Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Search results for: Riza Kizilel

13 Designing a Thermal Management System for Lithium Ion Battery Packs in Electric Vehicles

Authors: Ekin Esen, Mohammad Alipour, Riza Kizilel


Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries have been replacing lead-acid batteries for the last decade due to their outstanding properties such as high energy density, long shelf life, and almost no memory effect. Besides these, being very light compared to lead acid batteries has gained them their dominant place in the portable electronics market, and they are now the leading candidate for electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). However, their performance strongly depends on temperature, and this causes some inconveniences for their utilization in extreme temperatures. Since weather conditions vary across the globe, this situation limits their utilization for EVs and HEVs and makes a thermal management system obligatory for the battery units. The objective of this study is to understand thermal characteristics of Li-ion battery modules for various operation conditions and design a thermal management system to enhance battery performance in EVs and HEVs. In the first part of our study, we investigated thermal behavior of commercially available pouch type 20Ah LiFePO₄ (LFP) cells under various conditions. Main parameters were chosen as ambient temperature and discharge current rate. Each cell was charged and discharged at temperatures of 0°C, 10°C, 20°C, 30°C, 40°C, and 50°C. The current rate of charging process was 1C while it was 1C, 2C, 3C, 4C, and 5C for discharge process. Temperatures of 7 different points on the cells were measured throughout charging and discharging with N-type thermocouples, and a detailed temperature profile was obtained. In the second part of our study, we connected 4 cells in series by clinching and prepared 4S1P battery modules similar to ones in EVs and HEVs. Three reference points were determined according to the findings of the first part of the study, and a thermocouple is placed on each reference point on the cells composing the 4S1P battery modules. In the end, temperatures of 6 points in the module and 3 points on the top surface were measured and changes in the surface temperatures were recorded for different discharge rates (0.2C, 0.5C, 0.7C, and 1C) at various ambient temperatures (0°C – 50°C). Afterwards, aluminum plates with channels were placed between the cells in the 4S1P battery modules, and temperatures were controlled with airflow. Airflow was provided with a regular compressor, and the effect of flow rate on cell temperature was analyzed. Diameters of the channels were in mm range, and shapes of the channels were determined in order to make the cell temperatures uniform. Results showed that the designed thermal management system could help keeping the cell temperatures in the modules uniform throughout charge and discharge processes. Other than temperature uniformity, the system was also beneficial to keep cell temperature close to the optimum working temperature of Li-ion batteries. It is known that keeping the temperature at an optimum degree and maintaining uniform temperature throughout utilization can help obtaining maximum power from the cells in battery modules for a longer time. Furthermore, it will increase safety by decreasing the risk of thermal runaways. Therefore, the current study is believed to be beneficial for wider use of Li batteries for battery modules of EVs and HEVs globally.

Keywords: lithium ion batteries, thermal management system, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles

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12 Numerical Optimization of Cooling System Parameters for Multilayer Lithium Ion Cell and Battery Packs

Authors: Mohammad Alipour, Ekin Esen, Riza Kizilel


Lithium-ion batteries are a commonly used type of rechargeable batteries because of their high specific energy and specific power. With the growing popularity of electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles, increasing attentions have been paid to rechargeable Lithium-ion batteries. However, safety problems, high cost and poor performance in low ambient temperatures and high current rates, are big obstacles for commercial utilization of these batteries. By proper thermal management, most of the mentioned limitations could be eliminated. Temperature profile of the Li-ion cells has a significant role in the performance, safety, and cycle life of the battery. That is why little temperature gradient can lead to great loss in the performances of the battery packs. In recent years, numerous researchers are working on new techniques to imply a better thermal management on Li-ion batteries. Keeping the battery cells within an optimum range is the main objective of battery thermal management. Commercial Li-ion cells are composed of several electrochemical layers each consisting negative-current collector, negative electrode, separator, positive electrode, and positive current collector. However, many researchers have adopted a single-layer cell to save in computing time. Their hypothesis is that thermal conductivity of the layer elements is so high and heat transfer rate is so fast. Therefore, instead of several thin layers, they model the cell as one thick layer unit. In previous work, we showed that single-layer model is insufficient to simulate the thermal behavior and temperature nonuniformity of the high-capacity Li-ion cells. We also studied the effects of the number of layers on thermal behavior of the Li-ion batteries. In this work, first thermal and electrochemical behavior of the LiFePO₄ battery is modeled with 3D multilayer cell. The model is validated with the experimental measurements at different current rates and ambient temperatures. Real time heat generation rate is also studied at different discharge rates. Results showed non-uniform temperature distribution along the cell which requires thermal management system. Therefore, aluminum plates with mini-channel system were designed to control the temperature uniformity. Design parameters such as channel number and widths, inlet flow rate, and cooling fluids are optimized. As cooling fluids, water and air are compared. Pressure drop and velocity profiles inside the channels are illustrated. Both surface and internal temperature profiles of single cell and battery packs are investigated with and without cooling systems. Our results show that using optimized Mini-channel cooling plates effectively controls the temperature rise and uniformity of the single cells and battery packs. With increasing the inlet flow rate, cooling efficiency could be reached up to 60%.

