Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8744

Search results for: ramp rate biogeography-based optimization

8744 Non-Convex Multi Objective Economic Dispatch Using Ramp Rate Biogeography Based Optimization

Authors: Susanta Kumar Gachhayat, S. K. Dash

Abstract:

Multi objective non-convex economic dispatch problems of a thermal power plant are of grave concern for deciding the cost of generation and reduction of emission level for diminishing the global warming level for improving green-house effect. This paper deals with ramp rate constraints for achieving better inequality constraints so as to incorporate valve point loading for cost of generation in thermal power plant through ramp rate biogeography based optimization involving mutation and migration. Through 50 out of 100 trials, the cost function and emission objective function were found to have outperformed other classical methods such as lambda iteration method, quadratic programming method and many heuristic methods like particle swarm optimization method, weight improved particle swarm optimization method, constriction factor based particle swarm optimization method, moderate random particle swarm optimization method etc. Ramp rate biogeography based optimization applications prove quite advantageous in solving non convex multi objective economic dispatch problems subjected to nonlinear loads that pollute the source giving rise to third harmonic distortions and other such disturbances.

Keywords: economic load dispatch, ELD, biogeography-based optimization, BBO, ramp rate biogeography-based optimization, RRBBO, valve-point loading, VPL

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8743 Ramp Rate and Constriction Factor Based Dual Objective Economic Load Dispatch Using Particle Swarm Optimization

Authors: Himanshu Shekhar Maharana, S. K .Dash

Abstract:

Economic Load Dispatch (ELD) proves to be a vital optimization process in electric power system for allocating generation amongst various units to compute the cost of generation, the cost of emission involving global warming gases like sulphur dioxide, nitrous oxide and carbon monoxide etc. In this dissertation, we emphasize ramp rate constriction factor based particle swarm optimization (RRCPSO) for analyzing various performance objectives, namely cost of generation, cost of emission, and a dual objective function involving both these objectives through the experimental simulated results. A 6-unit 30 bus IEEE test case system has been utilized for simulating the results involving improved weight factor advanced ramp rate limit constraints for optimizing total cost of generation and emission. This method increases the tendency of particles to venture into the solution space to ameliorate their convergence rates. Earlier works through dispersed PSO (DPSO) and constriction factor based PSO (CPSO) give rise to comparatively higher computational time and less good optimal solution at par with current dissertation. This paper deals with ramp rate and constriction factor based well defined ramp rate PSO to compute various objectives namely cost, emission and total objective etc. and compares the result with DPSO and weight improved PSO (WIPSO) techniques illustrating lesser computational time and better optimal solution. 

Keywords: economic load dispatch (ELD), constriction factor based particle swarm optimization (CPSO), dispersed particle swarm optimization (DPSO), weight improved particle swarm optimization (WIPSO), ramp rate and constriction factor based particle swarm optimization (RRCPSO)

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8742 The Harada Method: A Method for Employee Development during Production Ramp Up

Authors: M. Goerke, J. Gehrmann

Abstract:

Caused by shorter product life cycles and higher product variety the importance of production ramp ups is increasing. Even though companies are aware of that fact, up to 40% of the ramp up projects still miss technical and economical requirements. The success of a ramp up depends on the planning of human factors, organizational aspects and technological solutions. Since only partly considered in scientific literature, this paper lays its focus on the human factor during production ramp up. There are only incoherent methods which address the problems in this area. A systematic and holistic method to improve the capabilities of the employees during ramp up is missing. The Harada Method is a relatively young approach for developing highly-skilled workers. It consists of different worksheets which help employees to set guidelines and reach overall objectives. This approach is going to be transferred into a tool for ramp up management.

Keywords: employee development, Harada, production ramp up, organizational aspects

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8741 A Comprehensive Analysis of the Phylogenetic Signal in Ramp Sequences in 211 Vertebrates

Authors: Lauren M. McKinnon, Justin B. Miller, Michael F. Whiting, John S. K. Kauwe, Perry G. Ridge

Abstract:

