Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 246

Search results for: Okavango delta

246 Levels of Heavy Metals and Arsenic in Sediment and in Clarias Gariepinus, of Lake Ngami

Authors: Nashaat Mazrui, Oarabile Mogobe, Barbara Ngwenya, Ketlhatlogile Mosepele, Mangaliso Gondwe

Abstract:

Over the last several decades, the world has seen a rapid increase in activities such as deforestation, agriculture, and energy use. Subsequently, trace elements are being deposited into our water bodies, where they can accumulate to toxic levels in aquatic organisms and can be transferred to humans through fish consumption. Thus, though fish is a good source of essential minerals and omega-3 fatty acids, it can also be a source of toxic elements. Monitoring trace elements in fish is important for the proper management of aquatic systems and the protection of human health. The aim of this study was to determine concentrations of trace elements in sediment and muscle tissues of Clarias gariepinus at Lake Ngami, in the Okavango Delta in northern Botswana, during low floods. The fish were bought from local fishermen, and samples of muscle tissue were acid-digested and analyzed for iron, zinc, copper, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, chromium, cadmium, lead, and arsenic using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Sediment samples were also collected and analyzed for the elements and for organic matter content. Results show that in all samples, iron was found in the greatest amount while cadmium was below the detection limit. Generally, the concentrations of elements in sediment were higher than in fish except for zinc and arsenic. While the concentration of zinc was similar in the two media, arsenic was almost 3 times higher in fish than sediment. To evaluate the risk to human health from fish consumption, the target hazard quotient (THQ) and cancer risk for an average adult in Botswana, sub-Saharan Africa, and riparian communities in the Okavango Delta was calculated for each element. All elements were found to be well below regulatory limits and do not pose a threat to human health except arsenic. The results suggest that other benthic feeding fish species could potentially have high arsenic levels too. This has serious implications for human health, especially riparian households to whom fish is a key component of food and nutrition security.

Keywords: Arsenic, African sharp tooth cat fish, Okavango delta, trace elements

Procedia PDF Downloads 99
245 Total Chromatic Number of Δ-Claw-Free 3-Degenerated Graphs

Authors: Wongsakorn Charoenpanitseri

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The total chromatic number χ"(G) of a graph G is the minimum number of colors needed to color the elements (vertices and edges) of G such that no incident or adjacent pair of elements receive the same color Let G be a graph with maximum degree Δ(G). Considering a total coloring of G and focusing on a vertex with maximum degree. A vertex with maximum degree needs a color and all Δ(G) edges incident to this vertex need more Δ(G) + 1 distinct colors. To color all vertices and all edges of G, it requires at least Δ(G) + 1 colors. That is, χ"(G) is at least Δ(G) + 1. However, no one can find a graph G with the total chromatic number which is greater than Δ(G) + 2. The Total Coloring Conjecture states that for every graph G, χ"(G) is at most Δ(G) + 2. In this paper, we prove that the Total Coloring Conjectur for a Δ-claw-free 3-degenerated graph. That is, we prove that the total chromatic number of every Δ-claw-free 3-degenerated graph is at most Δ(G) + 2.

Keywords: total colorings, the total chromatic number, 3-degenerated, CLAW-FREE

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
244 Transformation of the Ili Delta Ecosystems Related to the Runoff Control of the Ile-Balkhash Basin Rivers

Authors: Ruslan Salmurzauli, Sabir Nurtazin, Buho Hoshino, Niels Thevs, A. B. Yeszhanov, Aiman Imentai

Abstract:

This article presents the results of a research on the transformation of the diverse ecosystems of the Ili delta during the period 1979-2014 based on the analysis of the hydrological regime dynamics, weather conditions and satellite images. Conclusions have been drawn on the decisive importance of the water runoff of the Ili River in the negative changes and environmental degradation in delta areas over the past forty-five years. The increase of water consumption in the Chinese and Kazakhstan parts of the Ili-Balkhash basin caused desiccation and desertification of many hydromorphic delta ecosystems and the reduction of water flow into Lake Balkhash. We demonstrate that a significant reduction of watering of the delta areas could drastically accelerate the aridization and degradation of the hydromorphic ecosystems. Under runoff decrease, a transformation process of the delta ecosystems begins from the head part and gradually spread northward to the periphery of the delta. The desertification is most clearly expressed in the central and western parts of the delta areas.

Keywords: Ili-Balkhash basin, Ili river delta, runoff, hydrological regime, transformation of ecosystems, remote sensing

Procedia PDF Downloads 350
243 Effect of a Stepwise Discontinuity on a 65 Degree Delta Wing

Authors: Nishit L. Sanil, Raza M. Khan

Abstract:

Increasing lift effectively at higher angles of attack has always been a daunting challenge in aviation especially on a delta wing. These are used on military jet fighter planes and has some undesirable characteristics, notably flow separation at high angles of attack and high drag at low speeds. In order to solve this problem, a design modification is modeled on a delta wing which would increase the lift so that we can improve maneuverability. To attain an increase in the lift of a 65 degree delta wing at higher angles of attack, a step-wise discontinuity is created at the upper surface of the delta wing. A normal delta wing is validated for comparison which would thereby give us a measure of flow separation and coefficient of lift affected by the modification. The results obtained deliver a significant increase in lift at higher angles of attack thereby delaying stall. Hence the benefits of the modification would aid the potential designs of aircraft’s in the time to come.

