Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Search results for: Khadijat O. Abdulwahab

12 The Effect of Reaction Time on the Morphology and Phase of Quaternary Ferrite Nanoparticles (FeCoCrO₄) Synthesised from a Single Source Precursor

Authors: Khadijat Olabisi Abdulwahab, Mohammad Azad Malik, Paul O'Brien, Grigore Timco, Floriana Tuna

Abstract:

The synthesis of spinel ferrite nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution is very crucial in their numerous applications including information storage, hyperthermia treatment, drug delivery, contrast agent in magnetic resonance imaging, catalysis, sensors, and environmental remediation. Ferrites have the general formula MFe₂O₄ (M = Fe, Co, Mn, Ni, Zn e.t.c) and possess remarkable electrical and magnetic properties which depend on the cations, method of preparation, size and their site occupancies. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reports on the use of a single source precursor to synthesise quaternary ferrite nanoparticles. Here in, we demonstrated the use of trimetallic iron pivalate cluster [CrCoFeO(O₂CᵗBu)₆(HO₂CᵗBu)₃] as a single source precursor to synthesise monodisperse cobalt chromium ferrite (FeCoCrO₄) nanoparticles by the hot injection thermolysis method. The precursor was thermolysed in oleylamine, oleic acid, with diphenyl ether as solvent at 260 °C. The effect of reaction time on the stoichiometry, phases or morphology of the nanoparticles was studied. The p-XRD patterns of the nanoparticles obtained after one hour was pure phase of cubic iron cobalt chromium ferrite (FeCoCrO₄). TEM showed that a more monodispersed spherical ferrite nanoparticles were obtained after one hour. Magnetic measurements revealed that the ferrite particles are superparamagnetic at room temperature. The nanoparticles were characterised by Powder X-ray Diffraction (p-XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and Super Conducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID).

Keywords: cobalt chromium ferrite, colloidal, hot injection thermolysis, monodisperse, reaction time, single source precursor, quaternary ferrite nanoparticles

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11 Monodisperse Quaternary Cobalt Chromium Ferrite Nanoparticles Synthesised from a Single Source Precursor

Authors: Khadijat O. Abdulwahab, Mohammad A. Malik, Paul O’Brien, Grigore A. Timco, Floriana Tuna

Abstract:

The synthesis of spinel ferrite nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution is very crucial in their numerous applications including information storage, hyperthermia treatment, drug delivery, contrast agent in magnetic resonance imaging, catalysis, sensors, and environmental remediation. Ferrites have the general formula MFe2O4 (M = Fe, Co, Mn, Ni, Zn etc.) and possess remarkable electrical and magnetic properties which depend on the cations, method of preparation, size and their site occupancies. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reports on the use of a single source precursor to synthesise quaternary ferrite nanoparticles. Herein, we demonstrated the use of trimetallic iron pivalate cluster [CrCoFeO(O2CtBu)6(HO2CtBu)3] as a single source precursor to synthesise monodisperse cobalt chromium ferrite (FeCoCrO4) nanoparticles by the hot injection thermolysis method. The precursor was thermolysed in oleylamine, oleic acid, with diphenyl ether as solvent at its boiling point (260°C). The effect of concentration on the stoichiometry, phases or morphology of the nanoparticles was studied. The p-XRD patterns of the nanoparticles obtained at both concentrations were matched with cubic iron cobalt chromium ferrite (FeCoCrO4). TEM showed that a more monodispersed spherical ferrite nanoparticles of average diameter 4.0 ± 0.4 nm were obtained at higher precursor concentration. Magnetic measurements revealed that all the ferrite particles are superparamagnetic at room temperature. The nanoparticles were characterised by Powder X-ray Diffraction (p-XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP), Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and Super Conducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID).

Keywords: quaternary ferrite nanoparticles, single source precursor, monodisperse, cobalt chromium ferrite, colloidal, hot injection thermolysis

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10 Improvement of Fatigue and Fatigue Corrosion Resistances of Turbine Blades Using Laser Cladding

Authors: Sami I. Jafar, Sami A. Ajeel, Zaman A. Abdulwahab

Abstract:

The turbine blades used in electric power plants are made of low alloy steel type 52. These blades will be subjected to fatigue and also at other times to fatigue corrosion with aging time. Due to their continuous exposure to cyclic rotational stresses in corrosive steam environments, The current research aims to deal with this problem using the laser cladding method for low alloy steel type 52, which works to re-compose the metallurgical structure and improve the mechanical properties by strengthening the resulting structure, which leads to an increase in fatigue and wears resistance, therefore, an increase in the life of these blades is observed.

