Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16391

Search results for: mapping method

16391 Mapping Method to Solve a Nonlinear Schrodinger Type Equation

Authors: Edamana Vasudevan Krishnan


This paper studies solitons in optical materials with the help of Mapping Method. Two types of nonlinear media have been investigated, namely, the cubic nonlinearity and the quintic nonlinearity. The soliton solutions, shock wave solutions and singular solutions have been derives with certain constraint conditions.

Keywords: solitons, integrability, metamaterials, mapping method

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16390 Sub-Pixel Mapping Based on New Mixed Interpolation

Authors: Zeyu Zhou, Xiaojun Bi


Due to the limited environmental parameters and the limited resolution of the sensor, the universal existence of the mixed pixels in the process of remote sensing images restricts the spatial resolution of the remote sensing images. Sub-pixel mapping technology can effectively improve the spatial resolution. As the bilinear interpolation algorithm inevitably produces the edge blur effect, which leads to the inaccurate sub-pixel mapping results. In order to avoid the edge blur effect that affects the sub-pixel mapping results in the interpolation process, this paper presents a new edge-directed interpolation algorithm which uses the covariance adaptive interpolation algorithm on the edge of the low-resolution image and uses bilinear interpolation algorithm in the low-resolution image smooth area. By using the edge-directed interpolation algorithm, the super-resolution of the image with low resolution is obtained, and we get the percentage of each sub-pixel under a certain type of high-resolution image. Then we rely on the probability value as a soft attribute estimate and carry out sub-pixel scale under the ‘hard classification’. Finally, we get the result of sub-pixel mapping. Through the experiment, we compare the algorithm and the bilinear algorithm given in this paper to the results of the sub-pixel mapping method. It is found that the sub-pixel mapping method based on the edge-directed interpolation algorithm has better edge effect and higher mapping accuracy. The results of the paper meet our original intention of the question. At the same time, the method does not require iterative computation and training of samples, making it easier to implement.

Keywords: remote sensing images, sub-pixel mapping, bilinear interpolation, edge-directed interpolation

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16389 Technology of Gyro Orientation Measurement Unit (Gyro Omu) for Underground Utility Mapping Practice

Authors: Mohd Ruzlin Mohd Mokhtar


At present, most operators who are working on projects for utilities such as power, water, oil, gas, telecommunication and sewerage are using technologies e.g. Total station, Global Positioning System (GPS), Electromagnetic Locator (EML) and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) to perform underground utility mapping. With the increase in popularity of Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD) method among the local authorities and asset owners, most of newly installed underground utilities need to use the HDD method. HDD method is seen as simple and create not much disturbance to the public and traffic. Thus, it was the preferred utilities installation method in most of areas especially in urban areas. HDDs were installed much deeper than exiting utilities (some reports saying that HDD is averaging 5 meter in depth). However, this impacts the accuracy or ability of existing underground utility mapping technologies. In most of Malaysia underground soil condition, those technologies were limited to maximum of 3 meter depth. Thus, those utilities which were installed much deeper than 3 meter depth could not be detected by using existing detection tools. The accuracy and reliability of existing underground utility mapping technologies or work procedure were in doubt. Thus, a mitigation action plan is required. While installing new utility using Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD) method, a more accurate underground utility mapping can be achieved by using Gyro OMU compared to existing practice using e.g. EML and GPR. Gyro OMU is a method to accurately identify the location of HDD thus this mapping can be used or referred to avoid those cost of breakdown due to future HDD works which can be caused by inaccurate underground utility mapping.

