Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 252

Search results for: transgenic cotton

252 Using Polymerase Chain Reaction Technique to Observe the Resistant Strains of Pectinophora gossypiella against Cry1Ac Expressing Cotton

Authors: Zunnu Raen Akhtar, U. Irshad, M. Majid

Abstract:

Due to the widespread cultivation of transgenic cotton, intense selection pressure resulted in resistant allele in pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Gelechiidae: Lepidoptera). A resistant strain of pink bollworm against transgenic cotton has become a challenge to Integrated Resistance Management (IRM) in the World. Laboratory and field studies were conducted to determine the resistant strains of pink bollworm by performing bioassay, extracting the DNA, conducting PCR of both laboratory as well as field collected pink bollworms to observe the developed resistance. In all of the studies, two Bt varieties FH-142 and FH-118 expressing Cry1Ac compared to non-Bt (Control) were tested against pink bollworm. In the laboratory, bioassay results showed that there was no significant mortality difference between Bt and non-Bt varieties. Similar mortality percentage was observed in transgenic and non-transgenic (control) variety. Insects which were survived after bioassay, as well as those collected from the Bt cotton fields, were selected for further molecular studies. DNA extraction followed by PCR was conducted to check the resistant strains in pink bollworm. In field studies, we also observed the population dynamics of pink boll worms on Bt as compared to non-Bt varieties. Laboratory and field studies confirmed that resistant strains occurs in Pakistani Bt cotton fields. Different strategies should be adopted to combat that serious prevailing resistance issues.

Keywords: transgenic cotton, resistance, pectinophora gossypiella, , integrated resistance management (IRM), polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

Procedia PDF Downloads 120
251 Cotton Fiber Quality Improvement by Introducing Sucrose Synthase (SuS) Gene into Gossypium hirsutum L.

Authors: Ahmad Ali Shahid, Mukhtar Ahmed

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The demand for long staple fiber having better strength and length is increasing with the introduction of modern spinning and weaving industry in Pakistan. Work on gene discovery from developing cotton fibers has helped to identify dozens of genes that take part in cotton fiber development and several genes have been characterized for their role in fiber development. Sucrose synthase (SuS) is a key enzyme in the metabolism of sucrose in a plant cell, in cotton fiber it catalyzes a reversible reaction, but preferentially converts sucrose and UDP into fructose and UDP-glucose. UDP-glucose (UDPG) is a nucleotide sugar act as a donor for glucose residue in many glycosylation reactions and is essential for the cytosolic formation of sucrose and involved in the synthesis of cell wall cellulose. The study was focused on successful Agrobacterium-mediated stable transformation of SuS gene in pCAMBIA 1301 into cotton under a CaMV35S promoter. Integration and expression of the gene were confirmed by PCR, GUS assay, and real-time PCR. Young leaves of SuS overexpressing lines showed increased total soluble sugars and plant biomass as compared to non-transgenic control plants. Cellulose contents from fiber were significantly increased. SEM analysis revealed that fibers from transgenic cotton were highly spiral and fiber twist number increased per unit length when compared with control. Morphological data from field plants showed that transgenic plants performed better in field conditions. Incorporation of genes related to cotton fiber length and quality can provide new avenues for fiber improvement. The utilization of this technology would provide an efficient import substitution and sustained production of long-staple fiber in Pakistan to fulfill the industrial requirements.

Keywords: agrobacterium-mediated transformation, cotton fiber, sucrose synthase gene, staple length

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
250 RNA Antisense Coat Protein Showing Promising Effects against Cotton Leaf Curl Disease in Pakistani Cotton

Authors: Zunnu Raen Akhtar

Abstract:

Cotton Leaf Curl Disease (CLCuD) is from Gemini virus and is transmitted through whiteflies in cotton. Transgenic cotton containing Antisense Coat Protein (ACP) has been found to show better results against CLCuD in cotton. In current research, Antisense Coat Protein was inserted in cotton plants to observe resistance developed in the cotton plants against CLCuD. T1 generation of plants were observed for its expression in plants. Tests were carried out to observe the expression of Antisense Coat Protein using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique and by southern blotting. Whiteflies showing positive Cotton Leaf Curl Virus (CLCV) were reared and released in bioassay on ACP expressing cotton plants under laboratory as well as confined semi-field conditions. Results confirmed the expression of AC protein in PCR and southern blotting. Further laboratory results showed that cotton plants expressing AC protein showed rare incidence of CLCuD infection as compared to control. In the confined semi-field, similar results were observed in AC protein expressing cotton as compared to control. These results explicitly show that ACP can help to tackle the CLCuD issue in the future and further studies on biochemical processes involved in these plants and effects of ACP induction on non-target organisms should also be studied for eco-system.

