Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30

Search results for: blackboard

30 A Quantitative Study of Blackboard Utilisation at a University of Technology in South Africa

Authors: Lawrence Meda, Christopher Dumas, Moses Moyo, Zayd Waghid

Abstract:

As a result of some schools embracing technology to enhance students’ learning experiences in the digital era, the Faculty of Education at a University of Technology in South Africa has mandated lecturers to scale up their utilisation of technology in their teaching. Lecturers have been challenged to utilise the institution’s Learning Management System - Blackboard among other technologies - to adequately prepare trainee teachers to be able to teach competently in schools. The purpose of this study is to investigate the extent to which lecturers are utilising Blackboard to enhance their teaching. The study will be conducted using a quantitative approach, and its paradigmatic position will be positivist. The study will be done as a case study of the university’s Faculty of Education. Data will be extracted from all 100 lecturers’ Blackboard sites according to their respective modules, and it will be analysed using the four pillars of Blackboard as a conceptual framework. It is presumed that there is an imbalance on the lecturers’ utilisation of the four pillars of Blackboard as the majority use it as a content dumping site.

Keywords: blackboard, digital, education, technology

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29 Factors Impeding Learners’ Use of the Blackboard System in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Omran Alharbi, Victor Lally

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In recent decades, a number of educational institutions around the world have come to depend on technology such as the Blackboard system to improve their educational environment. On the other hand, there are many factors that delay the usage of this technology, especially in developing nations such as Saudi Arabia. The goal of this study was to investigate learner’s views of the use of Blackboard in one Saudi university in order to gain a comprehensive view of the factors that delay the implementation of technology in Saudi institutions. This study utilizes a qualitative approach, with data being collected through semi-structured interviews. Six participants from different disciplines took part in this study. The findings indicated that there are two levels of factors that affect students’ use of the Blackboard system. These are factors at the institutional level, such as lack of technical support and lack of training support, which lead to insufficient training related to the Blackboard system. The second level of factors is at the individual level, for example, a lack of teacher motivation and encouragement. In addition, students do not have sufficient levels of skills or knowledge related to how to use the Blackboard in their learning. Conclusion: learners confronted and faced two main types of factors (at the institution level and individual level) that delayed and impeded their learning. Institutions in KSA should take steps and implement strategies to remove or reduce these factors in order to allow students to benefit from the latest technology in their learning.

Keywords: blackboard, factors, KSA, learners

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28 Engaging Students with Special Education Needs through Technology-Enhanced Interactive Activities in Class

Authors: Pauli P.Y. Lai

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Students with Special Education Needs (SEN) face many challenges in learning. Various challenges include difficulty in handwriting, slow understanding and assimilation, difficulty in paying attention during class, and lack of communication skills. To engage students with Special Education Needs in class with general students, Blackboard Collaborate is used as a teaching and learning tool to deliver a lecture with interactive activities. Blackboard Collaborate provides a good platform to create and enhance active, collaborative and interactive learning experience whereby the SEN students can easily interact with their general peers and the instructor by using the features of drawing on a virtual whiteboard, file sharing, classroom chatter, breakout room, hand-raising feature, polling, etc. By integrating a blended learning approach with Blackboard Collaborate, the students with Special Education Needs could engage in interactive activities with ease in class. Our research aims at exploring and discovering the use of Blackboard Collaborate for inclusive education based on a qualitative design with in-depth interviews. Being served in a general education environment, three university students with different kinds of learning disabilities have participated in our study. All participants agreed that functions provided by Blackboard Collaborate have enhanced their learning experiences and helped them learn better. Their academic performances also showed that SEN students could perform well with the help of technology. This research studies different aspects of using Blackboard Collaborate to create an inclusive learning environment for SEN students.

Keywords: blackboard collaborate, enhanced learning experience, inclusive education, special education needs

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27 Impact Position Method Based on Distributed Structure Multi-Agent Coordination with JADE

Authors: YU Kaijun, Liang Dong, Zhang Yarong, Jin Zhenzhou, Yang Zhaobao

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For the impact monitoring of distributed structures, the traditional positioning methods are based on the time difference, which includes the four-point arc positioning method and the triangulation positioning method. But in the actual operation, these two methods have errors. In this paper, the Multi-Agent Blackboard Coordination Principle is used to combine the two methods. Fusion steps: (1) The four-point arc locating agent calculates the initial point and records it to the Blackboard Module.(2) The triangulation agent gets its initial parameters by accessing the initial point.(3) The triangulation agent constantly accesses the blackboard module to update its initial parameters, and it also logs its calculated point into the blackboard.(4) When the subsequent calculation point and the initial calculation point are within the allowable error, the whole coordination fusion process is finished. This paper presents a Multi-Agent collaboration method whose agent framework is JADE. The JADE platform consists of several agent containers, with the agent running in each container. Because of the perfect management and debugging tools of the JADE, it is very convenient to deal with complex data in a large structure. Finally, based on the data in Jade, the results show that the impact location method based on Multi-Agent coordination fusion can reduce the error of the two methods.

Keywords: impact monitoring, structural health monitoring(SHM), multi-agent system(MAS), black-board coordination, JADE

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26 Using Blackboard to Enhance Academic Writing Classes

Authors: Laurence Craven

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Academic writing is one of the most important class a freshman will take, as it provides the skill needed to formulate an academic essay in any discipline. Written assignments are the most common form of assessment in higher education and thus it is of paramount importance for students to master the skill of academic writing. This presentation aims to give practitioners multiple ways to enhance their academic writing classes using the Blackboard environment, with a view to improving student performance. The presentation will include ways to improve assessment and give corrective feedback. It will also provide ideas on how to increase variety in teaching lessons, assigning homework and on organizing materials.

