Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Search results for: Ioanna Papavassiliou-Alexiou

17 The Effects of Ethnicity, Personality and Religiosity on Desire for Personal Space

Authors: Ioanna Skoura

Abstract:

Past research shows that personal space has been investigated since the 1950s. Also, personality traits have been found to have a significant relationship with personal space. However, some of these studies have been criticized for being ethically inappropriate. In an attempt to avoid ethical issues, a new scale measuring desire for personal space has been created. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the impact of ethnicity on desire for personal space. Additionally, extraversion and neuroticism are expected to predict significantly desire for personal space. Furthermore, the study is looking for any impact of religiosity on desire for personal space. In order to test the previous hypotheses, 115 participants from three cultural groups (English, Greeks in Greece and Greeks in the UK) are recruited online. Results indicate that only extraversion and religiosity are significant predictors of desire for personal space. Implications of the findings are discussed and suggestions for future research are made.

Keywords: ethnicity, religiosity, personality, personal space

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16 Characterization and Geographical Differentiation of Yellow Prickly Pear Produced in Different Mediterranean Countries

Authors: Artemis Louppis, Michalis Constantinou, Ioanna Kosma, Federica Blando, Michael Kontominas, Anastasia Badeka

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The aim of the present study was to differentiate yellow prickly pear according to geographical origin based on the combination of mineral content, physicochemical parameters, vitamins and antioxidants. A total of 240 yellow prickly pear samples from Cyprus, Spain, Italy and Greece were analyzed for pH, titratable acidity, electrical conductivity, protein, moisture, ash, fat, antioxidant activity, individual antioxidants, sugars and vitamins by UPLC-MS/MS as well as minerals by ICP-MS. Statistical treatment of the data included multivariate analysis of variance followed by linear discriminant analysis. Based on results, a correct classification of 66.7% was achieved using the cross validation by mineral content while 86.1% was achieved using the cross validation method by combination of all analytical parameters.

Keywords: geographical differentiation, prickly pear, chemometrics, analytical techniques

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15 Brewing in a Domestic Refrigerator Using Freeze-Dried Raw Materials

Authors: Angelika-Ioanna Gialleli, Gousi Mantha, Maria Kanellaki, Bekatorou Argyro, Athanasios Koutinas

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In this study, a new brewing technology with dry raw materials is proposed with potential application in home brewing. Bio catalysts were prepared by immobilization of the psychrotolerant yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae AXAZ-1 on tubular cellulose. Both the word and the biocatalysts were freeze-dried without any cryoprotectants and used for low temperature brewing. The combination of immobilization and freeze-drying techniques was applied successfully, giving a potential for supplying breweries with preserved and ready-to-use immobilized cells. The effect of wort sugar concentration (7°, 8.5°, 10°Be), temperature (2, 5, 7° C) and carrier concentration (5, 10, 20 g/L) on fermentation kinetics and final product quality (volatiles, colour, polyphenols, bitterness) was assessed. The same procedure was repeated with free cells for comparison of the results. The results for immobilized cells were better compared to free cells regarding fermentation kinetics and organoleptic characteristics.

Keywords: brewing, tubular cellulose, low temperature, biocatalyst

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14 The Significance of Seasonality on the Airport Efficiency in Touristic Regions

Authors: Ioanna Pagoni, Annitsa Koumoutsidi

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The aim of this paper is to estimate the efficiency of airports that are located in touristic regions. It focuses on the regional airports of Greece, which are located at the mainland and the islands that constitute touristic destinations. Most of these airports share the following characteristics. They operate at levels below capacity with a high level of seasonality to their traffic. In addition, in such airports, the operation of charter and low-cost airlines is significant. The efficiency of the study airports is calculated by using the non-parametric data envelopment analysis during the period of 2010-2016. The selected inputs include several airport infrastructure measures such as passenger terminal size, aircraft parking area, runway length, and the number of check-in counters, while the number of employees in each airport is also used. The number of passengers and aircraft movements are selected as outputs. The effect of seasonality, as well as the operation of charter airlines and low-cost carriers on airport efficiency, is estimated by running proper regression models. Preliminary findings indicate that low-cost and charter airlines contribute to increasing airport efficiency for most of the study airports. The results of this research could be useful for airlines, airport operators, hotel businesses, and other tourism-related operators.