Keywords: cotton, white flies, antisense coat protein, CLCV

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
249 Geographic Variation in the Baseline Susceptibility of Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera) Field Populations to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry Toxins for Resistance Monitoring

Authors: Muhammad Arshad, M. Sufian, Muhammad D. Gogi, A. Aslam

Abstract:

The transgenic cotton expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) provides an effective control of Helicoverpa armigera, a most damaging pest of the cotton crop. However, Bt cotton may not be the optimal solution owing to the selection pressure of Cry toxins. As Bt cotton express the insecticidal proteins throughout the growing seasons, there are the chances of resistance development in the target pests. A regular monitoring and surveillance of target pest’s baseline susceptibility to Bt Cry toxins is crucial for early detection of any resistance development. The present study was conducted to monitor the changes in the baseline susceptibility of the field population of H. armigera to Bt Cry1Ac toxin. The field-collected larval populations were maintained in the laboratory on artificial diet and F1 generation larvae were used for diet incorporated diagnostic studies. The LC₅₀ and MIC₅₀ were calculated to measure the level of resistance of population as a ratio over susceptible population. The monitoring results indicated a significant difference in the susceptibility (LC₅₀) of H. armigera for first, second, third and fourth instar larval populations sampled from different cotton growing areas over the study period 2016-17. The variations in susceptibility among the tested insects depended on the age of the insect and susceptibility decreased with the age of larvae. The overall results show that the average resistant ratio (RR) of all field-collected populations (FSD, SWL, MLT, BWP and DGK) exposed to Bt toxin Cry1Ac ranged from 3.381-fold to 7.381-fold for 1st instar, 2.370-fold to 3.739-fold for 2nd instar, 1.115-fold to 1.762-fold for 3rd instar and 1.141-fold to 2.504-fold for 4th instar, depicting maximum RR from MLT population, whereas minimum RR for FSD and SWL population. The results regarding moult inhibitory concentration of H. armigera larvae (1-4th instars) exposed to different concentrations of Bt Cry1Ac toxin indicated that among all field populations, overall Multan (MLT) and Bahawalpur (BWP) populations showed higher MIC₅₀ values as compared to Faisalabad (FSD) and Sahiwal (SWL), whereas DG Khan (DGK) population showed an intermediate moult inhibitory concentrations. This information is important for the development of more effective resistance monitoring programs. The development of Bt Cry toxins baseline susceptibility data before the widespread commercial release of transgenic Bt cotton cultivars in Pakistan is important for the development of more effective resistance monitoring programs to identify the resistant H. armigera populations.

Keywords: Bt cotton, baseline, Cry1Ac toxins, H. armigera

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
248 Investigation of Antibacterial Property of Bamboo In-Terms of Percentage on Comparing with ZnO Treated Cotton Fabric

Authors: Arjun Dakuri, J. Hayavadana

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The study includes selection of 100 % bamboo fabric and cotton fabric for the study. The 100% bamboo fabrics were of 127 g/m², and 112 g/m² and 100% cotton grey fabric were of 104 g/m². The cotton fabric was desized, scoured, bleached and then treated with ZnO (as antimicrobial agent) with 1%, 2% and 3% using pad-dry cure method, whereas the bamboo fabrics were only desized. The antimicrobial activity of bamboo and ZnO treated cotton fabrics were evaluated and compared against E. coli and S. aureus as per the standard AATCC - 147. Moisture management properties of selected fabrics were also analyzed. Further, the selected fabric samples were tested for comfort properties like bending length, tearing strength, drape-ability, and specific handle force and air permeability. It was observed that bamboo fabrics show significant antibacterial activity and the same was shown by 3% ZnO treated cotton fabric. Both cotton and bamboo fabrics show improved moisture management properties than the cotton fabric. The comfort properties of bamboo fabrics are found to be superior to cotton fabrics making it more suitable for applications in place of cotton.