Keywords: lithium ion battery, 3D multilayer model, mini-channel cooling plates, thermal management

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11 Improving Students' Critical Thinking in Understanding Reading Material Through Bloom's Taxonomy Questioning Strategy in English for Specific Purposes (ESP) Class

Authors: M. Mayuasti, Hevriani Sevrika, Armilia Riza


This research deals in improving college students’ critical thinking at English for Specific Purposes Subject. The strategy that is applied is Bloom’s Critical Thinking Questioning Strategy. The positive side of this strategy is that the given questions are developed based on Bloom’s taxonomy level. It is an action research because the researcher uses own class in doing this research. The processes of this research have been done from April to Mei 2014. There are two cycles and each cycle consists of two meetings. After doing the research, it is gotten that Bloom’s Critical Thinking Questioning Strategy improves college students’ critical thinking. It helps the students to build and elaborate their ideas. Hence, it increases students’ reading comprehension

Keywords: critical thinking, blooms’ critical thinking questioning strategy, specific purposes class, English

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10 Influence of Flexural Reinforcement on the Shear Strength of RC Beams Without Stirrups

Authors: Guray Arslan, Riza Secer Orkun Keskin


Numerical investigations were conducted to study the influence of flexural reinforcement ratio on the diagonal cracking strength and ultimate shear strength of reinforced concrete (RC) beams without stirrups. Three-dimensional nonlinear finite element analyses (FEAs) of the beams with flexural reinforcement ratios ranging from 0.58% to 2.20% subjected to a mid-span concentrated load were carried out. It is observed that the load-deflection and load-strain curves obtained from the numerical analyses agree with those obtained from the experiments. It is concluded that flexural reinforcement ratio has a significant effect on the shear strength and deflection capacity of RC beams without stirrups. The predictions of the diagonal cracking strength and ultimate shear strength of beams obtained by using the equations defined by a number of codes and researchers are compared with each other and with the experimental values.

Keywords: finite element, flexural reinforcement, reinforced concrete beam, shear strength

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9 Analysis of Microstructure around Opak River Pleret Area, Bantul Regency, Special Region of Yogyakarta Province, Indonesia, as a Result of Opak Fault Reactivation, Using Stereographic Method

Authors: Gayus Pratama Polunggu, Pamela Felita Adibrata, Hafidh Fathur Riza


Opak Fault is a large fault that extends from the northeast to the southwest of Yogyakarta Special Region. Opak Fault allegedly re-active after the 2006 Yogyakarta earthquake, about eleven years ago. Opak Fault is a big fault, therefore the activation will bring up the microstructure around the Opak River. This microstructure will reveal a different direction of force from the Opak Fault because the trigger for the emergence of the microstructure is the reactivation of the Opak Fault. In other words, this microstructure is a potentially severe weak area during a tectonic disaster. This research was conducted to find out the impact from the reactivation of Opak Fault that triggered the emergence of microstructure around Opak River which is very useful for disaster mitigation information around research area. This research used the approach from literature study in the form of the journal of structural geology and field study. The method used is a laboratory analysis in the form of stereographic analysis.