Keywords: coefficient of lift, delta wing, flow separation, step-wise discontinuity

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
242 Sigma-Delta ADCs Converter a Study Case

Authors: Thiago Brito Bezerra, Mauro Lopes de Freitas, Waldir Sabino da Silva Júnior

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The Sigma-Delta A/D converters have been proposed as a practical application for A/D conversion at high rates because of its simplicity and robustness to imperfections in the circuit, also because the traditional converters are more difficult to implement in VLSI technology. These difficulties with conventional conversion methods need precise analog components in their filters and conversion circuits, and are more vulnerable to noise and interference. This paper aims to analyze the architecture, function and application of Analog-Digital converters (A/D) Sigma-Delta to overcome these difficulties, showing some simulations using the Simulink software and Multisim.

Keywords: analysis, oversampling modulator, A/D converters, sigma-delta

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
241 Digital and Social Media as Tools for Legitimising Conflict: A Study of the Niger Delta Avengers

Authors: Shola Abidemi Olabode

Abstract:

Nigeria as a country has been plagued by numerous conflicts since the British colonialists gave in to the advocacy of Nigerian dissents for independence and relinquished power in 1960. These conflicts are often motivated by different issues, from socio-political and economic issues to struggles of ethnic and religious orientation. The Niger Delta region which accounts for the country’s economic mainstay has been at the epicentre of such conflicts. Over the years, peaceful protests, and radical insurgency and resistance movements too numerous to mention have emerged in the region. The Niger Delta Avengers is an example of a recent conflict movement in the region. Using a case study approach, and looking through a cyberconflict perspective, this paper offers a discussion on the intersection between digital and social media and framing in the Niger Delta Avengers conflict. It advocates that the Niger Delta Avengers use digital and social media to legitimise and give credence to their struggle.

Keywords: digital and social media, framing, Niger delta avengers, cyberconflict, conflict

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
240 Design of Decimation Filter Using Cascade Structure for Sigma Delta ADC

Authors: Misbahuddin Mahammad, P. Chandra Sekhar, Metuku Shyamsunder

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The oversampled output of a sigma-delta modulator is decimated to Nyquist sampling rate by decimation filters. The decimation filters work twofold; they decimate the sampling rate by a factor of OSR (oversampling rate) and they remove the out band quantization noise resulting in an increase in resolution. The speed, area and power consumption of oversampled converter are governed largely by decimation filters in sigma-delta A/D converters. The scope of the work is to design a decimation filter for sigma-delta ADC and simulation using MATLAB. The decimation filter structure is based on cascaded-integrated comb (CIC) filter. A second decimation filter is using CIC for large rate change and cascaded FIR filters, for small rate changes, to improve the frequency response. The proposed structure is even more hardware efficient.

Keywords: sigma delta modulator, CIC filter, decimation filter, compensation filter, noise shaping

Procedia PDF Downloads 363
239 Investigation of Flow Structure over X-45 Type Non-Slender Delta Wing Planform

Authors: B. Yanıktepe, C. Özalp, B. Şahin

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Delta wing planform is an essential aerodynamic configuration, which could be effectively used at relatively high angles of attack than conventional wings in subsonic flow conditions. The flow over delta wings can be characterized by a pair of leading edge vortices emanating from wing apex. Boundary layer separation causes these vortical structures formed by rolling up of viscous flow sheet. This flow separation mechanism is occurred due to angle of attack and sharp leading edges of the delta wing. Therefore, complexity and variety in planform designs rise to catch the best under abnormal flow conditions. The present experimental study investigates the near surface flow structure and aerodynamic flow characteristics of X-45 type non-slender delta wing planform using dye visualization, Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (stereo-PIV). The instantaneous images are acquired on the plan-view plane within 5o≤α≤20o to calculate the time-averaged flow data. It can be concluded that vortical flow with a pair of well-defined LEVs over X-45 develop at very low angles of attack, secondary vortex are also evident and form close to the wing surface similar to delta and lambda planforms. The stall occurs at an angle of attack α=32o.

Keywords: aerodynamic, delta wing, PIV, vortex breakdown

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
238 Digital Signal Processor Implementation of a Novel Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation Algorithm Algorithm for a Reduced Delta Inverter

Authors: Asma Ben Rhouma, Mahmoud Hamouda

Abstract:

The delta inverter is considered as the reduced three-phase dc/ac converter topology. It contains only three two-quadrant power switches compared to six in the conventional one. This reduced power conversion topology is widely considered in many industrial applications, such as electric traction and large photovoltaic systems. This paper is focused on a new sinusoidal pulse width modulation algorithm (SPWM) developed for the delta inverter. As an unconventional inverter’s structure, irregular modulating functions waveforms of the SPWM switching technique are generated. The performances of the proposed SPWM technique was proven through computer simulations carried out on a delta inverter feeding a three-phase RL load. Digital Signal Processor (DSP) implementation of the novel SPWM algorithm have been realized on a laboratory prototype of the delta inverter feeding an RL load and a squirrel cage induction motor. Experimental results have highlighted its high performances under the proposed SPWM method.

