Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 94

Search results for: Bt toxin

94 A Review of the Handling and Disposal of Botulinum Toxin in a Maxillofacial Unit

Authors: Ashana Gupta

Abstract:

Aim: In the UK, Botulinum Toxin (botox) is authorised for treating chronic myofascial pain secondary to masseter muscle hypertrophy (Fedorowicz et al. 2013). This audit aimed to ensure the Maxillofacial Unit is meeting the trust guidelines for the safe storage and disposal of botox. Method: The trust upholds a strict policy for botox handling. The audit was designed to optimise several elements including Staff awareness of regulations around botox handling A questionnaire was designed to test knowledge of advised storage temperatures, reporting of adverse events, disposal procedures and regulatory authorities. Steps taken to safely delivertoxin and eliminate unused toxin. A checklist was completed. These include marks for storagetemperature, identification checks, disposal of sharps, deactivation of toxin, and disposal. Results: All staff correctly stated storage requirements for toxin. 75% staff (n=8) were unsure about reporting and regulations. Whilst all staff knew how to dispose of vials, 0% staff showed awareness for the crucial step of deactivating toxin. All checklists (n=20) scored 100% for adequate storage, ID checks, and toxin disposal. However, there were no steps taken to deactivate toxin in any cases. Staff training took place with revision to clinical protocols. In line with Trust guidelines, an additional clinical step has been introduced including use of 0.5% sodium hypochlorite to deactivate botox. Conclusion: Deactivation is crucial to ensure residual toxin is not misused. There are cases of stolen botox within South-Tees Hospital (Woodcock, 2014). This audit was successful in increasing compliance to safe handling and disposal of botox by 100% and ensured our hospitalmeets Trust guidance.

Keywords: botulinum toxin, aesthetics, handling, disposal

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
93 SIPTOX: Spider Toxin Database Information Repository System of Protein Toxins from Spiders by Using MySQL Method

Authors: Iftikhar Tayubi, Tabrej Khan, Rayan Alsulmi, Abdulrahman Labban

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Spider produces a special kind of substance. This special kind of substance is called a toxin. The toxin is composed of many types of protein, which differs from species to species. Spider toxin consists of several proteins and non-proteins that include various categories of toxins like myotoxin, neurotoxin, cardiotoxin, dendrotoxin, haemorrhagins, and fibrinolytic enzyme. Protein Sequence information with references of toxins was derived from literature and public databases. From the previous findings, the Spider toxin would be the best choice to treat different types of tumors and cancer. There are many therapeutic regimes, which causes more side effects than treatment hence a different approach must be adopted for the treatment of cancer. The combinations of drugs are being encouraged, and dramatic outcomes are reported. Spider toxin is one of the natural cytotoxic compounds. Hence, it is being used to treat different types of tumors; especially its positive effect on breast cancer is being reported during the last few decades. The efficacy of this database is that it can provide a user-friendly interface for users to retrieve the information about Spiders, toxin and toxin protein of different Spiders species. SPIDTOXD provides a single source information about spider toxins, which will be useful for pharmacologists, neuroscientists, toxicologists, medicinal chemists. The well-ordered and accessible web interface allows users to explore the detail information of Spider and toxin proteins. It includes common name, scientific name, entry id, entry name, protein name and length of the protein sequence. The utility of this database is that it can provide a user-friendly interface for users to retrieve the information about Spider, toxin and toxin protein of different Spider species. The database interfaces will satisfy the demands of the scientific community by providing in-depth knowledge about Spider and its toxin. We have adopted the methodology by using A MySQL and PHP and for designing, we used the Smart Draw. The users can thus navigate from one section to another, depending on the field of interest of the user. This database contains a wealth of information on species, toxins, and clinical data, etc. This database will be useful for the scientific community, basic researchers and those interested in potential pharmaceutical Industry.

Keywords: siptoxd, php, mysql, toxin

Procedia PDF Downloads 97
92 Prevalence of Clostridium perfringens β2-Toxin in Type a Isolates of Sheep and Goats

Authors: Mudassar Mohiuddin, Zahid Iqbal

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Introduction: Clostridium perfringens is an important pathogen responsible for causing enteric diseases in both human and animals. The bacteria produce several toxins. These toxins play vital role in the pathogenesis of various fatal enteric diseases and are classified into five types, on the basis of the differential production of Alpha, Beta, Epsilon and Iota toxins. In addition to the so-called major toxins, there are other toxins like beta2 toxin, produced by some strains of C. perfringens which may play a role in the pathogenesis of disease. Aim of the study: In this study a multiplex PCR assay was developed and used for detection of cpb2 gene to identify the Beta2 harboring isolates among different types of C. perfringens. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to identify the prevalence of β2-toxin gene in local isolates of Clostridium perfringens. Methodology: This was an experimental study. Random sampling technique was used. A total of 97 sheep and goats were included in this study. All were Pakistani local breeds. The samples were collected during the period from Sep, 2014 to Mar, 2015 from selected districts of Punjab province (Pakistan). Faecal samples were cultured in cooked meat media. The identification of Clostridium perfringens was made on the basis of biochemical tests. Multiplex PCR was performed to identify the toxin genes. Results: A total of 43 C. perfringens isolates were genotyped using multiplex PCR assay. The gene encoding C. perfringens β2-toxin (cpb2) was present in more than 50% of the isolates genotyped. However, the prevalence of this gene varied between sheep and goat isolates. Conclusion: The present study suggests the high occurrence of C. perfringens b2-toxin (cpb2) in the local isolates of Pakistan. As β2-toxin is present in both healthy and diseased animals, so further studies are suggested to establish the role of β2-toxin in pathogenesis of the clostridial enteric diseases.

Keywords: beta 2 toxin gene, clostridium perfringens, enteric diseases, goats, multiplex PCR, sheep

Procedia PDF Downloads 381
91 Botulinum A Toxin Injection in Two Filipino Brothers with X-linked Dystonia-Parkinsonism (XDP) in Cebu City, Philippines: A Case Report

Authors: Ana Katrina C. Longos, Jarungchai Anton S. Vatanagul

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Objectives: To present a case of two Filipino male siblings initially seen with parkinsonism and eventually with dystonia and to present botulinum A toxin as part of the treatment for X-linked dystonia parkinsonism in Cebu City. Discussion: A 54 year old man presented initially with parkinsonian symptoms and later developed oromandibular and truncal dystonia. Further history revealed that he had an older brother who also presented with the same symptoms. Neuroimaging done on both patients revealed CVD infarcts in the pons and corona radiata respectively which where were not compatible with their symptoms. Family history revealed that their mother was originally from Panay and a diagnosis of X-linked dystonia parkinsonism (XDP) was made. Both patients were able to receive botulinum A toxin injections which provided temporary relief of symptoms. Conclusion: XDP was considered in 2 Filipino male siblings who presented with oromandibular dystonia, truncal dystonia, shuffling gait, resting tremors with ancestry from Panay on the maternal side. There is no cure for XDP, only symptomatic treatment. Until recently, only oral chemotherapy was available in Cebu. Botulinum A toxin injection done in both patients afforded temporary resolution of symptoms.