Background: Ramp sequences increase translational speed and accuracy when rare, slowly-translated codons are found at the beginnings of genes. Here, the results of the first analysis of ramp sequences in a phylogenetic construct are presented. Methods: Ramp sequences were compared from 211 vertebrates (110 Mammalian and 101 non-mammalian). The presence and absence of ramp sequences were analyzed as a binary character in a parsimony and maximum likelihood framework. Additionally, ramp sequences were mapped to the Open Tree of Life taxonomy to determine the number of parallelisms and reversals that occurred, and these results were compared to what would be expected due to random chance. Lastly, aligned nucleotides in ramp sequences were compared to the rest of the sequence in order to examine possible differences in phylogenetic signal between these regions of the gene. Results: Parsimony and maximum likelihood analyses of the presence/absence of ramp sequences recovered phylogenies that are highly congruent with established phylogenies. Additionally, the retention index of ramp sequences is significantly higher than would be expected due to random chance (p-value = 0). A chi-square analysis of completely orthologous ramp sequences resulted in a p-value of approximately zero as compared to random chance. Discussion: Ramp sequences recover comparable phylogenies as other phylogenomic methods. Although not all ramp sequences appear to have a phylogenetic signal, more ramp sequences track speciation than expected by random chance. Therefore, ramp sequences may be used in conjunction with other phylogenomic approaches.

Keywords: codon usage bias, phylogenetics, phylogenomics, ramp sequence

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8740 Effect of Ramp Rate on the Preparation of Activated Carbon from Saudi Date Tree Fronds (Agro Waste) by Physical Activation Method

Authors: Muhammad Shoaib, Hassan M Al-Swaidan

Abstract:

Saudi Arabia is the major date producer in the world. In order to maximize the production from date tree, pruning of the date trees is required annually. Large amount of this agriculture waste material (palm tree fronds) is available in Saudi Arabia and considered as an ideal source as a precursor for production of activated carbon (AC). The single step procedure for the preparation of micro porous activated carbon (AC) from Saudi date tree fronds using mixture of gases (N2 and CO2) is carried out at carbonization/activation temperature at 850°C and at different ramp rates of 10, 20 and 30 degree per minute. Alloy 330 horizontal reactor is used for tube furnace. Flow rate of nitrogen and carbon dioxide gases are kept at 150 ml/min and 50 ml/min respectively during the preparation. Characterization results reveal that the BET surface area, pore volume, and average pore diameter of the resulting activated carbon generally decreases with the increase in ramp rate. The activated carbon prepared at a ramp rate of 10 degrees/minute attains larger surface area and can offer higher potential to produce activated carbon of greater adsorption capacity from agriculture wastes such as date fronds. The BET surface areas of the activated carbons prepared at a ramp rate of 10, 20 and 30 degree/minute after 30 minutes activation time are 1094, 1020 and 515 m2/g, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for surface morphology, and FTIR for functional groups was carried out that also verified the same trend. Moreover, by increasing the ramp rate from 10 and 20 degrees/min the yield remains same, i.e. 18%, whereas at a ramp rate of 30 degrees/min the yield increases from 18 to 20%. Thus, it is feasible to produce high-quality micro porous activated carbon from date frond agro waste using N2 carbonization followed by physical activation with CO2 and N2 mixture. This micro porous activated carbon can be used as adsorbent of heavy metals from wastewater, NOx SOx emission adsorption from ambient air and electricity generation plants, purification of gases, sewage treatment and many other applications.

Keywords: activated carbon, date tree fronds, agricultural waste, applied chemistry

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8739 ESS Control Strategy for Primary Frequency Response in Microgrid Considering Ramp Rate

Authors: Ho-Jun Jo, Wook-Won Kim, Yong-Sung Kim, Jin-O Kim

Abstract:

The application of ESS (Energy Storage Systems) in the future grids has been the solution of the microgrid. However, high investment costs necessitate accurate modeling and control strategy of ESS to justify its economic viability and further underutilization. Therefore, the reasonable control strategy for ESS which is subjected to generator and usage helps to curtail the cost of investment and operation costs. The rated frequency in power system is decreased when the load is increasing unexpectedly; hence the thermal power is operated at the capacity of only its 95% for the Governor Free (GF) to adjust the frequency as reserve (5%) in practice. The ESS can be utilized with governor at the same time for the frequency response due to characteristic of its fast response speed and moreover, the cost of ESS is declined rapidly to the reasonable price. This paper presents the ESS control strategy to extend usage of the ESS taken account into governor’s ramp rate and reduce the governor’s intervention as well. All results in this paper are simulated by MATLAB.

Keywords: micro grid, energy storage systems, ramp rate, control strategy

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8738 Battery State of Charge Management Algorithm for Photovoltaic Ramp Rate Control

Authors: Nam Kyu Kim, Hee Jun Cha, Jae Jin Seo, Dong Jun Won

Abstract:

Output power of a photovoltaic (PV) generator depends on incident solar irradiance. If the clouds pass or the climate condition is bad, the PV output fluctuates frequently. When PV generator is connected to the grid, these fluctuations adversely affect power quality. Thus, ramp rate control with battery energy storage system (BESS) is needed to reduce PV output fluctuations. At the same time, for effective BESS operation and sizing the optimal BESS capacity, managing state of charge (SOC) is the most important part. In addition, managing SOC helps to avoid violating the SOC operating range of BESS when performing renewable integration (RI) continuously. As PV and BESS increase, the SOC management of BESS will become more important in the future. This paper presents the SOC management algorithm which helps to operate effectively BESS, and has focused on method to manage SOC while reducing PV output fluctuations. A simulation model is developed in PSCAD/EMTDC software. The simulation results show that the SOC is maintained within the operating range by adjusting the output distribution according to the SOC of the BESS.

