Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Search results for: nutriments

4 Evaluation of Combined System of Constructed Wetland/Expended Clay Aggregate in Greywater Treatment

Authors: Eya Hentati, Mona Lamine, Jalel Bouzid

Abstract:

In this study, a laboratory-scale was designed and fabricated to treat single house greywater in the north of Tunisia with a combination of physical and natural treatments systems. The combined system includes a bio-filter composed of LECA¬ģ (lightweight expanded clay aggregate) followed by a vertical up-flow constructed wetland planted with Iris pseudacorus and Typha Latifolia. Applied two hydraulic retention times (HRTs) with two different plants types showed that a bio-filter planted with Typha Latifolia has an optimum removal efficiency for degradation of organic matter and transformation of nitrogen and phosphate at HRT of 30 h. The optimum removal efficiency of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and suspended solids (SS) ranged between 48-65%, between while the nutrients removal was in the range of 70% to 90%. Fecal coliforms dropped by three to four orders of magnitude from their initial concentration, but this steel does not meet current regulations for unlimited irrigation. Hence further improvement procedures are suggested.

Keywords: constructed wetland, greywater treatment, nutriments, organics

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3 Behavior of Pet Packaging on Quality Characteristics of an Algerian Virgin Olive Oil Under Various Conditions of Storage

Authors: Hamitri-Guerfi Fatiha, Mekimene Lekhder, Madani Khodir, Youyou Ahcene

Abstract:

Virgin olive oil is appreciated by consumers, the quality of the oil is regulated by the international olive oil council depends on its chemical composition, so, the correct packing conditions are a prerequisite to preserve oil color, flavor, and nutriments, from production to consumption. The contact of food with various materials of packaging, since the production, until their consumption constitutes one of the essential aspects of food safety (directive 76/833/CEE). In Algeria, plastic bottles, although, they are economic and light are largely used at packaging olive oil but not used in other countries. This is due to migration phenomena that can occur from these materials. Thus, the goal of this work is to examine the physicochemical behavior of the couple packaging plastic-oil during their exposure to three temperatures corresponding to the conditions of storage applied in Algeria. Like, it is difficult to compare blowers of bottles which are heavy engineering, it comes out from this study that the effect of heat, the absorption of water, the constraints of storage of acidity, as well as the composition of oil, the PET bottles showed a remarkable structural instability, this defect of quality was confirmed by the analysis of morphology by electronic scan microscopy. These bottles present a total migration significantly higher than the threshold of acceptance. Moreover, a metal contamination of oil by its packaging was confirmed by the spectroscopy of atomic absorption and a microanalysis. The differences observed between the results of the microanalysis applied and the mechanical characterizations of the various bottles are reported, showing the reality of the container-contents exchanges.

Keywords: interaction, stability, pet, virgin olive oil

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2 Applied of LAWA Classification for Assessment of the Water by Nutrients Elements: Case Oran Sebkha Basin

Authors: Boualla Nabila

Abstract:

The increasing demand on water, either for the drinkable water supply, or for the agricultural and industrial custom, requires a very thorough hydrochemical study to protect better and manage this resource. Oran is relatively a city with the worst quality of the water. Recently, the growing populations may put stress on natural waters by impairing the quality of the water. Campaign of water sampling of 55 points capturing different levels of the aquifer system was done for chemical analyzes of nutriments elements. The results allowed us to approach the problem of contamination based on the largely uniform nationwide approach LAWA (LänderarbeitsgruppeWasser), based on the EU CIS guidance, has been applied for the identification of pressures and impacts, allowing for easy comparison. Groundwater samples were analyzed, also, for physico-chemical parameters such as pH, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulphate, carbonate and bicarbonate. The analytical results obtained in this hydrochemistry study were interpreted using Durov diagram. Based on these representations, the anomaly of high groundwater salinity observed in Oran Sebkha basin was explained by the high chloride concentration and to the presence of inverse cation exchange reaction. Durov diagram plot revealed that the groundwater has been evolved from Ca-HCO3 recharge water through mixing with the pre-existing groundwater to give mixed water of Mg-SO4 and Mg-Cl types that eventually reached a final stage of evolution represented by a Na-Cl water type.

Keywords: contamination, water quality, nutrients elements, approach LAWA, durov diagram

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1 Ichthyofauna and Population Status at Indus River Downstream, Sindh-Pakistan

Authors: M. K. Sheikh, Y. M. Laghari., P. K. Lashari., N. T. Narejo

Abstract:

The Indus River is one of the longest important rivers of the world in Asia that flows southward through Pakistan, merges into the Arabian Sea near the port city of Karachi in Sindh Province, and forms the Indus Delta. Fish are an important resource for humans worldwide, especially as food. In fish, healthy nutriments are present which are not found in any other meat source because it have a huge quantity of omega- 3 fatty acids, which are very essential for the human body. Ichthyologic surveys were conducted to explore the diversity of freshwater fishes, distribution, abundance and current status of the fishes at different spatial scale of the downstream, Indus River. Total eight stations were selected namely Railo Miyan (RM), Karokho (Kk), Khanpur (Kp), Mullakatiyar (Mk), Wasi Malook Shah (WMS), Branch Morie (BM), Sujawal (Sj) and Jangseer (JS). The study was carried in the period of January 2016 to December 2019 to identify River and biodiversity threats and to suggest recommendations for conservation. The data were analysed by different population diversity index. Altogether, 124 species were recorded belonging to 12 Orders and 43 Families from the downstream of Indus River. Among 124 species, 29% belong to high commercial value and 35% were trash fishes. 31% of fishes were identified as marine/estuarine origin (migratory) and 05% were exotic fish species. Perciformes is the most predominated order, contributing to 41% of families. Among 43 families, the family Cyprinidae was the richest family from all localities of downstream, represented by 24% of fish species demonstrating a significant dominance in the number of species. A significant difference was observed for species abundance in between all sites, the maximum abundance species were found at first location RM having 115 species and minimum observed at the last station JS 56 genera. In the recorded Ichthyofauna, seven groups were found according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature status (IUCN), where a high species ratio was collected, in Least Concern (LC) having 94 species, 11 were found as not evaluated (NE), whereas 8 was identified as near threatened (NT), 1 was recorded as critically endangered (CR), 11 were collected as data deficient (DD), and while 8 was observed as vulnerable (VU) and 3 endangered (EN) species. Different diversity index has been used extensively in environmental studies to estimate the species richness and abundance of ecosystems outputs of their wellness; a positive environment (biodiversity rich) with species at RM had an environmental wellness and biodiversity levels of 4.566% while a negative control environment (biodiversity poor) on last station JS had an environmental wellness and biodiversity levels of 3.931%. The status of fish biodiversity and river has been found under serious threat. Due to the lower diversity of fishes, it became not only venerable for fish but also risky for fishermen. Necessary steps are recommended to protect the biodiversity by conducting further conservative research in this area.

Keywords: ichthyofaunal biodiversity, threatened species, diversity index, Indus River downstream

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