Keywords: academic writing, assessment, e-learning, technology

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25 Sequential Mixed Methods Study to Examine the Potentiality of Blackboard-Based Collaborative Writing as a Solution Tool for Saudi Undergraduate EFL Students’ Writing Difficulties

Authors: Norah Alosayl

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English is considered the most important foreign language in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) because of the usefulness of English as a global language compared to Arabic. As students’ desire to improve their English language skills has grown, English writing has been identified as the most difficult problem for Saudi students in their language learning. Although the English language in Saudi Arabia is taught beginning in the seventh grade, many students have problems at the university level, especially in writing, due to a gap between what is taught in secondary and high schools and university expectations- pupils generally study English at school, based on one book with few exercises in vocabulary and grammar exercises, and there are no specific writing lessons. Moreover, from personal teaching experience at King Saud bin Abdulaziz University, students face real problems with their writing. This paper revolves around the blackboard-based collaborative writing to help the undergraduate Saudi EFL students, in their first year enrolled in two sections of ENGL 101 in the first semester of 2021 at King Saud bin Abdulaziz University, practice the most difficult skill they found in their writing through a small group. Therefore, a sequential mixed methods design will be suited. The first phase of the study aims to highlight the most difficult skill experienced by students from an official writing exam that is evaluated by their teachers through an official rubric used in King Saud bin Abdulaziz University. In the second phase, this study will intend to investigate the benefits of social interaction on the process of learning writing. Students will be provided with five collaborative writing tasks via discussion feature on Blackboard to practice a skill that they found difficult in writing. the tasks will be formed based on social constructivist theory and pedagogic frameworks. The interaction will take place between peers and their teachers. The frequencies of students’ participation and the quality of their interaction will be observed through manual counting, screenshotting. This will help the researcher understand how students actively work on the task through the amount of their participation and will also distinguish the type of interaction (on task, about task, or off-task). Semi-structured interviews will be conducted with students to understand their perceptions about the blackboard-based collaborative writing tasks, and questionnaires will be distributed to identify students’ attitudes with the tasks.

Keywords: writing difficulties, blackboard-based collaborative writing, process of learning writing, interaction, participations

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24 An Appraisal of Blended Learning Approach for English Language Teaching in Saudi Arabia

Authors: H. Alqunayeer, S. Zamir

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Blended learning, an ideal amalgamation of online learning and face to face traditional approach is a new approach that may result in outstanding outcomes in the realm of teaching and learning. The dexterity and effectiveness offered by e-learning experience cannot be guaranteed in a traditional classroom, whereas one-to-one interaction the essential element of learning that can only be found in a traditional classroom. In recent years, a spectacular expansion in the incorporation of technology in language teaching and learning is observed in many universities of Saudi Arabia. Some universities recognize the importance of blending face-to-face with online instruction in language pedagogy, Qassim University is one of the many universities adopting Blackboard Learning Management system (LMS). The university has adopted this new mode of teaching/learning in year 2015. Although the experience is immature; however great pedagogical transformations are anticipated in the university through this new approach. This paper examines the role of blended language learning with particular reference to the influence of Blackboard Learning Management System on the development of English language learning for EFL learners registered in Bachelors of English language program. This paper aims at exploring three main areas: (i) the present status of Blended learning in the educational process in Saudi Arabia especially in Qassim University by providing a survey report on the number of training courses on Blackboard LMS conducted for the male and female teachers at various colleges of Qassim University, (ii) a survey on teachers perception about the utility, application and the outcome of using blended Learning approach in teaching English language skills courses, (iii) the students’ views on the efficiency of Blended learning approach in learning English language skills courses. Besides, analysis of students’ limitations and challenges related to the experience of blended learning via Blackboard, the suggestion and recommendations offered by the language learners have also been thought-out. The study is empirical in nature. In order to gather data on the afore mentioned areas survey questionnaire method has been used: in order to study students’ perception, a 5 point Likert-scale questionnaire has been distributed to 200 students of English department registered in Bachelors in English program (level 5 through level 8). Teachers’ views have been surveyed with the help of interviewing 25 EFL teachers skilled in using Blackboard LMS in their lectures. In order to ensure the validity and reliability of questionnaire, the inter-rater approach and Cronbach’s Alpha analysis have been used respectively. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) has been used to analyze the students’ perception about the productivity of the Blended approach in learning English language skills. The analysis of feedback by Saudi teachers and students about the usefulness, ingenuity, and productivity of Blended Learning via Blackboard LMS highlights the need of encouraging and expanding the implementation of this new approach into the field of English language teaching in Saudi Arabia, in order to augment congenial learning aura. Furthermore, it is hoped that the propositions and practical suggestions offered by the study will be functional for other similar learning environments.

Keywords: blended learning, black board learning management system, English as foreign language (EFL) learners, EFL teachers

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23 Effects of Using Interactive Whiteboards at High School Mathematics Classrooms

Authors: Huseyin Demir

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This article is the results of a quantitative research about the effects of using interactive whiteboards in high school mathematics classroom. The aim of this article is to investigate the effects of using interactive whiteboards in high school mathematics classrooms. During the article the following questions are answered: 'What can we do with an interactive whiteboard?' and 'Do we really need those properties of the interactive whiteboard?' For the research part of the article, two groups of lessons are executed in Private Demirel College. In the first 6 weeks, the topics are taught on a normal blackboard. Starting from seventh week, we have used interactive whiteboard in the mathematics lessons. At the end of an eight week lectures with interactive whiteboards, a questionnaire is prepared and executed for the students. In the questionnaire 10 questions were asked about the benefits and differences of using the interactive whiteboards in mathematics lessons. By looking at the conclusion of the results of questionnaire and some discussions with the students we found some useful benefits of the usage of interactive whiteboards in mathematics lessons. This article will be helpful for the high school mathematics teachers.

