian Bentonite EB was carried out using organo-modifier namely; octadecylamine ODA. Before the modification, the cation exchange capacity CEC of the EB was measured. The octadecylamine bentonite ODA-B was characterized using Fourier transform infrared Spectroscopy FTIR, X-Ray Diffraction XRD, and Transition Electron Microscope TEM. A blend of Polyvinyl chloride PVC and styrene co-maleic anhydride SMA (50:50) was prepared in Tetra Hydro Furan (THF). Then nanocomposites of PVC/SMA/ODA-B were prepared by solution intercalation polymerization from 0.50% up to 5% by weight of ODA-B. The nanocomposites are characterized by XRD, TEM. Thermal, nanoindentation, swelling and electrical properties of the nanocomposites were measured. The morphology of the nanocomposites showed that ODA-B achieved good dispersion in the PVC/SMA matrix. Incorporation of 0.5 %, 1%, 3% and 5% by weight nanoclay into the PVC/SMA blends results in an improvement in nanohardness of 16%, 76%, 92%, and 68% respectively. The elastic modulus increased from 4.59 GPa for unreinforced PVC/SMA blend to 6.30 GPa (37% increase) with the introduction of 3% by weight nanoclay. The cross-link density of the nanocomposites increases with increasing the content of ODA-B.

Keywords: PVC, SMA, nanocomposites, nanoindentation, organo-bentonite

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3 Laser Shock Peening of Additively Manufactured Nickel-Based Superalloys

Authors: Michael Munther, Keivan Davami

Abstract:

One significant roadblock for additively manufactured (AM) parts is the buildup of residual tensile stresses during the fabrication process. These residual stresses are formed due to the intense localized thermal gradients and high cooling rates that cause non-uniform material expansion/contraction and mismatched strain profiles during powder-bed fusion techniques, such as direct metal laser sintering (DMLS). The residual stresses adversely affect the fatigue life of the AM parts. Moreover, if the residual stresses become higher than the material’s yield strength, they will lead to acute geometric distortion. These are limiting the applications and acceptance of AM components for safety-critical applications. Herein, we discuss laser shock peening method as an advanced technique for the manipulation of the residual stresses in AM parts. An X-ray diffraction technique is used for the measurements of the residual stresses before and after the laser shock peening process. Also, the hardness of the structures is measured using a nanoindentation technique. Maps of nanohardness and modulus are obtained from the nanoindentation, and a correlation is made between the residual stresses and the mechanical properties. The results indicate that laser shock peening is able to induce compressive residual stresses in the structure that mitigate the tensile residual stresses and increase the hardness of AM IN718, a superalloy, almost 20%. No significant changes were observed in the modulus after laser shock peening. The results strongly suggest that laser shock peening can be used as an advanced post-processing technique to optimize the service lives of critical components for various applications.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, Inconel 718, laser shock peening, residual stresses

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2 Microstructural Mechanical Properties of Human Trabecular Bone Based on Nanoindentation Test

Authors: K. Jankowski, M. Pawlikowski, A. Makuch, K. Skalski

Abstract:

Depth-sensing indentation (DSI) or nanoindentation is becoming a more and more popular method of measuring mechanical properties of various materials and tissues at a micro-scale. This technique allows measurements without complicated sample preparation procedures which makes this method very useful. As a result of measurement force and displacement of the intender are obtained. It is also possible to determine three measures of hardness i.e. Martens hardness (HM), nanohardness (HIT), Vickers hardness (HV) and Young modulus EIT. In this work trabecular bone mechanical properties were investigated. The bone samples were harvested from human femoral heads during hip replacement surgery. Patients were of different age, sexes and stages of tissue degeneration caused by osteoarthritis. The specimens were divided into three groups. Each group contained samples harvested from patients of different range of age. All samples were investigated with the same measurement conditions. The maximum load was Pmax=500 mN and the loading rate was 500 mN/min. The tests were held without hold at the peak force. The tests were conducted with indenter Vickers tip and spherical tip of the diameter 0.2 mm. Each trabecular bone sample was tested 7 times in a close area of the same trabecula. The measured loading P as a function of indentation depth allowed to obtain hysteresis loop and HM, HIT, HV, EIT. Results for arbitrarily chosen sample are HM=289.95 ± 42.31 MPa, HIT=430.75 ± 45.37 MPa, HV=40.66 ± 4.28 Vickers, EIT=7.37 ± 1.84 GPa for Vickers tip and HM=115.19 ± 15.03 MPa, HIT=165.80 ± 19.30 MPa, HV=16.90 ± 1.97 Vickers, EIT=5.30 ± 1.31 GPa for spherical tip. Results of nanoindentation tests show that this method is very useful and is perfect for obtaining mechanical properties of trabecular bone. Estimated values of elastic modulus are similar. The differences between hardness are significant but it is a result of using two different types of tips. However, it has to be emphasised that the differences in the values of elastic modulus and hardness result from different testing protocols, anisotropy and asymmetry of the micro-samples and the hydration of bone.

Keywords: human bone, mechanical properties, nano hardness nanoindentation, trabecular bone

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1 Austempered Compacted Graphite Irons: Influence of Austempering Temperature on Microstructure and Microscratch Behavior

Authors: Rohollah Ghasemi, Arvin Ghorbani

Abstract:

This study investigates the effect of austempering temperature on microstructure and scratch behavior of the austempered heat-treated compacted graphite irons. The as-cast was used as base material for heat treatment practices. The samples were extracted from as-cast ferritic CGI pieces and were heat treated under austenitising temperature of 900°C for 60 minutes which followed by quenching in salt-bath at different austempering temperatures of 275°C, 325°C and 375°C. For all heat treatments, an austempering holding time of 30 minutes was selected for this study. Light optical microscope (LOM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) and electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) analysis confirmed the ausferritic matrix formed in all heat-treated samples. Microscratches were performed under the load of 200, 600 and 1000 mN using a sphero-conical diamond indenter with a tip radius of 50 μm and induced cone angle 90° at a speed of 10 μm/s at room temperature ~25°C. An instrumented nanoindentation machine was used for performing nanoindentation hardness measurement and microscratch testing. Hardness measurements and scratch resistance showed a significant increase in Brinell, Vickers, and nanoindentation hardness values as well as microscratch resistance of the heat-treated samples compared to the as-cast ferritic sample. The increase in hardness and improvement in microscratch resistance are associated with the formation of the ausferrite matrix consisted of carbon-saturated retained austenite and acicular ferrite in austempered matrix. The maximum hardness was observed for samples austempered at 275°C which resulted in the formation of very fine acicular ferrite. In addition, nanohardness values showed a quite significant variation in the matrix due to the presence of acicular ferrite and carbon-saturated retained austenite. It was also observed that the increase of austempering temperature resulted in increase of volume of the carbon-saturated retained austenite and decrease of hardness values.

Keywords: austempered CGI, austempering, scratch testing, scratch plastic deformation, scratch hardness

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