Keywords: fatigue, fatigue corrosion, turbine blades, laser cladding

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9 Improved Feature Extraction Technique for Handling Occlusion in Automatic Facial Expression Recognition

Authors: Khadijat T. Bamigbade, Olufade F. W. Onifade

Abstract:

The field of automatic facial expression analysis has been an active research area in the last two decades. Its vast applicability in various domains has drawn so much attention into developing techniques and dataset that mirror real life scenarios. Many techniques such as Local Binary Patterns and its variants (CLBP, LBP-TOP) and lately, deep learning techniques, have been used for facial expression recognition. However, the problem of occlusion has not been sufficiently handled, making their results not applicable in real life situations. This paper develops a simple, yet highly efficient method tagged Local Binary Pattern-Histogram of Gradient (LBP-HOG) with occlusion detection in face image, using a multi-class SVM for Action Unit and in turn expression recognition. Our method was evaluated on three publicly available datasets which are JAFFE, CK, SFEW. Experimental results showed that our approach performed considerably well when compared with state-of-the-art algorithms and gave insight to occlusion detection as a key step to handling expression in wild.

Keywords: automatic facial expression analysis, local binary pattern, LBP-HOG, occlusion detection

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8 Exploring the Availability and Distribution of Public Green Spaces among Riyadh Residential Neighborhoods

Authors: Abdulwahab Alalyani, Mahbub Rashid

Abstract:

Public green space promotes community health including daily activities, but these resources may not be available enough or may not equitably be distributed. This paper measures and compares the availability of public green spaces (PGS) among low, middle, and high-income neighborhoods in the Riyadh city. Additionally, it compares the total availability of PGS to WHO standard and Dubai availability of PGS per person. All PGS were mapped using geographical information systems, and total area availability of PGS compared to WHO and Dubai standards. To evaluate the significant differences in PGS availability across low, medium, and high-income Riyadh neighborhoods, we used a One-way ANOVA analysis of covariance to test the differences. As a result, by comparing PGS of Riyadh neighborhoods to WHO and Dubai-availability, it was found that Riyadh PGS were lower than the minimum standard of WHO and as well as Dubai. Riyadh has only 1.13 m2 per capita of PGS. The second finding, the availability of PGS, was significantly different among Riyadh neighborhoods based on socioeconomic status. The future development of PGS should be focused on increasing PGS availability and should be given priority to those low-income and unhealthy communities.

Keywords: spatial equity, green space, quality of life, built environment

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7 An Investigation of Influential Factors in Adopting the Cloud Computing in Saudi Arabia: An Application of Technology Acceptance Model

Authors: Shayem Saleh ALresheedi, Lu Song Feng, Abdulaziz Abdulwahab M. Fatani

Abstract:

Cloud computing is an emerging concept in the technological sphere. Its development enables many applications to avail information online and on demand. It is becoming an essential element for businesses due to its ability to diminish the costs of IT infrastructure and is being adopted in Saudi Arabia. However, there exist many factors that affect its adoption. Several researchers in the field have ignored the study of the TAM model for identifying the relevant factors and their impact for adopting of cloud computing. This study focuses on evaluating the acceptability of cloud computing and analyzing its impacting factors using Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) of technology adoption in Saudi Arabia. It suggests a model to examine the influential factors of the TAM model along with external factors of technical support in adapting the cloud computing. The proposed model has been tested through the use of multiple hypotheses based on calculation tools and collected data from customers through questionnaires. The findings of the study prove that the TAM model along with external factors can be applied in measuring the expected adoption of cloud computing. The study presents an investigation of influential factors and further recommendation in adopting cloud computing in Saudi Arabia.

Keywords: cloud computing, acceptability, adoption, determinants

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6 Molecular Detection and Characterization of Infectious Bronchitis Virus from Libya

Authors: Abdulwahab Kammon, Tan Sheau Wei, Abdul Rahman Omar, Abdunaser Dayhum, Ibrahim Eldghayes, Monier Sharif

Abstract:

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a very dynamic and evolving virus which causing major economic losses to the global poultry industry. Recently, the Libyan poultry industry faced severe outbreak of respiratory distress associated with high mortality and dramatic drop in egg production. Tracheal and cloacal swabs were analyzed for several poultry viruses. IBV was detected using SYBR Green I real-time PCR detection based on the nucleocapsid (N) gene. Sequence analysis of the partial N gene indicated high similarity (~ 94%) to IBV strain 3382/06 that was isolated from Taiwan. Even though the IBV strain 3382/06 is more similar to that of the Mass type H120, the isolate has been implicated associated with intertypic recombinant of 3 putative parental IBV strains namely H120, Taiwan strain 1171/92 and China strain CK/CH/LDL/97I. Complete sequencing and antigenicity studies of the Libya IBV strains are currently underway to determine the evolution of the virus and its importance in vaccine induced immunity. In this paper, we documented for the first time the presence of possibly variant IBV strain from Libya which required a dramatic change in the vaccination program.

