Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7767

Search results for: local binary pattern transform

7767 Contourlet Transform and Local Binary Pattern Based Feature Extraction for Bleeding Detection in Endoscopic Images

Authors: Mekha Mathew, Varun P Gopi


Wireless Capsule Endoscopy (WCE) has become a great device in Gastrointestinal (GI) tract diagnosis, which can examine the entire GI tract, especially the small intestine without invasiveness and sedation. Bleeding in the digestive tract is a symptom of a disease rather than a disease itself. Hence the detection of bleeding is important in diagnosing many diseases. In this paper we proposes a novel method for distinguishing bleeding regions from normal regions based on Contourlet transform and Local Binary Pattern (LBP). Experiments show that this method provides a high accuracy rate of 96.38% in CIE XYZ colour space for k-Nearest Neighbour (k-NN) classifier.

Keywords: Wireless Capsule Endoscopy, local binary pattern, k-NN classifier, contourlet transform

Procedia PDF Downloads 402
7766 Hardware Implementation of Local Binary Pattern Based Two-Bit Transform Motion Estimation

Authors: Seda Yavuz, Anıl Çelebi, Aysun Taşyapı Çelebi, Oğuzhan Urhan


Nowadays, demand for using real-time video transmission capable devices is ever-increasing. So, high resolution videos have made efficient video compression techniques an essential component for capturing and transmitting video data. Motion estimation has a critical role in encoding raw video. Hence, various motion estimation methods are introduced to efficiently compress the video. Low bit‑depth representation based motion estimation methods facilitate computation of matching criteria and thus, provide small hardware footprint. In this paper, a hardware implementation of a two-bit transformation based low-complexity motion estimation method using local binary pattern approach is proposed. Image frames are represented in two-bit depth instead of full-depth by making use of the local binary pattern as a binarization approach and the binarization part of the hardware architecture is explained in detail. Experimental results demonstrate the difference between the proposed hardware architecture and the architectures of well-known low-complexity motion estimation methods in terms of important aspects such as resource utilization, energy and power consumption.

Keywords: binarization, hardware architecture, local binary pattern, motion estimation, two-bit transform

Procedia PDF Downloads 227
7765 Hit-Or-Miss Transform as a Tool for Similar Shape Detection

Authors: Osama Mohamed Elrajubi, Idris El-Feghi, Mohamed Abu Baker Saghayer


This paper describes an identification of specific shapes within binary images using the morphological Hit-or-Miss Transform (HMT). Hit-or-Miss transform is a general binary morphological operation that can be used in searching of particular patterns of foreground and background pixels in an image. It is actually a basic operation of binary morphology since almost all other binary morphological operators are derived from it. The input of this method is a binary image and a structuring element (a template which will be searched in a binary image) while the output is another binary image. In this paper a modification of Hit-or-Miss transform has been proposed. The accuracy of algorithm is adjusted according to the similarity of the template and the sought template. The implementation of this method has been done by C language. The algorithm has been tested on several images and the results have shown that this new method can be used for similar shape detection.

Keywords: hit-or-miss operator transform, HMT, binary morphological operation, shape detection, binary images processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
7764 Local Directional Encoded Derivative Binary Pattern Based Coral Image Classification Using Weighted Distance Gray Wolf Optimization Algorithm

Authors: Annalakshmi G., Sakthivel Murugan S.


This paper presents a local directional encoded derivative binary pattern (LDEDBP) feature extraction method that can be applied for the classification of submarine coral reef images. The classification of coral reef images using texture features is difficult due to the dissimilarities in class samples. In coral reef image classification, texture features are extracted using the proposed method called local directional encoded derivative binary pattern (LDEDBP). The proposed approach extracts the complete structural arrangement of the local region using local binary batten (LBP) and also extracts the edge information using local directional pattern (LDP) from the edge response available in a particular region, thereby achieving extra discriminative feature value. Typically the LDP extracts the edge details in all eight directions. The process of integrating edge responses along with the local binary pattern achieves a more robust texture descriptor than the other descriptors used in texture feature extraction methods. Finally, the proposed technique is applied to an extreme learning machine (ELM) method with a meta-heuristic algorithm known as weighted distance grey wolf optimizer (GWO) to optimize the input weight and biases of single-hidden-layer feed-forward neural networks (SLFN). In the empirical results, ELM-WDGWO demonstrated their better performance in terms of accuracy on all coral datasets, namely RSMAS, EILAT, EILAT2, and MLC, compared with other state-of-the-art algorithms. The proposed method achieves the highest overall classification accuracy of 94% compared to the other state of art methods.

