Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1792

Search results for: Fourier transform infrared

1792 The Optical OFDM Equalization Based on the Fractional Fourier Transform

Authors: A. Cherifi, B. S. Bouazza, A. O. Dahman, B. Yagoubi


Transmission over Optical channels will introduce inter-symbol interference (ISI) as well as inter-channel (or inter-carrier) interference (ICI). To decrease the effects of ICI, this paper proposes equalizer for the Optical OFDM system based on the fractional Fourier transform (FrFFT). In this FrFT-OFDM system, traditional Fourier transform is replaced by fractional Fourier transform to modulate and demodulate the data symbols. The equalizer proposed consists of sampling the received signal in the different time per time symbol. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulation are discussed.

Keywords: OFDM, fractional fourier transform, internet and information technology

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1791 Equalization Algorithm for the Optical OFDM System Based on the Fractional Fourier Transform

Authors: A. Cherifi, B. Bouazza, A. O. Dahmane, B. Yagoubi


Transmission over Optical channels will introduce inter-symbol interference (ISI) as well as inter-channel (or inter-carrier) interference (ICI). To decrease the effects of ICI, this paper proposes equalizer for the Optical OFDM system based on the fractional Fourier transform (FrFFT). In this FrFT-OFDM system, traditional Fourier transform is replaced by fractional Fourier transform to modulate and demodulate the data symbols. The equalizer proposed consists of sampling the received signal in the different time per time symbol. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulation are discussed.

Keywords: OFDM, (FrFT) fractional fourier transform, optical OFDM, equalization algorithm

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1790 Characterization of Inkjet-Printed Carbon Nanotube Electrode Patterns on Cotton Fabric

Authors: N. Najafi, Laleh Maleknia , M. E. Olya


An aqueous conductive ink of single-walled carbon nanotubes for inkjet printing was formulated. To prepare the homogeneous SWCNT ink in a size small enough not to block a commercial inkjet printer nozzle, we used a kinetic ball-milling process to disperse the SWCNTs in an aqueous suspension. When a patterned electrode was overlaid by repeated inkjet printings of the ink on various types of fabric, the fabric resistance decreased rapidly following a power law, reaching approximately 760 X/sq, which is the lowest value ever for a dozen printings. The Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectra revealed that the oxidation of the SWCNTs was the source of the doped impurities. This study proved also that the droplet ejection velocity can have an impact on the CNT distribution and consequently on the electrical performances of the ink.

Keywords: ink-jet printing, carbon nanotube, fabric ink, cotton fabric, raman spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, dozen printings

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1789 On Fourier Type Integral Transform for a Class of Generalized Quotients

Authors: A. S. Issa, S. K. Q. AL-Omari


In this paper, we investigate certain spaces of generalized functions for the Fourier and Fourier type integral transforms. We discuss convolution theorems and establish certain spaces of distributions for the considered integrals. The new Fourier type integral is well-defined, linear, one-to-one and continuous with respect to certain types of convergences. Many properties and an inverse problem are also discussed in some details.

Keywords: Boehmian, Fourier integral, Fourier type integral, generalized quotient

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
1788 Construction of Graph Signal Modulations via Graph Fourier Transform and Its Applications

Authors: Xianwei Zheng, Yuan Yan Tang


Classical window Fourier transform has been widely used in signal processing, image processing, machine learning and pattern recognition. The related Gabor transform is powerful enough to capture the texture information of any given dataset. Recently, in the emerging field of graph signal processing, researchers devoting themselves to develop a graph signal processing theory to handle the so-called graph signals. Among the new developing theory, windowed graph Fourier transform has been constructed to establish a time-frequency analysis framework of graph signals. The windowed graph Fourier transform is defined by using the translation and modulation operators of graph signals, following the similar calculations in classical windowed Fourier transform. Specifically, the translation and modulation operators of graph signals are defined by using the Laplacian eigenvectors as follows. For a given graph signal, its translation is defined by a similar manner as its definition in classical signal processing. Specifically, the translation operator can be defined by using the Fourier atoms; the graph signal translation is defined similarly by using the Laplacian eigenvectors. The modulation of the graph can also be established by using the Laplacian eigenvectors. The windowed graph Fourier transform based on these two operators has been applied to obtain time-frequency representations of graph signals. Fundamentally, the modulation operator is defined similarly to the classical modulation by multiplying a graph signal with the entries in each Fourier atom. However, a single Laplacian eigenvector entry cannot play a similar role as the Fourier atom. This definition ignored the relationship between the translation and modulation operators. In this paper, a new definition of the modulation operator is proposed and thus another time-frequency framework for graph signal is constructed. Specifically, the relationship between the translation and modulation operations can be established by the Fourier transform. Specifically, for any signal, the Fourier transform of its translation is the modulation of its Fourier transform. Thus, the modulation of any signal can be defined as the inverse Fourier transform of the translation of its Fourier transform. Therefore, similarly, the graph modulation of any graph signal can be defined as the inverse graph Fourier transform of the translation of its graph Fourier. The novel definition of the graph modulation operator established a relationship of the translation and modulation operations. The new modulation operation and the original translation operation are applied to construct a new framework of graph signal time-frequency analysis. Furthermore, a windowed graph Fourier frame theory is developed. Necessary and sufficient conditions for constructing windowed graph Fourier frames, tight frames and dual frames are presented in this paper. The novel graph signal time-frequency analysis framework is applied to signals defined on well-known graphs, e.g. Minnesota road graph and random graphs. Experimental results show that the novel framework captures new features of graph signals.