Keywords: Gyro Orientation Measurement Unit (Gyro OMU), Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD), Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), Electromagnetic Locator (EML)

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16388 Continuous Functions Modeling with Artificial Neural Network: An Improvement Technique to Feed the Input-Output Mapping

Authors: A. Belayadi, A. Mougari, L. Ait-Gougam, F. Mekideche-Chafa


The artificial neural network is one of the interesting techniques that have been advantageously used to deal with modeling problems. In this study, the computing with artificial neural network (CANN) is proposed. The model is applied to modulate the information processing of one-dimensional task. We aim to integrate a new method which is based on a new coding approach of generating the input-output mapping. The latter is based on increasing the neuron unit in the last layer. Accordingly, to show the efficiency of the approach under study, a comparison is made between the proposed method of generating the input-output set and the conventional method. The results illustrated that the increasing of the neuron units, in the last layer, allows to find the optimal network’s parameters that fit with the mapping data. Moreover, it permits to decrease the training time, during the computation process, which avoids the use of computers with high memory usage.

Keywords: neural network computing, continuous functions generating the input-output mapping, decreasing the training time, machines with big memories

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16387 Analysis of the Aquifer Vulnerability of a Miopliocene Arid Area Using Drastic and SI Models

Authors: H. Majour, L. Djabri


Many methods in the groundwater vulnerability have been developed in the world (methods like PRAST, DRIST, APRON/ARAA, PRASTCHIM, GOD). In this study, our choice dealt with two recent complementary methods using category mapping of index with weighting criteria (Point County Systems Model MSCP) namely the standard DRASTIC method and SI (Susceptibility Index). At present, these two methods are the most used for the mapping of the intrinsic vulnerability of groundwater. Two classes of groundwater vulnerability in the Biskra sandy aquifer were identified by the DRASTIC method (average and high) and the SI method (very high and high). Integrated analysis has revealed that the high class is predominant for the DRASTIC method whereas for that of SI the preponderance is for the very high class. Furthermore, we notice that the method SI estimates better the vulnerability for the pollution in nitrates, with a rate of 85 % between the concentrations in nitrates of groundwater and the various established classes of vulnerability, against 75 % for the DRASTIC method. By including the land use parameter, the SI method produced more realistic results.

Keywords: DRASTIC, SI, GIS, Biskra sandy aquifer, Algeria

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16386 Exploring the Capabilities of Sentinel-1A and Sentinel-2A Data for Landslide Mapping

Authors: Ismayanti Magfirah, Sartohadi Junun, Samodra Guruh


Landslides are one of the most frequent and devastating natural disasters in Indonesia. Many studies have been conducted regarding this phenomenon. However, there is a lack of attention in the landslide inventory mapping. The natural condition (dense forest area) and the limited human and economic resources are some of the major problems in building landslide inventory in Indonesia. Considering the importance of landslide inventory data in susceptibility, hazard, and risk analysis, it is essential to generate landslide inventory based on available resources. In order to achieve this, the first thing we have to do is identify the landslides' location. The presence of Sentinel-1A and Sentinel-2A data gives new insights into land monitoring investigation. The free access, high spatial resolution, and short revisit time, make the data become one of the most trending open sources data used in landslide mapping. Sentinel-1A and Sentinel-2A data have been used broadly for landslide detection and landuse/landcover mapping. This study aims to generate landslide map by integrating Sentinel-1A and Sentinel-2A data use change detection method. The result will be validated by field investigation to make preliminary landslide inventory in the study area.

Keywords: change detection method, landslide inventory mapping, Sentinel-1A, Sentinel-2A

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16385 A Tuning Method for Microwave Filter via Complex Neural Network and Improved Space Mapping

Authors: Shengbiao Wu, Weihua Cao, Min Wu, Can Liu


This paper presents an intelligent tuning method of microwave filter based on complex neural network and improved space mapping. The tuning process consists of two stages: the initial tuning and the fine tuning. At the beginning of the tuning, the return loss of the filter is transferred to the passband via the error of phase. During the fine tuning, the phase shift caused by the transmission line and the higher order mode is removed by the curve fitting. Then, an Cauchy method based on the admittance parameter (Y-parameter) is used to extract the coupling matrix. The influence of the resonant cavity loss is eliminated during the parameter extraction process. By using processed data pairs (the amount of screw variation and the variation of the coupling matrix), a tuning model is established by the complex neural network. In view of the improved space mapping algorithm, the mapping relationship between the actual model and the ideal model is established, and the amplitude and direction of the tuning is constantly updated. Finally, the tuning experiment of the eight order coaxial cavity filter shows that the proposed method has a good effect in tuning time and tuning precision.

