Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Search results for: Sourav Das

9 Behavior of an Elevated Liquid Storage Tank under Near-Fault Earthquakes

Authors: Koushik Roy, Sourav Gur, Sudib K. Mishra


Evidence of pulse type features in near-fault ground motions has raised serious concern to the structural engineering community, in view of their possible implications on the behavior of structures located on the fault regions. Studies in the recent past explore the effects of pulse type ground motion on the special structures, such as transmission towers in view of their high flexibility. Identically, long period sloshing of liquid in the storage tanks under dynamic loading might increase their failure vulnerability under near-fault pulses. Therefore, the behavior of the elevated liquid storage tank is taken up in this study. Simple lumped mass model is considered, with the bilinear force-deformation hysteresis behavior. Set of near-fault seismic ground acceleration time histories are adopted for this purpose, along with the far-field records for comparison. It has been demonstrated that pulse type motions lead to significant increase of the responses; in particular, sloshing of the fluid mass could be as high as 5 times, then the far field counterpart. For identical storage capacity, slender tanks are found to be more vulnerable than the broad ones.

Keywords: far-field motion, hysteresis, liquid storage tank, near fault earthquake, sloshing

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8 Influence of Silica Fume Addition on Concrete

Authors: Gaurav Datta, Sourav Ghosh, Rahul Roy


The incorporation of silica fume into the normal concrete is a routine one in the present days to produce the tailor made high strength and high performance concrete. The design parameters are increasing with the incorporation of silica fume in conventional concrete and the mix proportioning is becoming complex. The main objective of this paper has been made to investigate the different mechanical properties like compressive strength, permeability, porosity, density, modulus of elasticity, compacting factor, slump of concrete incorporating silica fume. In this present paper 5 (five) mix of concrete incorporating silica fume is cast to perform experiments. These experiments were carried out by replacing cement with different percentages of silica fume at a single constant water-cementitious materials ratio keeping other mix design variables constant. The silica fume was replaced by 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% for water-cementitious materials (w/cm) ratio for 0.40. For all mixes compressive strengths were determined at 24 hours, 7 and 28 days for 100 mm and 150 mm cubes. Other properties like permeability, porosity, density, modulus of elasticity, compacting factor, and slump were also determined for five mixes of concrete.

Keywords: high performance concrete, high strength concrete, silica fume, strength

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7 Microstructure and Corrosion Properties of Pulsed Current Gas Metal Arc Welded Narrow Groove and Ultra-Narrow Groove of 304 LN Austenitic Stainless Steel

Authors: Nikki A. Barla, P. K. Ghosh, Sourav Das


Two different groove sizes 13.6 mm (narrow groove) and 7.5 mm (ultra-narrow groove) of 304 LN austenitic stainless steel (ASS) plate was welded using pulse gas metal arc welding (P-GMAW). These grooves were welded using multi-pass single seam per layer (MSPPL) deposition technique with full assurance of groove wall fusion. During bead on plate deposition process, the thermal cycle was recorded using strain buster (temperature measuring device). Both the groove has heat affected Zone (HAZ) width of 1-2 mm. After welding, the microstructure studies was done which revealed that there was higher sensitization (Chromium carbide formation in grain boundary) in the HAZ of 13.6 mm groove weldment as compared to the HAZ of 7.5 mm weldment. Electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation test (EPR) was done in 0.5 N H₂SO₄ + 1 M KSCN solution to study the degree of sensitization (DOS) and it was observed that 7.5 mm groove HAZ has lower DOS. Mass deposition in the 13.6 mm weld is higher than 7.5mm groove weld, which naturally induces higher residual stress in 13.6 mm weld. Comparison between microstructural studies and corrosion test summarized that the residual stress affects the sensitization property of welded ASS.