Keywords: XDP, dystonia of Panay, lubag, dystonia parkinsonism, botulinum a toxin

Procedia PDF Downloads 418
90 Deciphering Specific Host-Selective Toxin Interaction of Cassiicolin with Lipid Membranes and its Cytotoxicity on Rubber Leaves

Authors: Kien Xuan Ngo

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Cassiicolin (Cas), a toxin produced by Corynespora cassiicola, is responsible for corynespora leaf fall (CLF) disease in rubber trees. Currently, the molecular mechanism of the cytotoxicity of Cas isoforms (i.e., Cas1, Cas2) on rubber leaves and its host selectivity have not been fully elucidated. This study analyzed the binding of Cas1 and Cas2 to membranes consisting of different plant lipids and their membrane-disruption activities. Using high-speed atomic force microscopy and confocal microscopy, this study reveals that the binding and disruption activities of Cas1 and Cas2 on lipid membranes are strongly dependent on the specific plant lipids. The negative phospholipids, glycerolipids, and sterols are more susceptible to membrane damage caused by Cas1 and Cas2 than neutral phospholipids and betaine lipids. In summary, This study unveils that (i) Cas1 and Cas2 directly damage and cause necrosis in the leaves of specific rubber clones; (ii) Cas1 and Cas2 can form biofilm-like structures on specific lipid membranes (negative phospholipids, glycerolipids, and sterols). The biofilm-like formation of Cas toxin plays an important role in selective disruption on lipid membranes; (iii) Vulnerability of the specific cytoplasmic membranes to the selective Cas toxin is the most remarkable feature of cytotoxicity of Cas toxin on plant cells. Finally, researcher’s exploration is crucial to understand the basic molecular mechanism underlying the host-selective toxic interaction of Cas toxin with cytoplasmic membranes in plant cells.

Keywords: cassiicolin, corynespora leaf fall disease, high-speed AFM, giant liposome vesicles

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
89 Injection Effect of Botulinum Toxin A on Hallux Valgus Deformity and Pain

Authors: Alireza Moghtaderi, Negin Khakpour

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Hallux Valgus is a kind of Toes aberration where the Metatarsophalangeal joint that connects the big toe to the foot, leading to the inner side and a protrusion on the inner surface of toe arise. This study aimed to determine the effect of botulinum toxin A injection to reduce pain and deviation angle of the thumb in Hallux Valgus and to increase outcomes of treatment as an adjuvant therapy. Randomized clinical study was performed on 18 patients at the Clinic of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. In this study the Halgvs valgus angle (HVA) between the metatarsals (IMA) and cartilage distal metatarsal angle (DMAA) and pain were assessed before and after injection. Average of Hallux Valgus angle before and after Botox injections were 28/89 ± 10/21 and 21/56 ± 8/22 degrees and the angle deviation in the 6 months after treatment was significantly improved (p <0.001). Injection of botulinum toxin A is a suitable and acceptable method to reform the skeleton deformities and also to reduce the pain in patients with Hallux valgus.

Keywords: metatasal, hallux valgus, pain, botulinum toxuin

Procedia PDF Downloads 23
88 LIZTOXD: Inclusive Lizard Toxin Database by Using MySQL Protocol

Authors: Iftikhar A. Tayubi, Tabrej Khan, Mansoor M. Alsubei, Fahad A. Alsaferi

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LIZTOXD provides a single source of high-quality information about proteinaceous lizard toxins that will be an invaluable resource for pharmacologists, neuroscientists, toxicologists, medicinal chemists, ion channel scientists, clinicians, and structural biologists. We will provide an intuitive, well-organized and user-friendly web interface that allows users to explore the detail information of Lizard and toxin proteins. It includes common name, scientific name, entry id, entry name, protein name and length of the protein sequence. The utility of this database is that it can provide a user-friendly interface for users to retrieve the information about Lizard, toxin and toxin protein of different Lizard species. These interfaces created in this database will satisfy the demands of the scientific community by providing in-depth knowledge about Lizard and its toxin. In the next phase of our project we will adopt methodology and by using A MySQL and Hypertext Preprocessor (PHP) which and for designing Smart Draw. A database is a wonderful piece of equipment for storing large quantities of data efficiently. The users can thus navigate from one section to another, depending on the field of interest of the user. This database contains a wealth of information on species, toxins, toxins, clinical data etc. LIZTOXD resource that provides comprehensive information about protein toxins from lizard toxins. The combination of specific classification schemes and a rich user interface allows researchers to easily locate and view information on the sequence, structure, and biological activity of these toxins. This manually curated database will be a valuable resource for both basic researchers as well as those interested in potential pharmaceutical and agricultural applications of lizard toxins.

Keywords: LIZTOXD, MySQL, PHP, smart draw

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
87 Case Report of Angioedema after Application of Botulinum Toxin

Authors: Sokol Isaraj, Lorela Bendo

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Botulinum toxin is the most commonly used treatment to reduce the appearance of dynamic facial wrinkles. It can smooth out wrinkles and restore a more youthful appearance. Although allergic reactions after botox injection are rare, care should be taken by the physician to diagnose the condition and provide suitable treatment in time. The authors report a case of allergic reaction with angioedema to abobotulinumtoxin A. A 50 year-old woman complaining of dynamic wrinkles was injected in a private clinic with Dysport. After 2 weeks, she returned to the clinic for the touch-up session. Thirty minutes after the completion of the injections in the crow’s feet area, she described the feeling of mild pain and warmth in the injected area, followed by angioedema. The symptoms couldn’t be controlled by IM corticosteroid, and the patient was referred to a hospital center. After adequate systemic treatment for 4 days, there was a resolution of the symptoms. Despite the reported safety of abobotulinumtoxin A, this case warns practitioners of unpredictably adverse reactions, which require rapid recognition and intravenous support.

Keywords: botulinum toxin, side effects, angioedema, injections

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86 Antibiogram and Molecular Characterization of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Pseudintermedius from Shelter Dogs with Skin Infections and Dog Owners in Abakaliki, Nigeria

Authors: Moses Ikechukwu Benjamin

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The continued increase in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcuspseudintermedius (MRSP) among dogs and the zoonotic transmission event of MRSP from dogs to humans threaten veterinary medicine and public health. The cardinal objective of this study was to determine the antibiogram and frequency of toxingenes in MRSP obtained from shelter dogs with skin infections and dog owners in Abakaliki, Eastern Nigeria. Skinswabs from 61 shelter dogs with skin infections and 33 nasal swabs from dog owners were processed and analyzed using standard microbiological techniques. Susceptibility to antibiotics was determined by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion technique. The screening for Seccanine, lukD, siet, and exitoxin genes was carried out by PCR. A total of 23 (37.7 %) and 1 (3 %) MRSP strains were obtained from shelter dogs and dog owners, respectively. Generally, isolates exhibited high resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ceftazidime, and cefepime (100 % - 66.7 %) but were very susceptible (100 % - 70.7 %) to chloramphenicol and doripenem. The only isolate from dog owners harbouredseccanine, lukD, and siet toxin genes while solatesfrom shelter dogs harbouredseccanine16 (69.6 %), lukD 17 (73.9 %), siet 20 (87 %), and exi1 (4.4 %) toxin genes. Isolates were generally observed to be more resistant than other reports from the literature. Interesting, there was a similarity in the resistance antibiotypes and frequency of toxin genes harboured by MRSP isolates between shelter dogs with skin infections and their owner in a sampled household, thus suggesting a likely zoonotic transmission event. This report of the occurrence of MRSP and high frequency of toxin genes (Seccanine,lukD, and siet) in shelter dogs and dog owners represent a major challenge, especially in terms of antibiotic therapy, and is a serious concern for both animal and public health.

