Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 257

Search results for: QAM receiver

257 Design of Low Power FSK Receiver

Authors: M. Aeysha Parvin, J. Asha, J. Jenifer

Abstract:

This letter presents a novel frequency-shift keying(FSK) receiver using PLL-based FSK demodulator, thereby achieving high sensitivity and low power consumption. The proposed receiver comprises a power amplifier, mixer, 3-stage ring oscillator, PLL based demodulator. Moreover, the proposed receiver is fabricated using 0.12µm CMOS process and consumes 0.7Mw. Measurement results demonstrate that the proposed receiver has a sensitivity of -93dbm with 1Mbps data rate in receiving a 2.4 GHz FSK signal.

Keywords: CMOS FSK receiver, phase locked loop (PLL), 3-stage ring oscillator, FSK signal

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256 A Low-Power, Low-Noise and High-Gain 58~66 GHz CMOS Receiver Front-End for Short-Range High-Speed Wireless Communications

Authors: Yo-Sheng Lin, Jen-How Lee, Chien-Chin Wang

Abstract:

A 60-GHz receiver front-end using standard 90-nm CMOS technology is reported. The receiver front-end comprises a wideband low-noise amplifier (LNA), and a double-balanced Gilbert cell mixer with a current-reused RF single-to-differential (STD) converter, an LO Marchand balun and a baseband amplifier. The receiver front-end consumes 34.4 mW and achieves LO-RF isolation of 60.7 dB, LO-IF isolation of 45.3 dB and RF-IF isolation of 41.9 dB at RF of 60 GHz and LO of 59.9 GHz. At IF of 0.1 GHz, the receiver front-end achieves maximum conversion gain (CG) of 26.1 dB at RF of 64 GHz and CG of 25.2 dB at RF of 60 GHz. The corresponding 3-dB bandwidth of RF is 7.3 GHz (58.4 GHz to 65.7 GHz). The measured minimum noise figure was 5.6 dB at 64 GHz, one of the best results ever reported for a 60 GHz CMOS receiver front-end. In addition, the measured input 1-dB compression point and input third-order inter-modulation point are -33.1 dBm and -23.3 dBm, respectively, at 60 GHz. These results demonstrate the proposed receiver front-end architecture is very promising for 60 GHz direct-conversion transceiver applications.

Keywords: CMOS, 60 GHz, direct-conversion transceiver, LNA, down-conversion mixer, marchand balun, current-reused

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255 A 1.57ghz Mixer Design for GPS Receiver

Authors: Hamd Ahmed

Abstract:

During the Persian Gulf War in 1991s, The confederation forces were surprised when they were being shot at by friendly forces in Iraqi desert. As obvious was the fact that they were mislead due to the lack of proper guidance and technology resulting in unnecessary loss of life and bloodshed. This unforeseen incident along with many others led the US department of defense to open the doors of GPS. In the very beginning, this technology was for military use, but now it is being widely used and increasingly popular among the public due to its high accuracy and immeasurable significance. The GPS system simply consists of three segments, the space segment (the satellite), the control segment (ground control) and the user segment (receiver). This project work is about designing a 1.57GHZ mixer for triple conversion GPS receiver .The GPS Front-End receiver based on super heterodyne receiver which improves selectivity and image frequency. However the main principle of the super heterodyne receiver depends on the mixer. Many different types of mixers (single balanced mixer, Single Ended mixer, Double balanced mixer) can be used with GPS receiver, it depends on the required specifications. This research project will provide an overview of the GPS system and details about the basic architecture of the GPS receiver. The basic emphasis of this report in on investigating general concept of the mixer circuit some terms related to the mixer along with their definitions and present the types of mixer, then gives some advantages of using singly balanced mixer and its application. The focus of this report is on how to design mixer for GPS receiver and discussing the simulation results.

Keywords: GPS , RF filter, heterodyne, mixer

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254 The Secrecy Capacity of the Semi-Deterministic Wiretap Channel with Three State Information

Authors: Mustafa El-Halabi

Abstract:

A general model of wiretap channel with states is considered, where the legitimate receiver and the wiretapper’s observations depend on three states S1, S2 and S3. State S1 is non-causally known to the encoder, S2 is known to the receiver, and S3 remains unknown. A secure coding scheme, based using structured-binning, is proposed, and it is shown to achieve the secrecy capacity when the signal at legitimate receiver is a deterministic function of the input.