Keywords: airport efficiency, data envelopment analysis, low-cost carriers, charter airlines, seasonality

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13 Sexting Phenomenon in Educational Settings: A Data Mining Approach

Authors: Koutsopoulou Ioanna, Gkintoni Evgenia, Halkiopoulos Constantinos, Antonopoulou Hera

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Recent advances in Internet Computer Technology (ICT) and the ever-increasing use of technological equipment amongst adolescents and young adults along with unattended access to the internet and social media and uncontrolled use of smart phones and PCs have caused social problems like sexting to emerge. The main purpose of the present article is first to present an analytic theoretical framework of sexting as a recent social phenomenon based on studies that have been conducted the last decade or so; and second to investigate Greek students’ and also social network users, sexting perceptions and to record how often social media users exchange sexual messages and to retrace demographic variables predictors. Data from 1,000 students were collected and analyzed and all statistical analysis was done by the software package WEKA. The results indicate among others, that the use of data mining methods is an important tool to draw conclusions that could affect decision and policy making especially in the field and related social topics of educational psychology. To sum up, sexting lurks many risks for adolescents and young adults students in Greece and needs to be better addressed in relevance to the stakeholders as well as society in general. Furthermore, policy makers, legislation makers and authorities will have to take action to protect minors. Prevention strategies based on Greek cultural specificities are being proposed. This social problem has raised concerns in recent years and will most likely escalate concerns in global communities in the future.

Keywords: educational ethics, sexting, Greek sexters, sex education, data mining

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12 Action Research through Drama in Education on Adolescents’ Career Self-Efficacy and Decision-Making Skills Development

Authors: Christina Zourna, Ioanna Papavassiliou-Alexiou

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The purpose of this multi-phased action research PhD study in Greece was to investigate if and how Drama in Education (DiE) – used as an innovative group counselling method – may have positive effects on secondary education students’career self-efficacy and career decision-making skills development. Using both quantitative and qualitative research tools, high quality data were gathered at various stages of the research and were analysed through multivariate methods and open-source computer aided data analysis software such as R Studio, QualCoder, and SPSS packages. After a five-month-long educational intervention based on DiE method, it was found that 9th, 10th, and 11th gradersameliorated their self-efficacy and learned the process of making an informed career decision – through targeted information gathering about themselves and possible study paths – thus, developing career problem-solving and career management skills. Gender differences were non statistically important, while differences in grades showed a minor influence on some of the measured factorssuch as general career indecisiveness and self-evaluation. Students in the 11th grade scored significantly higher than younger students in the career self-efficacy scale and have stronger faith in their abilities e.g., choosing general over vocational school and major study orientation. The study has shown that DiE can be effective in group career guidance, especially concerning the pillars of self-awareness, self-efficacy, and career decision-making processes.

Keywords: career decision-making skills, career self-efficacy, CDDQ scale, CDMSE-SF scale, drama in education method

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11 The Effect of Iconic and Beat Gestures on Memory Recall in Greek’s First and Second Language

Authors: Eleni Ioanna Levantinou

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Gestures play a major role in comprehension and memory recall due to the fact that aid the efficient channel of the meaning and support listeners’ comprehension and memory. In the present study, the assistance of two kinds of gestures (iconic and beat gestures) is tested in regards to memory and recall. The hypothesis investigated here is whether or not iconic and beat gestures provide assistance in memory and recall in Greek and in Greek speakers’ second language. Two groups of participants were formed, one comprising Greeks that reside in Athens and one with Greeks that reside in Copenhagen. Three kinds of stimuli were used: A video with words accompanied with iconic gestures, a video with words accompanied with beat gestures and a video with words alone. The languages used are Greek and English. The words in the English videos were spoken by a native English speaker and by a Greek speaker talking English. The reason for this is that when it comes to beat gestures that serve a meta-cognitive function and are generated according to the intonation of a language, prosody plays a major role. Thus, participants that have different influences in prosody may generate different results from rhythmic gestures. Memory recall was assessed by asking the participants to try to remember as many words as they could after viewing each video. Results show that iconic gestures provide significant assistance in memory and recall in Greek and in English whether they are produced by a native or a second language speaker. In the case of beat gestures though, the findings indicate that beat gestures may not play such a significant role in Greek language. As far as intonation is concerned, a significant difference was not found in the case of beat gestures produced by a native English speaker and by a Greek speaker talking English.