Keywords: methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius, zoonotic transmission, antibiotic resistance, companion dogs, toxin genes

Procedia PDF Downloads 84
85 Molecular Detection and Characterization of Shiga Toxogenic Escherichia coli Associated with Dairy Product

Authors: Mohamed Al-Hazmi, Abdullah Al-Arfaj, Moussa Ihab

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Raw, unpasteurized milk can carry dangerous bacteria such as Salmonella, E. coli, and Listeria, which are responsible for causing numerous foodborne illnesses. The objective of this study was molecular characterization of shiga toxogenic E. coli in raw milk collected from different Egyptian governorates by multiplex PCR. During the period of 25th May to 25th October 2012, a total of 320 bulk-tank milk samples were collected from 10 cow farms located in different Egyptian governorates. Bacteriological examination of milk samples revealed the presence of E. coli organisms in 65 samples (20.3%), serotyping of the E. coli isolates revealed, 35 strains (10.94%) O111, 15 strains (4.69%) O157: H7, 10 strains (3.13%) O128 and 5 strains (1.56%) O119. Multiplex PCR for detection of shiga toxin type 2 and intimin genes revealed positive amplification of 255 bp fragment of shiga toxin type 2 gene and 384 bp fragment of intimin gene from all E. coli serovar O157: H7, while from serovar O111 were 25 (71.43%), 20 (57.14%) and from serovar O128 were 6 (60%), 8 (80%), respectively. The results of multiplex PCR assay are useful for identification of STEC possessing the eaeA and stx2 genes.

Keywords: raw milk, E. coli, multiplex PCR, Shiga toxin type 2, intimin gene

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
84 Current Concepts of Male Aesthetics: Facial Areas to Be Focused and Prioritized with Botulinum Toxin and Hyaluronic Acid Dermal Fillers Combination Therapies, Recommendations on Asian Patients

Authors: Sadhana Deshmukh

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Objective: Men represent only a fraction of the medical aesthetic practice. They are increasingly becoming more cosmetically-inclined. The primary objective is to harmonize facial proportion by prioritizing and focusing on forehead nose, cheek and chin complex. Introduction: Despite tremendous variability, diverse population of the Indian subcontinent, the male skull is unique in its overall larger size, and shape. Men tend to have a large forehead with prominent supraorbital ridges, wide glabella, square orbit, and a prominent protruding mandible. Men have increased skeletal muscle mass, with less facial subcutaneous fat. Facial aesthetics is evolving rapidly. Commonly published canons of facial proportions usually represent feminine standards and are not applicable to males. Strict adherence to these norms is therefore not necessary to obtain satisfying results in male patients. Materials and Methods: Male patients age group 30-60 years have been enrolled. Botulinum toxin and hyaluronic acid fillers were used to update consensus recommendations for facial rejuvenation using these two types of products alone and in combination. Results: There are specific recommendations by facial area, focusing on relaxing musculature, restoring volume, recontouring using toxin and dermal fillers alone and in combination. For upper face, though botulinum toxin remains the cornerstone of treatment, temples and forehead fillers are recommended for optimal results. In Mid face, these fillers are placed more laterally to maintain the masculine look. Botulinum toxin and fillers in combination can improve outcomes in the lower face. Chin augmentation remains the center point for lower face. Conclusions: Males are more likely to have shorter doctor visits, less likely to ask questions, have a lower attention to bodily changes. The physician must patiently gauge male patients’ aging and cosmetic goals. Clinicians can also benefit from ongoing guidance on products, tailoring treatments, treating multiple facial areas, and using combinations of products. An appreciation that rejuvenation is 3-dimensional process involving muscle control, volume restoration and recontouring helps.

Keywords: male aesthetics, botulinum toxin, hyaluronic acid dermal fillers, Asian patients

Procedia PDF Downloads 91
83 New Challenge: Reduction of Aflatoxin M1 Residues in Cow’s Milk by MilBond Dietary Hydrated Sodium Calcium Aluminosilicate (HSCAS) and Its Effect on Milk Composition

Authors: A. Aly Salwa, H. Diekmann, S. Hafiz Ragaa, DG Abo Elhassan

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This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of Milbond (HSCAS) on aflatoxin M1 in artificially contaminated cows milk. Chemisorption compounds used in this experiment were MIlBond, hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS). Raw cow milk were artificially exposed to aflatoxin M1 in a concentration of 100 ppb) with addition of Nilbond at 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 % at room temperature for 30 minutes. Aflatoxin M1 was decreased more than 95% by HSCAS at 2%. Milk composition consist of protein, fat, lactose, solid non fat and total solid were affected by addition of some adsorbents were not significantly affected (p 0.05). Tthis method did not involve degrading the toxin, milk may be free from toxin degradation products and is safe for consumption. In addition, the added material may be easily separated from milk after the substance adsorbs the toxin. Thus, this method should be developed by further researches for determining effects of these compounds on functional properties of milk. The ability of hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate to prevent or reduce the level of aflatoxin MI residues in milk is critically needed. This finding has important implications, because milk is ultimately consumed by humans and animals, and the reduction of aflatoxin contamination in the milk could have an important impact on their health.

Keywords: aflatoxin M1, Hydrated sodium calcium aluminium silicate, detoxification, raw cow milk

Procedia PDF Downloads 345
82 Characterization of Shiga Toxin Escherichia coli Recovered from a Beef Processing Facility within Southern Ontario and Comparative Performance of Molecular Diagnostic Platforms

Authors: Jessica C. Bannon, Cleso M. Jordao Jr., Mohammad Melebari, Carlos Leon-Velarde, Roger Johnson, Keith Warriner

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There has been an increased incidence of non-O157 Shiga Toxin Escherichia coli (STEC) with six serotypes (Top 6) being implicated in causing haemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Beef has been suggested to be a significant vehicle for non-O157 STEC although conclusive evidence has yet to be obtained. The following aimed to determine the prevalence of the Top 6 non-O157 STEC in beef processing using three different diagnostic platforms then characterize the recovered isolates. Hide, carcass and environmental swab samples (n = 60) were collected from a beef processing facility over a 12 month period. Enriched samples were screened using Biocontrol GDS, BAX or PALLgene molecular diagnostic tests. Presumptive non-O157 STEC positive samples were confirmed using conventional PCR and serology. STEC was detected by GDS (55% positive), BAX (85% positive), and PALLgene (93%). However, during confirmation testing only 8 of the 60 samples (13%) were found to harbour STEC. Interestingly, the presence of virulence factors in the recovered isolates was unstable and readily lost during subsequent sub-culturing. There is a low prevalence of Top 6 non-O157 STEC associated with beef although other serotypes are encountered. Yet, the instability of the virulence factors in recovered strains would question their clinical relevance.