Keywords: delta inverter, SPWM, simulation, DSP implementation

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
237 Water Quality Management Based on Hydrodynamic Approach, Landuse, and Human Intervention in Wulan Delta Central Java Indonesia: Problems Identification and Review

Authors: Lintang Nur Fadlillah, Muh Aris Marfai, M. Widyastuti

Abstract:

Delta is dynamics area which is influenced by marine and river. Increasing human population in coastal area and the need of life exert pressure in delta that provides various resources. Wulan Delta is one of active Delta in Central Java, Indonesia. It has been experienced multiple pressures because of natural factors and human factors. In order to provide scientific solution and to analyze the main driving force in river delta, we collected several evidences based on news, papers, and publications related to Wulan Delta. This paper presents a review and problems identification in Wulan Delta, based on hydrodynamic approach, land use, and human activities which influenced water quality in the delta. A comprehensive overview is needed to address best policies under local communities and government. The analysis based on driving forces which affect delta estuary and river mouth. Natural factor in particular hydrodynamic influenced by tides, waves, runoff, and sediment transport. However, hydrodynamic affecting mixing process in river estuaries. The main problem is human intervention in land which is land use exchange leads to several problems such us decreasing water quality. Almost 90% of delta has been transformed into fish pond by local communities. Yet, they have not apply any water management to treat waste water before flush it to the sea and estuary. To understand the environmental condition, we need to assess water quality of river delta. The assessment based on land use as non-point source pollution. In Wulan Delta there are no industries. The land use in Wulan Delta consist of fish pond, settlement, and agriculture. The samples must represent the land use, to estimate which land use are most influence in river delta pollution. The hydrodynamic condition such as high tides and runoff must be considered, because it will affect the mixing process and water quality as well. To determine the samples site, we need to involve local community, in order to give insight into them. Furthermore, based on this review and problem identification, recommendations and strategies for water management are formulated.

Keywords: delta, land use, water quality, management, hydrodynamics

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236 Deconstructing the Niger-Delta Crises: In Esiaba Irobi's Cemetery Road and Hangmen Also Die

Authors: Chukwukelue Uzodinma Umenyilorah

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The history of the crises in Niger-Delta is readily traceable to the post-colonial oil boom of the early 70s. Prior to this time, it was widely believed that the people of Niger-Delta; especially those in the present day Rivers, Delta and Bayelsa States enjoyed a peaceful coexistence pretty much as the rest of Nigerians. In the early 70s however, crude oil was discovered in commercial quantities in these areas and tranquility has become a far cry over the years ever since then. First, a number of multi-national oil explorers moved into the Niger-Delta for business, and then certain conditions resulted in sundry instances of oil spillage, which caused a lot of environmental damage, destroying nearly all of the people’s sources of livelihood. The result was a multiple chain reaction ranging from incessant agitations from the natives to institutionalized dialogue between the oil business owners, the natives and the government, and then to a proposition of compensation packages for the affected communities. The said compensation, which was meant to bring peace seem to have brought even more crises instead. Corruption and greed crept in, money changed hands, suffering increased and so was the agitation from the people. The whole turn of events gradually snowballed into the formation of various militant groups who are now fingered as responsible for the sundry cases of violence in the Niger-Delta. The oil boom can, therefore, be said to be the immediate cause of the Niger-Delta crises, but there are other remote causes as well; including poverty, neglect and illiteracy to mention but a few. This study is therefore aimed at examining the various reasons behind the seemingly unending crises in the Niger-Delta. It will also take a critical look at the roles played by the various parties in the Niger-Delta crises from the 70s to date; as well as the various human and environmental devastations done in the area with a view to making informed suggestions on how to stop further damage and start fixing that, which is already done. Esiaba Irobi’s Cemetery Road and Hangmen Also Die seem to vividly capture the realities of the Niger-Delta situation, and shall, therefore, be reviewed in this study.

Keywords: corruption, Niger-delta, oil boom, post-colonial

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
235 The Excess Loop Delay Calibration in a Bandpass Continuous-Time Delta Sigma Modulators Based on Q-Enhanced LC Filter

Authors: Sorore Benabid

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The Q-enhanced LC filters are the most used architecture in the Bandpass (BP) Continuous-Time (CT) Delta-Sigma (ΣΔ) modulators, due to their: high frequencies operation, high linearity than the active filters and a high quality factor obtained by Q-enhanced technique. This technique consists of the use of a negative resistance that compensate the ohmic losses in the on-chip inductor. However, this technique introduces a zero in the filter transfer function which will affect the modulator performances in term of Dynamic Range (DR), stability and in-band noise (Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR)). In this paper, we study the effect of this zero and we demonstrate that a calibration of the excess loop delay (ELD) is required to ensure the best performances of the modulator. System level simulations are done for a 2ndorder BP CT (ΣΔ) modulator at a center frequency of 300MHz. Simulation results indicate that the optimal ELD should be reduced by 13% to achieve the maximum SNR and DR compared to the ideal LC-based ΣΔ modulator.

Keywords: continuous-time bandpass delta-sigma modulators, excess loop delay, on-chip inductor, Q-enhanced LC filter

Procedia PDF Downloads 262
234 Digital Control Algorithm Based on Delta-Operator for High-Frequency DC-DC Switching Converters

Authors: Renkai Wang, Tingcun Wei

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In this paper, a digital control algorithm based on delta-operator is presented for high-frequency digitally-controlled DC-DC switching converters. The stability and the controlling accuracy of the DC-DC switching converters are improved by using the digital control algorithm based on delta-operator without increasing the hardware circuit scale. The design method of voltage compensator in delta-domain using PID (Proportion-Integration- Differentiation) control is given in this paper, and the simulation results based on Simulink platform are provided, which have verified the theoretical analysis results very well. It can be concluded that, the presented control algorithm based on delta-operator has better stability and controlling accuracy, and easier hardware implementation than the existed control algorithms based on z-operator, therefore it can be used for the voltage compensator design in high-frequency digitally- controlled DC-DC switching converters.