Keywords: first language, gestures, memory, second language acquisition

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10 Peptidoglycan Vaccine-On-Chip against a Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Experimental Sepsis Model

Authors: Katerina Bakela, Ioanna Zerva, Irene Athanassakis

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Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is commonly used in murine sepsis models, which are largely associated with immunosuppression (incretion of MDSCs cells and Tregs, imbalance of inflammatory/anti-inflammatory cytokines) and collapse of the immune system. After adapting the LPS treatment to the needs of locally bred BALB/c mice, the present study explored the protective role of Micrococcus luteus peptidoglycan (PG) pre-activated vaccine-on chip in endotoxemia. The established protocol consisted of five daily intraperitoneal injections of 0.2mg/g LPS. Such protocol allowed longer survival, necessary in the prospect of the therapeutic treatment application. The so-called vaccine-on-chip consists of a 3-dimensional laser micro-texture Si-scaffold loaded with BALB/c mouse macrophages and activated in vitro with 1μg/ml PG, which exert its action upon subcutaneous implantation. The LPS treatment significantly decreased CD4+, CD8+, CD3z+, and CD19+ cells, while increasing myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), CD25+, and Foxp3+ cells. These results were accompanied by increased arginase-1 activity in spleen cell lysates and production of IL-6, TNF-a, and IL-18 while acquiring severe sepsis phenotype as defined by the murine sepsis scoring. The in vivo application of PG pre-activated vaccine-on chip significantly decreased the percent of CD11b+, Gr1+, CD25+, Foxp3+ cells, and arginase-1 activity in the spleen of LPS-treated animals, while decreasing IL-6 and TNF-a in the serum, allowing survival to all animals tested and rescuing the severity of sepsis phenotype. In conclusion, these results reveal a promising mode of action of PG pre-activated vaccine-on chip in LPS endotoxemia, strengthening; thus, the use of treatment is septic patients.

Keywords: myeloid-derived suppressor cells, peptidoglycan, sepsis, Si-scaffolds

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9 A Personality-Based Behavioral Analysis on eSports

Authors: Halkiopoulos Constantinos, Gkintoni Evgenia, Koutsopoulou Ioanna, Antonopoulou Hera

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E-sports and e-gaming have emerged in recent years since the increase in internet use have become universal and e-gamers are the new reality in our homes. The excessive involvement of young adults with e-sports has already been revealed and the adverse consequences have been reported in researches in the past few years, but the issue has not been fully studied yet. The present research is conducted in Greece and studies the psychological profile of video game players and provides information on personality traits, habits and emotional status that affect online gamers’ behaviors in order to help professionals and policy makers address the problem. Three standardized self-report questionnaires were administered to participants who were young male and female adults aged from 19-26 years old. The Profile of Mood States (POMS) scale was used to evaluate people’s perceptions of their everyday life mood; the personality features that can trace back to people’s habits and anticipated reactions were measured by Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), and the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue) was used to measure which cognitive (gamers’ beliefs) and emotional parameters (gamers’ emotional abilities) mainly affected/ predicted gamers’ behaviors and leisure time activities?/ gaming behaviors. Data mining techniques were used to analyze the data, which resulted in machine learning algorithms that were included in the software package R. The research findings attempt to designate the effect of personality traits, emotional status and emotional intelligence influence and correlation with e-sports, gamers’ behaviors and help policy makers and stakeholders take action, shape social policy and prevent the adverse consequences on young adults. The need for further research, prevention and treatment strategies is also addressed.