Keywords: battery energy storage system, ramp rate control, renewable integration, SOC management

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8737 Gas Lift Optimization to Improve Well Performance

Authors: Mohamed A. G. H. Abdalsadig, Amir Nourian, G. G. Nasr, Meisam Babaie

Abstract:

Gas lift optimization is becoming more important now a day in petroleum industry. A proper lift optimization can reduce the operating cost, increase the net present value (NPV) and maximize the recovery from the asset. A widely accepted definition of gas lift optimization is to obtain the maximum output under specified operating conditions. In addition, gas lift, a costly and indispensable means to recover oil from high depth reservoir entails solving the gas lift optimization problems. Gas lift optimization is a continuous process; there are two levels of production optimization. The total field optimization involves optimizing the surface facilities and the injection rate that can be achieved by standard tools softwares. Well level optimization can be achieved by optimizing the well parameters such as point of injection, injection rate, and injection pressure. All these aspects have been investigated and presented in this study by using experimental data and PROSPER simulation program. The results show that the well head pressure has a large influence on the gas lift performance and also proved that smart gas lift valve can be used to improve gas lift performance by controlling gas injection from down hole. Obtaining the optimum gas injection rate is important because excessive gas injection reduces production rate and consequently increases the operation cost.

Keywords: optimization, production rate, reservoir pressure effect, gas injection rate effect, gas injection pressure

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8736 An Economic Order Quantity Model for Deteriorating Items with Ramp Type Demand, Time Dependent Holding Cost and Price Discount Offered on Backorders

Authors: Arjun Paul, Adrijit Goswami

Abstract:

In our present work, an economic order quantity inventory model with shortages is developed where holding cost is expressed as linearly increasing function of time and demand rate is a ramp type function of time. The items considered in the model are deteriorating in nature so that a small fraction of the items is depleted with the passage of time. In order to consider a more realistic situation, the deterioration rate is assumed to follow a continuous uniform distribution with the parameters involved being triangular fuzzy numbers. The inventory manager offers his customer a discount in case he is willing to backorder his demand when there is a stock-out. The optimum ordering policy and the optimum discount offered for each backorder are determined by minimizing the total cost in a replenishment interval. For better illustration of our proposed model in both the crisp and fuzzy sense and for providing richer insights, a numerical example is cited to exemplify the policy and to analyze the sensitivity of the model parameters.

Keywords: fuzzy deterioration rate, price discount on backorder, ramp type demand, shortage, time varying holding cost

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8735 Relation of Electromyography, Strength and Fatigue During Ramp Isometric Contractions

Authors: Cesar Ferreira Amorim, Tamotsu Hirata, Runer Augusto Marson

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of strength ramp isometric contraction on changes in surface electromyography (sEMG) signal characteristics of the hamstrings muscles. All measurements were obtained from 20 healthy well trained healthy adults (age 19.5 ± 0.8 yrs, body mass 63.4 ± 1.5 kg, height: 1.65 ± 0.05 m). Subjects had to perform isometric ramp contractions in knee flexion with the force gradually increasing from 0 to 40% of the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) in a 20s period. The root mean square (RMS) amplitude of sEMG signals obtained from the biceps femoris (caput longum) were calculated at four different strength levels (10, 20, 30, and 40% MVC) from the ramp isometric contractions (5s during the 20s task %MVC). The main results were a more pronounced increase non-linear in sEMG-RMS amplitude for the muscles. The protocol described here may provide a useful index for measuring of strength neuromuscular fatigue.