Keywords: austenitic stainless steel (ASS), electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation test (EPR), microstructure, pulse gas metal arc welding (P-GMAW), sensitization

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6 Rapid, Label-Free, Direct Detection and Quantification of Escherichia coli Bacteria Using Nonlinear Acoustic Aptasensor

Authors: Shilpa Khobragade, Carlos Da Silva Granja, Niklas Sandström, Igor Efimov, Victor P. Ostanin, Wouter van der Wijngaart, David Klenerman, Sourav K. Ghosh


Rapid, label-free and direct detection of pathogenic bacteria is critical for the prevention of disease outbreaks. This paper for the first time attempts to probe the nonlinear acoustic response of quartz crystal resonator (QCR) functionalized with specific DNA aptamers for direct detection and quantification of viable E. coli KCTC 2571 bacteria. DNA aptamers were immobilized through biotin and streptavidin conjugation, onto the gold surface of QCR to capture the target bacteria and the detection was accomplished by shift in amplitude of the peak 3f signal (3 times the drive frequency) upon binding, when driven near fundamental resonance frequency. The developed nonlinear acoustic aptasensor system demonstrated better reliability than conventional resonance frequency shift and energy dissipation monitoring that were recorded simultaneously. This sensing system could directly detect 10⁽⁵⁾ cells/mL target bacteria within 30 min or less and had high specificity towards E. coli KCTC 2571 bacteria as compared to the same concentration of S.typhi bacteria. Aptasensor response was observed for the bacterial suspensions ranging from 10⁽⁵⁾-10⁽⁸⁾ cells/mL. Conclusively, this nonlinear acoustic aptasensor is simple to use, gives real-time output, cost-effective and has the potential for rapid, specific, label-free direction detection of bacteria.

Keywords: acoustic, aptasensor, detection, nonlinear

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5 Exploring Paper Mill Sludge and Sugarcane Bagasse as Carrier Matrix in Solid State Fermentation for Carotenoid Pigment Production by Planococcus sp. TRC1

Authors: Subhasree Majumdar, Sovan Dey, Sayari Mukherjee, Sourav Dutta, Dalia Dasgupta Mandal


Bacterial isolates from Planococcus genus are known for the production of yellowish orange pigment that belongs to the carotenoid family. These pigments are of immense pharmacological importance as antioxidant, anticancer, eye and liver protective agent, etc. The production of this pigment in a cost effective manner is a challenging task. The present study explored paper mill sludge (PMS), a solid lignocellulosic waste generated in large quantities from pulp and paper mill industry as a substrate for carotenoid pigment production by Planococcus sp. TRC1. PMS was compared in terms of efficacy with sugarcane bagasse, which is a highly explored substrate for valuable product generation via solid state fermentation. The results showed that both the biomasses yielded the highest carotenoid during 48 hours of incubation, 31.6 mg/gm and 42.1 mg/gm for PMS and bagasse respectively. Compositional alterations of both the biomasses showed reduction in lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose content by 41%, 15%, 1% for PMS and 38%, 25% and 6% for sugarcane bagasse after 72 hours of incubation. Structural changes in the biomasses were examined by FT-IR, FESEM, and XRD which further confirmed modification of solid biomasses by bacterial isolate. This study revealed the potential of PMS to act as cheap substrate for carotenoid pigment production by Planococcus sp. TRC1, as it showed a significant production in comparison to sugarcane bagasse which gave only 1.3 fold higher production than PMS. Delignification of PMS by TRC1 during pigment production is another important finding for the reuse of this waste from the paper industry.

Keywords: carotenoid, lignocellulosic, paper mill sludge, Planococcus sp. TRC1, solid state fermentation, sugarcane bagasse

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4 Immiscible Polymer Blends with Controlled Nanoparticle Location for Excellent Microwave Absorption: A Compartmentalized Approach

Authors: Sourav Biswas, Goutam Prasanna Kar, Suryasarathi Bose


In order to obtain better materials, control in the precise location of nanoparticles is indispensable. It was shown here that ordered arrangement of nanoparticles, possessing different characteristics (electrical/magnetic dipoles), in the blend structure can result in excellent microwave absorption. This is manifested from a high reflection loss of ca. -67 dB for the best blend structure designed here. To attenuate electromagnetic radiations, the key parameters i.e. high electrical conductivity and large dielectric/magnetic loss are targeted here using a conducting inclusion [multiwall carbon nanotubes, MWNTs]; ferroelectric nanostructured material with associated relaxations in the GHz frequency [barium titanate, BT]; and a loss ferromagnetic nanoparticles [nickel ferrite, NF]. In this study, bi-continuous structures were designed using 50/50 (by wt) blends of polycarbonate (PC) and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF). The MWNTs was modified using an electron acceptor molecule; a derivative of perylenediimide, which facilitates π-π stacking with the nanotubes and stimulates efficient charge transport in the blends. The nanoscopic materials have specific affinity towards the PVDF phase. Hence, by introducing surface-active groups, ordered arrangement can be tailored. To accomplish this, both BT and NF was first hydroxylated followed by introducing amine-terminal groups on the surface. The latter facilitated in nucleophilic substitution reaction with PC and resulted in their precise location. In this study, we have shown for the first time that by compartmentalized approach, superior EM attenuation can be achieved. For instance, when the nanoparticles were localized exclusively in the PVDF phase or in both the phases, the minimum reflection loss was ca. -18 dB (for MWNT/BT mixture) and -29 dB (for MWNT/NF mixture), and the shielding was primarily through reflection. Interestingly, by adopting the compartmentalized approach where in, the lossy materials were in the PC phase and the conducting inclusion (MWNT) in PVDF, an outstanding reflection loss of ca. -57 dB (for BT and MWNT combination) and -67 dB (for NF and MWNT combination) was noted and the shielding was primarily through absorption. Thus, the approach demonstrates that nanoscopic structuring in the blends can be achieved under macroscopic processing conditions and this strategy can further be explored to design microwave absorbers.