Keywords: beef, food microbiology, shiga toxin, STEC

Procedia PDF Downloads 396
81 Safety and Efficacy of Recombinant Clostridium botulinum Types B Vaccine Candidate

Authors: Mi-Hye Hwang, Young Min Son, Kichan Lee, Bang-Hun Hyun, Byeong Yeal Jung

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Botulism is a paralytic disease of human beings and animals caused by neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum. The neurotoxins are genetically distinguished into 8 types, A to H. Ingestion of performed toxin, usually types B, C, and D, have been shown to produce diseases in most cases of cattle botulism. Vaccination is the best measure to prevent cattle botulism. However, the commercially available toxoid-based vaccines are difficult and hazardous to produce. We produced recombinant protein using gene of heavy chain domain of botulinum toxin B of which binds to cellular receptor of neuron cells and used as immunogen. In this study, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of botulism vaccine composed of recombinant types B. Safety test was done by National Regulation for Veterinary Biologicals. For efficacy test, female ICR mice (5 weeks old) were subcutaneously injected, intraperitoneally challenged, and examined the survival rates compared with vaccination and non-vaccination group. Mouse survival rate of recombinant types B vaccine was above 80%, while one of non-vaccination group was 0%. A vaccine composed of recombinant types B was safe and efficacious in mouse. Our results suggest that recombinant heavy chain receptor binding domain can be used as an effective vaccine candidate for type B botulism.

Keywords: botulism, livestock, vaccine, recombinant protein, toxin

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
80 Effect of Dietary Sour Lemon Peel Essential Oil on Serum Parameters in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Fingerlings against Deltamethrin Stress

Authors: Maryam Amiri Resketi, Sakineh Yeganeh, Khosro Jani Khalili

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The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary lemon peel essential oil (Citrus limon) on serum parameters and liver enzyme activity of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was exposed to deltamethrin. The 96-hour lethal concentrations of the toxin on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), was determined according to standard procedures O.E.C.D in static (Static). 96-hour LC50 was obtained 0.0082 mg/l by using statistical methods Probit program version. The maximum allowable concentration of deltamethrin was calculated 0.00082 mg/l in natural environment and was used for this experiment. Eight treatments were designed based on 3 levels of lemon essential oil 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg and 2 levels of deltamethrin 0 and 0.00082. Rainbow trout with an average weight of 95.14 ± 3.8 g were distributed in 300-liter tanks and cultured for eight weeks. Fish were fed in an amount of 2% of body weight. Water changes were done on a daily basis (90 percent of the tank). About the tanks containing 10 % deltamethrin, after dewatering, suitable concentration of toxin was added to water. At the end of the test, serum biochemical parameters (total protein, albumin, glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides) and liver enzymes (ALP, AST, ALT and LDH) were evaluated. In treatments without and with toxin, increasing 400 mg/kg oil increased total protein and albumin levels and lower cholesterol and triglycerides were observed (p < 0.05). Rise to the level of 400 mg/kg of lemon peel essential oil treatments contain pesticides, reduced the amount of enzymes ALP, ALT and LDH compared to treatment of toxin-free lemon peel essential oil (p < 0.05). The results showed that usage of lemon peel essential oil in fish diet can increase the immune system parameters and strengthen it with strong antioxidant activity followed by reducing the effect of deltamethrin on the immune system of fish and effective dose can prevent the adverse effects of toxin due to the weakening of the fish immune system at the time of toxic pollutant entrance in fish farms.

Keywords: deltamethrin, Oncorhynchus mykiss, LC5096h, lemon peel (citrus limon) essential oil, serum parameters, liver enzymes

Procedia PDF Downloads 116
79 Differential Expression Analysis of Busseola fusca Larval Transcriptome in Response to Cry1Ab Toxin Challenge

Authors: Bianca Peterson, Tomasz J. Sańko, Carlos C. Bezuidenhout, Johnnie Van Den Berg

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Busseola fusca (Fuller) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), the maize stem borer, is a major pest in sub-Saharan Africa. It causes economic damage to maize and sorghum crops and has evolved non-recessive resistance to genetically modified (GM) maize expressing the Cry1Ab insecticidal toxin. Since B. fusca is a non-model organism, very little genomic information is publicly available, and is limited to some cytochrome c oxidase I, cytochrome b, and microsatellite data. The biology of B. fusca is well-described, but still poorly understood. This, in combination with its larval-specific behavior, may pose problems for limiting the spread of current resistant B. fusca populations or preventing resistance evolution in other susceptible populations. As part of on-going research into resistance evolution, B. fusca larvae were collected from Bt and non-Bt maize in South Africa, followed by RNA isolation (15 specimens) and sequencing on the Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform. Quality of reads was assessed with FastQC, after which Trimmomatic was used to trim adapters and remove low quality, short reads. Trinity was used for the de novo assembly, whereas TransRate was used for assembly quality assessment. Transcript identification employed BLAST (BLASTn, BLASTp, and tBLASTx comparisons), for which two libraries (nucleotide and protein) were created from 3.27 million lepidopteran sequences. Several transcripts that have previously been implicated in Cry toxin resistance was identified for B. fusca. These included aminopeptidase N, cadherin, alkaline phosphatase, ATP-binding cassette transporter proteins, and mitogen-activated protein kinase. MEGA7 was used to align these transcripts to reference sequences from Lepidoptera to detect mutations that might potentially be contributing to Cry toxin resistance in this pest. RSEM and Bioconductor were used to perform differential gene expression analysis on groups of B. fusca larvae challenged and unchallenged with the Cry1Ab toxin. Pairwise expression comparisons of transcripts that were at least 16-fold expressed at a false-discovery corrected statistical significance (p) ≤ 0.001 were extracted and visualized in a hierarchically clustered heatmap using R. A total of 329,194 transcripts with an N50 of 1,019 bp were generated from the over 167.5 million high-quality paired-end reads. Furthermore, 110 transcripts were over 10 kbp long, of which the largest one was 29,395 bp. BLAST comparisons resulted in identification of 157,099 (47.72%) transcripts, among which only 3,718 (2.37%) were identified as Cry toxin receptors from lepidopteran insects. According to transcript expression profiles, transcripts were grouped into three subclusters according to the similarity of their expression patterns. Several immune-related transcripts (pathogen recognition receptors, antimicrobial peptides, and inhibitors) were up-regulated in the larvae feeding on Bt maize, indicating an enhanced immune status in response to toxin exposure. Above all, extremely up-regulated arylphorin genes suggest that enhanced epithelial healing is one of the resistance mechanisms employed by B. fusca larvae against the Cry1Ab toxin. This study is the first to provide a resource base and some insights into a potential mechanism of Cry1Ab toxin resistance in B. fusca. Transcriptomic data generated in this study allows identification of genes that can be targeted by biotechnological improvements of GM crops.