Keywords: e-sports, e-gamers, personality traits, POMS, emotional intelligence, data mining, R

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8 Process of Analysis, Evaluation and Verification of the 'Real' Redevelopment of the Public Open Space at the Neighborhood’s Stairs: Case Study of Serres, Greece

Authors: Ioanna Skoufali

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The present study is directed towards adaptation to climate change closely related to the phenomenon of the urban heat island (UHI). This issue is widespread and common to different urban realities, but particularly in Mediterranean cities that are characterized by dense urban. The attention of this work of redevelopment of the open space is focused on mitigation techniques aiming to solve local problems such as microclimatic parameters and the conditions of thermal comfort in summer, related to urban morphology. This quantitative analysis, evaluation, and verification survey involves the methodological elaboration applied in a real study case by Serres, through the experimental support of the ENVImet Pro V4.1 and BioMet software developed: i) in two phases concerning the anteoperam (phase a1 # 2013) and the post-operam (phase a2 # 2016); ii) in scenario A (+ 25% of green # 2017). The first study tends to identify the main intervention strategies, namely: the application of cool pavements, the increase of green surfaces, the creation of water surface and external fans; moreover, it obtains the minimum results achieved by the National Program 'Bioclimatic improvement project for public open space', EPPERAA (ESPA 2007-2013) related to the four environmental parameters illustrated below: the TAir = 1.5 o C, the TSurface = 6.5 o C, CDH = 30% and PET = 20%. In addition, the second study proposes a greater potential for improvement than postoperam intervention by increasing the vegetation within the district towards the SW/SE. The final objective of this in-depth design is to be transferable in homogeneous cases of urban regeneration processes with obvious effects on the efficiency of microclimatic mitigation and thermal comfort.

Keywords: cool pavements, microclimate parameters (TAir, Tsurface, Tmrt, CDH), mitigation strategies, outdoor thermal comfort (PET & UTCI)

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7 Professional Skills Development of Educational Leaders Through Drama in Education: An Example of Best Practice in Greece

Authors: Christina Zourna, Ioanna Papavassiliou-Alexiou

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Drama in Education (DiE) is a dynamic experiential method that can be used in many interdisciplinary contexts. In the Educational and Social Policy Department, University of Macedonia, Thessaloniki, Greece, DiE is being used as a core method for developing professional competences in pre- and postgraduate courses as well as adult education training programs. In this presentation, an innovative DiE application will be described concerning the development of educational leaders’ skills necessary to meet unprecedented, unexpected challenges in the 21st century schools. In a non-threatening risk-taking no-penalty environment, future educational leaders live-in-role problems, challenges, and dilemmas before having to face similar ones in their profession. Through personal involvement, emotional engagement, and reflection, via individual and group activities, they experience the behaviour, dilemmas, decision-making processes, and informed choices of a recognized leader and are able to make connections with their own life. As pretext serves the life of Alexander the Great, the Macedonian King who defeated the vast Persian empire in the 4th century BC and, by uniting all Greeks, conquered the up-to-date known eastern world thanks to his authentic leadership skills and exceptional personality traits. Since the early years of his education mastered by the famous Greek philosopher Aristotle, Alexander proved his unique qualities by providing the world with the example of an undeniably genuine, inspirational, effective, and most recognizable authentic leader. Through questionnaires and individual interviews, participants in these workshops revealed how they developed active listening, empathy, creativity, imagination, critical strategic and out-of-the-box thinking, cooperation and own vision communicating, crisis management skills, self-efficacy, self-awareness, self-exposure, information management, negotiation and inspiration skills, enhanced sense of responsibility and commitment, and decision-making skills.

Keywords: drama in education method, educational leadership, professional competences, skills’ development

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6 Enhancing Cooperation Between LEAs and Citizens: The INSPEC2T Approach

Authors: George Leventakis, George Kokkinis, Nikos Moustakidis, George Papalexandratos, Ioanna Vasiliadou

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Enhancing the feeling of public safety and crime prevention are tasks customarily assigned to the Police. Police departments have, however, recognized that traditional ways of policing methods are becoming obsolete; Community Policing (CP) philosophy; however, when applied appropriately, leads to seamless collaboration between various stakeholders like the Police, NGOs and the general public and provides the opportunity to identify risks, assist in solving problems of crime, disorder, safety and crucially contribute to improving the quality of life for everyone in a community. Social Media, on the other hand, due to its high level of infiltration in modern life, constitutes a powerful mechanism which offers additional and direct communication channels to reach individuals or communities. These channels can be utilized to improve the citizens’ perception of the Police and to capture individual and community needs, when their feedback is taken into account by Law Enforcement Agencies (LEAs) in a structured and coordinated manner. This paper presents research conducted under INSPEC2T (Inspiring CitizeNS Participation for Enhanced Community PoliCing AcTions), a project funded by the European Commission’s research agenda to bridge the gap between CP as a philosophy and as an organizational strategy, capitalizing on the use of Social Media. The project aims to increase transparency, trust, police accountability, and the role of civil society. It aspires to build strong, trusting relationships between LEAs and the public, supporting two-way, contemporary communication while at the same time respecting anonymity of all affected parties. Results presented herein summarize the outcomes of four online multilingual surveys, focus group interviews, desktop research and interviews with experts in the field of CP practices. The above research activities were conducted in various EU countries aiming to capture requirements of end users from diverse backgrounds (social, cultural, legal and ethical) and determine public expectations regarding CP, community safety and crime prevention.