Keywords: feature extraction, local directional pattern, ELM classifier, GWO optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
7763 Pyramid Binary Pattern for Age Invariant Face Verification

Authors: Saroj Bijarnia, Preety Singh


We propose a simple and effective biometrics system based on face verification across aging using a new variant of texture feature, Pyramid Binary Pattern. This employs Local Binary Pattern along with its hierarchical information. Dimension reduction of generated texture feature vector is done using Principal Component Analysis. Support Vector Machine is used for classification. Our proposed method achieves an accuracy of 92:24% and can be used in an automated age-invariant face verification system.

Keywords: biometrics, age invariant, verification, support vector machine

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
7762 Speech Enhancement Using Wavelet Coefficients Masking with Local Binary Patterns

Authors: Christian Arcos, Marley Vellasco, Abraham Alcaim


In this paper, we present a wavelet coefficients masking based on Local Binary Patterns (WLBP) approach to enhance the temporal spectra of the wavelet coefficients for speech enhancement. This technique exploits the wavelet denoising scheme, which splits the degraded speech into pyramidal subband components and extracts frequency information without losing temporal information. Speech enhancement in each high-frequency subband is performed by binary labels through the local binary pattern masking that encodes the ratio between the original value of each coefficient and the values of the neighbour coefficients. This approach enhances the high-frequency spectra of the wavelet transform instead of eliminating them through a threshold. A comparative analysis is carried out with conventional speech enhancement algorithms, demonstrating that the proposed technique achieves significant improvements in terms of PESQ, an international recommendation of objective measure for estimating subjective speech quality. Informal listening tests also show that the proposed method in an acoustic context improves the quality of speech, avoiding the annoying musical noise present in other speech enhancement techniques. Experimental results obtained with a DNN based speech recognizer in noisy environments corroborate the superiority of the proposed scheme in the robust speech recognition scenario.

Keywords: binary labels, local binary patterns, mask, wavelet coefficients, speech enhancement, speech recognition

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
7761 Improved Feature Extraction Technique for Handling Occlusion in Automatic Facial Expression Recognition

Authors: Khadijat T. Bamigbade, Olufade F. W. Onifade


The field of automatic facial expression analysis has been an active research area in the last two decades. Its vast applicability in various domains has drawn so much attention into developing techniques and dataset that mirror real life scenarios. Many techniques such as Local Binary Patterns and its variants (CLBP, LBP-TOP) and lately, deep learning techniques, have been used for facial expression recognition. However, the problem of occlusion has not been sufficiently handled, making their results not applicable in real life situations. This paper develops a simple, yet highly efficient method tagged Local Binary Pattern-Histogram of Gradient (LBP-HOG) with occlusion detection in face image, using a multi-class SVM for Action Unit and in turn expression recognition. Our method was evaluated on three publicly available datasets which are JAFFE, CK, SFEW. Experimental results showed that our approach performed considerably well when compared with state-of-the-art algorithms and gave insight to occlusion detection as a key step to handling expression in wild.

Keywords: automatic facial expression analysis, local binary pattern, LBP-HOG, occlusion detection

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
7760 Face Sketch Recognition in Forensic Application Using Scale Invariant Feature Transform and Multiscale Local Binary Patterns Fusion

Authors: Gargi Phadke, Mugdha Joshi, Shamal Salunkhe


Facial sketches are used as a crucial clue by criminal investigators for identification of suspects when the description of eyewitness or victims are only available as evidence. A forensic artist develops a sketch as per the verbal description is given by an eyewitness that shows the facial look of the culprit. In this paper, the fusion of Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) and multiscale local binary patterns (MLBP) are proposed as a feature to recognize a forensic face sketch images from a gallery of mugshot photos. This work focuses on comparative analysis of proposed scheme with existing algorithms in different challenges like illumination change and rotation condition. Experimental results show that proposed scheme can lead to better performance for the defined problem.