Keywords: epithelial healing, Lepidoptera, resistance, transcriptome

Procedia PDF Downloads 124
78 Toxin-Producing Algae of Nigerian Coast, Gulf of Guinea

Authors: Medina O. Kadiri, Jeffrey U. Ogbebor

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Toxin-producing algae are algal species that produce potent toxins, which accumulate in food chains and cause various gastrointestinal and neurological illnesses in humans and other animals. They result in shellfish toxicity, ecosystem alteration, cause fish kills and mortality of other animals and humans, in addition to compromised product quality as well as decreased consumer confidence. Animals, including man, are directly exposed to toxins by absorbing toxins from the water via swimming, drinking water with toxins, or ingestion of algal species via feeding on contaminated seafood. These toxins, algal toxins, undergo bioaccumulation, biotransformation, biotransferrence, and biomagnification through the natural food chains and food webs, thereby endangering animals and humans. The Nigerian coast is situated on the Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Guinea, one of Africa’s five large marine ecosystems (LME), and studies on toxic algae in this ecosystem are generally lacking. Algal samples were collected from eight coastal states and ten locations spanning the Bight of Bonny and the Bight of Benin. A total of 70 species of toxin-producing algae were found in the coastal waters of Nigeria. There was a great variety of toxin-producing algae in the coastal waters of Nigeria. They were Domoic acid-producing forms (DSP), Saxitoxin-producing, Gonyautoxin-producing, and Yessotoxin-producing (all PSP). Others were Okadaic acid-producing, Dinophysistoxin-producing, and Palytoxin-producing, which are representatives of DSP; CFP was represented by Ciguatoxin-producing forms and NSP by Brevitoxin-producing species. Emerging or new toxins are comprising of Gymnodimines, Spirolides, Palytoxins, and Prorocentrolidess-producing algae. The CyanoToxin Poisoning (CTP) was represented by Anatoxin-, Microcystin-, Cylindrospermopsis-Lyngbyatoxin-, Nordularin-Applyssiatoxin and Debromoapplatoxin-producing species. The highest group was the Saxitoxin-producing species, followed by Microcystin-producing species, then Anatoxin-producing species. Gonyautoxin (PSP), Palytoxin (DSP), Emerging toxins, and Cylindrospermopsin -producing species had a very substantial representation. Only Ciguatoxin-producing species, Lyngbyatoxin-Nordularin, Applyssiatoxin, and Debromoapplatoxin-producing species were represented by one taxon each. The presence of such overwhelming diversity of toxin-producing algae on the Nigerian coast is a source of concern for fisheries, aquaculture, human health, and ecosystem services. Therefore routine monitoring of toxic and harmful algae is greatly recommended.

Keywords: algal syndromes, Atlantic Ocean, harmful algae, Nigeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 121
77 Botulinum Toxin a in the Treatment of Late Facial Nerve Palsy Complications

Authors: Akulov M. A., Orlova O. R., Zaharov V. O., Tomskij A. A.

Abstract:

Introduction: One of the common postoperative complications of posterior cranial fossa (PCF) and cerebello-pontine angle tumor treatment is a facial nerve palsy, which leads to multiple and resistant to treatment impairments of mimic muscles structure and functions. After 4-6 months after facial nerve palsy with insufficient therapeutic intervention patients develop a postparalythic syndrome, which includes such symptoms as mimic muscle insufficiency, mimic muscle contractures, synkinesis and spontaneous muscular twitching. A novel method of treatment is the use of a recent local neuromuscular blocking agent– botulinum toxin A (BTA). Experience of BTA treatment enables an assumption that it can be successfully used in late facial nerve palsy complications to significantly increase quality of life of patients. Study aim. To evaluate the efficacy of botulinum toxin A (BTA) (Xeomin) treatment in patients with late facial nerve palsy complications. Patients and Methods: 31 patients aged 27-59 years 6 months after facial nerve palsy development were evaluated. All patients received conventional treatment, including massage, movement therapy etc. Facial nerve palsy developed after acoustic nerve tumor resection in 23 (74,2%) patients, petroclival meningioma resection – in 8 (25,8%) patients. The first group included 17 (54,8%) patients, receiving BT-therapy; the second group – 14 (45,2%) patients continuing conventional treatment. BT-injections were performed in synkinesis or contracture points 1-2 U on injured site and 2-4 U on healthy side (for symmetry). Facial nerve function was evaluated on 2 and 4 months of therapy according to House-Brackman scale. Pain syndrome alleviation was assessed on VAS. Results: At baseline all patients in the first and second groups demonstrated аpostparalytic syndrome. We observed a significant improvement in patients receiving BTA after only one month of treatment. Mean VAS score at baseline was 80,4±18,7 and 77,9±18,2 in the first and second group, respectively. In the first group after one month of treatment we observed a significant decrease of pain syndrome – mean VAS score was 44,7±10,2 (р<0,01), whereas in the second group VAS score was as high as 61,8±9,4 points (p>0,05). By the 3d month of treatment pain syndrome intensity continued to decrease in both groups, but, the first group demonstrated significantly better results; mean score was 8,2±3,1 and 31,8±4,6 in the first and second group, respectively (р<0,01). Total House-Brackman score at baseline was 3,67±0,16 in the first group and 3,74±0,19 in the second group. Treatment resulted in a significant symptom improvement in the first group, with no improvement in the second group. After 4 months of treatment House-Brockman score in the first group was 3,1-fold lower, than in the second group (р<0,05). Conclusion: Botulinum toxin injections decrease postparalytic syndrome symptoms in patients with facial nerve palsy.

Keywords: botulinum toxin, facial nerve palsy, postparalytic syndrome, synkinesis

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76 Efficacy of Botulinum Toxin in Alleviating Pain Syndrome in Stroke Patients with Upper Limb Spasticity

Authors: Akulov M. A., Zaharov V. O., Jurishhev P. E., Tomskij A. A.