Keywords: mathematics education, interactive whiteboard, blackboard, using interactive whiteboard in mathematics lessons

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22 Effectiveness of Powerpoint Presentations in Teaching Anatomy: A Student's Perspective

Authors: Vrinda Hari Ankolekar

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Introduction: The advancement of various audio-visual aids in the present era has led to progressive changes in education. Use of powerpoint presentations play a key role in anatomy to learn and understand a particular topic. As the subject of anatomy involves more of illustrations and demonstrations, powerpoint presentations become essential in conveying the necessary information. Objectives: To assess the students’ perspective about the use of powerpoint presentations in teaching anatomy.Method: A questionnaire was constructed and 55 students were asked to put forth their preferences for the powerpoint presentations or blackboard that would help them to understand the subject better. Results and conclusion: 30 voted PPT as better and effective tool to explain the subject efficiently. 35 chose PPT as more creative than Blackboard to create interest in the subject. 20 wanted to retain chalk and talk for teaching their subject instead of replacing it with PowerPoint. 36 felt chalk and talk as more useful and appropriate tool for teaching than PowerPoint. Only 25 felt chalk and talk relatively more boring than PowerPoint. 23 experienced more involvement and active participation in the class when chalk and talk is used as the teaching tool. 26 stated that chalk and talk has most of the features needed for teaching.One of the limitations of this study is that the sample size is drawn from one institution only and deals with the experience of one particular group of individuals.

Keywords: chalk and board, powerpoint presentation, presentation skills, teaching technologies

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21 An Innovative Approach to Improve Skills of Students in Qatar University Spending in Virtual Class though LMS

Authors: Mohammad Shahid Jamil

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In this study we have investigated students’ learning and satisfaction in one of the course offered in the Foundation Program at Qatar University. We implied innovative teaching methodology that emphasizes on enhancing students’ thinking skills, decision making, and problem solving skills. Some interesting results were found which can be used to further improve the teaching methodology. To make sure the full use of technology in Foundation Program at Qatar University has started implementing new ways of teaching Math course by using Blackboard as an innovative interactive tool to support standard teaching such as Discussion board, Virtual class, and Study plan in My Math Lab “MML”. In MML Study Plan is designed in such a way that the student can improve their skills wherever they face difficulties with in their Homework, Quiz or Test. Discussion board and Virtual Class are collaborative learning tools encourages students to engage outside of class time. These tools are useful to share students’ knowledge and learning experiences, promote independent and active learning and they helps students to improve their critical thinking skills through the learning process.

Keywords: blackboard, discussion board, critical thinking, active learning, independent learning, problem solving

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20 Designing and Enacting an Adjunct Faculty Self-Study of Teaching Community

Authors: Anastasia P. Samaras, Allison Ward-Parsons, Beth Dalbec, Paula Cristina Azevedo, Anya Evmenova, Arvinder Johri, Lynne Scott Constantine, Lesley Smith

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Two cycles of qualitative data were collected. Cycle One sources included participant survey results, participant postings on Blackboard forums, facilitator memos, and meeting notes as well as reflections and notes from whole-group meetings.

Keywords: adjunct faculty, professional development, self-study methodology, teaching

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19 Efficiency of Information Technology Based Learning and Teaching in Higher Educations

Authors: Mahalingam Palaniandi

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Higher education plays vital role in the nation building process for a country and the rest of world. The higher education sector develops the change-agents for the various fields which will help the human-kind wheel to run further. Conventional and traditional class-room based learning and teaching was followed in many decades which is one-to-one and one-to-many. In a way, these are simplest form of learners to be assembled in a class room wherein the teacher used the blackboard to demonstrate the theory and laboratories used for practical. As the technology evolved tremendously for the last 40 years, the teaching and learning environment changed slowly, wherein, the learning community will be anywhere in the world and teacher deliver the content through internet based tools such as video conferencing, web based conferencing tools or E-learning platforms such as Blackboard or noodle. Present day, the mobile technologies plays an important tool to deliver the teaching content on-the-go. Both PC based and mobile based learning technology brought the learning and teaching community together in various aspects. However, as the learning technology also brought various hurdles for learning processes such as plagiarism and not using the reference books entirely as most of the students wants the information instantaneously using internet without actually going to the library to take the notes from the millions of the books which are not available online as e-books which result lack of fundamental knowledge of the concepts complex theories. However, technology is inseparable in human life, now-a-days and every part of it contains piece of information technology right from computers to home appliances. To make use of the IT based learning and teaching at most efficiency, we should have a proper framework and recommendations laid to the learning community in order to derive the maximum efficiency from the IT based teaching and leaning. This paper discusses various IT based tools available for the learning community, efficiency from its usage and recommendations for the suitable framework that needs to be implemented at higher education institutions which makes the learners stronger in both theory as well as real-time knowledge of their studies that is going to be used in their future for the better world.

Keywords: higher education, e-learning, teaching learning, eLearning tools

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18 Analysis of Suitability of Online Assessment by Maintaining Critical Thinking

Authors: Mohamed Chabi

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The purpose of this study is to determine Whether paper assessment especially in the subject mathematics will ever be completely replaced by online assessment using Learning Management System and Content Management System such as blackboard. In the subject mathematics, the assessment is the exercise of judgment on the quality of students’ work, as a way of supporting student learning and appraising its outcomes. Testing students has moved from the traditional scribbling and sketching on paper towards working online on a screen and keyboard.