Keywords: SIFT feature, MLBP, PCA, face sketch

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
7759 An Improved Face Recognition Algorithm Using Histogram-Based Features in Spatial and Frequency Domains

Authors: Qiu Chen, Koji Kotani, Feifei Lee, Tadahiro Ohmi


In this paper, we propose an improved face recognition algorithm using histogram-based features in spatial and frequency domains. For adding spatial information of the face to improve recognition performance, a region-division (RD) method is utilized. The facial area is firstly divided into several regions, then feature vectors of each facial part are generated by Binary Vector Quantization (BVQ) histogram using DCT coefficients in low frequency domains, as well as Local Binary Pattern (LBP) histogram in spatial domain. Recognition results with different regions are first obtained separately and then fused by weighted averaging. Publicly available ORL database is used for the evaluation of our proposed algorithm, which is consisted of 40 subjects with 10 images per subject containing variations in lighting, posing, and expressions. It is demonstrated that face recognition using RD method can achieve much higher recognition rate.

Keywords: binary vector quantization (BVQ), DCT coefficients, face recognition, local binary patterns (LBP)

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
7758 A Weighted Approach to Unconstrained Iris Recognition

Authors: Yao-Hong Tsai


This paper presents a weighted approach to unconstrained iris recognition. Nowadays, commercial systems are usually characterized by strong acquisition constraints based on the subject’s cooperation. However, it is not always achievable for real scenarios in our daily life. Researchers have been focused on reducing these constraints and maintaining the performance of the system by new techniques at the same time. With large variation in the environment, there are two main improvements to develop the proposed iris recognition system. For solving extremely uneven lighting condition, statistic based illumination normalization is first used on eye region to increase the accuracy of iris feature. The detection of the iris image is based on Adaboost algorithm. Secondly, the weighted approach is designed by Gaussian functions according to the distance to the center of the iris. Furthermore, local binary pattern (LBP) histogram is then applied to texture classification with the weight. Experiment showed that the proposed system provided users a more flexible and feasible way to interact with the verification system through iris recognition.

Keywords: authentication, iris recognition, adaboost, local binary pattern

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
7757 Efficient Feature Fusion for Noise Iris in Unconstrained Environment

Authors: Yao-Hong Tsai


This paper presents an efficient fusion algorithm for iris images to generate stable feature for recognition in unconstrained environment. Recently, iris recognition systems are focused on real scenarios in our daily life without the subject’s cooperation. Under large variation in the environment, the objective of this paper is to combine information from multiple images of the same iris. The result of image fusion is a new image which is more stable for further iris recognition than each original noise iris image. A wavelet-based approach for multi-resolution image fusion is applied in the fusion process. The detection of the iris image is based on Adaboost algorithm and then local binary pattern (LBP) histogram is then applied to texture classification with the weighting scheme. Experiment showed that the generated features from the proposed fusion algorithm can improve the performance for verification system through iris recognition.

Keywords: image fusion, iris recognition, local binary pattern, wavelet

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
7756 Critical Buckling Load of Carbon Nanotube with Non-Local Timoshenko Beam Using the Differential Transform Method

Authors: Tayeb Bensattalah, Mohamed Zidour, Mohamed Ait Amar Meziane, Tahar Hassaine Daouadji, Abdelouahed Tounsi


In this paper, the Differential Transform Method (DTM) is employed to predict and to analysis the non-local critical buckling loads of carbon nanotubes with various end conditions and the non-local Timoshenko beam described by single differential equation. The equation differential of buckling of the nanobeams is derived via a non-local theory and the solution for non-local critical buckling loads is finding by the DTM. The DTM is introduced briefly. It can easily be applied to linear or nonlinear problems and it reduces the size of computational work. Influence of boundary conditions, the chirality of carbon nanotube and aspect ratio on non-local critical buckling loads are studied and discussed. Effects of nonlocal parameter, ratios L/d, the chirality of single-walled carbon nanotube, as well as the boundary conditions on buckling of CNT are investigated.