Keywords: physical layer security, interference, side information, secrecy capacity

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
253 QI Wireless Charging a Scope of Magnetic Inductive Coupling

Authors: Sreenesh Shashidharan, Umesh Gaikwad

Abstract:

QI or 'Chee' which is an interface standard for inductive electrical power transfer over distances of up to 4 cm (1.6 inches). The Qi system comprises a power transmission pad and a compatible receiver in a portable device which is placed on top of the power transmission pad, which charges using the principle of electromagnetic induction. An alternating current is passed through the transmitter coil, generating a magnetic field. This, in turn, induces a voltage in the receiver coil; this can be used to power a mobile device or charge a battery. The efficiency of the power transfer depends on the coupling (k) between the inductors and their quality (Q) The coupling is determined by the distance between the inductors (z) and the relative size (D2 /D). The coupling is further determined by the shape of the coils and the angle between them. If the receiver coil is at a certain distance to the transmitter coil, only a fraction of the magnetic flux, which is generated by the transmitter coil, penetrates the receiver coil and contributes to the power transmission. The more flux reaches the receiver, the better the coils are coupled.

Keywords: inductive electric power, electromagnetic induction, magnetic flux, coupling

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252 3D Receiver Operator Characteristic Histogram

Authors: Xiaoli Zhang, Xiongfei Li, Yuncong Feng

Abstract:

ROC curves, as a widely used evaluating tool in machine learning field, are the tradeoff of true positive rate and negative rate. However, they are blamed for ignoring some vital information in the evaluation process, such as the amount of information about the target that each instance carries, predicted score given by each classification model to each instance. Hence, in this paper, a new classification performance method is proposed by extending the Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves to 3D space, which is denoted as 3D ROC Histogram. In the histogram, the

Keywords: classification, performance evaluation, receiver operating characteristic histogram, hardness prediction

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251 Performance Demonstration of Extendable NSPO Space-Borne GPS Receiver

Authors: Hung-Yuan Chang, Wen-Lung Chiang, Kuo-Liang Wu, Chen-Tsung Lin

Abstract:

National Space Organization (NSPO) has completed in 2014 the development of a space-borne GPS receiver, including design, manufacture, comprehensive functional test, environmental qualification test and so on. The main performance of this receiver include 8-meter positioning accuracy, 0.05 m/sec speed-accuracy, the longest 90 seconds of cold start time, and up to 15g high dynamic scenario. The receiver will be integrated in the autonomous FORMOSAT-7 NSPO-Built satellite scheduled to be launched in 2019 to execute pre-defined scientific missions. The flight model of this receiver manufactured in early 2015 will pass comprehensive functional tests and environmental acceptance tests, etc., which are expected to be completed by the end of 2015. The space-borne GPS receiver is a pure software design in which all GPS baseband signal processing are executed by a digital signal processor (DSP), currently only 50% of its throughput being used. In response to the booming global navigation satellite systems, NSPO will gradually expand this receiver to become a multi-mode, multi-band, high-precision navigation receiver, and even a science payload, such as the reflectometry receiver of a global navigation satellite system. The fundamental purpose of this extension study is to port some software algorithms such as signal acquisition and correlation, reused code and large amount of computation load to the FPGA whose processor is responsible for operational control, navigation solution, and orbit propagation and so on. Due to the development and evolution of the FPGA is pretty fast, the new system architecture upgraded via an FPGA should be able to achieve the goal of being a multi-mode, multi-band high-precision navigation receiver, or scientific receiver. Finally, the results of tests show that the new system architecture not only retains the original overall performance, but also sets aside more resources available for future expansion possibility. This paper will explain the detailed DSP/FPGA architecture, development, test results, and the goals of next development stage of this receiver.

Keywords: space-borne, GPS receiver, DSP, FPGA, multi-mode multi-band

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250 Numerical Investigation of Hot Oil Velocity Effect on Force Heat Convection and Impact of Wind Velocity on Convection Heat Transfer in Receiver Tube of Parabolic Trough Collector System

Authors: O. Afshar

Abstract:

A solar receiver is designed for operation under extremely uneven heat flux distribution, cyclic weather, and cloud transient cycle conditions, which can include large thermal stress and even receiver failure. In this study, the effect of different oil velocity on convection coefficient factor and impact of wind velocity on local Nusselt number by Finite Volume Method will be analyzed. This study is organized to give an overview of the numerical modeling using a MATLAB software, as an accurate, time efficient and economical way of analyzing the heat transfer trends over stationary receiver tube for different Reynolds number. The results reveal when oil velocity is below 0.33m/s, the value of convection coefficient is negligible at low temperature. The numerical graphs indicate that when oil velocity increases up to 1.2 m/s, heat convection coefficient increases significantly. In fact, a reduction in oil velocity causes a reduction in heat conduction through the glass envelope. In addition, the different local Nusselt number is reduced when the wind blows toward the concave side of the collector and it has a significant effect on heat losses reduction through the glass envelope.