Keywords: paper assessment, online assessment, learning management system, content management system, mathematics

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17 Competence of E-Office System of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University

Authors: Somkiat Korbuakaew, Bongkoch Puttawong

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This research aims to study the level of e-office system competence of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University graded by age, education background, position and work experience. Sample of this research is 291 staff at Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. Data were collected by questionnaire. Statistics used in the research are percentage, mean and standard deviation. The result shows that the overall competence of E-office System of the university staff is at average level. When considered in each aspect, it was found that competency level for creating-forwarding-signing documents is high, while competency level for booking meeting rooms, requesting for transportation service, blackboard system, public relations and making appointment and meeting are average.

Keywords: competence, e-office, education background, work experience

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16 The Use of Videoconferencing in a Task-Based Beginners' Chinese Class

Authors: Sijia Guo

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The development of new technologies and the falling cost of high-speed Internet access have made it easier for institutes and language teachers to opt different ways to communicate with students at distance. The emergence of web-conferencing applications, which integrate text, chat, audio / video and graphic facilities, offers great opportunities for language learning to through the multimodal environment. This paper reports on data elicited from a Ph.D. study of using web-conferencing in the teaching of first-year Chinese class in order to promote learners’ collaborative learning. Firstly, a comparison of four desktop videoconferencing (DVC) tools was conducted to determine the pedagogical value of the videoconferencing tool-Blackboard Collaborate. Secondly, the evaluation of 14 campus-based Chinese learners who conducted five one-hour online sessions via the multimodal environment reveals the users’ choice of modes and their learning preference. The findings show that the tasks designed for the web-conferencing environment contributed to the learners’ collaborative learning and second language acquisition.

Keywords: computer-mediated communication (CMC), CALL evaluation, TBLT, web-conferencing, online Chinese teaching

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15 An Exploratory Study of the Student’s Learning Experience by Applying Different Tools for e-Learning and e-Teaching

Authors: Angel Daniel Muñoz Guzmán

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E-learning is becoming more and more common every day. For online, hybrid or traditional face-to-face programs, there are some e-teaching platforms like Google classroom, Blackboard, Moodle and Canvas, and there are platforms for full e-learning like Coursera, edX or Udemy. These tools are changing the way students acquire knowledge at schools; however, in today’s changing world that is not enough. As students’ needs and skills change and become more complex, new tools will need to be added to keep them engaged and potentialize their learning. This is especially important in the current global situation that is changing everything: the Covid-19 pandemic. Due to Covid-19, education had to make an unexpected switch from face-to-face courses to digital courses. In this study, the students’ learning experience is analyzed by applying different e-tools and following the Tec21 Model and a flexible and digital model, both developed by the Tecnologico de Monterrey University. The evaluation of the students’ learning experience has been made by the quantitative PrEmo method of emotions. Findings suggest that the quantity of e-tools used during a course does not affect the students’ learning experience as much as how a teacher links every available tool and makes them work as one in order to keep the student engaged and motivated.

Keywords: student, experience, e-learning, e-teaching, e-tools, technology, education

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14 The Adoption of Technological Innovations in a B2C Context: An Empirical Study on the Higher Education Industry in Egypt

Authors: Maha Mourad, Rania Samir

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This paper seeks to explain the adoption of technological innovations in a business to consumer context. Specifically, the use of web based technology (WEBCT/blackboard) in the delivery of educational material and communication with students at universities in Egypt is the focus of this study. The analysis draws on existing research in a B2C context which highlights the importance of internal organization characteristics, perceived attributes of the innovation as well as consumer based factors as the main drivers of adoption. A distinctive B2C model is developed drawing on Roger’s innovation adoption model, as well as theoretical and empirical foundations in previous innovation adoption literature to study the adoption of technological innovations in higher education in Egypt. The model proposes that the adoption decision is dependent on a combination of perceived attributes of the innovation, inter-organization factors and consumer factors. The model is testified drawing on the results of empirical work in the form of a large survey conducted on students in three different universities in Egypt (one public, one private and one international). In addition to the attributes of the innovation, specific organization factors (such as university resources) as well as consumer factors were identified as likely to have an important influence on the adoption of technological innovations in higher education.

Keywords: innovation, WEBCT, higher education, adoption, Egypt

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13 Lessons Learned from Covid19 - Related ERT in Universities

Authors: Sean Gay, Cristina Tat

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This presentation will detail how a university in Western Japan has implemented its English for Academic Purposes (EAP) program during the onset of CoViD-19 in the spring semester of 2020. In the spring semester of 2020, after a 2 week delay, all courses within the School of Policy Studies EAP Program at Kwansei Gakuin University were offered in an online asynchronous format. The rationale for this decision was not to disadvantage students who might not have access to devices necessary for taking part in synchronous online lessons. The course coordinators were tasked with consolidating the materials originally designed for face-to-face14 week courses for a 12 week asynchronous online semester and with uploading the modified course materials to Luna, the university’s network, which is a modified version of Blackboard. Based on research to determine the social and academic impacts of this CoViD-19 ERT approach on the students who took part in this EAP program, this presentation explains how future curriculum design and implementation can be managed in a post-CoViD world. There are a wide variety of lessons that were salient. The role of the classroom as a social institution was very prominent; however, awareness of cognitive burdens and strategies to mitigate that burden may be more valuable for teachers. The lessons learned during this period of ERT can help teachers moving forward.