Keywords: microwave filter, scattering parameter, coupling matrix, intelligent tuning

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16384 An Alternative Way to Mapping Cone

Authors: Yousuf Alkhezi


Since most of the literature on algebra does not make much deal with the special case of mapping cone. This paper is an alternative way to examine the special tensor product and mapping cone. Also, we show that the isomorphism that implies the mapping cone commutes with the tensor product for the ordinary tensor product no longer holds for the pinched tensor product. However, we show there is a morphism. We will introduce an alternative way of mapping cone. We are looking for more properties which is our future project. Also, we want to apply these new properties in some application. Many results and examples with classical algorithms will be provided.

Keywords: complex, tensor product, pinched tensore product, mapping cone

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16383 Mapping the Intrinsic Vulnerability of the Quaternary Aquifer of the Eastern Mitidja (Northern Algeria)

Authors: Abida Haddouche, Ahmed Chrif Toubal


The Neogene basin of the Eastern Mitidja, object of the study area, represents potential water resources and especially groundwater reserves. This water is an important economic; this resource is highly sensitive which need protection and preservation. Unfortunately, these waters are exposed to various forms of pollution, whether from urban, agricultural, industrial or merely accidental. This pollution is a permanent risk of limiting resource. In this context, the work aims to evaluate the intrinsic vulnerability of the aquifer to protect and preserve the quality of this resource. It will focus on the disposal of water and land managers a cartographic document accessible to locate the areas where the water has a high vulnerability. Vulnerability mapping of the Easter Mitidja quaternary aquifer is performed by applying three methods (DRASTIC, DRIST, and GOD). Comparison and validation results show that the DRASTIC method is the most suitable method for aquifer vulnerability of the study area.

Keywords: Aquifer of Mitidja, DRASTIC method, geographic information system (GIS), vulnerability mapping

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16382 Effective Method of Paneling for Source/Vortex/Doublet Panel Methods Using Conformal Mapping

Authors: K. C. R. Perera, B. M. Hapuwatte


This paper presents an effective method to divide panels for mesh-less methods of source, vortex and doublet panel methods. In this research study the physical domain of air-foils were transformed into computational domain of a circle using conformal mapping technique of Joukowsky transformation. Then the circle is divided into panels of equal length and the co-ordinates were remapped into physical domain of the air-foil. With this method the leading edge and the trailing edge of the air-foil is panelled with a high density of panels and the rest of the body is panelled with low density of panels. The high density of panels in the leading edge and the trailing edge will increase the accuracy of the solutions obtained from panel methods where the fluid flow at the leading and trailing edges are complex.

Keywords: conformal mapping, Joukowsky transformation, physical domain, computational domain

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16381 Heuristic for Accelerating Run-Time Task Mapping in NoC-Based Heterogeneous MPSoCs

Authors: M. K. Benhaoua, A. K. Singh, A. E. H. Benyamina, A. Kumar, P. Boulet


In this paper, we propose a new packing strategy to find free resources for run-time mapping of application tasks on NoC-based Heterogeneous MPSoCs. The proposed strategy minimizes the task mapping time in addition to placing the communicating tasks close to each other. To evaluate our approach, a comparative study is carried out. Experiments show that our strategy provides better results when compared to latest dynamic mapping strategies reported in the literature.

Keywords: heterogeneous MPSoCs, NoC, dynamic mapping, routing

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16380 Dynamic Communications Mapping in NoC-Based Heterogeneous MPSoCs

Authors: M. K. Benhaoua, A. K. Singh, A. E. H. Benyamina


In this paper, we propose heuristic for dynamic communications mapping that considers the placement of communications in order to optimize the overall performance. The mapping technique uses a newly proposed Algorithm to place communications between the tasks. The placement we propose of the communications leads to a better optimization of several performance metrics (time and energy consumption). Experimental results show that the proposed mapping approach provides significant performance improvements when compared to those using static routing.