Keywords: graph signals, windowed graph Fourier transform, windowed graph Fourier frames, vertex frequency analysis

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1787 Discrimination Between Bacillus and Alicyclobacillus Isolates in Apple Juice by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Multivariate Analysis

Authors: Murada Alholy, Mengshi Lin, Omar Alhaj, Mahmoud Abugoush


Alicyclobacillus is a causative agent of spoilage in pasteurized and heat-treated apple juice products. Differentiating between this genus and the closely related Bacillus is crucially important. In this study, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was used to identify and discriminate between four Alicyclobacillus strains and four Bacillus isolates inoculated individually into apple juice. Loading plots over the range of 1350 and 1700 cm-1 reflected the most distinctive biochemical features of Bacillus and Alicyclobacillus. Multivariate statistical methods (e.g. principal component analysis (PCA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA)) were used to analyze the spectral data. Distinctive separation of spectral samples was observed. This study demonstrates that FT-IR spectroscopy in combination with multivariate analysis could serve as a rapid and effective tool for fruit juice industry to differentiate between Bacillus and Alicyclobacillus and to distinguish between species belonging to these two genera.

Keywords: alicyclobacillus, bacillus, FT-IR, spectroscopy, PCA

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1786 Antioxidant, Antibacterial and Functional Group Analysis of Ethanolic Extract of Hylocereus undatus and Garcinia indica by Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

Authors: Ajay Krishnamurthy, Mariyappan Mahesh Kumar, Sellamuthu Periyar Selvam


Fruits are considered as functional foods due to the presence of various bioactive compounds available such as polyphenols, which are beneficial to health when consumed as part of our diet. The primary objective of this study was to analyze the various functional groups present in ethanolic extracts of Hylocereus undatus and Garcinia indica and also measure their antibacterial and antioxidant potential respectively thereby affirming its nutraceutical potential. To fulfill our objective, a Fourier - transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was conducted for functional group analysis, Total Phenolic Content and DPPH free radical scavenging activity for measuring it anti-oxidant potential and agar-well diffusion assay for antibacterial potential. On careful observation and analysis of the spectrum it was found that both the fruit extracts contain similar compounds viz. Phenols, Alkanes, Alkenes, Aldehydes, Ketones, Carboxylic Acid and Amines. Total phenolic content of H.undatus and G.indica was estimated to be (26.85 ± 1.84 mg GAE/100g) and (32.84 ± 1.63 mg GAE/100g) respectively which corresponds to an inhibition of 84% and 81% respectively. H.undatus shows an inhibition of (3.4 ± 2.1mm) in gram-positive and (4.2 ± 2.24mm) in gram-negative organism on the other hand G.indica shows (2.1 ± 0.98mm) in gram-positive and (3.1 ± 1.44mm) in gram negative. The presence of such diverse compounds in the fruits helps us to understand the necessity for the inclusion of fruits in our daily diet and also helps the pharmaceutical industry in realizing the importance of exotic fruits as a potential nutraceutical.

Keywords: DPPH, fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Hylocereus undatus, Garcinia indica

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1785 Rapid Discrimination of Porcine and Tilapia Fish Gelatin by Fourier Transform Infrared- Attenuated Total Reflection Combined with 2 Dimensional Infrared Correlation Analysis

Authors: Norhidayu Muhamad Zain


Gelatin, a purified protein derived mostly from porcine and bovine sources, is used widely in food manufacturing, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. However, the presence of any porcine-related products are strictly forbidden for Muslim and Jewish consumption. Therefore, analytical methods offering reliable results to differentiate the sources of gelatin are needed. The aim of this study was to differentiate the sources of gelatin (porcine and tilapia fish) using Fourier transform infrared- attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR) combined with two dimensional infrared (2DIR) correlation analysis. Porcine gelatin (PG) and tilapia fish gelatin (FG) samples were diluted in distilled water at concentrations ranged from 4-20% (w/v). The samples were then analysed using FTIR-ATR and 2DIR correlation software. The results showed a significant difference in the pattern map of synchronous spectra at the region of 1000 cm⁻¹ to 1100 cm⁻¹ between PG and FG samples. The auto peak at 1080 cm⁻¹ that attributed to C-O functional group was observed at high intensity in PG samples compared to FG samples. Meanwhile, two auto peaks (1080 cm⁻¹ and 1030 cm⁻¹) at lower intensity were identified in FG samples. In addition, using 2D correlation analysis, the original broad water OH bands in 1D IR spectra can be effectively differentiated into six auto peaks located at 3630, 3340, 3230, 3065, 2950 and 2885 cm⁻¹ for PG samples and five auto peaks at 3630, 3330, 3230, 3060 and 2940 cm⁻¹ for FG samples. Based on the rule proposed by Noda, the sequence of the spectral changes in PG samples is as following: NH₃⁺ amino acid > CH₂ and CH₃ aliphatic > OH stretch > carboxylic acid OH stretch > NH in secondary amide > NH in primary amide. In contrast, the sequence was totally in the opposite direction for FG samples and thus both samples provide different 2D correlation spectra ranged from 2800 cm-1 to 3700 cm⁻¹. This method may provide a rapid determination of gelatin source for application in food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic products.