Keywords: biosignal, surface electromyography, ramp contractions, strength

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8734 Economic Load Dispatch with Valve-Point Loading Effect by Using Differential Evolution Immunized Ant Colony Optimization Technique

Authors: Nur Azzammudin Rahmat, Ismail Musirin, Ahmad Farid Abidin

Abstract:

Economic load dispatch is performed by the utilities in order to determine the best generation level at the most feasible operating cost. In order to guarantee satisfying energy delivery to the consumer, a precise calculation of generation level is required. In order to achieve accurate and practical solution, several considerations such as prohibited operating zones, valve-point effect and ramp-rate limit need to be taken into account. However, these considerations cause the optimization to become complex and difficult to solve. This research focuses on the valve-point effect that causes ripple in the fuel-cost curve. This paper also proposes Differential Evolution Immunized Ant Colony Optimization (DEIANT) in solving economic load dispatch problem with valve-point effect. Comparative studies involving DEIANT, EP and ACO are conducted on IEEE 30-Bus RTS for performance assessments. Results indicate that DEIANT is superior to the other compared methods in terms of calculating lower operating cost and power loss.

Keywords: ant colony optimization (ACO), differential evolution (DE), differential evolution immunized ant colony optimization (DEIANT), economic load dispatch (ELD)

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8733 Mechanical Characterization of Brain Tissue in Compression

Authors: Abbas Shafiee, Mohammad Taghi Ahmadian, Maryam Hoviattalab

Abstract:

The biomechanical behavior of brain tissue is needed for predicting the traumatic brain injury (TBI). Each year over 1.5 million people sustain a TBI in the USA. The appropriate coefficients for injury prediction can be evaluated using experimental data. In this study, an experimental setup on brain soft tissue was developed to perform unconfined compression tests at quasistatic strain rates ∈0.0004 s-1 and 0.008 s-1 and 0.4 stress relaxation test under unconfined uniaxial compression with ∈ 0.67 s-1 ramp rate. The fitted visco-hyperelastic parameters were utilized by using obtained stress-strain curves. The experimental data was validated using finite element analysis (FEA) and previous findings. Also, influence of friction coefficient on unconfined compression and relaxation test and effect of ramp rate in relaxation test is investigated. Results of the findings are implemented on the analysis of a human brain under high acceleration due to impact.

Keywords: brain soft tissue, visco-hyperelastic, finite element analysis (FEA), friction, quasistatic strain rate

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8732 Synergistic Impacts and Optimization of Gas Flow Rate, Concentration of CO2, and Light Intensity on CO2 Biofixation in Wastewater Medium by Chlorella vulgaris

Authors: Ahmed Arkoazi, Hussein Znad, Ranjeet Utikar

Abstract:

The synergistic impact and optimization of gas flow rate, concentration of CO2, and light intensity on CO2 biofixation rate were investigated using wastewater as a medium to cultivate Chlorella vulgaris under different conditions (gas flow rate 1-8 L/min), CO2 concentration (0.03-7%), and light intensity (150-400 µmol/m2.s)). Response Surface Methodology and Box-Behnken experimental Design were applied to find optimum values for gas flow rate, CO2 concentration, and light intensity. The optimum values of the three independent variables (gas flow rate, concentration of CO2, and light intensity) and desirability were 7.5 L/min, 3.5%, and 400 µmol/m2.s, and 0.904, respectively. The highest amount of biomass produced and CO2 biofixation rate at optimum conditions were 5.7 g/L, 1.23 gL-1d-1, respectively. The synergistic effect between gas flow rate and concentration of CO2, and between gas flow rate and light intensity was significant on the three responses, while the effect between CO2 concentration and light intensity was less significant on CO2 biofixation rate. The results of this study could be highly helpful when using microalgae for CO2 biofixation in wastewater treatment.

Keywords: bubble column reactor, gas holdup, hydrodynamics, sparger

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8731 The Reconstruction of Paleoenvironment Aptian Sediments of the Massive Serdj, North Central Tunisia

Authors: H. Khaled, F. Chaabani, F. Boulvain

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the studied of Aptian series that crops out at the Jebel Serdj in the north central Tunisia. The study series is about 590 meters thick and it is consisting of limestones, marly limestones associated with some levels of siltstones and marls. Two sections are studied in detail regarding lithology, microfacies, magnetic susceptibility and mineralogical composition to provide new insights into the paleoenvironmental evolution and paleoclimatological implications during this period. The following facies associations representing different ramp palaeoenvironments have been identified: mudstone–wackestone outer ramp facies; skeletal grainstone- packstone mid-ramp facies, packstone-grainstone inner-ramp facies which include a variety of organisms such as rudists and ooids and mudstone–wackestone coastal facies rich with miliolidea and orbitolines. The magnetic susceptibility (Xᵢₙ) of all samples was compared with the lithological and microfacies variation. We show that high values of magnetic susceptibility are correlated with the distal facies.