Keywords: Opak fault, reactivation, microstructure, stereographic

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8 Sociodemographic Approach to Juveniles Directed to Delinquent Behaviour in Zonguldak

Authors: Riza Yilmaz, Samet Kiyak, Sezin Nur Yilmaz, Yasemin Yilmaz


Child delinquency has been increasing in our country as well as in many countries of the world. Child intelligence, abilities, family's social environment and life conditions are the factors which affect the child delinquency. The reports of 73 cases ages of 12-15 which were sent to the University of Bulent Ecevit, School of Medicine, Forensic Medicine Department between January 2011-September 2015, in order to evaluate medically, children pushed to crime by the judicial authorities are examined in terms of age, gender, educational background, place of residence, reasons for being sent, whether it’s a repeating crime or not, type of intelligence test, results revealed by forensic medicine and department of mental and neurological disorders. When children pushed to crime examined in terms of their crimes, the most common type of crime was identified as theft (n = 24). The crimes with 19 physical attacks and 12 sexual abuse were seen. Following that other 12 crimes were determined as damage to property, hemp crop, insult, incitement to crime, forgery of private documents, illegal excavation, threatening, involuntary manslaughter. The alleged crimes in 6 cases were more than one. The children pushed to crime are one of the major social problems of many countries. In this sense, it is not only the responsibility of government agencies to protect children pushed to crime, also, the civil society organizations should take place in this struggle.

Keywords: delinquent behaviour, forensic medicine, crime, punishment

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7 Experimental Investigation of Heat Transfer on Vertical Two-Phased Closed Thermosyphon

Authors: M. Hadi Kusuma, Nandy Putra, Anhar Riza Antariksawan, Ficky Augusta Imawan


Heat pipe is considered to be applied as a passive system to remove residual heat that generated from reactor core when incident occur or from spent fuel storage pool. The objectives are to characterized the heat transfer phenomena, performance of heat pipe, and as a model for large heat pipe will be applied as passive cooling system on nuclear spent fuel pool storage. In this experimental wickless heat pipe or two-phase closed thermosyphon (TPCT) is used. Variation of heat flux are 611.24 Watt/m2 - 3291.29 Watt/m2. Variation of filling ratio are 45 - 70%. Variation of initial pressure are -62 to -74 cm Hg. Demineralized water is used as working fluid in the TPCT. The results showed that increasing of heat load leads to an increase of evaporation of the working fluid. The optimum filling ratio obtained for 60% of TPCT evaporator volume, and initial pressure variation gave different TPCT wall temperature characteristic. TPCT showed best performance with 60% filling ratio and can be consider to be applied as passive residual heat removal system or passive cooling system on spent fuel storage pool.

Keywords: two-phase closed term syphon, heat pipe, passive cooling, spent fuel storage pool

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6 The Misuse of Social Media in Order to Exploit "Generation Y"; The Tactics of IS

Authors: Ali Riza Perçin, Eser Bingül


Internet technologies have created opportunities with which people share their ideologies, thoughts and products. This virtual world, named social media has given the chance of gathering individual users and people from the world's remote locations and establishing an interaction between them. However, to an increasingly higher degree terrorist organizations today use the internet and most notably social-network media to create the effects they desire through a series of on-line activities. These activities, designed to support their activities, include information collection (intelligence), target selection, propaganda, fundraising and recruitment to name a few. Meanwhile, these have been used as the most important tool for recruitment especially from the different region of the world, especially disenfranchised youth, in the West in order to mobilize support and recruit “foreign fighters.” The recruits have obtained the statue, which is not accessible in their society and have preferred the style of life that is offered by the terrorist organizations instead of their current life. Like other terrorist groups, for a while now the terrorist organization Islamic State (IS) in Iraq and Syria has employed a social-media strategy in order to advance their strategic objectives. At the moment, however, IS seems to be more successful in their on-line activities than other similar organizations. IS uses social media strategically as part of its armed activities and for the sustainability of their military presence in Syria and Iraq. In this context, “Generation Y”, which could exist at the critical position and undertake active role, has been examined. Additionally, the explained characteristics of “Generation Y” have been put forward and the duties of families and society have been stated as well.