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, bamboo, cotton, comfort properties, moisture management, zinc oxide

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
247 Investigation of Boll Properties on Cotton Picker Machine Performance

Authors: Shahram Nowrouzieh, Abbas Rezaei Asl, Mohamad Ali Jafari

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Cotton, as a strategic crop, plays an important role in providing human food and clothing need, because of its oil, protein, and fiber. Iran has been one of the largest cotton producers in the world in the past, but unfortunately, for economic reasons, its production is reduced now. One of the ways to reduce the cost of cotton production is to expand the mechanization of cotton harvesting. Iranian farmers do not accept the function of cotton harvesters. One reason for this lack of acceptance of cotton harvesting machines is the number of field losses on these machines. So, the majority of cotton fields are harvested by hand. Although the correct setting of the harvesting machine is very important in the cotton losses, the morphological properties of the cotton plant also affect the performance of cotton harvesters. In this study, the effect of some cotton morphological properties such as the height of the cotton plant, number, and length of sympodial and monopodial branches, boll dimensions, boll weight, number of carpels and bracts angle were evaluated on the performance of cotton picker. In this research, the efficiency of John Deere 9920 spindle Cotton picker is investigated on five different Iranian cotton cultivars. The results indicate that there was a significant difference between the five cultivars in terms of machine harvest efficiency. Golestan cultivar showed the best cotton harvester performance with an average of 87.6% of total harvestable seed cotton and Khorshid cultivar had the least cotton harvester performance. The principal component analysis showed that, at 50.76% probability, the cotton picker efficiency is affected by the bracts angle positively and by boll dimensions, the number of carpels and the height of cotton plants negatively. The seed cotton remains (in the plant and on the ground) after harvester in PCA scatter plot were in the same zone with boll dimensions and several carpels.

Keywords: cotton, bract, harvester, carpel

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
246 CRISPR/Cas9 Based Gene Stacking in Plants for Virus Resistance Using Site-Specific Recombinases

Authors: Sabin Aslam, Sultan Habibullah Khan, James G. Thomson, Abhaya M. Dandekar

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Losses due to viral diseases are posing a serious threat to crop production. A quick breakdown of resistance to viruses like Cotton Leaf Curl Virus (CLCuV) demands the application of a proficient technology to engineer durable resistance. Gene stacking has recently emerged as a potential approach for integrating multiple genes in crop plants. In the present study, recombinase technology has been used for site-specific gene stacking. A target vector (pG-Rec) was designed for engineering a predetermined specific site in the plant genome whereby genes can be stacked repeatedly. Using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, the pG-Rec was transformed into Coker-312 along with Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Xanthi and Nicotiana benthamiana. The transgene analysis of target lines was conducted through junction PCR. The transgene positive target lines were used for further transformations to site-specifically stack two genes of interest using Bxb1 and PhiC31 recombinases. In the first instance, Cas9 driven by multiplex gRNAs (for Rep gene of CLCuV) was site-specifically integrated into the target lines and determined by the junction PCR and real-time PCR. The resulting plants were subsequently used to stack the second gene of interest (AVP3 gene from Arabidopsis for enhancing cotton plant growth). The addition of the genes is simultaneously achieved with the removal of marker genes for recycling with the next round of gene stacking. Consequently, transgenic marker-free plants were produced with two genes stacked at the specific site. These transgenic plants can be potential germplasm to introduce resistance against various strains of cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) and abiotic stresses. The results of the research demonstrate gene stacking in crop plants, a technology that can be used to introduce multiple genes sequentially at predefined genomic sites. The current climate change scenario highlights the use of such technologies so that gigantic environmental issues can be tackled by several traits in a single step. After evaluating virus resistance in the resulting plants, the lines can be a primer to initiate stacking of further genes in Cotton for other traits as well as molecular breeding with elite cotton lines.