Keywords: Multi-Processor Systems-on-Chip (MPSoCs), Network-on-Chip (NoC), heterogeneous architectures, dynamic mapping heuristics

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16379 Research on Urban Point of Interest Generalization Method Based on Mapping Presentation

Authors: Chengming Li, Yong Yin, Peipei Guo, Xiaoli Liu


Without taking account of the attribute richness of POI (point of interest) data and spatial distribution limited by roads, a POI generalization method considering both attribute information and spatial distribution has been proposed against the existing point generalization algorithm merely focusing on overall information of point groups. Hierarchical characteristic of urban POI information expression has been firstly analyzed to point out the measurement feature of the corresponding hierarchy. On this basis, an urban POI generalizing strategy has been put forward: POIs urban road network have been divided into three distribution pattern; corresponding generalization methods have been proposed according to the characteristic of POI data in different distribution patterns. Experimental results showed that the method taking into account both attribute information and spatial distribution characteristics of POI can better implement urban POI generalization in the mapping presentation.

Keywords: POI, road network, selection method, spatial information expression, distribution pattern

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16378 Volcanostratigraphy Reconaissance Study Using Ridge Continuity to Solve Complex Volcanic Deposit Problems, Case Study Old Sunda Volcano

Authors: Afy Syahidan ACHMAD, Astin NURDIANA, SURYANTINI


In volcanic arc environment we can find multiple volcanic deposits which overlapped with another volcanic deposit so it will complicates source and distribution determination. This problem getting more difficult when we can not trace any deposit border evidences in field especially in high vegetation volcanic area, or overlapped deposit with same characteristics. Main purpose of this study is to solve complex volcanostratigraphy mapping problems trough ridge, valley, and river continuity. This method application carried out in Old Sunda Volcanic, West Java, Indonesia. Using 1:100.000 and 1:50.000 topographic map, and regional geology map, old sunda volcanic deposit was differentiated in regional level and detail level. Final product of this method is volcanostratigraphy unit determination in reconnaissance stage to simplify mapping process.

Keywords: volcanostratigraphy, study, method, volcanic deposit

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16377 A Method of the Semantic on Image Auto-Annotation

Authors: Lin Huo, Xianwei Liu, Jingxiong Zhou


Recently, due to the existence of semantic gap between image visual features and human concepts, the semantic of image auto-annotation has become an important topic. Firstly, by extract low-level visual features of the image, and the corresponding Hash method, mapping the feature into the corresponding Hash coding, eventually, transformed that into a group of binary string and store it, image auto-annotation by search is a popular method, we can use it to design and implement a method of image semantic auto-annotation. Finally, Through the test based on the Corel image set, and the results show that, this method is effective.

Keywords: image auto-annotation, color correlograms, Hash code, image retrieval

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16376 A Novel Computer-Generated Hologram (CGH) Achieved Scheme Generated from Point Cloud by Using a Lens Array

Authors: Wei-Na Li, Mei-Lan Piao, Nam Kim


We proposed a novel computer-generated hologram (CGH) achieved scheme, wherein the CGH is generated from a point cloud which is transformed by a mapping relationship of a series of elemental images captured from a real three-dimensional (3D) object by using a lens array. This scheme is composed of three procedures: mapping from elemental images to point cloud, hologram generation, and hologram display. A mapping method is figured out to achieve a virtual volume date (point cloud) from a series of elemental images. This mapping method consists of two steps. Firstly, the coordinate (x, y) pairs and its appearing number are calculated from the series of sub-images, which are generated from the elemental images. Secondly, a series of corresponding coordinates (x, y, z) are calculated from the elemental images. Then a hologram is generated from the volume data that is calculated by the previous two steps. Eventually, a spatial light modulator (SLM) and a green laser beam are utilized to display this hologram and reconstruct the original 3D object. In this paper, in order to show a more auto stereoscopic display of a real 3D object, we successfully obtained the actual depth data of every discrete point of the real 3D object, and overcame the inherent drawbacks of the depth camera by obtaining point cloud from the elemental images.