Keywords: Aptian, Serdj Formation, geochemical, mineralogy

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8730 A Deterministic Approach for Solving the Hull and White Interest Rate Model with Jump Process

Authors: Hong-Ming Chen

Abstract:

This work considers the resolution of the Hull and White interest rate model with the jump process. A deterministic process is adopted to model the random behavior of interest rate variation as deterministic perturbations, which is depending on the time t. The Brownian motion and jumps uncertainty are denoted as the integral functions piecewise constant function w(t) and point function θ(t). It shows that the interest rate function and the yield function of the Hull and White interest rate model with jump process can be obtained by solving a nonlinear semi-infinite programming problem. A relaxed cutting plane algorithm is then proposed for solving the resulting optimization problem. The method is calibrated for the U.S. treasury securities at 3-month data and is used to analyze several effects on interest rate prices, including interest rate variability, and the negative correlation between stock returns and interest rates. The numerical results illustrate that our approach essentially generates the yield functions with minimal fitting errors and small oscillation.

Keywords: optimization, interest rate model, jump process, deterministic

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8729 Three-Dimensional Spillage Effects on the Pressure Distribution of a Double Ramp

Authors: Pengcheng Quan, Shan Zhong

Abstract:

Double ramp geometry is widely used in supersonic and hypersonic environments as it presents unique flow patterns for shock wave-boundary layer interaction studies as well as for two-dimensional inlets and deflected control surfaces for re-entry vehicles. Hence, the surface pressure distribution is critical for optimum design. Though when the model is wide enough on spanwise direction the flow can be regarded as a two-dimensional flow, in actual applications a finite width would normally cause some three-dimensional spillage effects. No research has been found addressed this problem, hence the primary interest of this study is to set up a liable surface pressure distribution on a double ramp with three-dimensional effects. Both numerical and experimental (pressure sensitive paints) are applied to obtain the pressure distribution; the results agree well except that the numerical computation doesn’t capture the Gortler vortices. The pressure variations on the spanwise planes are used to analyse the development of the Gortler vortices and the effects of three-dimensional spillage on the vortices. Results indicate that the three-dimensionl spillage effects not only enhance the developing of the Gortler vortice, but also increase the periodic distance between vortice pairs.

Keywords: spillage effects, pressure sensitive paints, hypersonic, double ramp

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8728 Foraminiferal Associations and Paleoecology of the Oligocene Sediments in Zagros Basin, SW Iran

Authors: Tahereh Habibi

Abstract:

The Oligocene carbonates are widespread along Fars Province, Zagros Basin, SW Iran. Distribution of planktonic and larger benthic foraminfera, stratal patterns and facies architecture are used as a tool to define microfacies and foraminiferal associations of these strata at Kavar Section. The presence of Nummulites spp. indicated the age of the sequence as Rupelian-Chattian (Nummulites vascus-Nummulites fichteli and Archaias asmaricus/hensoni-Miogypsinoides complanatus assemblage zones). The paleoenvironmental setting is interpreted as a homoclinal ramp environment according to the recognition of eight microfacies types. Four foraminiferal associations are recognized in the investigated ramp setting. They represent a salinity of 34-40 to 50 psu and higher than 50 psu in more restricted conditions. The depth ranges from 200 m as evidenced by the presence of planktonic foraminifera and to less than 30m in the more restricted inner ramp environment. Warm tropical and subtropical water with temperature of 18-25° C is proposed.

Keywords: foraminiferal associations, microfacies, oligocene, paleoecology

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8727 Aptian Ramp Sedimentation of the Jebel Serdj Massif, North-Central Tunisia, and Sea Level Variations Recorded in Magnetic Susceptibility

Authors: Houda Khaled, Fredj Chaabani, Frederic Boulvain

Abstract:

The Aptian series in north-central Tunisia was studied in detail regarding to lithology, microfacies, and magnetic susceptibility to provide new insights into the paleoenvironmental evolution and sea level changes in the carbonate platform. The study series is about 350 meters thick, and it consists of fives sequences of limestones, separated by four levels of marlstones and marly limestones. Petrographic study leads to the definition of 11 microfacies which are successively recorded along the Serdj section into the outer ramp, mid-ramp, inner ramp and coastal facies associations. The magnetic susceptibility of all samples was measured and compared with the facies and microfacies. There is a clear link between facies and magnetic susceptibility; the distal facies show high values while the proximal areas show lower values. The magnetic susceptibility profile reflects stratigraphic variations in response to relative changes in sea level and input of detrital materials. During the Aptian, kaolinite/illite intensity ratios show high values possibly indicating a warming trend followed then by decreasing values that may indicate a cooling trend. During the Albian, this cooling trend is reverted into humid/warming.