Keywords: asynchronous online learning, emergency remote teaching (ERT), online curriculum design, synchronous online learning

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12 A Quantitative Survey Research on the Development and Assessment of Attitude toward Mathematics Instrument

Authors: Soofia Malik

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The purpose of this study is to develop an instrument to measure undergraduate students’ attitudes toward mathematics (MAT) and to assess the data collected from the instrument for validity and reliability. The instrument is developed using five subscales: anxiety, enjoyment, self-confidence, value, and technology. The technology dimension is added as the fifth subscale of attitude toward mathematics because of the recent trend of incorporating online homework in mathematics courses as well as due to heavy reliance of higher education on using online learning management systems, such as Blackboard and Moodle. The sample consists of 163 (M = 82, F = 81) undergraduates enrolled in College Algebra course in the summer 2017 semester at a university in the USA. The data is analyzed to answer the research question: if and how do undergraduate students’ attitudes toward mathematics load using Principal Components Analysis (PCA)? As a result of PCA, three subscales emerged namely: anxiety/self-confidence scale, enjoyment, and value scale. After deleting the last five items or the last two subscales from the initial MAT scale, the Cronbach’s alpha was recalculated using the scores from 20 items and was found to be α = .95. It is important to note that the reliability of the initial MAT form was α = .93. This means that employing the final MAT survey form would yield consistent results in repeated uses. The final MAT form is, therefore, more reliable as compared to the initial MAT form.

Keywords: college algebra, Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficient, Principal Components Analysis, PCA, technology in mathematics

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11 E-Immediacy in Saudi Higher Education Context: Female Students’ Perspectives

Authors: Samar Alharbi, Yota Dimitriadi

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The literature on educational technology in Saudi Arabia reveals female learners’ unwillingness to study fully online courses in higher education despite the fact that Saudi universities have offered a variety of online degree programmes to undergraduate students in many regions of the country. The root causes keeping female students from successfully learning in online environments are limited social interaction, lack of motivation and difficulty with the use of e-learning platforms. E-immediacy remains an important method of online teaching to enhance students’ interaction and support their online learning. This study explored Saudi female students’ perceptions, as well as the experiences of lecturers’ immediacy behaviours in online environments, who participate in fully online courses using Blackboard at a Saudi university. Data were collected through interviews with focus groups. The three focus groups included five to seven students each. The female participants were asked about lecturers’ e-immediacy behaviours and which e-immediacy behaviours were important for an effective learning environment. A thematic analysis of the data revealed three main themes: the encouragement of student interaction, the incorporation of social media and addressing the needs of students. These findings provide lecturers with insights into instructional designs and strategies that can be adopted in using e-immediacy in effective ways, thus improving female learners’ interactions as well as their online learning experiences.

Keywords: e-learning, female students, higher education, immediacy

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10 Cut-Out Animation as an Technic and Development inside History Process

Authors: Armagan Gokcearslan

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The art of animation has developed very rapidly from the aspects of script, sound and music, motion, character design, techniques being used and technological tools being developed since the first years until today. Technical variety attracts a particular attention in the art of animation. Being perceived as a kind of illusion in the beginning; animations commonly used the Flash Sketch technique. Animations artists using the Flash Sketch technique created scenes by drawing them on a blackboard with chalk. The Flash Sketch technique was used by primary animation artists like Emile Cohl, Winsor McCay ande Blackton. And then tools like Magical Lantern, Thaumatrope, Phenakisticope, and Zeotrap were developed and started to be used intensely in the first years of the art of animation. Today, on the other hand, the art of animation is affected by developments in the computer technology. It is possible to create three-dimensional and two-dimensional animations with the help of various computer software. Cut-out technique is among the important techniques being used in the art of animation. Cut-out animation technique is based on the art of paper cutting. Examining cut-out animations; it is observed that they technically resemble the art of paper cutting. The art of paper cutting has a rooted history. It is possible to see the oldest samples of paper cutting in the People’s Republic of China in the period after the 2. century B.C. when the Chinese invented paper. The most popular artist using the cut-out animation technique is the German artist Lotte Reiniger. This study titled “Cut-out Animation as a Technic and Development Inside History Process” will embrace the art of paper cutting, the relationship between the art of paper cutting and cut-out animation, its development within the historical process, animation artists producing artworks in this field, important cut-out animations, and their technical properties.

Keywords: cut-out, paper art, animation, technic

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9 Extension and Closure of a Field for Engineering Purpose

Authors: Shouji Yujiro, Memei Dukovic, Mist Yakubu

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Fields are important objects of study in algebra since they provide a useful generalization of many number systems, such as the rational numbers, real numbers, and complex numbers. In particular, the usual rules of associativity, commutativity and distributivity hold. Fields also appear in many other areas of mathematics; see the examples below. When abstract algebra was first being developed, the definition of a field usually did not include commutativity of multiplication, and what we today call a field would have been called either a commutative field or a rational domain. In contemporary usage, a field is always commutative. A structure which satisfies all the properties of a field except possibly for commutativity, is today called a division ring ordivision algebra or sometimes a skew field. Also non-commutative field is still widely used. In French, fields are called corps (literally, body), generally regardless of their commutativity. When necessary, a (commutative) field is called corps commutative and a skew field-corps gauche. The German word for body is Körper and this word is used to denote fields; hence the use of the blackboard bold to denote a field. The concept of fields was first (implicitly) used to prove that there is no general formula expressing in terms of radicals the roots of a polynomial with rational coefficients of degree 5 or higher. An extension of a field k is just a field K containing k as a subfield. One distinguishes between extensions having various qualities. For example, an extension K of a field k is called algebraic, if every element of K is a root of some polynomial with coefficients in k. Otherwise, the extension is called transcendental. The aim of Galois Theory is the study of algebraic extensions of a field. Given a field k, various kinds of closures of k may be introduced. For example, the algebraic closure, the separable closure, the cyclic closure et cetera. The idea is always the same: If P is a property of fields, then a P-closure of k is a field K containing k, having property, and which is minimal in the sense that no proper subfield of K that contains k has property P. For example if we take P (K) to be the property ‘every non-constant polynomial f in K[t] has a root in K’, then a P-closure of k is just an algebraic closure of k. In general, if P-closures exist for some property P and field k, they are all isomorphic. However, there is in general no preferable isomorphism between two closures.