Abstract:

Introduction: Spasticity is a severe consequence of stroke, leading to profound disability, decreased quality of life and decrease of rehabilitation efficacy [4]. Spasticity is often associated with pain syndrome, arising from joint damage of paretic limbs (postural arthropathy) or painful spasm of paretic limb muscles. It is generally accepted that injection of botulinum toxin into a cramped muscle leads to decrease of muscle tone and improves motion range in paretic limb, which is accompanied by pain alleviation. Study aim: To evaluate the change in pain syndrome intensity after incections of botulinum toxin A (Xeomin) in stroke patients with upper limb spasticity. Patients and methods. 21 patients aged 47-74 years were evaluated. Inclusion criteria were: acute stroke 4-7 months before the inclusion into the study, leading to spasticity of wrist and/or finger flexors, elbow flexor or forearm pronator, associated with severe pain syndrome. Patients received Xeomin as monotherapy 90-300 U, according to spasticity pattern. Efficacy evaluation was performed using Ashworth scale, disability assessment scale (DAS), caregiver burden scale and global treatment benefit assessment on weeks 2, 4, 8 and 12. Efficacy criterion was the decrease of pain syndrome by week 4 on PQLS and VAS. Results: The study revealed a significant improvement of measured indices after 4 weeks of treatment, which persisted until the 12 week of treatment. Xeomin is effective in reducing muscle tone of flexors of wrist, fingers and elbow, forearm pronators. By the 4th week of treatment we observed a significant improvement on DAS (р < 0,05), Ashworth scale (1-2 points) in all patients (р < 0,05), caregiver burden scale (р < 0,05). A significant decrease of pain syndrome by the 4th week of treatment on PQLS (р < 0,05) и VAS (р < 0,05) was observed. No adverse effect were registered. Conclusion: Xeomin is an effective treatment of pain syndrome in postural upper limb spasticity after stroke. Xeomin treatment leads to a significant improvement on PQLS and VAS.

Keywords: botulinum toxin, pain syndrome, spasticity, stroke

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75 Appearance of Ciguatoxin Fish in Atlantic Europe Waters

Authors: J. Bravo, F. Cabrera Suárez, B. Vega, L. Román, M. Martel, F. Acosta

Abstract:

Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is the most common non-bacterial intoxication in the world caused by ingestion of fish with bio-accumulated ciguatoxins (CTXs). It is typical in tropical and subtropical areas, mainly affecting the Caribbean Sea, Polynesia and other areas in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. Interest in Europe by the CFP is increasing in recent years as more and more cases in European hospitals are appearing, usually by people who have consumed ciguatoxin imported fish or have travelled to areas of risk for this poisoning. Since 2004 a series of poisonings raised the question of a possible occurrence of ciguatoxin in Europe, especially in the area of Macaronesia in the East Atlantic temperate zone. Furthermore, some studies have identified the presence of Gambierdiscus spp. in waters surrounding the Canary Islands and Madeira, a toxic dinoflagellate related to this poisoning. The toxin accumulates and concentrates through the food chain and affects to the end of the chain, the human consumer. Fish were collected from the Canary Islands waters and the toxin has been extracted and purified by using acetone and liquid/liquid partition in order to eliminate the excess of fatty acids that may interfere with the detection of the toxin. The fish extracts were inoculated in Neuroblastoma (neuro-2a) cells. After 24-h cell viability was used as an endpoint for cytotoxic effects measurement. Since 2011 our laboratory is collecting data for species such Seriola spp., Epinephelus spp., Makaira spp., Pomatomus spp., Xiphias spp., and Acantocybium spp., from all islands and including the sports fishing and professional activities, we obtained a 8% of fish that have ciguatoxin in their muscle. With these results, we conclude that the island where fishing and fish size affects the probability of catching a fish with the ciguatoxin.

Keywords: Canary Islands, ciguatera fish poisoning, ciguatoxin, Europe

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74 Botulinum Toxin type A for Lower Limb Lengthening and Deformity Correction: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Authors: Jawaher F. Alsharef, Abdullah A. Ghaddaf, Mohammed S. Alomari, Abdullah A. Al Qurashi, Ahmed S. Abdulhamid, Mohammed S. Alshehri, Majed Alosaimi

Abstract:

Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) is the most popular therapeutic agent for muscle relaxation and pain control. Lately, BTX-A injection received great interest as a part of multimodal pain management for lower limb lengthening and deformity correction. This systematic review aimed to determine the role of BTX-A injection in pain management for during lower limb lengthening and/or deformity correction. We searched Medline, Embase, and CENTRAL. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared the BTX-A injection to placebo for individuals undergoing lower limb lengthening and/or deformity correction. We sought to evaluate the following outcomes: pain on visual analogue scale (VAS), range of motion parameters, average opioid consumption, and adverse events. The standardized mean difference (SMD) was used to represent continuous outcomes while risk ratio (RR) was used to represent dichotomous outcomes. A total of 4 RCTs that enrolled 257 participants (337 limbs) deemed eligible. Adjuvant BTX-A injection showed a significant reduction in post-operative pain compared to placebo (SMD=–0.28, 95% CI –0.53 to –0.04). No difference was found between BTX-A injection and placebo in terms of range of motion parameters, average opioid consumption, or adverse events after surgical limb lengthening and/or deformity correction (RR= 0.77, 95% CI –0.58 to 1.03). Conclusions: Adjuvant BTX-A injection conferred a discernible reduction in post-operative pain during surgical limb lengthening and/or deformity without increasing the risk of adverse events.

Keywords: botulinum toxin type A, limb lengthening, distraction osteogenesis, deformity correction, pain management

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73 The Staphylococcus aureus Exotoxin Recognition Using Nanobiosensor Designed by an Antibody-Attached Nanosilica Method

Authors: Hamed Ahari, Behrouz Akbari Adreghani, Vadood Razavilar, Amirali Anvar, Sima Moradi, Hourieh Shalchi

Abstract:

Considering the ever increasing population and industrialization of the developmental trend of humankind's life, we are no longer able to detect the toxins produced in food products using the traditional techniques. This is due to the fact that the isolation time for food products is not cost-effective and even in most of the cases, the precision in the practical techniques like the bacterial cultivation and other techniques suffer from operator errors or the errors of the mixtures used. Hence with the advent of nanotechnology, the design of selective and smart sensors is one of the greatest industrial revelations of the quality control of food products that in few minutes time, and with a very high precision can identify the volume and toxicity of the bacteria. Methods and Materials: In this technique, based on the bacterial antibody connection to nanoparticle, a sensor was used. In this part of the research, as the basis for absorption for the recognition of bacterial toxin, medium sized silica nanoparticles of 10 nanometer in form of solid powder were utilized with Notrino brand. Then the suspension produced from agent-linked nanosilica which was connected to bacterial antibody was positioned near the samples of distilled water, which were contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus bacterial toxin with the density of 10-3, so that in case any toxin exists in the sample, a connection between toxin antigen and antibody would be formed. Finally, the light absorption related to the connection of antigen to the particle attached antibody was measured using spectrophotometry. The gene of 23S rRNA that is conserved in all Staphylococcus spp., also used as control. The accuracy of the test was monitored by using serial dilution (l0-6) of overnight cell culture of Staphylococcus spp., bacteria (OD600: 0.02 = 107 cell). It showed that the sensitivity of PCR is 10 bacteria per ml of cells within few hours. Result: The results indicate that the sensor detects up to 10-4 density. Additionally, the sensitivity of the sensors was examined after 60 days, the sensor by the 56 days had confirmatory results and started to decrease after those time periods. Conclusions: Comparing practical nano biosensory to conventional methods like that culture and biotechnology methods(such as polymerase chain reaction) is accuracy, sensitiveness and being unique. In the other way, they reduce the time from the hours to the 30 minutes.