Keywords: boundary conditions, buckling, non-local, differential transform method

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
7755 A Proposed Optimized and Efficient Intrusion Detection System for Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: Abdulaziz Alsadhan, Naveed Khan


In recent years intrusions on computer network are the major security threat. Hence, it is important to impede such intrusions. The hindrance of such intrusions entirely relies on its detection, which is primary concern of any security tool like Intrusion Detection System (IDS). Therefore, it is imperative to accurately detect network attack. Numerous intrusion detection techniques are available but the main issue is their performance. The performance of IDS can be improved by increasing the accurate detection rate and reducing false positive. The existing intrusion detection techniques have the limitation of usage of raw data set for classification. The classifier may get jumble due to redundancy, which results incorrect classification. To minimize this problem, Principle Component Analysis (PCA), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), and Local Binary Pattern (LBP) can be applied to transform raw features into principle features space and select the features based on their sensitivity. Eigen values can be used to determine the sensitivity. To further classify, the selected features greedy search, back elimination, and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) can be used to obtain a subset of features with optimal sensitivity and highest discriminatory power. These optimal feature subset used to perform classification. For classification purpose, Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) used due to its proven ability in classification. The Knowledge Discovery and Data mining (KDD’99) cup dataset was considered as a benchmark for evaluating security detection mechanisms. The proposed approach can provide an optimal intrusion detection mechanism that outperforms the existing approaches and has the capability to minimize the number of features and maximize the detection rates.

Keywords: Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Principle Component Analysis (PCA), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), Local Binary Pattern (LBP), Support Vector Machine (SVM), Multilayer Perceptron (MLP)

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
7754 Multi-Layer Multi-Feature Background Subtraction Using Codebook Model Framework

Authors: Yun-Tao Zhang, Jong-Yeop Bae, Whoi-Yul Kim


Background modeling and subtraction in video analysis has been widely proved to be an effective method for moving objects detection in many computer vision applications. Over the past years, a large number of approaches have been developed to tackle different types of challenges in this field. However, the dynamic background and illumination variations are two of the most frequently occurring issues in the practical situation. This paper presents a new two-layer model based on codebook algorithm incorporated with local binary pattern (LBP) texture measure, targeted for handling dynamic background and illumination variation problems. More specifically, the first layer is designed by block-based codebook combining with LBP histogram and mean values of RGB color channels. Because of the invariance of the LBP features with respect to monotonic gray-scale changes, this layer can produce block-wise detection results with considerable tolerance of illumination variations. The pixel-based codebook is employed to reinforce the precision from the outputs of the first layer which is to eliminate false positives further. As a result, the proposed approach can greatly promote the accuracy under the circumstances of dynamic background and illumination changes. Experimental results on several popular background subtraction datasets demonstrate a very competitive performance compared to previous models.

Keywords: background subtraction, codebook model, local binary pattern, dynamic background, illumination change

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
7753 Performance Comparison of Non-Binary RA and QC-LDPC Codes

Authors: Ni Wenli, He Jing


Repeat–Accumulate (RA) codes are subclass of LDPC codes with fast encoder structures. In this paper, we consider a nonbinary extension of binary LDPC codes over GF(q) and construct a non-binary RA code and a non-binary QC-LDPC code over GF(2^4), we construct non-binary RA codes with linear encoding method and non-binary QC-LDPC codes with algebraic constructions method. And the BER performance of RA and QC-LDPC codes over GF(q) are compared with BP decoding and by simulation over the Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channels.