Keywords: social media, "generation Y", terrorist organization, islamic state IS

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5 Walkability with the Use of Mobile Apps

Authors: Dimitra Riza


This paper examines different ways of exploring a city by using smart phones' applications while walking, and the way this new attitude will change our perception of the urban environment. By referring to various examples of such applications we will consider options and possibilities that open up with new technologies, their advantages and disadvantages, as well as ways of experiencing and interpreting the urban environment. The widespread use of smart phones gave access to information, maps, knowledge, etc. at all times and places. The city tourism marketing takes advantage of this event and promotes the city's attractions through technology. Mobile mediated walking tours, provide new possibilities and modify the way we used to explore cities, for instance by giving directions proper to find easily destinations, by displaying our exact location on the map, by creating our own tours through picking points of interest and interconnecting them to create a route. These apps act as interactive ones, as they filter the user's interests, movements, etc. Discovering a city on foot and visiting interesting sites and landmarks, became very easy, and has been revolutionized through the help of navigational and other applications. In contrast to the re-invention of the city as suggested by the Baudelaire's Flâneur in the 19th century, or to the construction of situations by the Situationists in 60s, the new technological means do not allow people to "get lost", as these follow and record our moves. In the case of strolling or drifting around the city, the option of "getting lost" is desired, as the goal is not the "wayfinding" or the destination, but it is the experience of walking itself. Getting lost is not always about dislocation, but it is about getting a feeling, free of the urban environment while experiencing it. So, on the one hand, walking is considered to be a physical and embodied experience, as the observer becomes an actor and participates with all his senses in the city activities. On the other hand, the use of a screen turns out to become a disembodied experience of the urban environment, as we perceive it in a fragmented and distanced way. Relations with the city are similar to Alberti’s isolated viewer, detached from any urban stage. The smartphone, even if we are present, acts as a mediator: we interact directly with it and indirectly with the environment. Contrary to the Flaneur and to the Situationists, who discovered the city with their own bodies, today the body itself is being detached from that experience. While contemporary cities turn out to become more walkable, the new technological applications tend to open out all possibilities in order to explore them by suggesting multiple routes. Exploration becomes easier, but Perception changes.

Keywords: body, experience, mobile apps, walking

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4 Genotyping of Rotaviruses in Pediatric Patients with Gastroenteritis by Using Real-Time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction

Authors: Recep Kesli, Cengiz Demir, Riza Durmaz, Zekiye Bakkaloglu, Aysegul Bukulmez


Objective: Acute diarrhea disease in children is a major cause of morbidity worldwide and is a leading cause of mortality, and it is the most common agent responsible for acute gastroenteritis in developing countries. With hospitalized children suffering from acute enteric disease up to 50% of the analyzed specimen were positive for rotavirus. Further molecular surveillance could provide a sound basis for improving the response to epidemic gastroenteritis and could provide data needed for the introduction of vaccination programmes in the country. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of viral etiology of the gastroenteritis in children aged 0-6 years with acute gastroenteritis and to determine predominant genotypes of rotaviruses in the province of Afyonkarahisar, Turkey. Methods: An epidemiological study on rotavirus was carried out during 2016. Fecal samples obtained from the 144 rotavirus positive children with 0-6 years of ages and applied to the Pediatric Diseases Outpatient of ANS Research and Practice Hospital, Afyon Kocatepe University with the complaint of diarrhea. Bacterial agents causing gastroenteritis were excluded by using bacteriological culture methods and finally, no growth observed. Rotavirus antigen was examined by both the immunochromatographic (One Step Rotavirus and Adenovirus Combo Test, China) and ELISA (Premier Rotaclone, USA) methods in stool samples. Rotavirus RNA was detected by using one step real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). G and P genotypes were determined using RT-PCR with consensus primers of VP7 and VP4 genes, followed by semi nested type-specific multiplex PCR. Results: Of the total 144 rotavirus antigen-positive samples with RT-PCR, 4 (2,8%) were rejected, 95 (66%) were examined, and 45 (31,2%) have not been examined for PCR yet. Ninety-one (95,8%) of the 95 examined samples were found to be rotavirus positive with RT-PCR. Rotavirus subgenotyping distributions in G, P and G/P genotype groups were determined as; G1:45%, G2:27%, G3:13%, G9:13%, G4:1% and G12:1% for G genotype, and P[4]:33%, P[8]:66%, P[10]:1% for P genotype, and G1P[8]:%37, G2P[4]:%21, G3P[8]:%10, G4P[8]:%1, G9P[8]:%8, G2P[8]:%3 for G/P genotype . Not common genotype combination were %20 in G/P genotype. Conclusions: This study subscribes to the global agreement of the molecular epidemiology of rotavirus which will be useful in guiding the alternative and application of rotavirus vaccines or effective control and interception. Determining the diversity and rates of rotavirus genotypes will definitely provide guidelines for developing the most suitable vaccine.