Keywords: Libya, infectious bronchitis, molecular characterization, viruses, vaccine

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5 Empowering Nigerian Rural Women through Ownership of Productive Resources

Authors: Sidiqat A. Aderinoye-Abdulwahab, Lateef L. Adefalu, Rashid S. Adisa, Felix O. Oladipo, Tawakalitu A. Dolapo

Abstract:

This study investigates whether the rural women in Nigeria have access to productive resources such as land, livestock, and capital in order to determine their level of socio-economic empowerment. The study adopted a case study design while employing qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to identify 7 locations, where 88 women were selected based on simple random sampling technique. Focus group discussions and questionnaire were used to elicit information. Gender analysis framework was used to explore and analyse the data generated for the study. The study found that the rural women desire to engage in gainful economic activities. However, cultural barriers prevent them from adequately exploring livelihood-improving opportunities. It was established that ownership of productive resources such as land and livestock can enhance their livelihoods provided cultural and governance issues do not deter them from accessing the services. It was therefore recommended that appropriate policies that will favour the access and ownership of assets by women so as to empower them need to be in place. The study provides a nuanced perspective on the influence and relevance of possession of physical assets in enhancing women’s livelihood diversification and overall development of rural livelihoods.

Keywords: livelihoods, productivity, development, economic activities, socio-economic empowerment

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4 Impact of Extension Services Pastoralists’ Vulnerability to Climate Change in Northern Guinea Savannah of Nigeria

Authors: Sidiqat A. Aderinoye-Abdulwahab, Lateef L. Adefalu, Jubril O. Animashaun

Abstract:

Pastoralists in Nigeria are situated in dry regions - where water and pasture for livestock are particularly scarce, as well as areas with poor availability of social amenities and infrastructure. This study therefore explored how extension service could be used to reduce the exposure of nomads to effects of seasonality, climate change, and the poor environmental conditions. The study was carried out in Northern guinea Savannah region of Nigeria because pastoralists have settled there in large numbers due to desertification and low rainfall in the arid regions. A multi-stage sampling procedure was used to arrive at the selection of two states (Kwara and Nassarawa) in the region. A total of 63 respondents were randomly chosen using simple random sampling. Focus group discussions and questionnaire were used to gather information while the data was analysed using content analysis. The facilities required by the sampled households are milking machine, cheese making machine, and preservatives to increase the shelf life of cheese. Whilst, the extension service required are demonstration on cheese making, training and seminars on animal husbandry. Additionally, livestock of pastoralists often encroach on farmers’ plots which usually result in pastoralist-farmer conflicts. The study thus recommends diversification of economic activity from livestock to non-livestock related activities as well as creation of grazing routes to reduce pastoralist/farmer conflict.

Keywords: arid region, coping strategies, livestock, livelihood

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3 ADP Approach to Evaluate the Blood Supply Network of Ontario

Authors: Usama Abdulwahab, Mohammed Wahab

Abstract:

This paper presents the application of uncapacitated facility location problems (UFLP) and 1-median problems to support decision making in blood supply chain networks. A plethora of factors make blood supply-chain networks a complex, yet vital problem for the regional blood bank. These factors are rapidly increasing demand; criticality of the product; strict storage and handling requirements; and the vastness of the theater of operations. As in the UFLP, facilities can be opened at any of $m$ predefined locations with given fixed costs. Clients have to be allocated to the open facilities. In classical location models, the allocation cost is the distance between a client and an open facility. In this model, the costs are the allocation cost, transportation costs, and inventory costs. In order to address this problem the median algorithm is used to analyze inventory, evaluate supply chain status, monitor performance metrics at different levels of granularity, and detect potential problems and opportunities for improvement. The Euclidean distance data for some Ontario cities (demand nodes) are used to test the developed algorithm. Sitation software, lagrangian relaxation algorithm, and branch and bound heuristics are used to solve this model. Computational experiments confirm the efficiency of the proposed approach. Compared to the existing modeling and solution methods, the median algorithm approach not only provides a more general modeling framework but also leads to efficient solution times in general.

Keywords: approximate dynamic programming, facility location, perishable product, inventory model, blood platelet, P-median problem

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2 Comparing Trastuzumab-Related Cardiotoxicity between Elderly and Younger Patients with Breast Cancer: A Prospective Cohort Study

Authors: Afrah Aladwani, Alexander Mullen, Mohammad AlRashidi, Omamah Alfarisi, Faisal Alterkit, Abdulwahab Aladwani, Asit Kumar, Emad Eldosouky

Abstract:

Introduction: Trastuzumab is a HER-2 targeted humanized monoclonal antibody that significantly improves the therapeutic outcomes of metastatic and non-metastatic breast cancer. However, it is associated with increased risk of cardiotoxicity that ranges from mild decline in the cardiac ejection fraction to permanent cardiomyopathy. Concerns have been raised in treating eligible older patients. This study compares trastuzumab outcomes between two age cohorts in the Kuwait Cancer Control Centre (KCCC). Methods: In a prospective comparative observational study, 93 HER-2 positive breast cancer patients undergoing different chemotherapy protocols + trastuzumab were included and divided into two cohorts based on their age (˂60 and ≥60 years old). The baseline left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was assessed and monitored every three months during trastuzumab treatment. Event of cardiotoxicity was defined as ≥10% decline in the LVEF from the baseline. The lower accepted normal limit of the LVEF was 50%. Results: The median baseline LVEF was 65% in both age cohorts (IQR 8% and 9% for older and younger patients respectively). Whereas, the median LVEF post-trastuzumab treatment was 51% and 55% in older and younger patients respectively (IQR 8%; p-value = 0.22), despite the fact that older patients had significantly lower exposure to anthracyclines compared to younger patients (60% and 84.1% respectively; p-value ˂0.001). 86.7% and 55.6% of older and younger patients, respectively, developed ≥10% decline in their LVEF from the baseline. Among those, only 29% of older and 27% of younger patients reached a LVEF value below 50% (p-value = 0.88). Statistically, age was the only factor that significantly correlated with trastuzumab induced cardiotoxicity (OR 4; p-value ˂0.012), but it did not increase the requirement for permanent discontinuation of treatment. A baseline LVEF value below 60% contributed to developing a post-treatment value below normal ranges (50%). Conclusion: Breast cancer patients aged 60 years and above in Kuwait were at 4-fold higher risk of developing ≥10% decline in their LVEF from the baseline than younger patients during trastuzumab treatment. Surprisingly, previous exposure to anthracyclines and multiple comorbidities were not associated with significant increased risk of cardiotoxicity.

Keywords: breast cancer, elderly, Trastuzumab, cardiotoxicity

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1 Dietetics Practice in the Scope of Disease Prevention in Community Settings: A School-Based Obesity Prevention Program

Authors: Elham Abbas Aljaaly, Nahlaa Abdulwahab Khalifa

Abstract:

The active method of disease prevention is seen as the most affordable and sustainable action to deal with risks of non-communicable diseases such as obesity. This eight-week project aimed to pilot the feasibility and acceptability of a school-based programme, which is proposed to prevent and modify overweight status and possible related risk factors among student girls 'at the intermediate level' in Jeddah city. The programme was conducted through comprehensible approach targeting physical environment and school policies (nutritional/exercise/behavioural approach). The programme was designed to cultivate the personal and environmental awareness in schools for girls. This was applied by promoting healthy eating and physical activity through policies, physical education, healthier options for school canteens, and the creation of school health teams. The prevention programme was applied on 68 students (who agreed to participate) from grades 7th, 8th and 9th. A pre and post assessment questionnaire was employed on 66 students. The questionnaires were designed to obtain information on students' knowledge about health, nutrition and physical activity. Survey questions included information about nutrients, food consumption patterns, food intake and lifestyle. Physical education included training sessions for new opportunities for physical activities to be performed during school or after school hours. A running competition 'to enhance students’ performance for physical activities' was also conducted during the school visit. A visit to the school canteen was conducted to check, observe, record and assess all available food/beverage items and meals. The assessment method was a subjective method for the type of food/beverages if high in saturated fat, salt and sugar (HFSS) or non-HFSS. The school canteen administrators were encouraged to provide healthy food/beverage items and a sample healthy canteen was provided for implementation. Two healthy options were introduced to the school canteen. A follow up for students’ preferences for the introduced options and the purchasing power were assessed. Thirty-eight percent of young girls (n=26) were not participating in any form of physical activities inside or outside school. Skipping breakfast was stated by 42% (n=28) of students with no daily consumption (19%, n=13) for fruit/vegetables. Significant changes were noticed in students’ (n=66) overall responses to the pre and post questions (P value=.001). All students had participated in the conducted running competition sessions and reported satisfaction and enjoyment about the sessions. No absence was reported by the research team for attending physical education and activity sessions throughout the delivered programme. The purchasing power of the introduced healthy options of 'Salad and oatmeal' was increased to 18% in 8 weeks at the school canteen, and slightly affected the purchase for other less healthy options. The piloted programme indorsed better health and nutrition knowledge, healthy eating and lifestyle attitude, which could help young girls to obtain sustainable changes. It is expected that the outcomes of the programme will be a cornerstone for the futuristic national study that will assist policy makers and participants to build a knowledgeable health promotion scenario and make sure that school students have access to healthy foods, physical exercise and healthy lifestyle.

Keywords: adolescents, diet, exercise, behaviours, overweight/obesity, prevention-intervention programme, Saudi Arabia, schoolgirls

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