Keywords: non-binary RA codes, QC-LDPC codes, performance comparison, BP algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
7752 Gray Level Image Encryption

Authors: Roza Afarin, Saeed Mozaffari


The aim of this paper is image encryption using Genetic Algorithm (GA). The proposed encryption method consists of two phases. In modification phase, pixels locations are altered to reduce correlation among adjacent pixels. Then, pixels values are changed in the diffusion phase to encrypt the input image. Both phases are performed by GA with binary chromosomes. For modification phase, these binary patterns are generated by Local Binary Pattern (LBP) operator while for diffusion phase binary chromosomes are obtained by Bit Plane Slicing (BPS). Initial population in GA includes rows and columns of the input image. Instead of subjective selection of parents from this initial population, a random generator with predefined key is utilized. It is necessary to decrypt the coded image and reconstruct the initial input image. Fitness function is defined as average of transition from 0 to 1 in LBP image and histogram uniformity in modification and diffusion phases, respectively. Randomness of the encrypted image is measured by entropy, correlation coefficients and histogram analysis. Experimental results show that the proposed method is fast enough and can be used effectively for image encryption.

Keywords: correlation coefficients, genetic algorithm, image encryption, image entropy

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
7751 Clustering Categorical Data Using the K-Means Algorithm and the Attribute’s Relative Frequency

Authors: Semeh Ben Salem, Sami Naouali, Moetez Sallami


Clustering is a well known data mining technique used in pattern recognition and information retrieval. The initial dataset to be clustered can either contain categorical or numeric data. Each type of data has its own specific clustering algorithm. In this context, two algorithms are proposed: the k-means for clustering numeric datasets and the k-modes for categorical datasets. The main encountered problem in data mining applications is clustering categorical dataset so relevant in the datasets. One main issue to achieve the clustering process on categorical values is to transform the categorical attributes into numeric measures and directly apply the k-means algorithm instead the k-modes. In this paper, it is proposed to experiment an approach based on the previous issue by transforming the categorical values into numeric ones using the relative frequency of each modality in the attributes. The proposed approach is compared with a previously method based on transforming the categorical datasets into binary values. The scalability and accuracy of the two methods are experimented. The obtained results show that our proposed method outperforms the binary method in all cases.

Keywords: clustering, unsupervised learning, pattern recognition, categorical datasets, knowledge discovery, k-means

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
7750 A Fast Version of the Generalized Multi-Directional Radon Transform

Authors: Ines Elouedi, Atef Hammouda


This paper presents a new fast version of the generalized Multi-Directional Radon Transform method. The new method uses the inverse Fast Fourier Transform to lead to a faster Generalized Radon projections. We prove in this paper that the fast algorithm leads to almost the same results of the eldest one but with a considerable lower time computation cost. The projection end result of the fast method is a parameterized Radon space where a high valued pixel allows the detection of a curve from the original image. The proposed fast inversion algorithm leads to an exact reconstruction of the initial image from the Radon space. We show examples of the impact of this algorithm on the pattern recognition domain.

Keywords: fast generalized multi-directional Radon transform, curve, exact reconstruction, pattern recognition

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
7749 A Local Invariant Generalized Hough Transform Method for Integrated Circuit Visual Positioning

Authors: Wei Feilong


In this study, an local invariant generalized Houghtransform (LI-GHT) method is proposed for integrated circuit (IC) visual positioning. The original generalized Hough transform (GHT) is robust to external noise; however, it is not suitable for visual positioning of IC chips due to the four-dimensionality (4D) of parameter space which leads to the substantial storage requirement and high computational complexity. The proposed LI-GHT method can reduce the dimensionality of parameter space to 2D thanks to the rotational invariance of local invariant geometric feature and it can estimate the accuracy position and rotation angle of IC chips in real-time under noise and blur influence. The experiment results show that the proposed LI-GHT can estimate position and rotation angle of IC chips with high accuracy and fast speed. The proposed LI-GHT algorithm was implemented in IC visual positioning system of radio frequency identification (RFID) packaging equipment.

Keywords: Integrated Circuit Visual Positioning, Generalized Hough Transform, Local invariant Generalized Hough Transform, ICpacking equipment

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
7748 Local Texture and Global Color Descriptors for Content Based Image Retrieval

Authors: Tajinder Kaur, Anu Bala


An image retrieval system is a computer system for browsing, searching, and retrieving images from a large database of digital images a new algorithm meant for content-based image retrieval (CBIR) is presented in this paper. The proposed method combines the color and texture features which are extracted the global and local information of the image. The local texture feature is extracted by using local binary patterns (LBP), which are evaluated by taking into consideration of local difference between the center pixel and its neighbors. For the global color feature, the color histogram (CH) is used which is calculated by RGB (red, green, and blue) spaces separately. In this paper, the combination of color and texture features are proposed for content-based image retrieval. The performance of the proposed method is tested on Corel 1000 database which is the natural database. The results after being investigated show a significant improvement in terms of their evaluation measures as compared to LBP and CH.