Keywords: community partnerships, next generation community policing, social media, public safety

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5 Riverine Urban Heritage: A Basis for Green Infrastructure

Authors: Ioanna H. Lioliou, Despoina D. Zavraka

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The radical reformation that Greek urban space, has undergone over the last century, due to the socio-historical developments, technological development and political–geographic factors, has left its imprint on the urban landscape. While the big cities struggle to regain urban landscape balance, small towns are considered to offer high quality lifescapes, ensuring sustainable development potential. However, their unplanned urbanization process led to the loss of significant areas of nature, lack of essential infrastructure, chaotic built environment, incompatible land uses and urban cohesiveness. Natural environment reference points, such as springs, streams, rivers, forests, suburban greenbelts, and etc.; seems to be detached from urban space, while the public, open and green spaces, unequally distributed in the built environment, they are no longer able to offer a complete experience of nature in the city. This study focuses on Greek mainland, a small town Elassona, and aims to restore spatial coherence between the city’s homonymous river and its urban space surroundings. The existence of a linear aquatic ecosystem, is considered a precious greenway, also referred as blueway, able to initiate natural penetrations and ecosystems empowering. The integration of disconnected natural ecosystems forms the basis of a strategic intervention scheme, where the river becomes the urban integration tool / feature, constituting the main urban corridor and an indispensible part of a wider green network that connects open and green spaces, ensuring the function of all the established networks (transportation, commercial, social) of the town. The proposed intervention, introduces a green network highlighting the old stone bridge at the ‘entrance’ of the river in the town and expanding throughout the town with strategic uses and activities, providing accessibility for all the users. The methodology used, is based on the collection of design tools used in related urban river-design interventions around the world. The reinstallation/reactivation of the balance between natural and urban landscape, besides the environmental benefits, contributes decisively to the illustration/projection of urban green identity and re-enhancement of the quality of lifescape qualities and social interaction.

Keywords: green network, rehabilitation scheme, urban landscape, urban streams

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4 Metacognitive Processing in Early Readers: The Role of Metacognition in Monitoring Linguistic and Non-Linguistic Performance and Regulating Students' Learning

Authors: Ioanna Taouki, Marie Lallier, David Soto

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Metacognition refers to the capacity to reflect upon our own cognitive processes. Although there is an ongoing discussion in the literature on the role of metacognition in learning and academic achievement, little is known about its neurodevelopmental trajectories in early childhood, when children begin to receive formal education in reading. Here, we evaluate the metacognitive ability, estimated under a recently developed Signal Detection Theory model, of a cohort of children aged between 6 and 7 (N=60), who performed three two-alternative-forced-choice tasks (two linguistic: lexical decision task, visual attention span task, and one non-linguistic: emotion recognition task) including trial-by-trial confidence judgements. Our study has three aims. First, we investigated how metacognitive ability (i.e., how confidence ratings track accuracy in the task) relates to performance in general standardized tasks related to students' reading and general cognitive abilities using Spearman's and Bayesian correlation analysis. Second, we assessed whether or not young children recruit common mechanisms supporting metacognition across the different task domains or whether there is evidence for domain-specific metacognition at this early stage of development. This was done by examining correlations in metacognitive measures across different task domains and evaluating cross-task covariance by applying a hierarchical Bayesian model. Third, using robust linear regression and Bayesian regression models, we assessed whether metacognitive ability in this early stage is related to the longitudinal learning of children in a linguistic and a non-linguistic task. Notably, we did not observe any association between students’ reading skills and metacognitive processing in this early stage of reading acquisition. Some evidence consistent with domain-general metacognition was found, with significant positive correlations between metacognitive efficiency between lexical and emotion recognition tasks and substantial covariance indicated by the Bayesian model. However, no reliable correlations were found between metacognitive performance in the visual attention span and the remaining tasks. Remarkably, metacognitive ability significantly predicted children's learning in linguistic and non-linguistic domains a year later. These results suggest that metacognitive skill may be dissociated to some extent from general (i.e., language and attention) abilities and further stress the importance of creating educational programs that foster students’ metacognitive ability as a tool for long term learning. More research is crucial to understand whether these programs can enhance metacognitive ability as a transferable skill across distinct domains or whether unique domains should be targeted separately.