Keywords: 2 dimensional infrared (2DIR) correlation analysis, Fourier transform infrared- attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR), porcine gelatin, tilapia fish gelatin

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1784 Thermal Properties of Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxanes/Polyimide Nanocomposite

Authors: Seyfullah Madakbas, Hatice Birtane, Memet Vezir Kahraman


In this study, we aimed to synthesize and characterize polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes containing polyimide nanocomposite. Polyimide nanocomposites widely have been used in membranes in fuel cell, solar cell, gas filtration, sensors, aerospace components, printed circuit boards. Firstly, polyamic acid was synthesized and characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared. Then, polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes containing polyimide nanocomposite was prepared with thermal imidization method. The obtained polyimide nanocomposite was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared, Scanning Electron Microscope, Thermal Gravimetric Analysis and Differential Scanning Calorimetry. Thermal stability of polyimide nanocomposite was evaluated by thermal gravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Surface morphology of composite samples was investigated by scanning electron microscope. The obtained results prove that successfully prepared polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes are containing polyimide nanocomposite. The obtained nanocomposite can be used in many industries such as electronics, automotive, aerospace, etc.

Keywords: polyimide, nanocomposite, polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes

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1783 Soil Macronutrients Sensing for Precision Agriculture Purpose Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

Authors: Hossein Navid, Maryam Adeli Khadem, Shahin Oustan, Mahmoud Zareie


Among the nutrients needed by the plants, three elements containing nitrate, phosphorus and potassium are more important. The objective of this research was measuring these nutrient amounts in soil using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in range of 400- 4000 cm-1. Soil samples for different soil types (sandy, clay and loam) were collected from different areas of East Azerbaijan. Three types of fertilizers in conventional farming (urea, triple superphosphate, potassium sulphate) were used for soil treatment. Each specimen was divided into two categories: The first group was used in the laboratory (direct measurement) to extract nitrate, phosphorus and potassium uptake by colorimetric method of Olsen and ammonium acetate. The second group was used to measure drug absorption spectrometry. In spectrometry, the small amount of soil samples mixed with KBr and was taken in a small pill form. For the tests, the pills were put in the center of infrared spectrometer and graphs were obtained. Analysis of data was done using MINITAB and PLSR software. The data obtained from spectrometry method were compared with amount of soil nutrients obtained from direct drug absorption using EXCEL software. There were good fitting between these two data series. For nitrate, phosphorus and potassium R2 was 79.5%, 92.0% and 81.9%, respectively. Also, results showed that the range of MIR (mid-infrared) is appropriate for determine the amount of soil nitrate and potassium and can be used in future research to obtain detailed maps of land in agricultural use.

Keywords: nitrate, phosphorus, potassium, soil nutrients, spectroscopy

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1782 A Low-Area Fully-Reconfigurable Hardware Design of Fast Fourier Transform System for 3GPP-LTE Standard

Authors: Xin-Yu Shih, Yue-Qu Liu, Hong-Ru Chou


This paper presents a low-area and fully-reconfigurable Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) hardware design for 3GPP-LTE communication standard. It can fully support 32 different FFT sizes, up to 2048 FFT points. Besides, a special processing element is developed for making reconfigurable computing characteristics possible, while first-in first-out (FIFO) scheduling scheme design technique is proposed for hardware-friendly FIFO resource arranging. In a synthesis chip realization via TSMC 40 nm CMOS technology, the hardware circuit only occupies core area of 0.2325 mm2 and dissipates 233.5 mW at maximal operating frequency of 250 MHz.

Keywords: reconfigurable, fast Fourier transform (FFT), single-path delay feedback (SDF), 3GPP-LTE

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1781 Adsorption of Malachite Green Dye on Graphene Oxide Nanosheets from Aqueous Solution: Kinetics and Thermodynamics Studies

Authors: Abeer S. Elsherbiny, Ali H. Gemeay


In this study, graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets have been synthesized and characterized using different spectroscopic tools such as X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, infrared Fourier transform (FT-IR) spectroscopy, BET specific surface area and Transmission Electronic Microscope (TEM). The prepared GO was investigated for the removal of malachite green, a cationic dye from aqueous solution. The removal methods of malachite green has been proceeded via adsorption process. GO nanosheets can be predicted as a good adsorbent material for the adsorption of cationic species. The adsorption of the malachite green onto the GO nanosheets has been carried out at different experimental conditions such as adsorption kinetics, concentration of adsorbate, pH, and temperature. The kinetics of the adsorption data were analyzed using four kinetic models such as the pseudo first-order model, pseudo second-order model, intraparticle diffusion, and the Boyd model to understand the adsorption behavior of malachite green onto the GO nanosheets and the mechanism of adsorption. The adsorption isotherm of adsorption of the malachite green onto the GO nanosheets has been investigated at 25, 35 and 45 °C. The equilibrium data were fitted well to the Langmuir model. Various thermodynamic parameters such as the Gibbs free energy (ΔG°), enthalpy (ΔH°), and entropy (ΔS°) change were also evaluated. The interaction of malachite green onto the GO nanosheets has been investigated by infrared Fourier transform (FT-IR) spectroscopy.