Keywords: field theory, mechanic maths, supertech, rolltech

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8 Using E-learning in a Tertiary Institution during Community Outbreak of COVID-19 in Hong Kong

Authors: Susan Ka Yee Chow

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The Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) reached Hong Kong in 2019 resulting in epidemic in late January 2020. Considering the epidemic development, tertiary institutions made announcements that all on-campus classes were suspended since 01/29/2020. In Tung Wah College, e-learning was adopted in all courses for all programmes. For the undergraduate nursing students, the contact hours and curriculum are bounded by the Nursing Council of Hong Kong to ensure core competence after graduation. Unlike the usual e-learning where students are allowed having flexibility of time and place in their learning, real time learning mode using Blackboard was used to mimic the actual classroom learning environment. Students were required to attend classes according to the timetable using online platform. For lectures, voice over PowerPoint file was the initial step for mass lecturing. Real time lecture was then adopted to improve interactions between teacher and students. Post-lecture quizzes were developed to monitor the effectiveness of lecture delivery. The seminars and tutorials were conducted using real time mode where students were separated into small groups with interactive discussions with teacher within the group. Live time demonstrations were conducted during laboratory sessions. All teaching sessions were audio/video recorded for students’ referral. The assessments including seminar presentation and debate were retained. The learning mode creates an atmosphere for students to display the visual, audio and written works in a non-threatening atmosphere. Other students could comment using text or direct voice as they desired. Real time online learning is the pedagogy to replace classroom contacts in the emergent and unforeseeable circumstances. The learning pace and interaction between students and students with teacher are maintained. The learning mode has the advantage of creating an effective and beneficial learning experience.

Keywords: e-learning, nursing curriculum, real time mode, teaching and learning

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7 The Significance of Computer Assisted Language Learning in Teaching English Grammar in Tribal Zone of Chhattisgarh

Authors: Yogesh Kumar Tiwari

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Chhattisgarh has realized the fundamental role of information and communication technology in the globalized world where knowledge is at the top for the growth and intellectual development. They are spreading so widely that one feels lagging behind if not using them. The influence of these radiating and technological tools has encompassed all aspects of the educational, business, and economic sectors of our world. Undeniably the computer has not only established itself globally in all walks of life but has acquired a fundamental role of paramount importance in the educational process also. This role is getting all pervading and more powerful as computers are being manufactured to be cheaper, smaller in size, adaptable and easy to handle. Computers are becoming indispensable to teachers because of their enormous capabilities and extensive competence. This study aims at observing the effect of using computer based software program of English language on the achievement of undergraduate level students studying in tribal area like Sarguja Division, Chhattisgarh, India. To testify the effect of an innovative teaching in the graduate classroom in tribal area 50 students were randomly selected and separated into two groups. The first group of 25 students were taught English grammar i.e., passive voice/narration, through traditional method using chalk and blackboard asking some formal questions. The second group, the experimental one, was taught English grammar i.e., passive voice/narration, using computer, projector with power point presentation of grammatical items. The statistical analysis was done on the students’ learning capacities and achievement. The result was extremely mesmerizing not only for the teacher but for taught also. The process of the recapitulation demonstrated that the students of experimental group responded the answers of the questions enthusiastically with innovative sense of learning. In light of the findings of the study, it was recommended that teachers and professors of English ought to use self-made instructional program in their teaching process particularly in tribal areas.

Keywords: achievement computer assisted language learning, use of instructional program

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6 Proposal for a Framework for Teaching Entrepreneurship and Innovation Using the Methods and Current Methodologies

Authors: Marcelo T. Okano, Jaqueline C. Bueno, Oduvaldo Vendrametto, Osmildo S. Santos, Marcelo E. Fernandes, Heide Landi

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Developing countries are increasingly finding that entrepreneurship and innovation are the ways to speed up their developments and initiate or encourage technological development. The educational institutions such as universities, colleges and colleges of technology, has two main roles in this process, to guide and train entrepreneurs and provide technological knowledge and encourage innovation. Thus there was completing the triple helix model of innovation with universities, government and industry. But the teaching of entrepreneurship and innovation can not be only the traditional model, with blackboard, chalk and classroom. The new methods and methodologies such as Canvas, elevator pitching, design thinking, etc. require students to get involved and to experience the simulations of business, expressing their ideas and discussing them. The objective of this research project is to identify the main methods and methodologies used for the teaching of entrepreneurship and innovation, to propose a framework, test it and make a case study. To achieve the objective of this research, firstly was a survey of the literature on the entrepreneurship and innovation, business modeling, business planning, Canvas business model, design thinking and other subjects about the themes. Secondly, we developed the framework for teaching entrepreneurship and innovation based on bibliographic research. Thirdly, we tested the framework in a higher education class IT management for a semester. Finally, we detail the results in the case study in a course of IT management. As important results we improve the level of understanding and business administration students, allowing them to manage own affairs. Methods such as canvas and business plan helped students to plan and shape the ideas and business. Pitching for entrepreneurs and investors in the market brought a reality for students. The prototype allowed the company groups develop their projects. The proposed framework allows entrepreneurship education and innovation can leave the classroom, bring the reality of business roundtables to university relying on investors and real entrepreneurs.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, innovation, Canvas, traditional model

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5 Leveraging xAPI in a Corporate e-Learning Environment to Facilitate the Tracking, Modelling, and Predictive Analysis of Learner Behaviour