Keywords: Aptian, mineralogy, petrology, Serdj massif

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8726 Study of the S-Bend Intake Hammershock Based on Improved Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation

Authors: Qun-Feng Zhang, Pan-Pan Yan, Jun Li, Jun-Qing Lei

Abstract:

Numerical investigation of hammershock propagation in the S-bend intake caused by engine surge has been conducted by using Improved Delayed Detach-Eddy Simulation (IDDES). The effects of surge signatures on hammershock characteristics are obtained. It was shown that once the hammershock is produced, it moves upward to the intake entrance quickly with constant speed, however, the strength of hammershock keeps increasing. Meanwhile, being influenced by the centrifugal force, the hammershock strength on the larger radius side is much larger. Hammershock propagation speed and strength are sensitive to the ramp upgradient of surge signature. A larger ramp up gradient results in higher propagation speed and greater strength. Nevertheless, ramp down profile of surge signature have no obvious effect on the propagation speed and strength of hammershock. Increasing the maximum value of surge signature leads to enhance in the intensity of hammershock, they approximately match quadratic function distribution law.

Keywords: hammershock, IDDES, S-bend, surge signature

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8725 Transmit Power Optimization for Cooperative Beamforming in Reverse-Link MIMO Ad-Hoc Networks

Authors: Younghyun Jeon, Seungjoo Maeng

Abstract:

In the Ad-hoc network, the great interests regarding MIMO scheme leads to their combination, which is also utilized into its applicable network. We manage the field of the problem into Reverse-link MIMO Ad-hoc Network (RMAN) and propose the methodology to maximize the data rate with its power consumption using Node-Cooperative beamforming technique. Based on the result of mathematical optimization formulation, we design the algorithm to construct optimal orthogonal weight vector according to channel feedback and control its transmission power according to QoS-pricing value level. In simulation results, we show the validity of the proposed mathematical optimization result and algorithm which mean that the sum-rate of each link is converged into some point.

Keywords: ad-hoc network, MIMO, cooperative beamforming, transmit power

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8724 Optimization of Multistage Extractor for the Butanol Separation from Aqueous Solution Using Ionic Liquids

Authors: Dharamashi Rabari, Anand Patel

Abstract:

n-Butanol can be regarded as a potential biofuel. Being resistive to corrosion and having high calorific value, butanol is a very attractive energy source as opposed to ethanol. By fermentation process called ABE (acetone, butanol, ethanol), bio-butanol can be produced. ABE carried out mostly by bacteria Clostridium acetobutylicum. The major drawback of the process is the butanol concentration higher than 10 g/L, delays the growth of microbes resulting in a low yield. It indicates the simultaneous separation of butanol from the fermentation broth. Two hydrophobic Ionic Liquids (ILs) 1-butyl-1-methylpiperidinium bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [bmPIP][Tf₂N] and 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [hmim][Tf₂N] were chosen. The binary interaction parameters for both ternary systems i.e. [bmPIP][Tf₂N] + water + n-butanol and [hmim][Tf₂N] + water +n-butanol were taken from the literature that was generated by NRTL model. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) with the isothermal sum rate (ISR) method was used to optimize the cost of liquid-liquid extractor. For [hmim][Tf₂N] + water +n-butanol system, PSO shows 84% success rate with the number of stages equal to eight and solvent flow rate equal to 461 kmol/hr. The number of stages was three with 269.95 kmol/hr solvent flow rate for [bmPIP][Tf₂N] + water + n-butanol system. Moreover, both ILs were very efficient as the loss of ILs in raffinate phase was negligible.

Keywords: particle swarm optimization, isothermal sum rate method, success rate, extraction

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8723 Optimization of Process Parameters for Rotary Electro Discharge Machining Using EN31 Tool Steel: Present and Future Scope

Authors: Goutam Dubey, Varun Dutta

Abstract:

In the present study, rotary-electro discharge machining of EN31 tool steel has been carried out using a pure copper electrode. Various response variables such as Material Removal Rate (MRR), Tool Wear Rate (TWR), and Machining Rate (MR) have been studied against the selected process variables. The selected process variables were peak current (I), voltage (V), duty cycle, and electrode rotation (N). EN31 Tool Steel is hardened, high carbon steel which increases its hardness and reduces its machinability. Reduced machinability means it not economical to use conventional methods to machine EN31 Tool Steel. So, non-conventional methods play an important role in machining of such materials.