Keywords: exotoxin, nanobiosensor, recognition, Staphylococcus aureus

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72 Effects of Allium Sativum Essential Oil on MIC, MBC and Growth Curve of Vibrio Parahaemolyticus ATCC 43996 and Its Thermostable Direct Hemolysin Production

Authors: Afshin Akhondzadeh Basti, Zohreh Mashak, Ali Khanjari, Mohammad Adel Rezaei, Fatemeh Mohammadkhan

Abstract:

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a halophilic bacterium and often causes gastroenteritis because of consumption of raw or inadequately cooked seafood. Studies showed a strong association of thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) produced by members of this species with its pathogenicity. The effects of garlic (Allium sativum) essential oil at concentrations of 0, 0.005, 0.015, 0.03 and 0.045% on the minimum inhibitiotory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), growth curve and production of TDH toxin of vibrio parahaemolyticus were studied in BHI model. MIC and MBC of Allium sativum essential oil was estimated 0.03%. The results of this study revealed that the TDH production was significantly affected by Allium sativum EO and titers of TDH production in 0 and 0.005 % were 1/256 whereas this titer in 0.015 % concentration of EO. Concentrations of 0.005 and 0/015 % of garlic essential oil reduced the bacterial growth rate significantly (P < 0.05) compared to the control group. According to the results Allium sativum essential oil showed to be effective against bacterial growth and production of TDH toxin. Its potential application in food systems may be suggested.

Keywords: allium sativum essential oil, vibrio parahaemolyticus, TDH, consumption

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71 Efficacy of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) and a Zeolite (Hydrated Sodium Calcium Aluminosilicate) in the Amelioration of Aflatoxicosis in Broilers

Authors: Ryan Stevens, Wayne L. Bryden

Abstract:

This study focused on the effects of ginger and a zeolite (toxin binder) in reducing the toxic effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in broiler chickens 7 to 49 days of age. The chicks were maintained normally until experimental diets were introduced on day 7 post-hatching. Nine hundred and thirty six, 7-d-old broiler chickens were randomly assigned to 18 treatment groups; each group had four replicates, each with 13 chickens. The experimental groups or diets had factorial combinations of the following; AFB1 0, 1 and 2 mg/kg diet, ginger 0 and 5g/kg diet, and zeolite 0, 15 and 30 g/kg diet. Diets were based on corn and soybean meal and a starter diet was fed from 1 to 14 days, a grower diet from15 to 28 days and a finisher diet was provided from day 29 until the end of the experiment. Both dietary levels of AFB1 decreased (P<0.05) body weight and feed conversion, and increased relative liver weights. Independent dietary inclusion of ginger or zeolite restored chick performance when diets contained 1mg/kg but not at 2mg/kg. Supplementation of zeolite together with ginger improved performance of birds fed contaminated diets. Interestingly, adding ginger to the control diet that was not contaminated with AFB1 improved (P<0.05) performance. Our results suggest that toxin binders and ginger can provide protection against the negative effects of AFB1 on performance of broiler chicks.

Keywords: aflatoxin, broiler, ginger, zeolite

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70 The Effect of Probiotic Bacteria on Aflatoxin M1 Detoxification in Phosphate Buffer Saline

Authors: Sumeyra Sevim, Gulsum Gizem Topal, Mercan Merve Tengilimoglu-Metin, Mevlude Kizil

Abstract:

Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is a major toxic and carcinogenic molecule in milk and milk products. Therefore, it poses a risk for public health. Probiotics can be biological agent to remove AFM1. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of probiotic bacteria on AFM1 detoxification in phosphate buffer saline. The PBS samples artificially contaminated with AFM1 at concentration 100 pg/ml were prepared with probiotics bacteria that including monoculture (L. plantarum, B. bifidum ATCC, B. animalis ATCC 27672) and binary culture (L. bulgaricus + S. thermophiles, B. bifidum ATCC + B. animalis ATCC 27672, L. plantarum+B. bifidum ATCC, L. plantarum+ B. animalis ATCC 27672). The samples were incubated at 37°C for 4 hours and stored for 1, 5 and 10 days. The toxin was measured by the ELISA. The highest levels of AFM1 binding ability (63.6%) in PBS were detected yoghurt starter bacteria, while L. plantarum had the lowest levels of AFM1 binding ability (35.5%) in PBS. In addition, it was found that there was significant effect of storage on AFM1 binding ability in all groups except the one including B. animalis (p < 0.05). Consequently, results demonstrate that AFM1 detoxification by probiotic bacteria has a potential application to reduce toxin concentrations in yoghurt. Moreover, probiotic strains can react with itself as synergic or antagonist.

Keywords: aflatoxin M1, ELISA, probiotics, storage

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69 Pathogen Identification of Fusarium spp. and Chemotypes Associated with Wheat Crown Rot in Hebei Province of China

Authors: Kahsay Tadesse Mawcha, Na Zhang, Xu Yiying, Chang Jiaying, Wenxiang Yang

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Fusarium crown rot (FCR) diseased wheat seedlings were collected from different wheat-growing counties in seven different regions (Baoding, Cangzhou, Handan, Hengshui, Langfang, Shijiazhuang, and Xingtai) in Hebei province, China from 2019 to 2020. One-hundred twenty-two Fusarium isolates were isolated from crown rot diseased wheat seedlings and identified morphologically, confirmation was undertaken molecularly, and species-specific PCR was utilized to verify the morphological identification of F. psuedograminearum, F. graminearum, F. asiaticum, and F. culmorum. The predominant Fusarium species associated with wheat crown rot in the Hebei province were F. psuedograminearum, F. graminearum, F. asiaticum, and F. culmorum with isolation frequency of 85.25%, 12.30%, 1.64%, and 0.81%, respectively. All the Fusarium strains isolated from the different wheat-growing fields were qualitatively tested for toxigenic chemotypes using toxin-specific primers and chemotaxonomically classified into DON, 3-ADON, 15-ADON, and NIV. Among F. psuedograminearum identified, 84.62% were classified as DON chemotypes, 6.73% as 15-ADON chemotypes, 3.84% as 3-ADON chemotypes, and 4.81% of them had NIV as detected by the toxin-specific PCR results. Most of the F. graminearum isolates produced 15-ADON, and only two isolates had NIV chemotypes. F. asiaticum and F. culmorum produce chemotype of 15-ADON and 3-ADON, respectively. Pathogenicity test results showed that F. pseudograminearum and F. graminearum had strong pathogenicity, and F. asiaticum and F. culmorum had moderate pathogenicity to wheat in Hebei province.