Keywords: gastroenteritis, genotyping, rotavirus, RT-PCR

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3 Movable Airfoil Arm (MAA) and Ducting Effect to Increase the Efficiency of a Helical Turbine

Authors: Abdi Ismail, Zain Amarta, Riza Rifaldy Argaputra


The Helical Turbine has the highest efficiency in comparison with the other hydrokinetic turbines. However, the potential of the Helical Turbine efficiency can be further improved so that the kinetic energy of a water current can be converted into mechanical energy as much as possible. This paper explains the effects by adding a Movable Airfoil Arm (MAA) and ducting on a Helical Turbine. The first research conducted an analysis of the efficiency comparison between a Plate Arm Helical Turbine (PAHT) versus a Movable Arm Helical Turbine Airfoil (MAAHT) at various water current velocities. The first step is manufacturing a PAHT and MAAHT. The PAHT and MAAHT has these specifications (as a fixed variable): 80 cm in diameter, a height of 88 cm, 3 blades, NACA 0018 blade profile, a 10 cm blade chord and a 60o inclination angle. The MAAHT uses a NACA 0012 airfoil arm that can move downward 20o, the PAHT uses a 5 mm plate arm. At the current velocity of 0.8, 0.85 and 0.9 m/s, the PAHT respectively generates a mechanical power of 92, 117 and 91 watts (a consecutive efficiency of 16%, 17% and 11%). At the same current velocity variation, the MAAHT respectively generates 74, 60 and 43 watts (a consecutive efficiency of 13%, 9% and 5%). Therefore, PAHT has a better performance than the MAAHT. Using analysis from CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics), the drag force of MAA is greater than the one generated by the plate arm. By using CFD analysis, the drag force that occurs on the MAA is more dominant than the lift force, therefore the MAA can be called a drag device, whereas the lift force that occurs on the helical blade is more dominant than the drag force, therefore it can be called a lift device. Thus, the lift device cannot be combined with the drag device, because the drag device will become a hindrance to the lift device rotation. The second research conducted an analysis of the efficiency comparison between a Ducted Helical Turbine (DHT) versus a Helical Turbine (HT) through experimental studies. The first step is manufacturing the DHT and HT. The Helical turbine specifications (as a fixed variable) are: 40 cm in diameter, a height of 88 cm, 3 blades, NACA 0018 blade profile, 10 cm blade chord and a 60o inclination angle. At the current speed of 0.7, 0.8, 0.9 and 1.1 m/s, the HT respectively generates a mechanical power of 72, 85, 93 and 98 watts (a consecutive efficiency of 38%, 30%, 23% and 13%). At the same current speed variation, the DHT generates a mechanical power of 82, 98, 110 and 134 watts (a consecutive efficiency of 43%, 34%, 27% and 18%), respectively. The usage of ducting causes the water current speed around the turbine to increase.

Keywords: hydrokinetic turbine, helical turbine, movable airfoil arm, ducting

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2 Effect of Foot Posture and Fatigue on Static Balance and Electromyographic Activity of Selected Lower Limb Muscles in School Children Aged 12 to 14 Years