Keywords: receiver tube, heat convection, heat conduction, Nusselt number

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
249 Impact of Capture Effect on Receiver Initiated Collision Detection with Sequential Resolution in WLAN

Authors: Sethu Lekshmi, Shahanas, Prettha P.

Abstract:

All existing protocols in wireless networks are mainly based on Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision avoidance. By applying collision detection in wireless networks, the time spent on collision can be reduced and thus improves system throughput. However in a real WLAN scenario due to the use of nonlinear modulation techniques only receiver can decided whether a packet loss take place, even there are multiple transmissions. In this proposed method, the receiver or Access Point detects the collision when multiple data packets are transmitted from different wireless stations. Whenever the receiver detects a collision, it transmits a jamming signal to all the transmitting stations so that they can immediately stop their on-going transmissions. We also provide preferential access to all collided packet to reduce unfairness and to increase system throughput by reducing contention. However, this preferential access will not block the channel for the long time. Here, an in-band transmission is considered in which both the data frames and control frames are transmitted in the same channel. We also provide a simple mathematical model for the proposed protocol and give the simulation result of WLAN scenario under various capture thresholds.

Keywords: 802.11, WLAN, capture effect, collision detection, collision resolution, receiver initiated

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248 Secure Content Centric Network

Authors: Syed Umair Aziz, Muhammad Faheem, Sameer Hussain, Faraz Idris

Abstract:

Content centric network is the network based on the mechanism of sending and receiving the data based on the interest and data request to the specified node (which has cached data). In this network, the security is bind with the content not with the host hence making it host independent and secure. In this network security is applied by taking content’s MAC (message authentication code) and encrypting it with the public key of the receiver. On the receiver end, the message is first verified and after verification message is saved and decrypted using the receiver's private key.

Keywords: content centric network, client-server, host security threats, message authentication code, named data network, network caching, peer-to-peer

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247 Bank ATM Monitoring System Using IR Sensor

Authors: P. Saravanakumar, N. Raja, M. Rameshkumar, D. Mohankumar, R. Sateeshkumar, B. Maheshwari

Abstract:

This research work is designed using Microsoft VB. Net as front end and MySQL as back end. The project deals with secure the user transaction in the ATM system. This application contains the option for sending the failed transaction details to the particular customer by using the SMS. When the customer withdraws the amount from the Bank ATM system, sometimes the amount will not be dispatched but the amount will be debited to the particular account. This application is used to avoid this type of problems in the ATM system. In this proposed system using IR technique to detect the dispatched amount. IR Transmitter and IR Receiver are placed in the path of cash dispatch. It is connected each other through the IR signal. When the customers withdraw the amount in the ATM system then the amount will be dispatched or not is monitored by IR Receiver. If the amount will be dispatched then the signal will be interrupted between the IR Receiver and the IR Transmitter. At that time, the monitoring system will be reduced their particular withdraw amount on their account. If the cash will not be dispatched, the signal will not be interrupted, at that time the particular withdraw amount will not be reduced their account. If the transaction completed successfully, the transaction details such as withdraw amount and current balance can be sent to the customer via the SMS. If the transaction fails, the transaction failed message can be send to the customer.

Keywords: ATM system, monitoring system, IR Transmitter, IR Receiver

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246 A SiGe Low Power RF Front-End Receiver for 5.8GHz Wireless Biomedical Application

Authors: Hyunwon Moon

Abstract:

It is necessary to realize new biomedical wireless communication systems which send the signals collected from various bio sensors located at human body in order to monitor our health. Also, it should seamlessly connect to the existing wireless communication systems. A 5.8 GHz ISM band low power RF front-end receiver for a biomedical wireless communication system is implemented using a 0.5 µm SiGe BiCMOS process. To achieve low power RF front-end, the current optimization technique for selecting device size is utilized. The implemented low noise amplifier (LNA) shows a power gain of 9.8 dB, a noise figure (NF) of below 1.75 dB, and an IIP3 of higher than 7.5 dBm while current consumption is only 6 mA at supply voltage of 2.5 V. Also, the performance of a down-conversion mixer is measured as a conversion gain of 11 dB and SSB NF of 10 dB.