Keywords: electric discharge machining, EDM, tool steel, tool wear rate, optimization techniques

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8722 An Integrated Approach for Optimizing Drillable Parameters to Increase Drilling Performance: A Real Field Case Study

Authors: Hamidoddin Yousife

Abstract:

Drilling optimization requires a prediction of drilling rate of penetration (ROP) since it provides a significant reduction in drilling costs. There are several factors that can have an impact on the ROP, both controllable and uncontrollable. Numerous drilling penetration rate models have been considered based on drilling parameters. This papers considered the effect of proper drilling parameter selection such as bit, Mud Type, applied weight on bit (WOB), Revolution per minutes (RPM), and flow rate on drilling optimization and drilling cost reduction. A predicted analysis is used in real-time drilling performance to determine the optimal drilling operation. As a result of these modeling studies, the real data collected from three directional wells at Azadegan oil fields, Iran, was verified and adjusted to determine the drillability of a specific formation. Simulation results and actual drilling results show significant improvements in inaccuracy. Once simulations had been validated, optimum drilling parameters and equipment specifications were determined by varying weight on bit (WOB), rotary speed (RPM), hydraulics (hydraulic pressure), and bit specification for each well until the highest drilling rate was achieved. To evaluate the potential operational and economic benefits of optimizing results, a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the data was performed.

Keywords: drlling, cost, optimization, parameters

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8721 The Optimization of Decision Rules in Multimodal Decision-Level Fusion Scheme

Authors: Andrey V. Timofeev, Dmitry V. Egorov

Abstract:

This paper introduces an original method of parametric optimization of the structure for multimodal decision-level fusion scheme which combines the results of the partial solution of the classification task obtained from assembly of the mono-modal classifiers. As a result, a multimodal fusion classifier which has the minimum value of the total error rate has been obtained.

Keywords: classification accuracy, fusion solution, total error rate, multimodal fusion classifier

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8720 Multi-Objective Optimization of Electric Discharge Machining for Inconel 718

Authors: Pushpendra S. Bharti, S. Maheshwari

Abstract:

Electric discharge machining (EDM) is one of the most widely used non-conventional manufacturing process to shape difficult-to-cut materials. The process yield, in terms of material removal rate, surface roughness and tool wear rate, of EDM may considerably be improved by selecting the optimal combination(s) of process parameters. This paper employs Multi-response signal-to-noise (MRSN) ratio technique to find the optimal combination(s) of the process parameters during EDM of Inconel 718. Three cases v.i.z. high cutting efficiency, high surface finish, and normal machining have been taken and the optimal combinations of input parameters have been obtained for each case. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) has been employed to find the dominant parameter(s) in all three cases. The experimental verification of the obtained results has also been made. MRSN ratio technique found to be a simple and effective multi-objective optimization technique.

Keywords: electric discharge machining, material removal rate, surface roughness, too wear rate, multi-response signal-to-noise ratio, multi response signal-to-noise ratio, optimization

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8719 Radial Distribution Network Reliability Improvement by Using Imperialist Competitive Algorithm

Authors: Azim Khodadadi, Sahar Sadaat Vakili, Ebrahim Babaei

Abstract:

This study presents a numerical method to optimize the failure rate and repair time of a typical radial distribution system. Failure rate and repair time are effective parameters in customer and energy based indices of reliability. Decrease of these parameters improves reliability indices. Thus, system stability will be boost. The penalty functions indirectly reflect the cost of investment which spent to improve these indices. Constraints on customer and energy based indices, i.e. SAIFI, SAIDI, CAIDI and AENS have been considered by using a new method which reduces optimization algorithm controlling parameters. Imperialist Competitive Algorithm (ICA) used as main optimization technique and particle swarm optimization (PSO), simulated annealing (SA) and differential evolution (DE) has been applied for further investigation. These algorithms have been implemented on a test system by MATLAB. Obtained results have been compared with each other. The optimized values of repair time and failure rate are much lower than current values which this achievement reduced investment cost and also ICA gives better answer than the other used algorithms.

Keywords: imperialist competitive algorithm, failure rate, repair time, radial distribution network

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8718 Numerical Investigation of Effect of Throat Design on the Performance of a Rectangular Ramjet Intake

Authors: Subrat Partha Sarathi Pattnaik, Rajan N.K.S.