Keywords: cotton, CRISPR/Cas9, gene stacking, genome editing, recombinases

Procedia PDF Downloads 21
245 Conductive and Stretchable Graphene Nanoribbon Coated Textiles

Authors: Lu Gan, Songmin Shang, Marcus Chun Wah Yuen

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A conductive and stretchable cotton fabric was prepared in this study through coating the graphene nanoribbon onto the cotton fabric. The mechanical and electrical properties of the prepared cotton fabric were then investigated. As shown in the results, the graphene nanoribbon coated cotton fabric had an improvement in both mechanical strength and electrical conductivity. Moreover, the resistance of the cotton fabric had a linear dependence on the strain applied to it. The prepared graphene nanoribbon coated cotton fabric has great application potentials in smart textile industry.

Keywords: conductive fabric, graphene nanoribbon, coating, enhanced properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
244 Resin Finishing of Cotton: Teaching and Learning Materials

Authors: C. W. Kan

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Cotton is the most commonly used material for apparel purpose because of its durability, good perspiration absorption characteristics, comfort during wear and dyeability. However, proneness to creasing and wrinkling give cotton garments a poor rating during actual wear. Resin finishing is a process to bring out crease or wrinkle free/resistant effect to cotton fabric. Thus, the aim of this study is to illustrate the proper application of resin finishing to cotton fabric, and the results could provide guidance note to the students in learning this topic. Acknowledgment: Authors would like to thank the financial support from the Hong Kong Polytechnic University for this work.

Keywords: learning materials, resin, textiles, wrinkle

Procedia PDF Downloads 145
243 A Comparative Study on Indian and Greek Cotton Fiber Properties Correlations

Authors: Md. Nakib Ul Hasan, Md. Ariful Islam, Md. Sumon Miah, Misbah Ul Hoque, Bulbul Ahmed

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The variability of cotton fiber characteristics has always been influenced by origin, weather conditions, method of culturing, and harvesting. Spinners work tirelessly to ensure consistent yarn quality by using the different origins of fibers to maximizes the profit margin. Spinners often fail to select desired raw materials of various origins to achieve an appropriate mixing plan due to the lack of knowledge on the interrelationship among fiber properties. The purpose of this research is to investigate the correlations among dominating fiber properties such as micronaire, strength, breaking elongation, upper half mean length, length uniformity index, short fiber index, maturity, reflectance, and yellowness. For this purpose, fiber samples from 500 Indian cotton bales and 350 Greek cotton bales were collected and tested using the high volume instrument (HVI). The fiber properties dataset was then compiled and analyzed using python 3.7 to determine the correlations matrix. Results show that Indian cotton fiber have highest correlation between strength-mat = 0.84, followed by SFI-Unf =-0.83, and Neps-Unf = -0.72. Greek cotton fiber, in contrast, have highest correlation between SFI-Unf =-0.98, followed by SFI-Mat = 0.89, +b-Len = 0.84, and Str-Mat = 0.74. Overall, the Greek cotton fiber showed a higher correlational matrix than compared to that of Indian cotton fiber.

Keywords: cotton fiber, fiber properties correlation, Greek cotton, HVI, Indian cotton, spinning

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
242 Major Variables Influencing Marketed Surplus of Seed Cotton in District Khanewal, Pakistan

Authors: Manan Aslam, Shafqat Rasool

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This paper attempts to examine impact of major factors affecting marketed surplus of seed cotton in district Khanewal (Punjab) using primary source of data. A representative sample of 40 cotton farmers was selected using stratified random sampling technique. The impact of major factors on marketed surplus of seed cotton growers was estimated by employing double log form of regression analysis. The value of adjusted R2 was 0.64 whereas the F-value was 10.81. The findings of analysis revealed that experience of farmers, education of farmers, area under cotton crop and distance from wholesale market were the significant variables affecting marketed surplus of cotton whereas the variables (marketing cost and sale price) showed insignificant impact. The study suggests improving prevalent marketing practices to increase volume of marketed surplus of cotton in district Khanewal.