Keywords: elemental image, point cloud, computer-generated hologram (CGH), autostereoscopic display

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16375 Capture Zone of a Well Field in an Aquifer Bounded by Two Parallel Streams

Authors: S. Nagheli, N. Samani, D. A. Barry


In this paper, the velocity potential and stream function of capture zone for a well field in an aquifer bounded by two parallel streams with or without a uniform regional flow of any directions are presented. The well field includes any number of extraction or injection wells or a combination of both types with any pumping rates. To delineate the capture envelope, the potential and streamlines equations are derived by conformal mapping method. This method can help us to release constrains of other methods. The equations can be applied as useful tools to design in-situ groundwater remediation systems, to evaluate the surface–subsurface water interaction and to manage the water resources.

Keywords: complex potential, conformal mapping, image well theory, Laplace’s equation, superposition principle

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16374 Lane Detection Using Labeling Based RANSAC Algorithm

Authors: Yeongyu Choi, Ju H. Park, Ho-Youl Jung


In this paper, we propose labeling based RANSAC algorithm for lane detection. Advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) have been widely researched to avoid unexpected accidents. Lane detection is a necessary system to assist keeping lane and lane departure prevention. The proposed vision based lane detection method applies Canny edge detection, inverse perspective mapping (IPM), K-means algorithm, mathematical morphology operations and 8 connected-component labeling. Next, random samples are selected from each labeling region for RANSAC. The sampling method selects the points of lane with a high probability. Finally, lane parameters of straight line or curve equations are estimated. Through the simulations tested on video recorded at daytime and nighttime, we show that the proposed method has better performance than the existing RANSAC algorithm in various environments.

Keywords: Canny edge detection, k-means algorithm, RANSAC, inverse perspective mapping

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16373 Exact Solutions of a Nonlinear Schrodinger Equation with Kerr Law Nonlinearity

Authors: Muna Alghabshi, Edmana Krishnan


A nonlinear Schrodinger equation has been considered for solving by mapping methods in terms of Jacobi elliptic functions (JEFs). The equation under consideration has a linear evolution term, linear and nonlinear dispersion terms, the Kerr law nonlinearity term and three terms representing the contribution of meta materials. This equation which has applications in optical fibers is found to have soliton solutions, shock wave solutions, and singular wave solutions when the modulus of the JEFs approach 1 which is the infinite period limit. The equation with special values of the parameters has also been solved using the tanh method.

Keywords: Jacobi elliptic function, mapping methods, nonlinear Schrodinger Equation, tanh method

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16372 A New Approach to the Digital Implementation of Analog Controllers for a Power System Control

Authors: G. Shabib, Esam H. Abd-Elhameed, G. Magdy


In this paper, a comparison of discrete time PID, PSS controllers is presented through small signal stability of power system comprising of one machine connected to infinite bus system. This comparison achieved by using a new approach of discretization which converts the S-domain model of analog controllers to a Z-domain model to enhance the damping of a single machine power system. The new method utilizes the Plant Input Mapping (PIM) algorithm. The proposed algorithm is stable for any sampling rate, as well as it takes the closed loop characteristic into consideration. On the other hand, the traditional discretization methods such as Tustin’s method is produce satisfactory results only; when the sampling period is sufficiently low.