Keywords: barium titanate, EMI shielding, MWNTs, nickel ferrite

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3 Gold Nanoparticle Conjugated with Andrographolide Ameliorates Viper Venom-Induced Inflammatory Response and Organ Toxicity in Animal Model

Authors: Sourav Ghosh, Antony Gomes


Since 1894 anti-snake venom serum (ASVS) is the only available treatment against snake envenomation, although there are many side effects and limitations. The need for a supportive treatment was felt for a long time to overcome the side effects and limitations of ASVS. Andrographolide conjugated with gold nanoparticle (A-GNP) has been found to antagonize viper venom-induced local damages. The present study was aimed to study the protective efficacy of A-GNP against Viper venom-induced inflammatory response and organ toxicity in animal model. Ethical clearance was obtained from animal experiments. Physico-chemical characterization of A-GNP was done by DLS (diameter and zeta potential), FE-SEM and XRD. Swiss albino male mice were divided into 4 groups: Gr.1-Sham control, Gr.2- Russell’s Viper venom (RVV) control, Gr.3- andrographolide treated and Gr.4- A-GNP treated. The 1/5th minimum lethal dose of RVV (500µg/kg, s.c.) was induced in animals of group 2, 3 & 4 animals, followed by treatment with andrographolide (100mg/kg, i.p.) and A-GNP (100mg/kg, i.v.) in group 3 & 4 animals, respectively. Blood was collected after 18 h, serum was prepared, and inflammatory markers (IL 1β, 6, 17a, 10, TNF α) and biochemical markers (AST, ACP, LDH, urea, creatinine) were assessed. Values were expressed as mean±SEM (n=4), one way ANOVA was done, P<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. DLS size showed the hydrodynamic diameter of A-GNP to be 230-260nm with polydispersity index of 0.103 and zeta potential was -18.32mV. XRD data confirmed the presence of crystalline gold in A-GNP, and FESEM indicated the presence of nearly spherical particle with size18-24nm.Treatment with A-GNP significantly decreased viper venom-induced proinflammatory markers (IL 1β, 6, 17, TNF α) increased anti-inflammatory markers (IL 10) and decreased organ toxicity markers (AST, ACP, LDH, urea, creatinine) in animal model. Venom neutralization efficacy of A-GNP was > andrographolide, which confirmed the increased efficacy of andrographolide after gold nanoparticle conjugation. Venom neutralization by A-GNP was due to anti-oxidant/anti-inflammatory activity of andrographolide, which showed increased efficacy after gold nanoparticle tagging. Thus, A-GNP may serve as a supportive therapy in snake-bite (against inflammatory response and organ toxicity) subject to further detail studies.

Keywords: andrographolide, gold nanoparticle, inflammatory response, organ toxicity, snake venom, snake venom neutralization, viper venom

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2 A Geometric Based Hybrid Approach for Facial Feature Localization

Authors: Priya Saha, Sourav Dey Roy Jr., Debotosh Bhattacharjee, Mita Nasipuri, Barin Kumar De, Mrinal Kanti Bhowmik