Keywords: digitally-controlled DC-DC switching converter, digital voltage compensator, delta-operator, finite word length, stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 342
233 Evaluation of Heavy Metal Concentrations of Stem and Seed of Juncus acutus for Grazing Animals and Birds in Kızılırmak Delta

Authors: N. Cetinkaya, F. Erdem

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Juncus acutus (Juncaceae) is a perennial wetland plant and it is commonly known as spiny rush or sharp rush. It is the most abundant plant in Kizilirmak grassland, Samsun, Turkey. Heavy metals are significant environmental contaminants in delta and their toxicity is an increasing problem for animals whose natural habitat is delta. The objective of this study was to evaluate heavy metal concentrations mainly As, Cd, Sb, Ba, Pb and Hg in stem and seed of Juncus acutus for grazing animals and birds in delta. The Juncus acutus stem and seed samples were collected from Kizilirmak Delta in July, August and September. Heavy metal concentrations of collected samples were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma – Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). The obtained mean values of three months for As, Cd, Sb, Ba, Pb and Hg of stem and seed samples of Juncus acutus were 0.11 and 0.23 mg/kg; 0.07 and 0.11 mg/kg; 0.02 and 0.02 mg/kg; 5.26 and 1.75 mg/kg; 0.05 and not detectable in July respectively. Hg was not detected in both stem and seed of Juncus acutus, Pb concentration was determined only in stem of Juncus acutus but not in seed. There were no significant differences between the values of three months for As, Cd, Sb, Ba, Pb and Hg of stem and seed samples of Juncus acutus. The obtained As, Cd, Sb, Ba, Pb and Hg results of stem and seed of Juncus acutus show that seed and stem of Juncus acutus may be safely consumed for grazing animals and birds regarding to heavy metals contamination in Kizilirmak Delta.

Keywords: heavy metals, Juncus acutus, Kizilirmak Delta, wetland

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
232 The Study of Stable Isotopes (18O, 2H & 13C) in Kardeh River and Dam Reservoir, North-Eastern Iran

Authors: Hossein Mohammadzadeh, Mojtaba Heydarizad

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Among various water resources, the surface water has a dominant role in providing water supply in the arid and semi-arid region of Iran. Andarokh-Kardeh basin is located in 50 km from Mashhad city - the second biggest city of Iran (NE of Iran), draining by Kardeh river which provides a significant portion of potable and irrigation water needs for Mashhad. The stable isotopes (18O, 2H,13C-DIC, and 13C-DOC), as reliable and precious water fingerprints, have been measured in Kardeh river (Kharket, Mareshk, Jong, All and Kardeh stations) and in Kardeh dam reservoirs (at five different sites S1 to S5) during March to June 2011 and June 2012. On δ18O vs. δ2H diagram, the river samples were plotted between Global and Eastern Mediterranean Meteoric Water lines (GMWL and EMMWL) which demonstrate that various moisture sources are providing humidity for precipitation events in this area. The enriched δ18O and δ2H values (-6.5 ‰ and -44.5 ‰ VSMOW) of Kardeh dam reservoir are compared to Kardeh river (-8.6‰and-54.4‰), and its deviation from Mashhad meteoric water line (MMWL- δ2H=7.16δ18O+11.22) is due to evaporation from the open surface water body. The enriched value of δ 13C-DIC and high amount of DIC values (-7.9 ‰ VPDB and 57.23 ppm) in the river and Kardeh dam reservoir (-7.3 ‰ VPDB and 55.53 ppm) is due to dissolution of Mozdooran Carbonate Formation lithology (Jm1 to Jm3 units) (contains enriched δ13C DIC values of 9.2‰ to 27.7‰ VPDB) in the region. Because of the domination of C3 vegetations in Andarokh_Kardeh basin, the δ13C-DOC isotope of the river (-28.4‰ VPDB) and dam reservoir (-32.3‰ VPDB) demonstrate depleted values. Higher DOC concentration in dam reservoir (2.57 ppm) compared to the river (0.72 ppm) is due to more biologogical activities and organic matters in dam reservoir.

Keywords: Dam reservoir, Iran, Kardeh river, Khorasan razavi, Stable isotopes

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
231 Numerical Study for Spatial Optimization of DVG for Fin and Tube Heat Exchangers

Authors: Amit Arora, P. M. V. Subbarao, R. S. Agarwal

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This study attempts to find promising locations of upwash delta winglets for an inline finned tube heat exchanger. Later, location of winglets that delivers highest improvement in thermal performance is identified. Numerical results clearly showed that optimally located upwash delta winglets not only improved the thermal performance of fin area in tube wake and tubes, but also improved overall thermal performance of heat exchanger.

Keywords: apparent friction factor, delta winglet, fin and tube heat exchanger, longitudinal vortices

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
230 The Effects of Climate Change and Upstream Dam Development on Sediment Distribution in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta

Authors: Trieu Anh Ngoc, Nguyen Quang Kim

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Located at the downstream of the Mekong Delta, the Vietnamese Mekong Delta is well-known as 'rice bowl' of Vietnam. The Vietnamese Mekong Delta experiences widespread flooding annually where is habitat for about 17 million people. The economy of this region mainly depends on the agricultural productivities. The suspended sediment load in the Mekong River plays an important role in carrying contaminants and nutrients to the delta and changing the geomorphology of the delta river system. In many past decades, flooding and suspended sediment were considered as indispensable factors in agricultural cultivations. Although flooding in the wet season caused serious inundation in paddy field and affected livelihoods, it is an effective facility for flushing acid and saline to this area - alluvial soil heavily contaminated with acid and salt intrusion. In addition, sediment delivery to this delta contained rich-nutrients distributed and deposited on the fields through flooding process. In recent decades, the changing of flow and sediment transport have been strongly and clearly occurring due to upstream dam development and climate change. However, effects of sediment delivery on agricultural cultivations were less attention. This study investigated the impacts of upstream flow on sediment distribution in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta. Flow fluctuation and sediment distribution were simulated by the Mike 11 model, including hydrodynamics model and advection-dispersion model. Various scenarios were simulated based on anticipated upstream discharges. Our findings indicated that sediment delivery into the Vietnamese Mekong Delta come from not only Tien River but also border of Cambodia floodplains. Sediment distribution in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta is dramatically changed by the distance from the main rivers and the secondary channels. The dam development in the upstream is one of the major factors leading a decrease in sediment discharge as well as sediment deposition. Moreover, sea level rise partially contributed to decrease in sediment transport and change of sediment distribution between upstream and downstream of the Vietnamese Mekong Delta.

Keywords: sediment transport, sea level rise, climate change, Mike Model

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
229 Leading Edge Vortex Development for a 65° Delta Wing with Varying Thickness and Maximum Thickness Locations

Authors: Jana Stucke, Sean Tuling, Chris Toomer

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This study focuses on the numerical investigation of the leading edge vortex (LEV) development over a 65° swept delta wing with varying thickness and maximum thickness location and their impact on its overall performance. The tested configurations are defined by a 6% and 12 % thick biconvex aerofoil with maximum thickness location at 30% and 50% of the root chord. The results are compared to a flat plate delta wing configuration of 3.4% thickness. The largest differences are observed for the aerofoils of 12% thickness and are used to demonstrate the trends and aerodynamic characteristics from here on. It was found that the vortex structure changes with change with maximum thickness and overall thickness. This change leads to not only a reduction in lift but also in drag, especially when the maximum thickness is moved forward. The reduction in drag, however, outweighs the loss in lift thus increasing the overall performance of the configuration.

Keywords: aerodynamics, CFD, delta wing, leading edge vortices

Procedia PDF Downloads 113
228 Local Farmer’s Perception on the Role of Room for the River in Livelihoods: Case Study in An Phu District, An Giang Province, Vietnam

Authors: Hoang Vo Thi Minh, Duyen Nguyen Thi Phuong, Gerardo Van Halsema

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As one of the deltas which is extremely vulnerable to climate change, the Mekong Delta, Vietnam is facing many challenges that need to be addressed in strategic and holistic ways. In this study scope, a strategic delta planning is recently considered as a new vision of Adaptive Delta Management for the Mekong Delta. In Adaptive Delta Management, Room for the Rivers (RftR) has been formulated as a typical innovation, which is currently in need of careful consideration for implementing in the Mekong Delta’s planning process. This study then attempts to investigate the roles and analyze sociological aspects of the RftR as potential strategic 'soft' measure, in upstream of Hau River in An Phu district, An Giang province, especially in terms of its so-called multifunctions. The study applied social science approach embedded with a few qualitative methods including in-depth interviews and questionnaire distribution and conjoint analysis as a quantitative approach. The former mainly aims at gaining the local community’s perceptions about the RftR solution. The latter tries to gain farmers’ willingness to accept (WTA) with regard to their level of preference towards the three selected solutions which are considered as strategic plans for sustainably developing the MD. Qualitative data analysis shows that, farmers perceive RftR as very useful for their livelihoods due to its multifunctions as well as in terms of water management. The quantitative results illustrated that respondents expressed their WTAs on RftR as 84. 240 thousand VND / year. Amongst the three solutions that are analysed within this study (Floating rice for upper delta, Room for the Rivers for the Middle, and Shrimp-Mangrove integration for the coastal delta), RfrR was ranked as second preference from respondents. This result is not exactly reflecting the real values of these three mentioned solutions but showing a tendency that can be seen as a reference for the decision-makers in delta planning processes.

Keywords: strategic delta planning, room for the River, farmers’ perception, willingness-to-accept, local livelihoods

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
227 The Curse of Oil: Unpacking the Challenges to Food Security in the Nigeria's Niger Delta

Authors: Abosede Omowumi Babatunde

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While the Niger Delta region satisfies the global thirst for oil, the inhabitants have not been adequately compensated for the use of their ancestral land. Besides, the ruthless exploitation and destruction of the natural environment upon which the inhabitants of the Niger Delta depend for their livelihood and sustenance by the activities of oil multinationals, pose major threats to food security in the region and by implication, Nigeria in general, Africa, and the world, given the present global emphasis on food security. This paper examines the effect of oil exploitation on household food security, identify key gaps in measures put in place to address the changes to livelihoods and food security and explore what should be done to improve the local people access to sufficient, safe and culturally acceptable food in the Niger Delta. Data is derived through interviews with key informants and Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) conducted with respondents in the local communities in the Niger Delta states of Delta, Bayelsa and Rivers as well as relevant extant studies. The threat to food security is one important aspect of the human security challenges in the Niger Delta which has received limited scholarly attention. In addition, successive Nigerian governments have not meaningfully addressed the negative impacts of oil-induced environmental degradation on traditional livelihoods given the significant linkages between environmental sustainability, livelihood security, and food security. The destructive impact of oil pollution on the farmlands, crops, economic trees, creeks, lakes, and fishing equipment is so devastating that the people can no longer engage in productive farming and fishing. Also important is the limited access to modern agricultural methods for fishing and subsistence farming as fishing and farming are done using mostly crude implements and traditional methods. It is imperative and urgent to take stock of the negative implications of the activities of oil multinationals for environmental and livelihood sustainability, and household food security in the Niger Delta.