Keywords: seed cotton, marketed surplus, double log regression analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
241 Surface Modification of Cotton Using Slaughterhouse Wastes

Authors: Granch Berhe Tseghai, Lodrick Wangatia Makokha

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Cotton dyeing using reactive dyes is one of the major water polluter; this is due to large amount of dye and salt remaining in effluent. Recent adverse climate change and its associated effect to human life have lead to search for more sustainable industrial production. Cationization of cotton to improve its affinity for reactive dye has been earmarked as a major solution for dyeing of cotton with no or less salt. Synthetic cationizing agents of ammonium salt have already been commercialized. However, in nature there are proteinous products which are rich in amino and ammonium salts which can be carefully harnessed to be used as cationizing agent for cotton. The hoofs and horns have successfully been used to cationize cotton so as to improve cotton affinity to the dye. The cationization action of the hoof and horn extract on cotton was confirmed by dyeing the pretreated fabric without salt and comparing it with conventionally dyed and untreated salt free dyed fabric. UV-VIS absorption results showed better dye absorption (62.5% and 50% dye bath exhaustion percentage for cationized and untreated respectively) while K/S values of treated samples were similar to conventional sample.

Keywords: cationization, cotton, proteinous products, reactive dyes

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
240 Bioefficacy of Novel Insecticide Flupyradifurone Sl 200 against Leaf Hoppers, Aphids and Whitefly in Cotton

Authors: N. V. V. S. D. Prasad

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Field experiments were conducted at Regional Agricultural Research Station, Lam, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India for two seasons during 2011-13 to evaluate the efficacy of flupyradifurone SL 200 a new class of insecticide in butenolide group against leaf hoppers, aphids and whitefly in Cotton. The test insecticide flupyradifurone 200 was evaluated at three doses @ 150, 200 and 250 g ai/ha ha along with imidacloprid 200 SL @ 20g ai/ha, acetamiprid 20 SP @ 20g ai/ha, thiamethoxam 25 WG @ 25g ai/ha and monocrotophos 36 SL @ 360 g ai/ha as standards. Flupyradifurone SL 200 even at lower dose of 150g ai/ha exhibited superior efficacy against cotton leafhopper, Amrasca devastans than the neonicotinoids which are widely used for control of sucking pests in cotton. Against cotton aphids, Aphis gossypii. Flupyradifurone SL 200 @ 200 and 250 g ai/ha ha was proved to be effective and the lower dose @ 150g ai/ha performed better than some of the neonicotinoids. The effect of flupyradifurone SL 200 on cotton against whitefly, Bemisia tabaci was evident at higher doses of 200 and 250 g ai/ha and superior to all standard treatments, however, the lower dose is at par with neonicotinoids. The seed cotton yield of flupyradifurone 200 SL at all the doses tested was superior than imidacloprid 200 SL @ 20g ai/ha and acetamiprid 20 SP @ 20g ai/ha. There is no significant difference among the insecticidal treatments with regards to natural enemies. The results clearly suggest that flupyradifurone is a new tool to combat sucking pest problems in cotton and can well fit in IRM strategies in light of wide spread insecticide resistance in cotton sucking pests.

Keywords: cotton, flupyradifurone, neonicotinoids, sucking pests

Procedia PDF Downloads 97
239 Yield, Economics and ICBR of Different IPM Modules in Bt Cotton in Maharashtra

Authors: N. K. Bhute, B. B. Bhosle, D. G. More, B. V. Bhede

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The field experiments were conducted during kharif season of the year 2007-08 at the experimental farm of the Department of Agricultural Entomology, Vasantrao Naik Marathwada Krishi Vidyapeeth, Studies on evaluation of different IPM modules for Bt cotton in relation to yield economics and ICBR revealed that MAU and CICR IPM modules proved superior. It was, however, on par with chemical control. Considering the ICBR and safety to natural enemies, an inference can be drawn that Bt cotton with IPM module is the most ideal combination. Besides reduction in insecticide use, it is also expected to ensure favourable ecological and economic returns in contrast to the adverse effects due to conventional insecticides. The IPM approach, which takes care of varying pest situation, appears to be essential for gaining higher advantage from Bt cotton.