Keywords: color, texture, feature extraction, local binary patterns, image retrieval

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
7747 Variable vs. Fixed Window Width Code Correlation Reference Waveform Receivers for Multipath Mitigation in Global Navigation Satellite Systems with Binary Offset Carrier and Multiplexed Binary Offset Carrier Signals

Authors: Fahad Alhussein, Huaping Liu


This paper compares the multipath mitigation performance of code correlation reference waveform receivers with variable and fixed window width, for binary offset carrier and multiplexed binary offset carrier signals typically used in global navigation satellite systems. In the variable window width method, such width is iteratively reduced until the distortion on the discriminator with multipath is eliminated. This distortion is measured as the Euclidean distance between the actual discriminator (obtained with the incoming signal), and the local discriminator (generated with a local copy of the signal). The variable window width have shown better performance compared to the fixed window width. In particular, the former yields zero error for all delays for the BOC and MBOC signals considered, while the latter gives rather large nonzero errors for small delays in all cases. Due to its computational simplicity, the variable window width method is perfectly suitable for implementation in low-cost receivers.

Keywords: correlation reference waveform receivers, binary offset carrier, multiplexed binary offset carrier, global navigation satellite systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
7746 An Image Processing Scheme for Skin Fungal Disease Identification

Authors: A. A. M. A. S. S. Perera, L. A. Ranasinghe, T. K. H. Nimeshika, D. M. Dhanushka Dissanayake, Namalie Walgampaya


Nowadays, skin fungal diseases are mostly found in people of tropical countries like Sri Lanka. A skin fungal disease is a particular kind of illness caused by fungus. These diseases have various dangerous effects on the skin and keep on spreading over time. It becomes important to identify these diseases at their initial stage to control it from spreading. This paper presents an automated skin fungal disease identification system implemented to speed up the diagnosis process by identifying skin fungal infections in digital images. An image of the diseased skin lesion is acquired and a comprehensive computer vision and image processing scheme is used to process the image for the disease identification. This includes colour analysis using RGB and HSV colour models, texture classification using Grey Level Run Length Matrix, Grey Level Co-Occurrence Matrix and Local Binary Pattern, Object detection, Shape Identification and many more. This paper presents the approach and its outcome for identification of four most common skin fungal infections, namely, Tinea Corporis, Sporotrichosis, Malassezia and Onychomycosis. The main intention of this research is to provide an automated skin fungal disease identification system that increase the diagnostic quality, shorten the time-to-diagnosis and improve the efficiency of detection and successful treatment for skin fungal diseases.

Keywords: Circularity Index, Grey Level Run Length Matrix, Grey Level Co-Occurrence Matrix, Local Binary Pattern, Object detection, Ring Detection, Shape Identification

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
7745 Teaching the Binary System via Beautiful Facts from the Real Life

Authors: Salem Ben Said


In recent times the decimal number system to which we are accustomed has received serious competition from the binary number system. In this note, an approach is suggested to teaching and learning the binary number system using examples from the real world. More precisely, we will demonstrate the utility of the binary system in describing the optimal strategy to win the Chinese Nim game, and in telegraphy by decoding the hidden message on Perseverance’s Mars parachute written in the language of binary system. Finally, we will answer the question, “why do modern computers prefer the ternary number system instead of the binary system?”. All materials are provided in a format that is conductive to classroom presentation and discussion.