Keywords: challenges, food security, Nigeria's Niger delta, oil

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
226 Proposed Algorithms to Assess Concussion Potential in Rear-End Motor Vehicle Collisions: A Meta-Analysis

Authors: Rami Hashish, Manon Limousis-Gayda, Caitlin McCleery

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Introduction: Mild traumatic brain injuries, also referred to as concussions, represent an increasing burden to society. Due to limited objective diagnostic measures, concussions are diagnosed by assessing subjective symptoms, often leading to disputes to their presence. Common biomechanical measures associated with concussion are high linear and/or angular acceleration to the head. With regards to linear acceleration, approximately 80g’s has previously been shown to equate with a 50% probability of concussion. Motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) are a leading cause of concussion, due to high head accelerations experienced. The change in velocity (delta-V) of a vehicle in an MVC is an established metric for impact severity. As acceleration is the rate of delta-V with respect to time, the purpose of this paper is to determine the relation between delta-V (and occupant parameters) with linear head acceleration. Methods: A meta-analysis was conducted for manuscripts collected using the following keywords: head acceleration, concussion, brain injury, head kinematics, delta-V, change in velocity, motor vehicle collision, and rear-end. Ultimately, 280 studies were surveyed, 14 of which fulfilled the inclusion criteria as studies investigating the human response to impacts, reporting head acceleration, and delta-V of the occupant’s vehicle. Statistical analysis was conducted with SPSS and R. The best fit line analysis allowed for an initial understanding of the relation between head acceleration and delta-V. To further investigate the effect of occupant parameters on head acceleration, a quadratic model and a full linear mixed model was developed. Results: From the 14 selected studies, 139 crashes were analyzed with head accelerations and delta-V values ranging from 0.6 to 17.2g and 1.3 to 11.1 km/h, respectively. Initial analysis indicated that the best line of fit (Model 1) was defined as Head Acceleration = 0.465

Keywords: acceleration, brain injury, change in velocity, Delta-V, TBI

Procedia PDF Downloads 100
225 Environmental Impacts and Ecological Utilization of Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) in the Niger Delta Fresh Ecosystem

Authors: Seiyaboh E. I.

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Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) was introduced into many parts of the world, including Africa, as an ornamental garden pond plant because of its beauty. However, it is considered a dangerous pest today because when not controlled, water hyacinth will cover rivers, lakes and ponds entirely; this dramatically impacts water flow, blocks sunlight from reaching native aquatic plants, and starves the water of oxygen, often killing fish and other aquatic organisms. In the Niger Delta region, water hyacinth is considered a nuisance because of its very obvious devastating environmental impacts in the region. However, water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) constitutes a very important part of an aquatic ecosystem. It possesses specialized growth habits, physiological characteristics and reproductive strategies that allow for rapid growth and spread in freshwater environments and this explains its very rapid spread in the Niger Delta freshwater ecosystem. This paper therefore focuses on the environmental consequences of the proliferation of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) in the Niger Delta freshwater ecosystem, extent of impact, and options available for its ecological utilization which will help mitigate proliferation, restore effective freshwater ecosystem utilization and balance. It concludes by recommending sustainable practices outlining the beneficial uses of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) rather than control.

Keywords: environmental impacts, ecological utilization, Niger Delta, water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
224 Establishing Econometric Modeling Equations for Lumpy Skin Disease Outbreaks in the Nile Delta of Egypt under Current Climate Conditions

Authors: Abdelgawad, Salah El-Tahawy

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This paper aimed to establish econometrical equation models for the Nile delta region in Egypt, which will represent a basement for future predictions of Lumpy skin disease outbreaks and its pathway in relation to climate change. Data of lumpy skin disease (LSD) outbreaks were collected from the cattle farms located in the provinces representing the Nile delta region during 1 January, 2015 to December, 2015. The obtained results indicated that there was a significant association between the degree of the LSD outbreaks and the investigated climate factors (temperature, wind speed, and humidity) and the outbreaks peaked during the months of June, July, and August and gradually decreased to the lowest rate in January, February, and December. The model obtained depicted that the increment of these climate factors were associated with evidently increment on LSD outbreaks on the Nile Delta of Egypt. The model validation process was done by the root mean square error (RMSE) and means bias (MB) which compared the number of LSD outbreaks expected with the number of observed outbreaks and estimated the confidence level of the model. The value of RMSE was 1.38% and MB was 99.50% confirming that this established model described the current association between the LSD outbreaks and the change on climate factors and also can be used as a base for predicting the of LSD outbreaks depending on the climatic change on the future.