Keywords: PSS, power system stabilizer PID, proportional-integral-derivative PIM, plant input mapping

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16371 A Method for Multimedia User Interface Design for Mobile Learning

Authors: Shimaa Nagro, Russell Campion


Mobile devices are becoming ever more widely available, with growing functionality, and are increasingly used as an enabling technology to give students access to educational material anytime and anywhere. However, the design of educational material user interfaces for mobile devices is beset by many unresolved research issues such as those arising from emphasising the information concepts then mapping this information to appropriate media (modelling information then mapping media effectively). This report describes a multimedia user interface design method for mobile learning. The method covers specification of user requirements and information architecture, media selection to represent the information content, design for directing attention to important information, and interaction design to enhance user engagement based on Human-Computer Interaction design strategies (HCI). The method will be evaluated by three different case studies to prove the method is suitable for application to different areas / applications, these are; an application to teach about major computer networking concepts, an application to deliver a history-based topic; (after these case studies have been completed, the method will be revised to remove deficiencies and then used to develop a third case study), an application to teach mathematical principles. At this point, the method will again be revised into its final format. A usability evaluation will be carried out to measure the usefulness and effectiveness of the method. The investigation will combine qualitative and quantitative methods, including interviews and questionnaires for data collection and three case studies for validating the MDMLM method. The researcher has successfully produced the method at this point which is now under validation and testing procedures. From this point forward in the report, the researcher will refer to the method using the MDMLM abbreviation which means Multimedia Design Mobile Learning Method.

Keywords: human-computer interaction, interface design, mobile learning, education

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16370 Presenting a Knowledge Mapping Model According to a Comparative Study on Applied Models and Approaches to Map Organizational Knowledge

Authors: Ahmad Aslizadeh, Farid Ghaderi


Mapping organizational knowledge is an innovative concept and useful instrument of representation, capturing and visualization of implicit and explicit knowledge. There are a diversity of methods, instruments and techniques presented by different researchers following mapping organizational knowledge to reach determined goals. Implicating of these methods, it is necessary to know their exigencies and conditions in which those can be used. Integrating identified methods of knowledge mapping and comparing them would help knowledge managers to select the appropriate methods. This research conducted to presenting a model and framework to map organizational knowledge. At first, knowledge maps, their applications and necessity are introduced because of extracting comparative framework and detection of their structure. At the next step techniques of researchers such as Eppler, Kim, Egbu, Tandukar and Ebner as knowledge mapping models are presented and surveyed. Finally, they compare and a superior model would be introduced.

Keywords: knowledge mapping, knowledge management, comparative study, business and management

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16369 Building a Parametric Link between Mapping and Planning: A Sunlight-Adaptive Urban Green System Plan Formation Process

Authors: Chenhao Zhu


Quantitative mapping is playing a growing role in guiding urban planning, such as using a heat map created by CFX, CFD2000, or Envi-met, to adjust the master plan. However, there is no effective quantitative link between the mappings and planning formation. So, in many cases, the decision-making is still based on the planner's subjective interpretation and understanding of these mappings, which limits the improvement of scientific and accuracy brought by the quantitative mapping. Therefore, in this paper, an effort has been made to give a methodology of building a parametric link between the mapping and planning formation. A parametric planning process based on radiant mapping has been proposed for creating an urban green system. In the first step, a script is written in Grasshopper to build a road network and form the block, while the Ladybug Plug-in is used to conduct a radiant analysis in the form of mapping. Then, the research creatively transforms the radiant mapping from a polygon into a data point matrix, because polygon is hard to engage in the design formation. Next, another script is created to select the main green spaces from the road network based on the criteria of radiant intensity and connect the green spaces' central points to generate a green corridor. After that, a control parameter is introduced to adjust the corridor's form based on the radiant intensity. Finally, a green system containing greenspace and green corridor is generated under the quantitative control of the data matrix. The designer only needs to modify the control parameter according to the relevant research results and actual conditions to realize the optimization of the green system. This method can also be applied to much other mapping-based analysis, such as wind environment analysis, thermal environment analysis, and even environmental sensitivity analysis. The parameterized link between the mapping and planning will bring about a more accurate, objective, and scientific planning.