Keywords: crown rot, pathogen, wheat, Fusarium species, mycotoxin

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68 Geographic Variation in the Baseline Susceptibility of Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera) Field Populations to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry Toxins for Resistance Monitoring

Authors: Muhammad Arshad, M. Sufian, Muhammad D. Gogi, A. Aslam

Abstract:

The transgenic cotton expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) provides an effective control of Helicoverpa armigera, a most damaging pest of the cotton crop. However, Bt cotton may not be the optimal solution owing to the selection pressure of Cry toxins. As Bt cotton express the insecticidal proteins throughout the growing seasons, there are the chances of resistance development in the target pests. A regular monitoring and surveillance of target pest’s baseline susceptibility to Bt Cry toxins is crucial for early detection of any resistance development. The present study was conducted to monitor the changes in the baseline susceptibility of the field population of H. armigera to Bt Cry1Ac toxin. The field-collected larval populations were maintained in the laboratory on artificial diet and F1 generation larvae were used for diet incorporated diagnostic studies. The LC₅₀ and MIC₅₀ were calculated to measure the level of resistance of population as a ratio over susceptible population. The monitoring results indicated a significant difference in the susceptibility (LC₅₀) of H. armigera for first, second, third and fourth instar larval populations sampled from different cotton growing areas over the study period 2016-17. The variations in susceptibility among the tested insects depended on the age of the insect and susceptibility decreased with the age of larvae. The overall results show that the average resistant ratio (RR) of all field-collected populations (FSD, SWL, MLT, BWP and DGK) exposed to Bt toxin Cry1Ac ranged from 3.381-fold to 7.381-fold for 1st instar, 2.370-fold to 3.739-fold for 2nd instar, 1.115-fold to 1.762-fold for 3rd instar and 1.141-fold to 2.504-fold for 4th instar, depicting maximum RR from MLT population, whereas minimum RR for FSD and SWL population. The results regarding moult inhibitory concentration of H. armigera larvae (1-4th instars) exposed to different concentrations of Bt Cry1Ac toxin indicated that among all field populations, overall Multan (MLT) and Bahawalpur (BWP) populations showed higher MIC₅₀ values as compared to Faisalabad (FSD) and Sahiwal (SWL), whereas DG Khan (DGK) population showed an intermediate moult inhibitory concentrations. This information is important for the development of more effective resistance monitoring programs. The development of Bt Cry toxins baseline susceptibility data before the widespread commercial release of transgenic Bt cotton cultivars in Pakistan is important for the development of more effective resistance monitoring programs to identify the resistant H. armigera populations.

Keywords: Bt cotton, baseline, Cry1Ac toxins, H. armigera

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67 Influence of Yeast Strains on Microbiological Stability of Wheat Bread

Authors: E. Soboleva, E. Sergachyova, S. G. Davydenko, T. V. Meledina

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Problem of food preservation is extremely important for mankind. Viscous damage ("illness") of bread results from development of Bacillus spp. bacteria. High temperature resistant spores of this microorganism are steady against 120°C) and remain in bread during pastries, potentially causing spoilage of the final product. Scientists are interested in further characterization of bread spoiling Bacillus spp. species. Our aim was to find weather yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that are able to produce natural antimicrobial killer factor can preserve bread illness. By diffusion method, we showed yeast antagonistic activity against spore-forming bacteria. Experimental technological parameters were the same as for bakers' yeasts production on the industrial scale. Risograph test during dough fermentation demonstrated gas production. The major finding of the study was a clear indication of the presence of killer yeast strain antagonistic activity against rope in bread causing bacteria. After demonstrating antagonistic effect of S. cerevisiae on bacteria using solid nutrient medium, we tested baked bread under provocative conditions. We also measured formation of carbon dioxide in the dough, dough-making duration and quality of the final products, when using different strains of S. cerevisiae. It is determined that the use of yeast S. cerevisiae RCAM 01730 killer strain inhibits appearance of rope in bread. Thus, natural yeast antimicrobial killer toxin, produced by some S. cerevisiae strains is an anti-rope in bread protector.

Keywords: bakers' yeasts, killer toxin, rope in bread, Saccharomyces cerevisiæ

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66 Botulism Clinical Experience and Update

Authors: Kevin Yeo, Christine Hall, Babinchak Tim

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BAT® [Botulism Antitoxin Heptavalent (A,B,C,D,E,F,G)-(Equine)] anti-toxin is a mixture of equine immune globulin fragments indicated for the treatment of symptomatic botulism in adult and pediatric patients. The effectiveness of BAT anti-toxin is based on efficacy studies conducted in animal models. A general explanation of the pivotal animal studies, post market surveillance and outcomes of an observational patient registry for patients treated with BAT product distributed in the USA is briefly discussed. Overall it took 20 animal studies for two well-designed and appropriately powered pivotal efficacy studies – one in which the effectiveness of BAT was assessed against all 7 serotypes in the guinea pig, and the other where efficacy is confirmed in the Rhesus macaque using Serotype A. Clinical Experience for BAT to date involves approximately 600 adult and pediatric patients with suspected botulism. In pre-licensure, patient data was recorded under the US CDC expanded access program (259 adult and pediatric patients between 10 days to 88 years of age). In post licensure, greater than 350 patients to date have received BAT and been followed up by enhanced expanded access program. The analysis of the post market surveillance data provided a unique opportunity to demonstrate clinical benefit in the field study required by the animal rule. While the animal rule is applied because human efficacy studies are not ethical or feasible, a post-marketing requirement is to conduct a study to evaluate safety and clinical benefit when circumstances arise and demonstrate the favourable benefit-risk profile that supported licensure.

Keywords: botulism, threat, clinical benefit, observational patient registry

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65 Impact of Totiviridae L-A dsRNA Virus on Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Host: Transcriptomic and Proteomic Approach

Authors: Juliana Lukša, Bazilė Ravoitytė, Elena Servienė, Saulius Serva

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Totiviridae L-A virus is a persistent Saccharomyces cerevisiae dsRNA virus. It encodes the major structural capsid protein Gag and Gag-Pol fusion protein, responsible for virus replication and encapsulation. These features also enable the copying of satellite dsRNAs (called M dsRNAs) encoding a secreted toxin and immunity to it (known as killer toxin). Viral capsid pore presumably functions in nucleotide uptake and viral mRNA release. During cell division, sporogenesis, and cell fusion, the virions remain intracellular and are transferred to daughter cells. By employing high throughput RNA sequencing data analysis, we describe the influence of solely L-A virus on the expression of genes in three different S. cerevisiae hosts. We provide a new perception into Totiviridae L-A virus-related transcriptional regulation, encompassing multiple bioinformatics analyses. Transcriptional responses to L-A infection were similar to those induced upon stress or availability of nutrients. It also delves into the connection between the cell metabolism and L-A virus-conferred demands to the host transcriptome by uncovering host proteins that may be associated with intact virions. To better understand the virus-host interaction, we applied differential proteomic analysis of virus particle-enriched fractions of yeast strains that harboreither complete killer system (L-A-lus and M-2 virus), M-2 depleted orvirus-free. Our analysis resulted in the identification of host proteins, associated with structural proteins of the virus (Gag and Gag-Pol). This research was funded by the European Social Fund under the No.09.3.3-LMT-K-712-19-0157“Development of Competences of Scientists, other Researchers, and Students through Practical Research Activities” measure.

Keywords: totiviridae, killer virus, proteomics, transcriptomics

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