Abstract:

Integrated rocket ramjet engines are highly suitable for long range missile applications. Designing the fixed geometry intakes for such missiles that can operate efficiently over a range of operating conditions is a highly challenging task. Hence, the present study aims to evaluate the effect of throat design on the performance of a rectangular mixed compression intake for operation in the Mach number range of 1.8 – 2.5. The analysis has been carried out at four different Mach numbers of 1.8, 2, 2.2, 2.5 and two angle-of-attacks of +5 and +10 degrees. For the throat design, three different throat heights have been considered, one corresponding to a 3- external shock design and two heights corresponding to a 2-external shock design leading to different internal contraction ratios. The on-design Mach number for the study is M 2.2. To obtain the viscous flow field in the intake, the theoretical designs have been considered for computational fluid dynamic analysis. For which Favre averaged Navier- Stokes (FANS) equations with two equation SST k-w model have been solved. The analysis shows that for zero angle of attack at on-design and high off-design Mach number operations the three-ramp design leads to a higher total pressure recovery (TPR) compared to the two-ramp design at both contraction ratios maintaining same mass flow ratio (MFR). But at low off-design Mach numbers the total pressure shows an opposite trend that is maximum for the two-ramp low contraction ratio design due to lower shock loss across the external shocks similarly the MFR is higher for low contraction ratio design as the external ramp shocks move closer to the cowl. At both the angle of attack conditions and complete range of Mach numbers the total pressure recovery and mass flow ratios are highest for two ramp low contraction design due to lower stagnation pressure loss across the detached bow shock formed at the ramp and lower mass spillage. Hence, low contraction design is found to be suitable for higher off-design performance.

Keywords: internal contraction ratio, mass flow ratio, mixed compression intake, performance, supersonic flows

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8717 Parametric Optimization of Electric Discharge Machining Process Using Taguchi's Method and Grey Relation Analysis

Authors: Pushpendra S. Bharti

Abstract:

Process yield of electric discharge machining (EDM) is directly related to optimal combination(s) of process parameters. Optimization of process parameters of EDM is a multi-objective optimization problem owing to the contradictory behavior of performance measures. This paper employs Grey Relation Analysis (GRA) method as a multi-objective optimization technique for the optimal selection of process parameters combination. In GRA, multi-response optimization is converted into optimization of a single response grey relation grade which ultimately gives the optimal combination of process parameters. Experiments were carried out on die-sinking EDM by taking D2 steel as work piece and copper as electrode material. Taguchi's orthogonal array L36 was used for the design of experiments. On the experimental values, GRA was employed for the parametric optimization. A significant improvement has been observed and reported in the process yield by taking the parametric combination(s) obtained through GRA.

Keywords: electric discharge machining, grey relation analysis, material removal rate, optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 311
8716 Physical Parameters Influencing the Yield of Nigella Sativa Oil Extracted by Hydraulic Pressing

Authors: Hadjadj Naima, K. Mahdi, D. Belhachat, F. S. Ait Chaouche, A. Ferradji

Abstract:

The Nigella Sativa oil yield extracted by hydraulic pressing is influenced by the pressure temperature and size particles. The optimization of oil extraction is investigated. The rate of extraction of the whole seeds is very weak, a crushing of seeds is necessary to facilitate the extraction. This rate augments with the rise of the temperature and the pressure, and decrease of size particles. The best output (66%) is obtained for a granulometry lower than 1mm, a temperature of 50°C and a pressure of 120 bars.

Keywords: oil, Nigella sativa, extraction, optimization, temperature, pressure

Procedia PDF Downloads 383
8715 The Paleoenvironment and Paleoclimatological Variations during Aptian in North Central Tunisia

Authors: Houda Khaled, Frederic Boulvain, Fredj Chaabani

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the sedimentological and mineralogical studies of Aptian series outcrops in the Serdj and Bellouta Mountain situated in north-central Tunisia. In the Serdj Mountain, the Aptian series is about 590 meters thick and it is defined by tow formations corresponding respectively to the Sidi Hamada formation (Barremian-Gragasian) and the Serdj formation (Middle Gragasian-Late Clansaysian). This later is consisting of five limestones sequences separated by marly levels limestones associated to some siltstones bed. The Bellouta section is especially composed of carbonate rocks and it is attributed to the Middle Gragasian - Late Clansaysian. These sections are studied in detail regarding lithology, micropaleontology, microfacies, magnetic susceptibility and mineralogical composition in order to provide new insights into the paleoenvironmental evolution and paleoclimatological implications during Aptian. The following facies associations representing different ramp palaeoenvironments have been identified: mudstone-wackestone outer ramp facies; skeletal grainstone-packstone mid-ramp facies, packstone-grainstone inner-ramp facies which include a variety of organisms such as ooliths, rudists ostracods associated to athor bioclats. The coastal facies is especially defined by a mudstone -wackestone texture coastal rich with miliolidea and orbitolines. The magnetic susceptibility (Xin) of all samples was compared with the lithological and microfacies variation. The MS curves show that the high values are correlated with the distal facies and the low values are registred in the coastal environment. The X-ray diffractometer analysis show the presence of kaolinite and illite.

Keywords: Aptian, Serdj formation, mineralogy, petrography

Procedia PDF Downloads 109