Keywords: adsorption, graphene oxide, kinetics, malachite green

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1780 Donoho-Stark’s and Hardy’s Uncertainty Principles for the Short-Time Quaternion Offset Linear Canonical Transform

Authors: Mohammad Younus Bhat


The quaternion offset linear canonical transform (QOLCT), which isa time-shifted and frequency-modulated version of the quaternion linear canonical transform (QLCT), provides a more general framework of most existing signal processing tools. For the generalized QOLCT, the classical Heisenberg’s and Lieb’s uncertainty principles have been studied recently. In this paper, we first define the short-time quaternion offset linear canonical transform (ST-QOLCT) and drive its relationship with the quaternion Fourier transform (QFT). The crux of the paper lies in the generalization of several well-known uncertainty principles for the ST-QOLCT, including Donoho-Stark’s uncertainty principle, Hardy’s uncertainty principle, Beurling’s uncertainty principle, and the logarithmic uncertainty principle.

Keywords: Quaternion Fourier transform, Quaternion offset linear canonical transform, short-time quaternion offset linear canonical transform, uncertainty principle

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1779 Analytical Authentication of Butter Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy Coupled with Chemometrics

Authors: M. Bodner, M. Scampicchio


Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy coupled with chemometrics was used to distinguish between butter samples and non-butter samples. Further, quantification of the content of margarine in adulterated butter samples was investigated. Fingerprinting region (1400-800 cm–1) was used to develop unsupervised pattern recognition (Principal Component Analysis, PCA), supervised modeling (Soft Independent Modelling by Class Analogy, SIMCA), classification (Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis, PLS-DA) and regression (Partial Least Squares Regression, PLS-R) models. PCA of the fingerprinting region shows a clustering of the two sample types. All samples were classified in their rightful class by SIMCA approach; however, nine adulterated samples (between 1% and 30% w/w of margarine) were classified as belonging both at the butter class and at the non-butter one. In the two-class PLS-DA model’s (R2 = 0.73, RMSEP, Root Mean Square Error of Prediction = 0.26% w/w) sensitivity was 71.4% and Positive Predictive Value (PPV) 100%. Its threshold was calculated at 7% w/w of margarine in adulterated butter samples. Finally, PLS-R model (R2 = 0.84, RMSEP = 16.54%) was developed. PLS-DA was a suitable classification tool and PLS-R a proper quantification approach. Results demonstrate that FT-IR spectroscopy combined with PLS-R can be used as a rapid, simple and safe method to identify pure butter samples from adulterated ones and to determine the grade of adulteration of margarine in butter samples.

Keywords: adulterated butter, margarine, PCA, PLS-DA, PLS-R, SIMCA

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1778 Development and Validation of a Green Analytical Method for the Analysis of Daptomycin Injectable by Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR)

Authors: Eliane G. Tótoli, Hérida Regina N. Salgado


Daptomycin is an important antimicrobial agent used in clinical practice nowadays, since it is very active against some Gram-positive bacteria that are particularly challenges for the medicine, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE). The importance of environmental preservation has receiving special attention since last years. Considering the evident need to protect the natural environment and the introduction of strict quality requirements regarding analytical procedures used in pharmaceutical analysis, the industries must seek environmentally friendly alternatives in relation to the analytical methods and other processes that they follow in their routine. In view of these factors, green analytical chemistry is prevalent and encouraged nowadays. In this context, infrared spectroscopy stands out. This is a method that does not use organic solvents and, although it is formally accepted for the identification of individual compounds, also allows the quantitation of substances. Considering that there are few green analytical methods described in literature for the analysis of daptomycin, the aim of this work was the development and validation of a green analytical method for the quantification of this drug in lyophilized powder for injectable solution, by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Method: Translucent potassium bromide pellets containing predetermined amounts of the drug were prepared and subjected to spectrophotometric analysis in the mid-infrared region. After obtaining the infrared spectrum and with the assistance of the IR Solution software, quantitative analysis was carried out in the spectral region between 1575 and 1700 cm-1, related to a carbonyl band of the daptomycin molecule, and this band had its height analyzed in terms of absorbance. The method was validated according to ICH guidelines regarding linearity, precision (repeatability and intermediate precision), accuracy and robustness. Results and discussion: The method showed to be linear (r = 0.9999), precise (RSD% < 2.0), accurate and robust, over a concentration range from 0.2 to 0.6 mg/pellet. In addition, this technique does not use organic solvents, which is one great advantage over the most common analytical methods. This fact contributes to minimize the generation of organic solvent waste by the industry and thereby reduces the impact of its activities on the environment. Conclusion: The validated method proved to be adequate to quantify daptomycin in lyophilized powder for injectable solution and can be used for its routine analysis in quality control. In addition, the proposed method is environmentally friendly, which is in line with the global trend.