Keywords: biomedical, LNA, mixer, receiver, RF front-end, SiGe

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245 Determination of Crustal Structure and Moho Depth within the Jammu and Kashmir Region, Northwest Himalaya through Receiver Function

Authors: Shiv Jyoti Pandey, Shveta Puri, G. M. Bhat, Neha Raina

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The Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) region of Northwest Himalaya has a long history of earthquake activity which falls within Seismic Zones IV and V. To know the crustal structure beneath this region, we utilized teleseismic receiver function method. This paper presents the results of the analyses of the teleseismic earthquake waves recorded by 10 seismic observatories installed in the vicinity of major thrusts and faults. The teleseismic waves at epicentral distance between 30o and 90o with moment magnitudes greater than or equal to 5.5 that contains large amount of information about the crust and upper mantle structure directly beneath a receiver has been used. The receiver function (RF) technique has been widely applied to investigate crustal structures using P-to-S converted (Ps) phases from velocity discontinuities. The arrival time of the Ps, PpPs and PpSs+ PsPs converted and reverberated phases from the Moho can be combined to constrain the mean crustal thickness and Vp/Vs ratio. Over 500 receiver functions from 10 broadband stations located in the Jammu & Kashmir region of Northwest Himalaya were analyzed. With the help of H-K stacking method, we determined the crustal thickness (H) and average crustal Vp/Vs ratio (K) in this region. We also used Neighbourhood algorithm technique to verify our results. The receiver function results for these stations show that the crustal thickness under Jammu & Kashmir ranges from 45.0 to 53.6 km with an average value of 50.01 km. The Vp/Vs ratio varies from 1.63 to 1.99 with an average value of 1.784 which corresponds to an average Poisson’s ratio of 0.266 with a range from 0.198 to 0.331. High Poisson’s ratios under some stations may be related to partial melting in the crust near the uppermost mantle. The crustal structure model developed from this study can be used to refine the velocity model used in the precise epicenter location in the region, thereby increasing the knowledge to understand current seismicity in the region.

Keywords: H-K stacking, Poisson’s ratios, receiver function, teleseismic

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244 A Statistical-Algorithmic Approach for the Design and Evaluation of a Fresnel Solar Concentrator-Receiver System

Authors: Hassan Qandil

Abstract:

Using a statistical algorithm incorporated in MATLAB, four types of non-imaging Fresnel lenses are designed; spot-flat, linear-flat, dome-shaped and semi-cylindrical-shaped. The optimization employs a statistical ray-tracing methodology of the incident light, mainly considering effects of chromatic aberration, varying focal lengths, solar inclination and azimuth angles, lens and receiver apertures, and the optimum number of prism grooves. While adopting an equal-groove-width assumption of the Poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) prisms, the main target is to maximize the ray intensity on the receiver’s aperture and therefore achieving higher values of heat flux. The algorithm outputs prism angles and 2D sketches. 3D drawings are then generated via AutoCAD and linked to COMSOL Multiphysics software to simulate the lenses under solar ray conditions, which provides optical and thermal analysis at both the lens’ and the receiver’s apertures while setting conditions as per the Dallas-TX weather data. Once the lenses’ characterization is finalized, receivers are designed based on its optimized aperture size. Several cavity shapes; including triangular, arc-shaped and trapezoidal, are tested while coupled with a variety of receiver materials, working fluids, heat transfer mechanisms, and enclosure designs. A vacuum-reflective enclosure is also simulated for an enhanced thermal absorption efficiency. Each receiver type is simulated via COMSOL while coupled with the optimized lens. A lab-scale prototype for the optimum lens-receiver configuration is then fabricated for experimental evaluation. Application-based testing is also performed for the selected configuration, including that of a photovoltaic-thermal cogeneration system and solar furnace system. Finally, some future research work is pointed out, including the coupling of the collector-receiver system with an end-user power generator, and the use of a multi-layered genetic algorithm for comparative studies.

