Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Search results for: Cry1Ac

5 Toxicity of Cry1ac Bacillus thuringiensis against Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) on Artificial Diet under Laboratory Conditions

Authors: Tahammal Hussain, Khuram Zia, Mumammad Jalal Arif, Megha Parajulee, Abdul Hakeem

Abstract:

The Bioassay on neonate, 2nd and 3rd instar larvae of Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) were conducted against Bacillus thuringiensis proteins Cry1Ac. Cry1Ac was incorporated into an artificial diet and was serially diluted with distilled water and then mixed with diet at an appropriate temperature of diet. Toxins incorporated prepared diet was poured into Petri-dishes. For controls, distilled water was mixed with the diet. Five toxin doses 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 ug / ml and one control were used for each instars of H. armigera 20 larvae were used in each replication and each treatment is replicated four times. LC50 of Cry1Ac against neonate, 2nd and 3rd instar larvae of H. armigera were 0.34, 0.81 and 1.46 ug / ml. So Cry1Ac is more effective against neonate larvae of H .armigera as compared to 2nd and 3rd instar larvae under laboratory conditions.

Keywords: B. thuringiensis, Cry1Ac, H. armigera, toxicity

Procedia PDF Downloads 324
4 Helicoverpa armigera Hubner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Susceptibility to Bacillus thuringiensis Crystal Toxins

Authors: Muhammad Jawad Saleem, Faisal Hafeez, Muhammad Arshad, Afifa Naeem, Ayesha Iftekhar

Abstract:

Bacillus thuringiensis is a gram-positive spore-forming bacterium that belongs to the Bacillus cereus group of Bacilli and it produces ICP (insecticidal crystal protein) Cry toxins or Cysts toxins. Spores are produced as parasporal crystalline inclusions bodies (also known as endotoxins) at the onset of sporulation during the stationary growth phase. During vegetative growth that does not form crystals and is called vegetative insecticidal proteins (VIP) and secreted an insecticidal protein (SIP). Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is important for pest management either in the form of insecticides or through incorporated in the gene of the crop. Bioassays were conducted on the F2 generation of 1st instar larvae of H. armigera by the diet incorporation method to determine the susceptibility to Bt Cry toxins (Cry1Ac, Cry2Ab, Cry2A). The median lethal concentration (LC₅₀) of Cry1Ac, Cry2Ab, Cry2A ranged from 0.11 to 1.06 µg/ml and moult inhibitory concentration (MIC₅₀) of Cry1Ac, Cry2Ab, Cry2A ranged from 0.05 to 0.25 µg/ml. Cry1Ac was found most toxic to 1st instar larvae of H. armigera as compared to other Bt Cry toxins (Cry1Ac, Cry2Ab, Cry2A). The experimental results are important to policy-makers and technology providers to develop strategies for the exploitation of transgenic Bt cotton varieties as a component of integrated pest management.

Keywords: Bt toxin, Cry1Ac, Cry2Ab, Cry2A, susceptibility, Helicoverpa armigera

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
3 Geographic Variation in the Baseline Susceptibility of Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera) Field Populations to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry Toxins for Resistance Monitoring

Authors: Muhammad Arshad, M. Sufian, Muhammad D. Gogi, A. Aslam

Abstract:

The transgenic cotton expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) provides an effective control of Helicoverpa armigera, a most damaging pest of the cotton crop. However, Bt cotton may not be the optimal solution owing to the selection pressure of Cry toxins. As Bt cotton express the insecticidal proteins throughout the growing seasons, there are the chances of resistance development in the target pests. A regular monitoring and surveillance of target pest’s baseline susceptibility to Bt Cry toxins is crucial for early detection of any resistance development. The present study was conducted to monitor the changes in the baseline susceptibility of the field population of H. armigera to Bt Cry1Ac toxin. The field-collected larval populations were maintained in the laboratory on artificial diet and F1 generation larvae were used for diet incorporated diagnostic studies. The LC₅₀ and MIC₅₀ were calculated to measure the level of resistance of population as a ratio over susceptible population. The monitoring results indicated a significant difference in the susceptibility (LC₅₀) of H. armigera for first, second, third and fourth instar larval populations sampled from different cotton growing areas over the study period 2016-17. The variations in susceptibility among the tested insects depended on the age of the insect and susceptibility decreased with the age of larvae. The overall results show that the average resistant ratio (RR) of all field-collected populations (FSD, SWL, MLT, BWP and DGK) exposed to Bt toxin Cry1Ac ranged from 3.381-fold to 7.381-fold for 1st instar, 2.370-fold to 3.739-fold for 2nd instar, 1.115-fold to 1.762-fold for 3rd instar and 1.141-fold to 2.504-fold for 4th instar, depicting maximum RR from MLT population, whereas minimum RR for FSD and SWL population. The results regarding moult inhibitory concentration of H. armigera larvae (1-4th instars) exposed to different concentrations of Bt Cry1Ac toxin indicated that among all field populations, overall Multan (MLT) and Bahawalpur (BWP) populations showed higher MIC₅₀ values as compared to Faisalabad (FSD) and Sahiwal (SWL), whereas DG Khan (DGK) population showed an intermediate moult inhibitory concentrations. This information is important for the development of more effective resistance monitoring programs. The development of Bt Cry toxins baseline susceptibility data before the widespread commercial release of transgenic Bt cotton cultivars in Pakistan is important for the development of more effective resistance monitoring programs to identify the resistant H. armigera populations.