Keywords: daptomycin, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, green analytical chemistry, quality control, spectrometry in IR region

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1777 Preparation and Characterization of Bioplastic from Sorghum Husks

Authors: Hannatu Abubakar Sani, Abubakar Umar Birnin Yauri, Aliyu Muhammad, Mujahid Salau, Aminu Musa, Hadiza Adamu Kwazo


The increase in the global population and advances in technology have made plastic materials to have wide applications in every aspect of life. However, the non-biodegradability of these petrochemical-based materials and their increasing accumulation in the environment has been a threat to the planet and has been a source of environmental concerns and hence, the driving force in the search for ‘green’ alternatives for which agricultural waste remains the front liner. Sorghum husk, an agricultural waste with potentials as a raw material in the production of bioplastic, was used in this research to prepare bioplastic using sulphuric acid-catalyzed acetylation process. The prepared bioplastic was characterized by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and the structure of the prepared bioplastic was confirmed. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra of the product displayed the presence of OH, C-H, C=O, and C-O absorption peaks. The bioplastic obtained is biodegradable and is affected by acid, salt, and alkali to a lesser extent. Other tests like solubility and swelling studies were carried out to ensure the commercial properties of these bioplastic materials. Therefore, this revealed that new bioplastics with better environmental and sustainable properties could be produced from agricultural waste, which may have applications in many industries.

Keywords: agricultural waste, bioplastic, characterization, Sorghum Husk

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1776 An Image Enhancement Method Based on Curvelet Transform for CBCT-Images

Authors: Shahriar Farzam, Maryam Rastgarpour


Image denoising plays extremely important role in digital image processing. Enhancement of clinical image research based on Curvelet has been developed rapidly in recent years. In this paper, we present a method for image contrast enhancement for cone beam CT (CBCT) images based on fast discrete curvelet transforms (FDCT) that work through Unequally Spaced Fast Fourier Transform (USFFT). These transforms return a table of Curvelet transform coefficients indexed by a scale parameter, an orientation and a spatial location. Accordingly, the coefficients obtained from FDCT-USFFT can be modified in order to enhance contrast in an image. Our proposed method first uses a two-dimensional mathematical transform, namely the FDCT through unequal-space fast Fourier transform on input image and then applies thresholding on coefficients of Curvelet to enhance the CBCT images. Consequently, applying unequal-space fast Fourier Transform leads to an accurate reconstruction of the image with high resolution. The experimental results indicate the performance of the proposed method is superior to the existing ones in terms of Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) and Effective Measure of Enhancement (EME).

Keywords: curvelet transform, CBCT, image enhancement, image denoising

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1775 Low-Density Polyethylene Film Biodegradation Potential by Fungal Species From Thailand

Authors: Patcharee Pripdeevech, Sarunpron Khruengsai


Thirty fungi were tested for their degradation ability on low-density polyethylene (LDPE) plastic film. Biodegradation of all fungi was screened in mineral salt medium broth containing LDPE film as the sole carbon source for 30 days. Diaporthe italiana, Thyrostroma jaczewskii, Colletotrichum fructicola, and Stagonosporopsis citrulli were able to colonize and cover the surface of LDPE film in media. The degradation test result was compared to those obtained from Aspergillus niger. LDPE films cocultured with D. italiana, T. jaczewskii, C. fructicola, S. citrulli, A. niger, and control showed weight loss of 43.90%, 46.34%, 48.78%, 45.12%, 28.78%, and 10.85%, respectively. The tensile strength of degraded LDPE films cocultured with D. italiana, T. jaczewskii, C. fructicola, S. citrulli, A. niger, and control also reduced significantly by 1.56 MPa, 1.78 MPa, 0.43 MPa, 1.86 MPa, 3.34 MPa, and 9.98 MPa, respectively. Analysis of LDPE films by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy confirmed the biodegradation by the presence of morphological changes such as cracks, scions, and holes on the surface of the film. These fungi have the ability to break down and consume the LDPE film, especially C. fructicola. These findings showed the potential of fungi in Thailand that play an important role in LDPE film degradation.

Keywords: plastic biodegradation, LDPE film, fungi, Fourier transform infrared, scanning electron microscopy

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1774 Numerical Applications of Tikhonov Regularization for the Fourier Multiplier Operators

Authors: Fethi Soltani, Adel Almarashi, Idir Mechai


Tikhonov regularization and reproducing kernels are the most popular approaches to solve ill-posed problems in computational mathematics and applications. And the Fourier multiplier operators are an essential tool to extend some known linear transforms in Euclidean Fourier analysis, as: Weierstrass transform, Poisson integral, Hilbert transform, Riesz transforms, Bochner-Riesz mean operators, partial Fourier integral, Riesz potential, Bessel potential, etc. Using the theory of reproducing kernels, we construct a simple and efficient representations for some class of Fourier multiplier operators Tm on the Paley-Wiener space Hh. In addition, we give an error estimate formula for the approximation and obtain some convergence results as the parameters and the independent variables approaches zero. Furthermore, using numerical quadrature integration rules to compute single and multiple integrals, we give numerical examples and we write explicitly the extremal function and the corresponding Fourier multiplier operators.