Keywords: binary number system, Nim game, telegraphy, computers prefer the ternary system

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
7744 Image Rotation Using an Augmented 2-Step Shear Transform

Authors: Hee-Choul Kwon, Heeyong Kwon


Image rotation is one of main pre-processing steps for image processing or image pattern recognition. It is implemented with a rotation matrix multiplication. It requires a lot of floating point arithmetic operations and trigonometric calculations, so it takes a long time to execute. Therefore, there has been a need for a high speed image rotation algorithm without two major time-consuming operations. However, the rotated image has a drawback, i.e. distortions. We solved the problem using an augmented two-step shear transform. We compare the presented algorithm with the conventional rotation with images of various sizes. Experimental results show that the presented algorithm is superior to the conventional rotation one.

Keywords: high-speed rotation operation, image rotation, transform matrix, image processing, pattern recognition

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
7743 Human Identification Using Local Roughness Patterns in Heartbeat Signal

Authors: Md. Khayrul Bashar, Md. Saiful Islam, Kimiko Yamashita, Yano Midori


Despite having some progress in human authentication, conventional biometrics (e.g., facial features, fingerprints, retinal scans, gait, voice patterns) are not robust against falsification because they are neither confidential nor secret to an individual. As a non-invasive tool, electrocardiogram (ECG) has recently shown a great potential in human recognition due to its unique rhythms characterizing the variability of human heart structures (chest geometry, sizes, and positions). Moreover, ECG has a real-time vitality characteristic that signifies the live signs, which ensure legitimate individual to be identified. However, the detection accuracy of the current ECG-based methods is not sufficient due to a high variability of the individual’s heartbeats at a different instance of time. These variations may occur due to muscle flexure, the change of mental or emotional states, and the change of sensor positions or long-term baseline shift during the recording of ECG signal. In this study, a new method is proposed for human identification, which is based on the extraction of the local roughness of ECG heartbeat signals. First ECG signal is preprocessed using a second order band-pass Butterworth filter having cut-off frequencies of 0.00025 and 0.04. A number of local binary patterns are then extracted by applying a moving neighborhood window along the ECG signal. At each instant of the ECG signal, the pattern is formed by comparing the ECG intensities at neighboring time points with the central intensity in the moving window. Then, binary weights are multiplied with the pattern to come up with the local roughness description of the signal. Finally, histograms are constructed that describe the heartbeat signals of individual subjects in the database. One advantage of the proposed feature is that it does not depend on the accuracy of detecting QRS complex, unlike the conventional methods. Supervised recognition methods are then designed using minimum distance to mean and Bayesian classifiers to identify authentic human subjects. An experiment with sixty (60) ECG signals from sixty adult subjects from National Metrology Institute of Germany (NMIG) - PTB database, showed that the proposed new method is promising compared to a conventional interval and amplitude feature-based method.

Keywords: human identification, ECG biometrics, local roughness patterns, supervised classification

Procedia PDF Downloads 330
7742 Secure Message Transmission Using Meaningful Shares

Authors: Ajish Sreedharan


Visual cryptography encodes a secret image into shares of random binary patterns. If the shares are exerted onto transparencies, the secret image can be visually decoded by superimposing a qualified subset of transparencies, but no secret information can be obtained from the superposition of a forbidden subset. The binary patterns of the shares, however, have no visual meaning and hinder the objectives of visual cryptography. In the Secret Message Transmission through Meaningful Shares a secret message to be transmitted is converted to grey scale image. Then (2,2) visual cryptographic shares are generated from this converted gray scale image. The shares are encrypted using A Chaos-Based Image Encryption Algorithm Using Wavelet Transform. Two separate color images which are of the same size of the shares, taken as cover image of the respective shares to hide the shares into them. The encrypted shares which are covered by meaningful images so that a potential eavesdropper wont know there is a message to be read. The meaningful shares are transmitted through two different transmission medium. During decoding shares are fetched from received meaningful images and decrypted using A Chaos-Based Image Encryption Algorithm Using Wavelet Transform. The shares are combined to regenerate the grey scale image from where the secret message is obtained.