Keywords: parametric link, mapping, urban green system, radiant intensity, planning strategy, grasshopper

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16368 Buzan Mind Mapping: An Efficient Technique for Note-Taking

Authors: T. K. Tee, M. N. A. Azman, S. Mohamed, M. Muhammad, M. M. Mohamad, J. Md Yunos, M. H. Yee, W. Othman


Buzan mind mapping is an efficient system of note-taking that makes revision a fun thing to do for students. Tony Buzan has been teaching children all over the world for the past thirty years and has proved that mind maps are the magic formula in the classroom for everyone. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the importance of Buzan mind mapping as a note-taking technique for the secondary school students. This paper also examines the mind mapping technique, advantages and disadvantages of hand-drawn mind maps. Samples of students’ mind maps were presented and discussed.

Keywords: Buzan mind mapping, note-taking technique, hand-drawn, mind maps

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16367 The Sensitivity of Electrical Geophysical Methods for Mapping Salt Stores within the Soil Profile

Authors: Fathi Ali Swaid


Soil salinization is one of the most hazardous phenomenons accelerating the land degradation processes. It either occurs naturally or is human-induced. High levels of soil salinity negatively affect crop growth and productivity leading land degradation ultimately. Thus, it is important to monitor and map soil salinity at an early stage to enact effective soil reclamation program that helps lessen or prevent future increase in soil salinity. Geophysical method has outperformed the traditional method for assessing soil salinity offering more informative and professional rapid assessment techniques for monitoring and mapping soil salinity. Soil sampling, EM38 and 2D conductivity imaging have been evaluated for their ability to delineate and map the level of salinity variations at Second Ponds Creek. The three methods have shown that the subsoil in the study area is saline. Salt variations were successfully observed under either method. However, EM38 reading and 2D inversion data show a clear spatial structure comparing to EC1:5 of soil samples in spite of that all soil samples, EM38 and 2D imaging were collected from the same location. Because EM38 readings and 2D imaging data are a weighted average of electrical soil conductance, it is more representative of soil properties than the soil samples method. The mapping of subsurface soil at the study area has been successful and the resistivity imaging has proven to be an advantage. The soil salinity analysis (EC1:5) correspond well to the true resistivity bringing together a good result of soil salinity. Soil salinity clearly indicated by previous investigation EM38 have been confirmed by the interpretation of the true resistivity at study area.

Keywords: 2D conductivity imaging, EM38 readings, soil salinization, true resistivity, urban salinity

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16366 A Comparative Assessment Method For Map Alignment Techniques

Authors: Rema Daher, Theodor Chakhachiro, Daniel Asmar


In the era of autonomous robot mapping, assessing the goodness of the generated maps is important, and is usually performed by aligning them to ground truth. Map alignment is difficult for two reasons: first, the query maps can be significantly distorted from ground truth, and second, establishing what constitutes ground truth for different settings is challenging. Most map alignment techniques to this date have addressed the first problem, while paying too little importance to the second. In this paper, we propose a benchmark dataset, which consists of synthetically transformed maps with their corresponding displacement fields. Furthermore, we propose a new system for comparison, where the displacement field of any map alignment technique can be computed and compared to the ground truth using statistical measures. The local information in displacement fields renders the evaluation system applicable to any alignment technique, whether it is linear or not. In our experiments, the proposed method was applied to different alignment methods from the literature, allowing for a comparative assessment between them all.

Keywords: assessment methods, benchmark, image deformation, map alignment, robot mapping, robot motion

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16365 Kernel Parallelization Equation for Identifying Structures under Unknown and Periodic Loads

Authors: Seyed Sadegh Naseralavi


This paper presents a Kernel parallelization equation for damage identification in structures under unknown periodic excitations. Herein, the dynamic differential equation of the motion of structure is viewed as a mapping from displacements to external forces. Utilizing this viewpoint, a new method for damage detection in structures under periodic loads is presented. The developed method requires only two periods of load. The method detects the damages without finding the input loads. The method is based on the fact that structural displacements under free and forced vibrations are associated with two parallel subspaces in the displacement space. Considering the concept, kernel parallelization equation (KPE) is derived for damage detection under unknown periodic loads. The method is verified for a case study under periodic loads.