Keywords: COMSOL, concentrator, energy, fresnel, optics, renewable, solar

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243 Measurement of Ionospheric Plasma Distribution over Myanmar Using Single Frequency Global Positioning System Receiver

Authors: Win Zaw Hein, Khin Sandar Linn, Su Su Yi Mon, Yoshitaka Goto

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The Earth ionosphere is located at the altitude of about 70 km to several 100 km from the ground, and it is composed of ions and electrons called plasma. In the ionosphere, these plasma makes delay in GPS (Global Positioning System) signals and reflect in radio waves. The delay along the signal path from the satellite to the receiver is directly proportional to the total electron content (TEC) of plasma, and this delay is the largest error factor in satellite positioning and navigation. Sounding observation from the top and bottom of the ionosphere was popular to investigate such ionospheric plasma for a long time. Recently, continuous monitoring of the TEC using networks of GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) observation stations, which are basically built for land survey, has been conducted in several countries. However, in these stations, multi-frequency support receivers are installed to estimate the effect of plasma delay using their frequency dependence and the cost of multi-frequency support receivers are much higher than single frequency support GPS receiver. In this research, single frequency GPS receiver was used instead of expensive multi-frequency GNSS receivers to measure the ionospheric plasma variation such as vertical TEC distribution. In this measurement, single-frequency support ublox GPS receiver was used to probe ionospheric TEC. The location of observation was assigned at Mandalay Technological University in Myanmar. In the method, the ionospheric TEC distribution is represented by polynomial functions for latitude and longitude, and parameters of the functions are determined by least-squares fitting on pseudorange data obtained at a known location under an assumption of thin layer ionosphere. The validity of the method was evaluated by measurements obtained by the Japanese GNSS observation network called GEONET. The performance of measurement results using single-frequency of GPS receiver was compared with the results by dual-frequency measurement.

Keywords: ionosphere, global positioning system, GPS, ionospheric delay, total electron content, TEC

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242 Exploiting Fast Independent Component Analysis Based Algorithm for Equalization of Impaired Baseband Received Signal

Authors: Muhammad Umair, Syed Qasim Gilani

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A technique using Independent Component Analysis (ICA) for blind receiver signal processing is investigated. The problem of the receiver signal processing is viewed as of signal equalization and implementation imperfections compensation. Based on this, a model similar to a general ICA problem is developed for the received signal. Then, the use of ICA technique for blind signal equalization in the time domain is presented. The equalization is regarded as a signal separation problem, since the desired signal is separated from interference terms. This problem is addressed in the paper by over-sampling of the received signal. By using ICA for equalization, besides channel equalization, other transmission imperfections such as Direct current (DC) bias offset, carrier phase and In phase Quadrature phase imbalance will also be corrected. Simulation results for a system using 16-Quadraure Amplitude Modulation(QAM) are presented to show the performance of the proposed scheme.

Keywords: blind equalization, blind signal separation, equalization, independent component analysis, transmission impairments, QAM receiver

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241 Design Of High Sensitivity Transceiver for WSN

Authors: A. Anitha, M. Aishwariya

Abstract:

The realization of truly ubiquitous wireless sensor networks (WSN) demands Ultra-low power wireless communication capability. Because the radio transceiver in a wireless sensor node consumes more power when compared to the computation part it is necessary to reduce the power consumption. Hence, a low power transceiver is designed and implemented in a 120 nm CMOS technology for wireless sensor nodes. The power consumption of the transceiver is reduced still by maintaining the sensitivity. The transceiver designed combines the blocks including differential oscillator, mixer, envelope detector, power amplifiers, and LNA. RF signal modulation and demodulation is carried by On-Off keying method at 2.4 GHz which is said as ISM band. The transmitter demonstrates an output power of 2.075 mW while consuming a supply voltage of range 1.2 V-5.0 V. Here the comparison of LNA and power amplifier is done to obtain an amplifier which produces a high gain of 1.608 dB at receiver which is suitable to produce a desired sensitivity. The multistage RF amplifier is used to improve the gain at the receiver side. The power dissipation of the circuit is in the range of 0.183-0.323 mW. The receiver achieves a sensitivity of about -95 dBm with data rate of 1 Mbps.

Keywords: CMOS, envelope detector, ISM band, LNA, low power electronics, PA, wireless transceiver

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240 Effects of Incident Angle and Distance on Visible Light Communication

Authors: Taegyoo Woo, Jong Kang Park, Jong Tae Kim

Abstract:

Visible Light Communication (VLC) provides wireless communication features in illumination systems. One of the key applications is to recognize the user location by indoor illuminators such as light emitting diodes. For localization of individual receivers in these systems, we usually assume that receivers and transmitters are placed in parallel. However, it is difficult to satisfy this assumption because the receivers move randomly in real case. It is necessary to analyze the case when transmitter is not placed perfectly parallel to receiver. It is also important to identify changes on optical gain by the tilted angles and distances of them against the illuminators. In this paper, we simulate optical gain for various cases where the tilt of the receiver and the distance change. Then, we identified changing patterns of optical gains according to tilted angles of a receiver and distance. These results can help many VLC applications understand the extent of the location errors with regard to optical gains of the receivers and identify the root cause.