Keywords: visual cryptography, wavelet transform, meaningful shares, grey scale image

Procedia PDF Downloads 370
7741 On the Construction of Some Optimal Binary Linear Codes

Authors: Skezeer John B. Paz, Ederlina G. Nocon


Finding an optimal binary linear code is a central problem in coding theory. A binary linear code C = [n, k, d] is called optimal if there is no linear code with higher minimum distance d given the length n and the dimension k. There are bounds giving limits for the minimum distance d of a linear code of fixed length n and dimension k. The lower bound which can be taken by construction process tells that there is a known linear code having this minimum distance. The upper bound is given by theoretic results such as Griesmer bound. One way to find an optimal binary linear code is to make the lower bound of d equal to its higher bound. That is, to construct a binary linear code which achieves the highest possible value of its minimum distance d, given n and k. Some optimal binary linear codes were presented by Andries Brouwer in his published table on bounds of the minimum distance d of binary linear codes for 1 ≤ n ≤ 256 and k ≤ n. This was further improved by Markus Grassl by giving a detailed construction process for each code exhibiting the lower bound. In this paper, we construct new optimal binary linear codes by using some construction processes on existing binary linear codes. Particularly, we developed an algorithm applied to the codes already constructed to extend the list of optimal binary linear codes up to 257 ≤ n ≤ 300 for k ≤ 7.

Keywords: bounds of linear codes, Griesmer bound, construction of linear codes, optimal binary linear codes

Procedia PDF Downloads 493
7740 Multi-Scaled Non-Local Means Filter for Medical Images Denoising: Empirical Mode Decomposition vs. Wavelet Transform

Authors: Hana Rabbouch


In recent years, there has been considerable growth of denoising techniques mainly devoted to medical imaging. This important evolution is not only due to the progress of computing techniques, but also to the emergence of multi-resolution analysis (MRA) on both mathematical and algorithmic bases. In this paper, a comparative study is conducted between the two best-known MRA-based decomposition techniques: the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) and the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT). The comparison is carried out in a framework of multi-scale denoising, where a Non-Local Means (NLM) filter is performed scale-by-scale to a sample of benchmark medical images. The results prove the effectiveness of the multiscaled denoising, especially when the NLM filtering is coupled with the EMD.

Keywords: medical imaging, non local means, denoising, multiscaled analysis, empirical mode decomposition, wavelets

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
7739 Comparative Performance of Artificial Bee Colony Based Algorithms for Wind-Thermal Unit Commitment

Authors: P. K. Singhal, R. Naresh, V. Sharma


This paper presents the three optimization models, namely New Binary Artificial Bee Colony (NBABC) algorithm, NBABC with Local Search (NBABC-LS), and NBABC with Genetic Crossover (NBABC-GC) for solving the Wind-Thermal Unit Commitment (WTUC) problem. The uncertain nature of the wind power is incorporated using the Weibull probability density function, which is used to calculate the overestimation and underestimation costs associated with the wind power fluctuation. The NBABC algorithm utilizes a mechanism based on the dissimilarity measure between binary strings for generating the binary solutions in WTUC problem. In NBABC algorithm, an intelligent scout bee phase is proposed that replaces the abandoned solution with the global best solution. The local search operator exploits the neighboring region of the current solutions, whereas the integration of genetic crossover with the NBABC algorithm increases the diversity in the search space and thus avoids the problem of local trappings encountered with the NBABC algorithm. These models are then used to decide the units on/off status, whereas the lambda iteration method is used to dispatch the hourly load demand among the committed units. The effectiveness of the proposed models is validated on an IEEE 10-unit thermal system combined with a wind farm over the planning period of 24 hours.

Keywords: artificial bee colony algorithm, economic dispatch, unit commitment, wind power

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7738 Soret-Driven Convection in a Binary Fluid with Coriolis Force

Authors: N. H. Z. Abidin, N. F. M. Mokhtar, S. S. A. Gani


The influence of diffusion of the thermal or known as Soret effect in a heated Binary fluid model with Coriolis force is investigated theoretically. The linear stability analysis is used, and the eigenvalue is obtained using the Galerkin method. The impact of the Soret and Coriolis force on the onset of stationary convection in a system is analysed with respect to various Binary fluid parameters and presented graphically. It is found that an increase of the Soret values, destabilize the Binary fluid layer system. However, elevating the values of the Coriolis force helps to lag the onset of convection in a system.

Keywords: Benard convection, binary fluid, Coriolis, Soret

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