Keywords: fourier multiplier operators, Gauss-Kronrod method of integration, Paley-Wiener space, Tikhonov regularization

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1773 Detailed Investigation of Thermal Degradation Mechanism and Product Characterization of Co-Pyrolysis of Indian Oil Shale with Rubber Seed Shell

Authors: Bhargav Baruah, Ali Shemsedin Reshad, Pankaj Tiwari


This work presents a detailed study on the thermal degradation kinetics of co-pyrolysis of oil shale of Upper Assam, India with rubber seed shell, and lab-scale pyrolysis to investigate the influence of pyrolysis parameters on product yield and composition of products. The physicochemical characteristics of oil shale and rubber seed shell were studied by proximate analysis, elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The physicochemical study showed the mixture to be of low moisture, high ash, siliceous, sour with the presence of aliphatic, aromatic, and phenolic compounds. The thermal decomposition of the oil shale with rubber seed shell was studied using thermogravimetric analysis at heating rates of 5, 10, 20, 30, and 50 °C/min. The kinetic study of the oil shale pyrolysis process was performed on the thermogravimetric (TGA) data using three model-free isoconversional methods viz. Friedman, Flynn Wall Ozawa (FWO), and Kissinger Akahira Sunnose (KAS). The reaction mechanisms were determined using the Criado master plot. The understanding of the composition of Indian oil shale and rubber seed shell and pyrolysis process kinetics can help to establish the experimental parameters for the extraction of valuable products from the mixture. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed usinf central composite design (CCD) model to setup the lab-scale experiment using TGA data, and optimization of process parameters viz. heating rate, temperature, and particle size. The samples were pre-dried at 115°C for 24 hours prior to pyrolysis. The pyrolysis temperatures were set from 450 to 650 °C, at heating rates of 2 to 20°C/min. The retention time was set between 2 to 8 hours. The optimum oil yield was observed at 5°C/min and 550°C with a retention time of 5 hours. The pyrolytic oil and gas obtained at optimum conditions were subjected to characterization using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR).

Keywords: Indian oil shale, rubber seed shell, co-pyrolysis, isoconversional methods, gas chromatography, nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

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1772 Effect of Extrusion Processing Parameters on Protein in Banana Flour Extrudates: Characterisation Using Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

Authors: Surabhi Pandey, Pavuluri Srinivasa Rao


Extrusion processing is a high-temperature short time (HTST) treatment which can improve protein quality and digestibility together with retaining active nutrients. In-vitro protein digestibility of plant protein-based foods is generally enhanced by extrusion. The current study aimed to investigate the effect of extrusion cooking on in-vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) and conformational modification of protein in green banana flour extrudates. Green banana flour was extruded through a co-rotating twin-screw extruder varying the moisture content, barrel temperature, screw speed in the range of 10-20 %, 60-80 °C, 200-300 rpm, respectively, at constant feed rate. Response surface methodology was used to optimise the result for IVPD. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis provided a convenient and powerful means to monitor interactions and changes in functional and conformational properties of extrudates. Results showed that protein digestibility was highest in extrudate produced at 80°C, 250 rpm and 15% feed moisture. FTIR analysis was done for the optimised sample having highest IVPD. FTIR analysis showed that there were no changes in primary structure of protein while the secondary protein structure changed. In order to explain this behaviour, infrared spectroscopy analysis was carried out, mainly in the amide I and II regions. Moreover, curve fitting analysis showed the conformational changes produced in the flour due to protein denaturation. The quantitative analysis of the changes in the amide I and II regions provided information about the modifications produced in banana flour extrudates.

Keywords: extrusion, FTIR, protein conformation, raw banana flour, SDS-PAGE method

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1771 Green Synthesis of Magnetic, Silica Nanocomposite and Its Adsorptive Performance against Organochlorine Pesticides

Authors: Waleed A. El-Said, Dina M. Fouad, Mohamed H. Aly, Mohamed A. El-Gahami


Green synthesis of nanomaterials has received increasing attention as an eco-friendly technology in materials science. Here, we have used two types of extractions from green tea leaf (i.e. total extraction and tannin extraction) as reducing agents for a rapid, simple and one step synthesis method of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNPs)/iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanocomposite based on deposition of Fe3O4 onto MSNPs. MSNPs/Fe3O4 nanocomposite were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, vibrating sample magnetometer, N2 adsorption, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The average mesoporous silica particle diameter was found to be around 30 nm with high surface area (818 m2/gm). MSNPs/Fe3O4 nanocomposite was used for removing lindane pesticide (an environmental hazard material) from aqueous solutions. Fourier transform infrared, UV-vis, High-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography techniques were used to confirm the high ability of MSNPs/Fe3O4 nanocomposite for sensing and capture of lindane molecules with high sorption capacity (more than 89%) that could develop a new eco-friendly strategy for detection and removing of pesticide and as a promising material for water treatment application.