Keywords: Kernel, unknown periodic load, damage detection, Kernel parallelization equation

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16364 Mapping of Arenga Pinnata Tree Using Remote Sensing

Authors: Zulkiflee Abd Latif, Sitinor Atikah Nordin, Alawi Sulaiman


Different tree species possess different and various benefits. Arenga Pinnata tree species own several potential uses that is valuable for the economy and the country. Mapping vegetation using remote sensing technique involves various process, techniques and consideration. Using satellite imagery, this method enables the access of inaccessible area and with the availability of near infra-red band; it is useful in vegetation analysis, especially in identifying tree species. Pixel-based and object-based classification technique is used as a method in this study. Pixel-based classification technique used in this study divided into unsupervised and supervised classification. Object based classification technique becomes more popular another alternative method in classification process. Using spectral, texture, color and other information, to classify the target make object-based classification is a promising technique for classification. Classification of Arenga Pinnata trees is overlaid with elevation, slope and aspect, soil and river data and several other data to give information regarding the tree character and living environment. This paper will present the utilization of remote sensing technique in order to map Arenga Pinnata tree species

Keywords: Arenga Pinnata, pixel-based classification, object-based classification, remote sensing

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16363 Correlation Mapping for Measuring Platelet Adhesion

Authors: Eunseop Yeom


Platelets can be activated by the surrounding blood flows where a blood vessel is narrowed as a result of atherosclerosis. Numerous studies have been conducted to identify the relation between platelets activation and thrombus formation. To measure platelet adhesion, this study proposes an image analysis technique. Blood samples are delivered in the microfluidic channel, and then platelets are activated by a stenotic micro-channel with 90% severity. By applying proposed correlation mapping, which visualizes decorrelation of the streaming blood flow, the area of adhered platelets (APlatelet) was estimated without labeling platelets. In order to evaluate the performance of correlation mapping on the detection of platelet adhesion, the effect of tile size was investigated by calculating 2D correlation coefficients with binary images obtained by manual labeling and the correlation mapping method with different sizes of the square tile ranging from 3 to 50 pixels. The maximum 2D correlation coefficient is observed with the optimum tile size of 5×5 pixels. As the area of the platelet adhesion increases, the platelets plug the channel and there is only a small amount of blood flows. This image analysis could provide new insights for better understanding of the interactions between platelet aggregation and blood flows in various physiological conditions.

Keywords: platelet activation, correlation coefficient, image analysis, shear rate

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16362 Mapping of Geological Structures Using Aerial Photography

Authors: Ankit Sharma, Mudit Sachan, Anurag Prakash


Rapid growth in data acquisition technologies through drones, have led to advances and interests in collecting high-resolution images of geological fields. Being advantageous in capturing high volume of data in short flights, a number of challenges have to overcome for efficient analysis of this data, especially while data acquisition, image interpretation and processing. We introduce a method that allows effective mapping of geological fields using photogrammetric data of surfaces, drainage area, water bodies etc, which will be captured by airborne vehicles like UAVs, we are not taking satellite images because of problems in adequate resolution, time when it is captured may be 1 yr back, availability problem, difficult to capture exact image, then night vision etc. This method includes advanced automated image interpretation technology and human data interaction to model structures and. First Geological structures will be detected from the primary photographic dataset and the equivalent three dimensional structures would then be identified by digital elevation model. We can calculate dip and its direction by using the above information. The structural map will be generated by adopting a specified methodology starting from choosing the appropriate camera, camera’s mounting system, UAVs design ( based on the area and application), Challenge in air borne systems like Errors in image orientation, payload problem, mosaicing and geo referencing and registering of different images to applying DEM. The paper shows the potential of using our method for accurate and efficient modeling of geological structures, capture particularly from remote, of inaccessible and hazardous sites.

Keywords: digital elevation model, mapping, photogrammetric data analysis, geological structures

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