Keywords: Bt cotton, baseline, Cry1Ac toxins, H. armigera

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
2 Using Polymerase Chain Reaction Technique to Observe the Resistant Strains of Pectinophora gossypiella against Cry1Ac Expressing Cotton

Authors: Zunnu Raen Akhtar, U. Irshad, M. Majid

Abstract:

Due to the widespread cultivation of transgenic cotton, intense selection pressure resulted in resistant allele in pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Gelechiidae: Lepidoptera). A resistant strain of pink bollworm against transgenic cotton has become a challenge to Integrated Resistance Management (IRM) in the World. Laboratory and field studies were conducted to determine the resistant strains of pink bollworm by performing bioassay, extracting the DNA, conducting PCR of both laboratory as well as field collected pink bollworms to observe the developed resistance. In all of the studies, two Bt varieties FH-142 and FH-118 expressing Cry1Ac compared to non-Bt (Control) were tested against pink bollworm. In the laboratory, bioassay results showed that there was no significant mortality difference between Bt and non-Bt varieties. Similar mortality percentage was observed in transgenic and non-transgenic (control) variety. Insects which were survived after bioassay, as well as those collected from the Bt cotton fields, were selected for further molecular studies. DNA extraction followed by PCR was conducted to check the resistant strains in pink bollworm. In field studies, we also observed the population dynamics of pink boll worms on Bt as compared to non-Bt varieties. Laboratory and field studies confirmed that resistant strains occurs in Pakistani Bt cotton fields. Different strategies should be adopted to combat that serious prevailing resistance issues.

Keywords: transgenic cotton, resistance, pectinophora gossypiella, , integrated resistance management (IRM), polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
1 Detection of Transgenes in Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) by using Biotechnology/Molecular Biological Techniques

Authors: Ahmad Ali Shahid, M Shakil Shaukat

Abstract:

Agriculture is the backbone of economy of Pakistan and Cotton is the major agricultural export and supreme source of raw fiber for our textile industry. To combat against the developing resistance in the target insects and combating these challenges wholesomely, a novel combination of pyramided/stacked genes was conceptualized and later realized, through the means of biotechnology i.e., transformation of three genes namely, Cry1Ac, Cry2A, and EPSP synthase (glyphosate tolerant) genes in the locally cultivated cotton variety. The progenies of the transformed plants were successfully raised and screened under the tunnel conditions for two generations and the present study focused on the screening of plants which were confirmed for containing all of these three genes and their expressions. Initially, the screening was done through glyphosate spray assay and the plants which were healthy and showed no damage on leaves were selected after 07 days of spray. In the laboratory, the DNA of these plants were isolated and subjected to amplification of the three genes. Thus, seventeen out of twenty were confirmed positive for Cry1Ac gene and ten out of twenty were positive for Cry2A gene and all twenty were positive for presence of EPSP synthase gene. Then, the ten plant samples which were confirmed with presence of all three genes were subjected to expression analysis of these proteins through ELISA. The results showed that eight out of ten plants were actively expressing the three transgenes. Real-time PCR was also done to quantify the expression levels of the EPSP synthase gene. Finally, eight plants were confirmed for the presence and active expression of all three genes in T3 generation of the triple gene transformed cotton. These plants may be subjected to T4 generation to develop a new stable variety in due course of time.

Keywords: agriculture, cotton, transformation, cry genes, ELISA, PCR

Procedia PDF Downloads 314