Keywords: green synthesis, mesoporous silica, magnetic iron oxide NPs, adsorption Lindane

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1770 Synchrotron X-Ray Based Investigation of As and Fe Bonding Environment in Collard Green Tissue Samples at Different Growth Stages

Authors: Sunil Dehipawala, Aregama Sirisumana, stephan Smith, P. Schneider, G. Tremberger Jr, D. Lieberman, Todd Holden, T. Cheung


The arsenic and iron environments in different growth stages have been studied with EXAFS and XANES using Brookhaven Synchrotron Light Source. Collard Greens plants were grown and tissue samples were harvested. The project studied the EXAFS and XANES of tissue samples using As and Fe K-edges. The Fe absorption and the Fourier transform bond length information were used as a control comparison. The Fourier transform of the XAFS data revealed the coexistence of As (III) and As (V) in the As bonding environment inside the studied plant tissue samples, although the soil only had As (III). The data suggests that Collard Greens has a novel pathway to handle arsenic absorption in soil.

Keywords: EXAFS, fourier transform, metalloproteins, XANES

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1769 The Mechanism Study of Degradative Solvent Extraction of Biomass by Liquid Membrane-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

Authors: W. Ketren, J. Wannapeera, Z. Heishun, A. Ryuichi, K. Toshiteru, M. Kouichi, O. Hideaki


Degradative solvent extraction is the method developed for biomass upgrading by dewatering and fractionation of biomass under the mild condition. However, the conversion mechanism of the degradative solvent extraction method has not been fully understood so far. The rice straw was treated in 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MN) at a different solvent-treatment temperature varied from 250 to 350 oC with the residence time for 60 min. The liquid membrane-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) technique is applied to study the processing mechanism in-depth without separation of the solvent. It has been found that the strength of the oxygen-hydrogen stretching  (3600-3100 cm-1) decreased slightly with increasing temperature in the range of 300-350 oC. The decrease of the hydroxyl group in the solvent soluble suggested dehydration reaction taking place between 300 and 350 oC. FTIR spectra in the carbonyl stretching region (1800-1600 cm-1) revealed the presence of esters groups, carboxylic acid and ketonic groups in the solvent-soluble of biomass. The carboxylic acid increased in the range of 200 to 250 oC and then decreased. The prevailing of aromatic groups showed that the aromatization took place during extraction at above 250 oC. From 300 to 350 oC, the carbonyl functional groups in the solvent-soluble noticeably decreased. The removal of the carboxylic acid and the decrease of esters into the form of carbon dioxide indicated that the decarboxylation reaction occurred during the extraction process.

Keywords: biomass waste, degradative solvent extraction, mechanism, upgrading

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1768 A Two-Dimensional Problem Micropolar Thermoelastic Medium under the Effect of Laser Irradiation and Distributed Sources

Authors: Devinder Singh, Rajneesh Kumar, Arvind Kumar


The present investigation deals with the deformation of micropolar generalized thermoelastic solid subjected to thermo-mechanical loading due to a thermal laser pulse. Laplace transform and Fourier transform techniques are used to solve the problem. Thermo-mechanical laser interactions are taken as distributed sources to describe the application of the approach. The closed form expressions of normal stress, tangential stress, coupled stress and temperature are obtained in the domain. Numerical inversion technique of Laplace transform and Fourier transform has been implied to obtain the resulting quantities in the physical domain after developing a computer program. The normal stress, tangential stress, coupled stress and temperature are depicted graphically to show the effect of relaxation times. Some particular cases of interest are deduced from the present investigation.

Keywords: pulse laser, integral transform, thermoelastic, boundary value problem

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1767 Fast Fourier Transform-Based Steganalysis of Covert Communications over Streaming Media

Authors: Jinghui Peng, Shanyu Tang, Jia Li


Steganalysis seeks to detect the presence of secret data embedded in cover objects, and there is an imminent demand to detect hidden messages in streaming media. This paper shows how a steganalysis algorithm based on Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) can be used to detect the existence of secret data embedded in streaming media. The proposed algorithm uses machine parameter characteristics and a network sniffer to determine whether the Internet traffic contains streaming channels. The detected streaming data is then transferred from the time domain to the frequency domain through FFT. The distributions of power spectra in the frequency domain between original VoIP streams and stego VoIP streams are compared in turn using t-test, achieving the p-value of 7.5686E-176 which is below the threshold. The results indicate that the proposed FFT-based steganalysis algorithm is effective in detecting the secret data embedded in VoIP streaming media.

Keywords: steganalysis, security, Fast Fourier Transform, streaming media

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1766 Application of Transform Fourier for Dynamic Control of Structures with Global Positioning System

Authors: J. M. de Luis Ruiz, P. M. Sierra García, R. P. García, R. P. Álvarez, F. P. García, E. C. López


Given the evolution of viaducts, structural health monitoring requires more complex techniques to define their state. two alternatives can be distinguished: experimental and operational modal analysis. Although accelerometers or Global Positioning System (GPS) have been applied for the monitoring of structures under exploitation, the dynamic monitoring during the stage of construction is not common. This research analyzes whether GPS data can be applied to certain dynamic geometric controls of evolving structures. The fundamentals of this work were applied to the New Bridge of Cádiz (Spain), a worldwide milestone in bridge building. GPS data were recorded with an interval of 1 second during the erection of segments and turned to the frequency domain with Fourier transform. The vibration period and amplitude were contrasted with those provided by the finite element model, with differences of less than 10%, which is admissible. This process provides a vibration record of the structure with GPS, avoiding specific equipment.