Keywords: confidence ratings, development, metacognitive efficiency, reading acquisition

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3 Consumer Cognitive Models of Vaccine Attitudes: Behavioral Informed Strategies Promoting Vaccination Policy in Greece

Authors: Halkiopoulos Constantinos, Koutsopoulou Ioanna, Gkintoni Evgenia, Antonopoulou Hera

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Immunization appears to be an essential part of health care service in times of pandemics such as covid-19 and aims not only to protect the health of the population but also the health and sustainability of the economies of the countries affected. It is reported that more than 3.44 billion doses have been administered so far, which accounts for 45 doses for 100 people. Vaccination programs in various countries have been promoted and accepted by people differently and therefore they proceeded in different ways and speed; most countries directing them towards people with vulnerable chronic or recent health statuses. Large scale restriction measures or lockdown, personal protection measures such as masks and gloves and a decrease in leisure and sports activities were also implemented around the world as part of the protection health strategies against the covid-19 pandemic. This research aims to present an analysis based on variations on people’s attitudes towards vaccination based on demographic, social and epidemiological characteristics, and health status on the one hand and perception of health, health satisfaction, pain, and quality of life on the other hand. 1500 Greek e-consumers participated in the research, mainly through social media who took part in an online-based survey voluntarily. The questionnaires included demographic, social and medical characteristics of the participants, and questions asking people’s willingness to be vaccinated and their opinion on whether there should be a vaccine against covid-19. Other stressor factors were also reported in the questionnaires and participants’ loss of someone close due to covid-19, or staying at home quarantine due to being infected from covid-19. WHOQUOL-BREF and GLOBAL PSYCHOTRAUMA SCREEN- GPS were used with kind permission from WHO and from the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies in this study. Attitudes towards vaccination varied significantly related to aging, level of education, health status and consumer behavior. Health professionals’ attitudes also varied in relation to age, level of education, profession, health status and consumer needs. Vaccines have been the most common technological aid of human civilization so far in the fight against viruses. The results of this study can be used for health managers and digital marketers of pharmaceutical companies and also other staff involved in vaccination programs and for designing health policy immunization strategies during pandemics in order to achieve positive attitudes towards vaccination and larger populations being vaccinated in shorter periods of time after the break out of pandemic. Health staff needs to be trained, aided and supervised to go through with vaccination programs and to be protected through vaccination programs themselves. Feedback in each country’s vaccination program, short backs, deficiencies and delays should be addressed and worked out.

Keywords: consumer behavior, cognitive models, vaccination policy, pandemic, Covid-19, Greece

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2 Cultivating Students’ Competences through Social Innovation Education