Keywords: LSD, climate factors, Nile delta, modeling

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223 Oil Exploration in the Niger Delta and the Right to a Healthy Environment

Authors: Olufunke Ayilara Aje-Famuyide

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The centrality of the Petroleum Industry in the world energy is undoubted. The world economy almost runs and depends on petroleum. Petroleum industry is a multi-trillion industry; it turns otherwise poor and underdeveloped countries into wealthy nations and thrusts them at the center of international diplomacy. Although these developing nations lack the necessary technology to explore and exploit petroleum resources they are not without help as developed nations, represented by their multinational corporations are ready and willing to provide both the technical and managerial expertise necessary for the development of this natural resource. However, the exploration of these petroleum resources comes with, sometimes, grave, concomitant consequences. These consequences are especially pronounced with respect to the environment. From the British Petroleum Oil rig explosion and the resultant oil spillage and pollution in New Mexico, United States to the Mobil Oil spillage along Nigerian coast, the story and consequence is virtually the same. Nigeria’s Niger Delta Region produces Nigeria’s petroleum which accounts for more than ninety-five percent of Nigeria’s foreign exchange earnings. Between 1999 and 2007, Nigeria earned more than $400 billion from petroleum exports. Nevertheless, petroleum exploration and exploitation has devastated the Niger Delta environment. From oil spillage which pollutes the rivers, farms and wetlands to gas flaring by the multi-national corporations; the consequences is similar-a region that has been devastated by petroleum exploitation. This paper thus seeks to examine the consequences and impact of petroleum pollution in the Niger Delta of Nigeria with particular reference on the right of the people of Niger Delta to a healthy environment. The paper further seeks to examine the relevant international, regional instrument and Nigeria’s municipal laws that are meant to protect the result of the people of the Niger Delta and their enforcement by the Nigerian State. It is quite worrisome that the Niger Delta Region and its people have suffered and are still suffering grave violations of their right to a healthy environment as a result of petroleum exploitation in their region. The Nigerian effort at best is half-hearted in its protection of the people’s right.

Keywords: environment, exploration, petroleum, pollution

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222 Population and Age Structure of the Goby Stigmatogobius pleurostigma in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

Authors: Quang M. Dinh

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Stigmatogobius pleurostigma is a commercial fish being caught increasingly in the Mekong Delta. Although it plays an important role for food supply, little is known about this species including morphology, distribution and growth pattern. Meanwhile, its population and age structure is unknown. The present study was conducted in the Mekong Delta to provide new data on population parameters of this goby species. The von Bertalanffy growth parameters were L∞= 8.6 cm, K = 0.83 yr⁻¹, and t0 = -0.07 yr⁻¹ basing on length frequency data analysis of 601 individuals. The fish total length at first capture was 3.8 cm; and fishing, natural and total mortalities of the fish population were 2.31 yr⁻¹, 1.17 yr⁻¹, and 3.48 yr⁻¹ respectively. The maximum fish yield (Eₘₐₓ), economic yield (E₀.₁) and yield of 50% reduction of exploitation (E₅₀) rates were 0.704, 0.555 and 0.335 based on the relative yield-per-recruit and biomass-per-recruit analyses. The fish longevity was 3.61 yr, and growth performance was 1.79. Three fish age groups were recorded in this study (0+, 1+ and 2+). The species is a potential aquaculture candidate because of its high growth parameter. This goby stock was overexploited in the Mekong Delta as its exploitation rate (E=0.34) was higher than E₅₀ (0.335). The mesh size of gillnets should be increased and avoid catching fish in June, recruitment time, for future sustainable fishery management.

Keywords: Stigmatogobius pleurostigma, age, population structure, Vietnam

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221 Frontal Oscillatory Activity and Phase–Amplitude Coupling during Chan Meditation

Authors: Arthur C. Tsai, Chii-Shyang Kuo, Vincent S. C. Chien, Michelle Liou, Philip E. Cheng

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Meditation enhances mental abilities and it is an antidote to anxiety. However, very little is known about brain mechanisms and cortico-subcortical interactions underlying meditation-induced anxiety relief. In this study, the changes of phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) in which the amplitude of the beta frequency band were modulated in phase with delta rhythm were investigated after eight-week of meditation training. The study hypothesized that through a concentrate but relaxed mental training the delta-beta coupling in the frontal regions is attenuated. The delta-beta coupling analysis was applied to within and between maximally-independent component sources returned from the extended infomax independent components analysis (ICA) algorithm on the continuous EEG data during mediation. A unique meditative concentration task through relaxing body and mind was used with a constant level of moderate mental effort, so as to approach an ‘emptiness’ meditative state. A pre-test/post-test control group design was used in this study. To evaluate cross-frequency phase-amplitude coupling of component sources, the modulation index (MI) with statistics to calculate circular phase statistics were estimated. Our findings reveal that a significant delta-beta decoupling was observed in a set of frontal regions bilaterally. In addition, beta frequency band of prefrontal component were amplitude modulated in phase with the delta rhythm of medial frontal component.

Keywords: phase-amplitude coupling, ICA, meditation, EEG

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220 Gas Flaring in the Niger Delta Nigeria: An Act of Inhumanity to Man and His Environment

Authors: Okorowo Cyril Agochi

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The Niger Delta Region of Nigeria is home to about 20 million people and 40 different ethnic groups. The region has an area of seventy thousand square kilometers (70,000 KM2) of wetlands, formed primarily by sediments deposition and makes up 7.5 percent of Nigeria's total landmass. The notable ecological zones in this region includes: coastal barrier islands; mangrove swamp forests; fresh water swamps; and lowland rainforests. This incredibly naturally-endowed ecosystem region, which contains one of the highest concentrations of biodiversity on the planet, in addition to supporting abundant flora and fauna, is threatened by the inhuman act known as gas flaring. Gas flaring is the combustion of natural gas that is associated with crude oil when it is pumped up from the ground. In petroleum-producing areas such as the Niger Delta region of Nigeria where insufficient investment was made in infrastructure to utilize natural gas, flaring is employed to dispose of this associated gas. This practice has impoverished the communities where it is practiced, with attendant environmental, economic and health challenges. This paper discusses the adverse environmental and health implication associated with the practice, the role of Government, Policy makers, Oil companies and the Local communities aimed at bring this inhuman practice to a prompt end.