Authors: Riza Adriyani, Tommy Apriantono, Suprijanto


Objective: Several studies have revealed that flatfoot posture has some effect on altered lower limb muscle function, in comparison to normal foot posture. There were still limited studies to examine the effect of fatigue on flatfoot posture in children. Therefore, this study was aimed to find out jumping fatiguing effect on static balance and to compare lower limb muscle function between flatfoot and normal foot in school children. Methods: Thirty junior high school children aged 12 to 14 years took part in this study. Of these all children, 15 had the normal foot (8 males and 7 females) and 15 had flatfoot (6 males and 9 females). Foot posture was classified based on an arch index of the footprint by a foot scanner which calculated the data using AUTOCAD 2013 software. Surface electromyography (EMG) activity was recorded from tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius medialis, and peroneus longus muscles while those participants were standing on one leg barefoot with opened eyes. All participants completed the entire protocol (pre-fatigue data collection, fatigue protocol, and post fatigue data collection) in a single session. Static balance and electromyographic data were collected before and after a functional fatigue protocol. Results: School children with normal foot had arch index 0.25±0.01 whereas those with flatfoot had 0.36±0.01. In fact, there were no significant differences for anthropometric characteristics between children with flatfoot and normal foot. This statistical analysis showed that fatigue could influence static balance in flatfoot school children (p < 0.05), but not in normal foot school children. Based on electromyographic data, the statistical analysis showed that there were significant differences (p < 0.05) of the decreased median frequency on tibialis anterior in flatfoot compared to normal foot school children after fatigue. However, there were no significant differences on the median frequency of gastrocnemius medialis and peroneus longus between both groups. After fatigue, median frequency timing was significantly different (p < 0.05) on tibialis anterior in flatfoot compared to normal foot children and tended to appear earlier on tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius medialis and peroneus longus (at 7s, 8s, 9s) in flatfoot compared to normal foot (at 15s, 11s , 12s). Conclusion: Fatigue influenced static balance and tended to appear earlier on selected lower limb muscles while performing static balance in flatfoot school children. After fatigue, tremor (median frequency decreased) showed more significant differences on tibialis anterior in flatfoot rather than in normal foot school children.

Keywords: fatigue, foot postures, median frequency, static balance

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1 The Effect of the Performance Evolution System on the Productivity of Administrating and a Case Study

Authors: Ertuğrul Ferhat Yilmaz, Ali Riza Perçin


In the business enterprises implemented modern business enterprise principles, the most important issues are increasing the performance of workers and getting maximum income. Through the twentieth century, rapid development of the sectors of data processing and communication and because of the free trade politics arising of multilateral business enterprises have canceled the economical borders and changed the local rivalry into the spherical rivalry. In this rivalry conditions, the business enterprises have to work active and productive in order to continue their existences. The employees worked at business enterprises have formed the most important factor of product. Therefore, the business enterprises inferring the importance of the human factors in order to increase the profit have used “the performance evolution system” to increase the success and development of the employees. The evolution of the performance is aimed to increase the manpower productive by using the employees in an active way. Furthermore, this system assists the wage politics implemented in business enterprise, determining the strategically plans in business enterprises through the short and long terms, being promoted and determining the educational needs of employees, making decisions as dismissing and work rotation. It requires a great deal of effort to catch the pace of change in the working realm and to keep up ourselves up-to-date. To get the quality in people,to have an effect in workplace depends largely on the knowledge and competence of managers and prospective managers. Therefore,managers need to use the performance evaluation systems in order to base their managerial decisions on sound data. This study aims at finding whether the organizations effectively use performance evaluation systms,how much importance is put on this issue and how much the results of the evaulations have an effect on employees. Whether the organizations have the advantage of competition and can keep on their activities depend to a large extent on how they effectively and efficiently use their employees.Therefore,it is of vital importance to evaluate employees' performance and to make them better according to the results of that evaluation. The performance evaluation system which evaluates the employees according to the criteria related to that organization has become one of the most important topics for management. By means of those important ends mentioned above,performance evaluation system seems to be a tool that can be used to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of organization. Because of its contribution to organizational success, thinking performance evaluation on the axis of efficiency shows the importance of this study on a different angle. In this study, we have explained performance evaluation system ,efficiency and the relation between those two concepts. We have also analyzed the results of questionnaires conducted on the textile workers in Edirne city.We have got positive answers from the questions about the effects of performance evaluation on efficiency.After factor analysis ,the efficiency and motivation which are determined as factors of performance evaluation system have the biggest variance (%19.703) in our sample. Thus, this study shows that objective performance evaluation increases the efficiency and motivation of employees.

Keywords: performance, performance evolution system, productivity, Edirne region

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