Authors: Ioanna Garefi, Irene Kalemaki

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Education is not solely about preparing young people for the world of work but also about equipping them with competences that will enable them to become socially proactive, empowered, responsible, and engaged citizens who will collectively contribute to and benefit from an inclusive and sustainable future. Hence, progress assessment towards competence development is an ongoing process where continuous efforts are needed. This paper abstract presents the work of the H2020 NEMESIS project that aims to investigate, experiment and co-create together with schools a model for introducing and embedding social innovation education (SIE henceforth) in European primary and secondary schools. All in all, during the 2018-2019 academic year, 8 schools from 5 European countries involving 56 teachers, 1030 students, and 80 external stakeholders, experimented with different methodologies for embedding SIE in their contexts. This paper captures briefly the impact of these efforts towards the cultivation and progression of students’ social innovation (SI henceforth) competences. As part of the model, 14 SI competences, whose progress was evaluated, have been introduced falling under 3 interrelated categories: competences for identifying opportunities for social and collective value creation, competences for developing collaborations and building meaningful relations and competences for taking action both on an individual and collective level. Methodologically wise, the evaluation strategy employed was informed by a realist approach, enabling the researchers to go beyond synthesizing 'what happened' and towards understanding 'why it happened', delving into ‘what works, for whom and in what circumstances’. The reason for choosing such an approach was because it goes beyond attempting to answer the basic yes or no question of evaluation and focus on an ‘explanatory quest’ tracing the limits of when and where intervention is effective. A rich mix of sources of evidence have been employed, from focus groups with 80 people from the 5 EU countries to an online survey to 206 students, classroom observations, students’ narratives granting them with the opportunity to freely express their opinions, short stories letting students express their feelings through their imagination and also, drawings so that younger children can express their perception of reality. All these evidences offered insights on the impact of SIE on the development of students’ competences. Research findings showed that students progressed in all 14 SI competences through their involvement in the different activities. This positive progression is attributed to the model’s three core principles: 1) the student-centered approach, rendering students active and self-determined producers of their own learning, 2) the co-creation process fostering intergenerational interactions, empowering thus students by making their voices heard and valued and also, 3) the transformative social action whereby through their projects, students are able to witness the impact they are bringing about with their actions. Concluding, these initial findings, together with the forthcoming evaluation research to a pool of 30 schools around Europe, have the potential to raise the dynamics of the under-investigated field of SIE and encourage its embeddedness in more schools around Europe.

Keywords: competence development, education, social innovation, students

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1 Measuring the Impact of Social Innovation Education on Student’s Engagement

Authors: Irene Kalemaki, Ioanna Garefi

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Social Innovation Education (SIE) is a new educational approach that aims to empower students to take action for a more democratic and sustainable society. Conceptually and pedagogically wise, it is situated at the intersection of Enterprise Education and Citizenship Education as it aspires to i) combine action with activism, ii) personal development with collective efficacy, iii) entrepreneurial mindsets with democratic values and iv) individual competences with collective competences. This paper abstract presents the work of the NEMESIS project, funded by H2020, that aims to design, test and validate the first consolidated approach for embedding Social Innovation Education in schools of primary and secondary education. During the academic year 2018-2019, eight schools from five European countries experimented with different approaches and methodologies to incorporate SIE in their settings. This paper reports briefly on these attempts and discusses the wider educational philosophy underlying these interventions with a particular focus on analyzing the learning outcomes and impact on students. That said, this paper doesn’t only report on the theoretical and practical underpinnings of SIE, but most importantly, it provides evidence on the impact of SIE on students. In terms of methodology, the study took place from September 2018 to July 2019 in eight schools from Greece, Spain, Portugal, France, and the UK involving directly 56 teachers, 1030 students and 69 community stakeholders. Focus groups, semi-structured interviews, classroom observations as well as students' written narratives were used to extract data on the impact of SIE on students. The overall design of the evaluation activities was informed by a realist approach, which enabled us to go beyond “what happened” and towards understanding “why it happened”. Research findings suggested that SIE can benefit students in terms of their emotional, cognitive, behavioral and agentic engagement. Specifically, the emotional engagement of students was increased because through SIE interventions; students voice was heard, valued, and acted upon. This made students feel important to their school, increasing their sense of belonging, confidence and level of autonomy. As regards cognitive engagement, both students and teachers reported positive outcomes as SIE enabled students to take ownership of their ideas to drive their projects forward and thus felt more motivated to perform in class because it felt personal, important and relevant to them. In terms of behavioral engagement, the inclusive environment and the collective relationships that were reinforced through the SIE interventions had a direct positive impact on behaviors among peers. Finally, with regard to agentic engagement, it has been observed that students became very proactive which was connected to the strong sense of ownership and enthusiasm developed during collective efforts to deliver real-life social innovations. Concluding, from a practical and policy point of view these research findings could encourage the inclusion of SIE in schools, while from a research point of view, they could contribute to the scientific discourse providing evidence and clarity on the emergent field of SIE.

Keywords: education, engagement, social innovation, students

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