Biometric face recognition technology (FRT) has gained a lot of attention due to its extensive variety of applications in both security and non-security perspectives. It has come into view to provide a secure solution in identification and verification of person identity. Although other biometric based methods like fingerprint scans, iris scans are available, FRT is verified as an efficient technology for its user-friendliness and contact freeness. Accurate facial feature localization plays an important role for many facial analysis applications including biometrics and emotion recognition. But, there are certain factors, which make facial feature localization a challenging task. On human face, expressions can be seen from the subtle movements of facial muscles and influenced by internal emotional states. These non-rigid facial movements cause noticeable alterations in locations of facial landmarks, their usual shapes, which sometimes create occlusions in facial feature areas making face recognition as a difficult problem. The paper proposes a new hybrid based technique for automatic landmark detection in both neutral and expressive frontal and near frontal face images. The method uses the concept of thresholding, sequential searching and other image processing techniques for locating the landmark points on the face. Also, a Graphical User Interface (GUI) based software is designed that could automatically detect 16 landmark points around eyes, nose and mouth that are mostly affected by the changes in facial muscles. The proposed system has been tested on widely used JAFFE and Cohn Kanade database. Also, the system is tested on DeitY-TU face database which is created in the Biometrics Laboratory of Tripura University under the research project funded by Department of Electronics & Information Technology, Govt. of India. The performance of the proposed method has been done in terms of error measure and accuracy. The method has detection rate of 98.82% on JAFFE database, 91.27% on Cohn Kanade database and 93.05% on DeitY-TU database. Also, we have done comparative study of our proposed method with other techniques developed by other researchers. This paper will put into focus emotion-oriented systems through AU detection in future based on the located features.

Keywords: biometrics, face recognition, facial landmarks, image processing

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1 Modulation of Receptor-Activation Due to Hydrogen Bond Formation

Authors: Sourav Ray, Christoph Stein, Marcus Weber


A new class of drug candidates, initially derived from mathematical modeling of ligand-receptor interactions, activate the μ-opioid receptor (MOR) preferentially at acidic extracellular pH-levels, as present in injured tissues. This is of commercial interest because it may preclude the adverse effects of conventional MOR agonists like fentanyl, which include but are not limited to addiction, constipation, sedation, and apnea. Animal studies indicate the importance of taking the pH value of the chemical environment of MOR into account when designing new drugs. Hydrogen bonds (HBs) play a crucial role in stabilizing protein secondary structure and molecular interaction, such as ligand-protein interaction. These bonds may depend on the pH value of the chemical environment. For the MOR, antagonist naloxone and agonist [D-Ala2,N-Me-Phe4,Gly5-ol]-enkephalin (DAMGO) form HBs with ionizable residue HIS 297 at physiological pH to modulate signaling. However, such interactions were markedly reduced at acidic pH. Although fentanyl-induced signaling is also diminished at acidic pH, HBs with HIS 297 residue are not observed at either acidic or physiological pH for this strong agonist of the MOR. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations can provide greater insight into the interaction between the ligand of interest and the HIS 297 residue. Amino acid protonation states are adjusted to the model difference in system acidity. Unbiased and unrestrained MD simulations were performed, with the ligand in the proximity of the HIS 297 residue. Ligand-receptor complexes were embedded in 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (POPC) bilayer to mimic the membrane environment. The occurrence of HBs between the different ligands and the HIS 297 residue of MOR at acidic and physiological pH values were tracked across the various simulation trajectories. No HB formation was observed between fentanyl and HIS 297 residue at either acidic or physiological pH. Naloxone formed some HBs with HIS 297 at pH 5, but no such HBs were noted at pH 7. Interestingly, DAMGO displayed an opposite yet more pronounced HB formation trend compared to naloxone. Whereas a marginal number of HBs could be observed at even pH 5, HBs with HIS 297 were more stable and widely present at pH 7. The HB formation plays no and marginal role in the interaction of fentanyl and naloxone, respectively, with the HIS 297 residue of MOR. However, HBs play a significant role in the DAMGO and HIS 297 interaction. Post DAMGO administration, these HBs might be crucial for the remediation of opioid tolerance and restoration of opioid sensitivity. Although experimental studies concur with our observations regarding the influence of HB formation on the fentanyl and DAMGO interaction with HIS 297, the same could not be conclusively stated for naloxone. Therefore, some other supplementary interactions might be responsible for the modulation of the MOR activity by naloxone binding at pH 7 but not at pH 5. Further elucidation of the mechanism of naloxone action on the MOR could assist in the formulation of cost-effective naloxone-based treatment of opioid overdose or opioid-induced side effects.

Keywords: effect of system acidity, hydrogen bond formation, opioid action, receptor activation

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