Authors: Libor Zachoval, Daire O Broin, Oisin Cawley

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E-learning platforms, such as Blackboard have two major shortcomings: limited data capture as a result of the limitations of SCORM (Shareable Content Object Reference Model), and lack of incorporation of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and machine learning algorithms which could lead to better course adaptations. With the recent development of Experience Application Programming Interface (xAPI), a large amount of additional types of data can be captured and that opens a window of possibilities from which online education can benefit. In a corporate setting, where companies invest billions on the learning and development of their employees, some learner behaviours can be troublesome for they can hinder the knowledge development of a learner. Behaviours that hinder the knowledge development also raise ambiguity about learner’s knowledge mastery, specifically those related to gaming the system. Furthermore, a company receives little benefit from their investment if employees are passing courses without possessing the required knowledge and potential compliance risks may arise. Using xAPI and rules derived from a state-of-the-art review, we identified three learner behaviours, primarily related to guessing, in a corporate compliance course. The identified behaviours are: trying each option for a question, specifically for multiple-choice questions; selecting a single option for all the questions on the test; and continuously repeating tests upon failing as opposed to going over the learning material. These behaviours were detected on learners who repeated the test at least 4 times before passing the course. These findings suggest that gauging the mastery of a learner from multiple-choice questions test scores alone is a naive approach. Thus, next steps will consider the incorporation of additional data points, knowledge estimation models to model knowledge mastery of a learner more accurately, and analysis of the data for correlations between knowledge development and identified learner behaviours. Additional work could explore how learner behaviours could be utilised to make changes to a course. For example, course content may require modifications (certain sections of learning material may be shown to not be helpful to many learners to master the learning outcomes aimed at) or course design (such as the type and duration of feedback).

Keywords: artificial intelligence, corporate e-learning environment, knowledge maintenance, xAPI

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4 Improving Student Learning in a Math Bridge Course through Computer Algebra Systems

Authors: Alejandro Adorjan

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Universities are motivated to understand the factor contributing to low retention of engineering undergraduates. While precollege students for engineering increases, the number of engineering graduates continues to decrease and attrition rates for engineering undergraduates remains high. Calculus 1 (C1) is the entry point of most undergraduate Engineering Science and often a prerequisite for Computing Curricula courses. Mathematics continues to be a major hurdle for engineering students and many students who drop out from engineering cite specifically Calculus as one of the most influential factors in that decision. In this context, creating course activities that increase retention and motivate students to obtain better final results is a challenge. In order to develop several competencies in our students of Software Engineering courses, Calculus 1 at Universidad ORT Uruguay focuses on developing several competencies such as capacity of synthesis, abstraction, and problem solving (based on the ACM/AIS/IEEE). Every semester we try to reflect on our practice and try to answer the following research question: What kind of teaching approach in Calculus 1 can we design to retain students and obtain better results? Since 2010, Universidad ORT Uruguay offers a six-week summer noncompulsory bridge course of preparatory math (to bridge the math gap between high school and university). Last semester was the first time the Department of Mathematics offered the course while students were enrolled in C1. Traditional lectures in this bridge course lead to just transcribe notes from blackboard. Last semester we proposed a Hands On Lab course using Geogebra (interactive geometry and Computer Algebra System (CAS) software) as a Math Driven Development Tool. Students worked in a computer laboratory class and developed most of the tasks and topics in Geogebra. As a result of this approach, several pros and cons were found. It was an excessive amount of weekly hours of mathematics for students and, as the course was non-compulsory; the attendance decreased with time. Nevertheless, this activity succeeds in improving final test results and most students expressed the pleasure of working with this methodology. This teaching technology oriented approach strengthens student math competencies needed for Calculus 1 and improves student performance, engagement, and self-confidence. It is important as a teacher to reflect on our practice, including innovative proposals with the objective of engaging students, increasing retention and obtaining better results. The high degree of motivation and engagement of participants with this methodology exceeded our initial expectations, so we plan to experiment with more groups during the summer so as to validate preliminary results.

Keywords: calculus, engineering education, PreCalculus, Summer Program

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3 The Pioneering Model in Teaching Arabic as a Mother Tongue through Modern Innovative Strategies

Authors: Rima Abu Jaber Bransi, Rawya Jarjoura Burbara

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This study deals with two pioneering approaches in teaching Arabic as a mother tongue: first, computerization of literary and functional texts in the mother tongue; second, the pioneering model in teaching writing skills by computerization. The significance of the study lies in its treatment of a serious problem that is faced in the era of technology, which is the widening gap between the pupils and their mother tongue. The innovation in the study is that it introduces modern methods and tools and a pioneering instructional model that turns the process of mother tongue teaching into an effective, meaningful, interesting and motivating experience. In view of the Arabic language diglossia, standard Arabic and spoken Arabic, which constitutes a serious problem to the pupil in understanding unused words, and in order to bridge the gap between the pupils and their mother tongue, we resorted to computerized techniques; we took texts from the pre-Islamic period (Jahiliyya), starting with the Mu'allaqa of Imru' al-Qais and other selected functional texts and computerized them for teaching in an interesting way that saves time and effort, develops high thinking strategies, expands the literary good taste among the pupils, and gives the text added values that neither the book, the blackboard, the teacher nor the worksheets provide. On the other hand, we have developed a pioneering computerized model that aims to develop the pupil's ability to think, to provide his imagination with the elements of growth, invention and connection, and motivate him to be creative, and raise level of his scores and scholastic achievements. The model consists of four basic stages in teaching according to the following order: 1. The Preparatory stage, 2. The reading comprehension stage, 3. The writing stage, 4. The evaluation stage. Our lecture will introduce a detailed description of the model with illustrations and samples from the units that we built through highlighting some aspects of the uniqueness and innovation that are specific to this model and the different integrated tools and techniques that we developed. One of the most significant conclusions of this research is that teaching languages through the employment of new computerized strategies is very likely to get the Arabic speaking pupils out of the circle of passive reception into active and serious action and interaction. The study also emphasizes the argument that the computerized model of teaching can change the role of the pupil's mind from being a store of knowledge for a short time into a partner in producing knowledge and storing it in a coherent way that prevents its forgetfulness and keeping it in memory for a long period of time. Consequently, the learners also turn into partners in evaluation by expressing their views, giving their notes and observations, and application of the method of peer-teaching and learning.