Keywords: visible light communication, incident angle, optical gain, light emitting diode

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239 Real-Time Demonstration of Visible Light Communication Based on Frequency-Shift Keying Employing a Smartphone as the Receiver

Authors: Fumin Wang, Jiaqi Yin, Lajun Wang, Nan Chi

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In this article, we demonstrate a visible light communication (VLC) system over 8 meters free space transmission based on a commercial LED and a receiver in connection with an audio interface of a smart phone. The signal is in FSK modulation format. The successful experimental demonstration validates the feasibility of the proposed system in future wireless communication network.

Keywords: visible light communication, smartphone communication, frequency shift keying, wireless communication

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238 Design and Implementation Wireless System by Using Microcontrollers.Application for Drive Acquisition System with Multiple Sensors

Authors: H. Fekhar

Abstract:

Design and implementation acquisition system using radio frequency (RF) ASK module and micro controllers PIC is proposed in this work. The paper includes hardware and software design. The design tools are divided into two units , namely the sender MCU and receiver.The system was designed to measure temperatures of two furnaces and pressure pneumatic process. The wireless transmitter unit use the 433.95 MHz band directly interfaced to micro controller PIC18F4620. The sender unit consists of temperatures-pressure sensors , conditioning circuits , keypad GLCD display and RF module.Signal conditioner converts the output of the sensors into an electric quantity suitable for operation of the display and recording system.The measurements circuits are connected directly to 10 bits multiplexed A/D converter.The graphic liquid crystal display (GLCD) is used . The receiver (RF) module connected to a second microcontroller ,receive the signal via RF receiver , decode the Address/data and reproduces the original data . The strategy adopted for establishing communication between the sender MCU and receiver uses the specific protocol “Header, Address and data”.The communication protocol dealing with transmission and reception have been successfully implemented . Some experimental results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed wireless system. This embedded system track temperatures – pressure signal reasonably well with a small error.

Keywords: microcontrollers, sensors, graphic liquid cristal display, protocol, temperature, pressure

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237 Improved Cooperative Communication Scheme in the Edge of Cell Coverage

Authors: Myoung-Jin Kim, Yeong-Seop Ahn, Hyun-Jee Yang, Hyoung-Kyu Song

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This paper proposes the new cooperative communication scheme for the wireless communication system. When the receiver is located in the edge of coverage, the signal from the transmitter is distorted by the inter-cell interference (ICI) and power reduction by distance. In order to improve communication performance, the proposed scheme adds the relay. By using the relay, the receiver receives the signal from the transmitter and relay at the same time. Therefore, the new cooperative communication scheme obtains diversity gain and is improved by the relay.

Keywords: cooperative communication, diversity gain, OFDM, MIMO

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236 Numerical Study of Natural Convection in Isothermal Open Cavities

Authors: Gaurav Prabhudesai, Gaetan Brill

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The sun's energy source comes from a hydrogen-to-helium thermonuclear reaction, generating a temperature of about 5760 K on its outer layer. On account of this high temperature, energy is radiated by the sun, a part of which reaches the earth. This sunlight, even after losing part of its energy en-route to scattering and absorption, provides a time and space averaged solar flux of 174.7 W/m^2 striking the earth’s surface. According to one study, the solar energy striking earth’s surface in one and a half hour is more than the energy consumption that was recorded in the year 2001 from all sources combined. Thus, technology for extraction of solar energy holds much promise for solving energy crisis. Of the many technologies developed in this regard, Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) plants with central solar tower and receiver system are very impressive because of their capability to provide a renewable energy that can be stored in the form of heat. One design of central receiver towers is an open cavity where sunlight is concentrated into by using mirrors (also called heliostats). This concentrated solar flux produces high temperature inside the cavity which can be utilized in an energy conversion process. The amount of energy captured is reduced by losses occurring at the cavity through all three modes viz., radiation to the atmosphere, conduction to the adjoining structure and convection. This study investigates the natural convection losses to the environment from the receiver. Computational fluid dynamics were used to simulate the fluid flow and heat transfer of the receiver; since no analytical solution can be obtained and no empirical correlations exist for the given geometry. The results provide guide lines for predicting natural convection losses for hexagonal and circular shaped open cavities. Additionally, correlations are given for various inclination angles and aspect ratios. These results provide methods to minimize natural convection through careful design of receiver geometry and modification of the inclination angle, and aspect ratio of the cavity.