Keywords: Fourier transform, global position system, operational modal analysis, structural health monitoring

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1765 Preparation of Chemically Activated Carbon from Waste Tire Char for Lead Ions Adsorption and Optimization Using Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Lucky Malise, Hilary Rutto, Tumisang Seodigeng


The use of tires in automobiles is very important in the automobile industry. However, there is a serious environmental problem concerning the disposal of these rubber tires once they become worn out. The main aim of this study was to prepare activated carbon from waste tire pyrolysis char by impregnating KOH on pyrolytic char. Adsorption studies on lead onto chemically activated carbon was carried out using response surface methodology. The effect of process parameters such as temperature (°C), adsorbent dosage (g/1000ml), pH, contact time (minutes) and initial lead concentration (mg/l) on the adsorption capacity were investigated. It was found that the adsorption capacity increases with an increase in contact time, pH, temperature and decreases with an increase in lead concentration. Optimization of the process variables was done using a numerical optimization method. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectra (FTIR) analysis, XRay diffraction (XRD), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscope was used to characterize the pyrolytic carbon char before and after activation. The optimum points 1g/ 100 ml for adsorbent dosage, 7 for pH value of the solution, 115.2 min for contact time, 100 mg/l for initial metal concentration, and 25°C for temperature were obtained to achieve the highest adsorption capacity of 93.176 mg/g with a desirability of 0.994. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectra (FTIR) analysis and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) show the presence of oxygen-containing functional groups on the surface of the activated carbon produced and that the weight loss taking place during the activation step is small.

Keywords: waste tire pyrolysis char, chemical activation, central composite design (CCD), adsorption capacity, numerical optimization

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1764 CO₂ Absorption Studies Using Amine Solvents with Fourier Transform Infrared Analysis

Authors: Avoseh Funmilola, Osman Khalid, Wayne Nelson, Paramespri Naidoo, Deresh Ramjugernath


The increasing global atmospheric temperature is of great concern and this has led to the development of technologies to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Flue gas emissions from fossil fuel combustion are major sources of greenhouse gases. One of the ways to reduce the emission of CO₂ from flue gases is by post combustion capture process and this can be done by absorbing the gas into suitable chemical solvents before emitting the gas into the atmosphere. Alkanolamines are promising solvents for this capture process. Vapour liquid equilibrium of CO₂-alkanolamine systems is often represented by CO₂ loading and partial pressure of CO₂ without considering the liquid phase. The liquid phase of this system is a complex one comprising of 9 species. Online analysis of the process is important to monitor the concentrations of the liquid phase reacting and product species. Liquid phase analysis of CO₂-diethanolamine (DEA) solution was performed by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. A robust Calibration was performed for the CO₂-aqueous DEA system prior to an online monitoring experiment. The partial least square regression method was used for the analysis of the calibration spectra obtained. The models obtained were used for prediction of DEA and CO₂ concentrations in the online monitoring experiment. The experiment was performed with a newly built recirculating experimental set up in the laboratory. The set up consist of a 750 ml equilibrium cell and ATR-FTIR liquid flow cell. Measurements were performed at 400°C. The results obtained indicated that the FTIR spectroscopy combined with Partial least square method is an effective tool for online monitoring of speciation.

Keywords: ATR-FTIR, CO₂ capture, online analysis, PLS regression

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1763 Degradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons Using Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Isolated from Oil Contaminated Soil Incorporated into E. coli DH5α Host

Authors: C. S. Jeba Samuel


Soil, especially from oil field has posed a great hazard for terrestrial and marine ecosystems. The traditional treatment of oil contaminated soil cannot degrade the crude oil completely. So far, biodegradation proves to be an efficient method. During biodegradation, crude oil is used as the carbon source and addition of nitrogenous compounds increases the microbial growth, resulting in the effective breakdown of crude oil components to low molecular weight components. The present study was carried out to evaluate the biodegradation of crude oil by hydrocarbon-degrading microorganism Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from natural environment like oil contaminated soil. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an oil degrading microorganism also called as hydrocarbon utilizing microorganism (or “HUM” bug) can utilize crude oil as sole carbon source. In this study, the biodegradation of crude oil was conducted with modified mineral basal salt medium and nitrogen sources so as to increase the degradation. The efficacy of the plasmid from the isolated strain was incorporated into E.coli DH5 α host to speed up the degradation of oil. The usage of molecular techniques has increased oil degradation which was confirmed by the degradation of aromatic and aliphatic rings of hydrocarbons and was inferred by the lesser number of peaks in Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The gas chromatogram again confirms better degradation by transformed cells by the lesser number of components obtained in the oil treated with transformed cells. This study demonstrated the technical feasibility of using direct inoculation of transformed cells onto the oil contaminated region thereby leading to the achievement of better oil degradation in a shorter time than the degradation caused by the wild strain.

Keywords: biodegradation, aromatic rings, plasmid, hydrocarbon, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR)

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