Keywords: natural combustion, emission, environment, flaring, gas, health, Niger Delta

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
219 Solar Photovoltaic Driven Air-Conditioning for Commercial Buildings: A Case of Botswana

Authors: Taboka Motlhabane, Pradeep Sahoo

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The global demand for cooling has grown exponentially over the past century to meet economic development and social needs, accounting for approximately 10% of the global electricity consumption. As global temperatures continue to rise, the demand for cooling and heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment is set to rise with it. The increased use of HVAC equipment has significantly contributed to the growth of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions which aid the climate crisis- one of the biggest challenges faced by the current generation. The need to address emissions caused directly by HVAC equipment and electricity generated to meet the cooling or heating demand is ever more pressing. Currently, developed countries account for the largest cooling and heating demand, however developing countries are anticipated to experience a huge increase in population growth in 10 years, resulting in a shift in energy demand. Developing countries, which are projected to account for nearly 60% of the world's GDP by 2030, are rapidly building infrastructure and economies to meet their growing needs and meet these projections. Cooling, a very energy-intensive process that can account for 20 % to 75% of a building's energy, depending on the building's use. Solar photovoltaic (PV) driven air-conditioning offers a great cost-effective alternative for adoption in both residential and non-residential buildings to offset grid electricity, particularly in countries with high irradiation, such as Botswana. This research paper explores the potential of a grid-connected solar photovoltaic vapor-compression air-conditioning system for the Peter-Smith herbarium at the Okavango Research Institute (ORI) University of Botswana campus in Maun, Botswana. The herbarium plays a critical role in the collection and preservation of botanical data, dating back over 100 years, with pristine collection from the Okavango Delta, a UNESCO world heritage site and serves as a reference and research site. Due to the herbarium’s specific needs, it operates throughout the day and year in an attempt to maintain a constant herbarium temperature of 16°?. The herbarium model studied simulates a variable-air-volume HVAC system with a system rating of 30 kW. Simulation results show that the HVAC system accounts for 68.9% of the building's total electricity at 296 509.60 kWh annually. To offset the grid electricity, a 175.1 kWp nominal power rated PV system requiring 416 modules to match the required power, covering an area of 928 m2 is used to meet the HVAC system annual needs. An economic assessment using PVsyst found that for an installation priced with average solar PV prices in Botswana totalled to be 787 090.00 BWP, with annual operating costs of 30 500 BWP/year. With self-project financing, the project is estimated to have recouped its initial investment within 6.7 years. At an estimated project lifetime of 20 years, the Net Present Value is projected at 1 565 687.00 BWP with a ROI of 198.9%, with 74 070.67 tons of CO2 saved at the end of the project lifetime. This study investigates the performance of the HVAC system to meet the indoor air comfort requirements, the annual PV system performance, and the building model has been simulated using DesignBuilder Software.

Keywords: vapor compression refrigeration, solar cooling, renewable energy, herbarium

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218 Methods of Interpolating Temperature and Rainfall Distribution in Northern Vietnam

Authors: Thanh Van Hoang, Tien Yin Chou, Yao Min Fang, Yi Min Huang, Xuan Linh Nguyen

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Reliable information on the spatial distribution of annual rainfall and temperature is essential in research projects relating to urban and regional planning. This research presents results of a classification of temperature and rainfall in the Red River Delta of northern Vietnam based on measurements from seven meteorological stations (Ha Nam, Hung Yen, Lang, Nam Dinh, Ninh Binh, Phu Lien, Thai Binh) in the river basin over a thirty-years period from 1982-2011. The average accumulated rainfall trends in the delta are analysed and form the basis of research essential to weather and climate forecasting. This study employs interpolation based on the Kriging Method for daily rainfall (min and max) and daily temperature (min and max) in order to improve the understanding of sources of variation and uncertainly in these important meteorological parameters. To the Kriging method, the results will show the different models and the different parameters based on the various precipitation series. The results provide a useful reference to assist decision makers in developing smart agriculture strategies for the Red River Delta in Vietnam.

Keywords: spatial interpolation method, ArcGIS, temperature variability, rainfall variability, Red River Delta, Vietnam

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
217 Mechanism of Dual Ferroic Properties Formation in Substituted M-Type Hexaferrites

Authors: A. V. Trukhanov, S. V. Trukhanov, L. V. Panina, V. G. Kostishin, V. A. Turchenko

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It has been shown that BaFe12O19 is a perspective room-temperature multiferroic material. A large spontaneous polarization was observed for the BaFe12O19 ceramics revealing a clear ferroelectric hysteresis loop. The maximum polarization was estimated to be approximately 11.8 μC/cm2. The FeO6 octahedron in its perovskite-like hexagonal unit cell and the shift of Fe3+ off the center of octahedron are suggested to be the origin of the polarization in BaFe12O19. The magnetic field induced electric polarization has been also observed in the doped BaFe12-x-δScxMδO19 (δ=0.05) at 10 K and in the BaScxFe12−xO19 and SrScxFe12−xO19 (x = 1.3–1.7) M-type hexaferrites. The investigated BaFe12-xDxO19 (x=0.1, D-Al3+, In3+) samples have been obtained by two-step “topotactic” reactions. The powder neutron investigations of the samples were performed by neutron time of flight method at High Resolution Fourier Diffractometer.

Keywords: substituted hexaferrites, ferrimagnetics, ferroelectrics, neutron powder diffraction, crystal and magnetic structures

Procedia PDF Downloads 180