Keywords: concentrated solar power (CSP), central receivers, natural convection, CFD, open cavities

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235 Implementing Fault Tolerance with Proxy Signature on the Improvement of RSA System

Authors: H. El-Kamchouchi, Heba Gaber, Fatma Ahmed, Dalia H. El-Kamchouchi

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Fault tolerance and data security are two important issues in modern communication systems. During the transmission of data between the sender and receiver, errors may occur frequently. Therefore, the sender must re-transmit the data to the receiver in order to correct these errors, which makes the system very feeble. To improve the scalability of the scheme, we present a proxy signature scheme with fault tolerance over an efficient and secure authenticated key agreement protocol based on the improved RSA system. Authenticated key agreement protocols have an important role in building a secure communications network between the two parties.

Keywords: fault tolerance, improved RSA, key agreement, proxy signature

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234 Cooperative AF Scheme for Multi Source and Terminal in Edge of Cell Coverage

Authors: Myoung-Jin Kim, Chang-Bin Ha, Yeong-Seop Ahn, Hyoung-Kyu Song

Abstract:

This paper proposes a cooperative communication scheme for improve wireless communication performance. When the receiver is located in the edge of coverage, the signal from the transmitter is distorted for various reasons such as inter-cell interference (ICI), power reduction, incorrect channel estimation. In order to improve communication performance, the proposed scheme adds the relay. By the relay, the receiver has diversity gain. In this paper, two base stations, one relay and one destination are considered. The two base stations transmit same time to relay and destination. The relay forwarding to destination and the destination detects signals.

Keywords: cooperative communication, diversity gain, OFDM, MMSE

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233 Performance Analysis of Different PSK Scheme on Receiver Sensitivity and Round Trip Distance for Chipless RFID System for UWB with Rayleigh Fading Channels in Outdoor NLOS Environment

Authors: Khalid Mahmud

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In this paper, an analytic approach is presented to evaluate the Bit Error Rate (BER) and round trip distance for a UWB chipless RFID system using diversity technique at the reader receiver using different modulation technique. The analysis is carried out with multiresonator based chipless RFID tags using frequency range from 3 GHz − 6 GHz and bandwidth of 500 M Hz in outdoor non-line-of-sight (NLOS) environment. SISO configuration is used to communicate from the reader to the tag and SIMO configuration is used do vice versa. Maximal Ratio Combining (MRC) technique is used in the reader. MPSK, DQPSK, DBPSK, BPSK, QPSK and DMPSK modulation techniques are considered with coherent demodulation to evaluate the BER performance. From the numerical analysis of the results, it is found that at a given BER maximum possible round trip distance can be achieved using DMPSK modulation technique. In addition, it has been proved that, while using DMPSK modulation technique, the application of diversity has very little effect on the overall improvement in reader receiver sensitivity and achievable distance. Finally the method not only proves to be a very good way for tag detection in case of a chipless RFID system but also gives a clear insight regarding the interrelationship between BER, read range, reader received power, number of receiving antenna in outdoor NLOS environment.

Keywords: EGC, MRC, BER, read range, diversity

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232 A Secure Proxy Signature Scheme with Fault Tolerance Based on RSA System

Authors: H. El-Kamchouchi, Heba Gaber, Fatma Ahmed, Dalia H. El-Kamchouchi

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Due to the rapid growth in modern communication systems, fault tolerance and data security are two important issues in a secure transaction. During the transmission of data between the sender and receiver, errors may occur frequently. Therefore, the sender must re-transmit the data to the receiver in order to correct these errors, which makes the system very feeble. To improve the scalability of the scheme, we present a secure proxy signature scheme with fault tolerance over an efficient and secure authenticated key agreement protocol based on RSA system. Authenticated key agreement protocols have an important role in building a secure communications network between the two parties.