Keywords: classical poetry, computerization, diglossia, writing skill

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2 The Integration of Apps for Communicative Competence in English Teaching

Authors: L. J. de Jager

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In the South African English school curriculum, one of the aims is to achieve communicative competence, the knowledge of using language competently and appropriately in a speech community. Communicatively competent speakers should not only produce grammatically correct sentences but also produce contextually appropriate sentences for various purposes and in different situations. As most speakers of English are non-native speakers, achieving communicative competence remains a complex challenge. Moreover, the changing needs of society necessitate not merely language proficiency, but also technological proficiency. One of the burning issues in the South African educational landscape is the replacement of the standardised literacy model by the pedagogy of multiliteracies that incorporate, by default, the exploration of technological text forms that are part of learners’ everyday lives. It foresees learners as decoders, encoders, and manufacturers of their own futures by exploiting technological possibilities to constantly create and recreate meaning. As such, 21st century learners will feel comfortable working with multimodal texts that are intrinsically part of their lives and by doing so, become authors of their own learning experiences while teachers may become agents supporting learners to discover their capacity to acquire new digital skills for the century of multiliteracies. The aim is transformed practice where learners use their skills, ideas, and knowledge in new contexts. This paper reports on a research project on the integration of technology for language learning, based on the technological pedagogical content knowledge framework, conceptually founded in the theory of multiliteracies, and which aims to achieve communicative competence. The qualitative study uses the community of inquiry framework to answer the research question: How does the integration of technology transform language teaching of preservice teachers? Pre-service teachers in the Postgraduate Certificate of Education Programme with English as methodology were purposively selected to source and evaluate apps for teaching and learning English. The participants collaborated online in a dedicated Blackboard module, using discussion threads to sift through applicable apps and develop interactive lessons using the Apps. The selected apps were entered on to a predesigned Qualtrics form. Data from the online discussions, focus group interviews, and reflective journals were thematically and inductively analysed to determine the participants’ perceptions and experiences when integrating technology in lesson design and the extent to which communicative competence was achieved when using these apps. Findings indicate transformed practice among participants and research team members alike with a better than average technology acceptance and integration. Participants found value in online collaboration to develop and improve their own teaching practice by experiencing directly the benefits of integrating e-learning into the teaching of languages. It could not, however, be clearly determined whether communicative competence was improved. The findings of the project may potentially inform future e-learning activities, thus supporting student learning and development in follow-up cycles of the project.

Keywords: apps, communicative competence, English teaching, technology integration, technological pedagogical content knowledge

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1 Using AI Based Software as an Assessment Aid for University Engineering Assignments

Authors: Waleed Al-Nuaimy, Luke Anastassiou, Manjinder Kainth

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As the process of teaching has evolved with the advent of new technologies over the ages, so has the process of learning. Educators have perpetually found themselves on the lookout for new technology-enhanced methods of teaching in order to increase learning efficiency and decrease ever expanding workloads. Shortly after the invention of the internet, web-based learning started to pick up in the late 1990s and educators quickly found that the process of providing learning material and marking assignments could change thanks to the connectivity offered by the internet. With the creation of early web-based virtual learning environments (VLEs) such as SPIDER and Blackboard, it soon became apparent that VLEs resulted in higher reported computer self-efficacy among students, but at the cost of students being less satisfied with the learning process . It may be argued that the impersonal nature of VLEs, and their limited functionality may have been the leading factors contributing to this reported dissatisfaction. To this day, often faced with the prospects of assigning colossal engineering cohorts their homework and assessments, educators may frequently choose optimally curated assessment formats, such as multiple-choice quizzes and numerical answer input boxes, so that automated grading software embedded in the VLEs can save time and mark student submissions instantaneously. A crucial skill that is meant to be learnt during most science and engineering undergraduate degrees is gaining the confidence in using, solving and deriving mathematical equations. Equations underpin a significant portion of the topics taught in many STEM subjects, and it is in homework assignments and assessments that this understanding is tested. It is not hard to see that this can become challenging if the majority of assignment formats students are engaging with are multiple-choice questions, and educators end up with a reduced perspective of their students’ ability to manipulate equations. Artificial intelligence (AI) has in recent times been shown to be an important consideration for many technologies. In our paper, we explore the use of new AI based software designed to work in conjunction with current VLEs. Using our experience with the software, we discuss its potential to solve a selection of problems ranging from impersonality to the reduction of educator workloads by speeding up the marking process. We examine the software’s potential to increase learning efficiency through its features which claim to allow more customized and higher-quality feedback. We investigate the usability of features allowing students to input equation derivations in a range of different forms, and discuss relevant observations associated with these input methods. Furthermore, we make ethical considerations and discuss potential drawbacks to the software, including the extent to which optical character recognition (OCR) could play a part in the perpetuation of errors and create disagreements between student intent and their submitted assignment answers. It is the intention of the authors that this study will be useful as an example of the implementation of AI in a practical assessment scenario insofar as serving as a springboard for further considerations and studies that utilise AI in the setting and marking of science and engineering assignments.

Keywords: engineering education, assessment, artificial intelligence, optical character recognition (OCR)

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