Keywords: proxy signature, fault tolerance, rsa, key agreement protocol

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231 Mitigation of Interference in Satellite Communications Systems via a Cross-Layer Coding Technique

Authors: Mario A. Blanco, Nicholas Burkhardt

Abstract:

An important problem in satellite communication systems which operate in the Ka and EHF frequency bands consists of the overall degradation in link performance of mobile terminals due to various types of degradations in the link/channel, such as fading, blockage of the link to the satellite (especially in urban environments), intentional as well as other types of interference, etc. In this paper, we focus primarily on the interference problem, and we develop a very efficient and cost-effective solution based on the use of fountain codes. We first introduce a satellite communications (SATCOM) terminal uplink interference channel model that is classically used against communication systems that use spread-spectrum waveforms. We then consider the use of fountain codes, with focus on Raptor codes, as our main mitigation technique to combat the degradation in link/receiver performance due to the interference signal. The performance of the receiver is obtained in terms of average probability of bit and message error rate as a function of bit energy-to-noise density ratio, Eb/N0, and other parameters of interest, via a combination of analysis and computer simulations, and we show that the use of fountain codes is extremely effective in overcoming the effects of intentional interference on the performance of the receiver and associated communication links. We then show this technique can be extended to mitigate other types of SATCOM channel degradations, such as those caused by channel fading, shadowing, and hard-blockage of the uplink signal.

Keywords: SATCOM, interference mitigation, fountain codes, turbo codes, cross-layer

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230 The Comparative Study of the Characteristics of Chinese and Foreign Excellent Woman’s Single Players’ Serve, Receive Tactic Author

Authors: Zhai Yuan, Wu Xueqing

Abstract:

This article statistics the technology which used by Chinese and foreign excellent players in the game, including types and serves areas,receive technology and effect and utilization ratio receiving and losing points. The sample is che videos which is world's top matches of excellent badminton athletes of che single, including Chinese players’ 43 games and foreign players’ 38 games. Conclusion: For the serving, Chinese and foreign single players are to give priority to forehand short-low serve and the long-high serve. And Chinese and foreign players in using forehand short-low serve and drive server exist significant differences; For the serves areas, Chinese and foreign players serve area is concentrated in area 1,5,6. Area 6 has the highest rate of all the district areas, following by the area 1and area 5. Among the 2ed serve area Sino-foreign player, there exist significant differences; In the receiver, when returning the frontcourt shutter, players is given priority to net lift and push. When returning the backcourt shutter, receiver's the best ball is smash, followed by clear and drop shot. Foreign players have higher utilization rate in smash than Chinese players in the backcourt; In the receiver result, Chinese players give priority to actively and equally situation than foreign players, but in negatively receiving is just opposite.

Keywords: badminton, woman’s singles, technique and tactics, comparative analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 460
229 Parameters Influencing the Output Precision of a Lens-Lens Beam Generator Solar Concentrator

Authors: M. Tawfik, X. Tonnellier, C. Sansom

Abstract:

The Lens-Lens Beam Generator (LLBG) is a Fresnel-based optical concentrating technique which provides flexibility in selecting the solar receiver location compared to conventional techniques through generating a powerful concentrated collimated solar beam. In order to achieve that, two successive lenses are used and followed by a flat mirror. Hence the generated beam emerging from the LLBG has a high power flux which impinges on the target receiver, it is important to determine the precision of the system output. In this present work, mathematical investigation of different parameters affecting the precision of the output beam is carried out. These parameters include: Deflection in sun-facing lens and its holding arm, delay in updating the solar tracking system, and the flat mirror surface flatness. Moreover, relationships that describe the power lost due to the effect of each parameter are derived in this study.

Keywords: Fresnel lens, LLBG, solar concentrator, solar tracking

Procedia PDF Downloads 133
228 Design of Wireless and Traceable Sensors for Internally Illuminated Photoreactors

Authors: Alexander Sutor, David Demetz

Abstract:

We present methods for developing wireless and traceable sensors for photobioreactors or photoreactors in general. The main focus of application are reactors which are wirelessly powered. Due to the promising properties of the propagation of magnetic fields under water we implemented an inductive link with an on/off switched hartley-oscillator as transmitter and an LC-tank as receiver. For this inductive link we used a carrier frequency of 298 kHz. With this system we performed measurements to demonstrate the independence of the magnetic field from water or salty water. In contrast we showed the strongly reduced range of RF-transmitter-receiver systems at higher frequencies (433 MHz and 2.4 GHz) in water and in salty water. For implementing the traceability of the sensors, we performed measurements to show the well defined orientation of the magnetic field of a coil. This information will be used in future work for implementing an inductive link based traceability system for our sensors.

Keywords: wireless sensors, photoreactor, internal illumination, wireless power

Procedia PDF Downloads 64