Keywords: yield, economics, ICBR, IPM Modules, Bt cotton

Procedia PDF Downloads 165
238 Cotton Transplantation as a Practice to Escape Infection with Some Soil-Borne Pathogens

Authors: E. M. H. Maggie, M. N. A. Nazmey, M. A. Abdel-Sattar, S. A. Saied

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A successful trial of transplanting cotton is reported. Seeds grown in trays for 4-5 weeks in an easily prepared supporting medium such as peat moss or similar plant waste are tried. Careful transplanting of seedlings, with root system as intact as possible, is being made in the permanent field. The practice reduced damping-off incidence rate and allowed full winter crop revenues. Further work is needed to evaluate certain parameters such as growth curve, flowering curve, and yield at economic bases.

Keywords: cotton, transplanting cotton, damping-off diseases, environment sciences

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
237 Learning Materials of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Process: Application in Wrinkle-Resistant Finishing of Cotton Fabric

Authors: C. W. Kan

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Cotton fibre is a commonly-used natural fibre because of its good fibre strength, high moisture absorption behaviour and minimal static problems. However, one of the main drawbacks of cotton fibre is wrinkling after washing, which is recently overcome by wrinkle-resistant treatment. 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA) could improve the wrinkle-resistant properties of cotton fibre. Although the BTCA process is an effective method for wrinkle resistant application of cotton fabrics, reduced fabric strength was observed after treatment. Therefore, this paper would explore the use of atmospheric pressure plasma treatment under different discharge powers as a pretreatment process to enhance the application of BTCA process on cotton fabric without generating adverse effect. The aim of this study is to provide learning information to the users to know how the atmospheric pressure plasma treatment can be incorporated in textile finishing process with positive impact.

Keywords: learning materials, atmospheric pressure plasma treatment, cotton, wrinkle-resistant, BTCA

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
236 Effect of Abiotic Factors on Population of Red Cotton Bug Dysdercus Koenigii F. (Heteroptera: Pyrrhocoridae) and Its Impact on Cotton Boll Disease

Authors: Haider Karar, Saghir Ahmad, Amjad Ali, Ibrar Ul Haq

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The experiment was conducted at Cotton Research Station, Multan to study the impact of weather factors and red cotton bug (RCB) on cotton boll disease yielded yellowish lint during 2012. The population on RCB along with abiotic factors was recorded during three consecutive years i.e. 2012, 2013, and 2014. Along with population of RCB and abiotic factors, the number of unopened/opened cotton bolls (UOB), percent yellowish lint (YL) and whitish lint (WL) were also recorded. The data revealed that the population per plant of RCB remain 0.50 and 0.34 during years 2012, 2013 but increased during 2014 i.e. 3.21 per plant. The number of UOB were more i.e. 13.43% in 2012 with YL 76.30 and WL 23.70% when average maximum temperature 34.73◦C, minimum temperature 22.83◦C, RH 77.43% and 11.08 mm rainfall. Similarly in 2013 the number of UOB were less i.e. 0.34 per plant with YL 1.48 and WL 99.53 per plant when average maximum temperature 34.60◦C, minimum temperature 23.37◦C, RH 73.01% and 9.95 mm rainfall. During 2014 RCB population per plant was 3.22 with no UOB and YL was 0.00% and WL was 100% when average maximum temperature 23.70◦C, minimum temperature 23.18◦C, RH 71.67% and 4.55 mm rainfall. So it is concluded that the cotton bolls disease was more during 2012 due to more rainfall and more percent RH. The RCB may be the carrier of boll rot disease pathogen during more rainfall.

Keywords: red cotton bug, cotton, weather factors, years

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
235 Water Repellent Finishing of Cotton: Teaching and Learning Materials

Authors: C. W. Kan

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Fabrics can be treated to equip them with certain functional properties in which water repellency is one of the important functional effects. In this study, commercial water repellent agent was used under different application conditions to cotton fabric. Finally, the water repellent effect was evaluated by standard testing method. Thus, the aim of this study is to illustrate the proper application of water repellent finishing to cotton fabric and the results could provide guidance note to the students in learning this topic. Acknowledgment: Authors would like to thank the financial support from the Hong Kong Polytechnic University for this work.

Keywords: learning materials, water repellent, textiles, cotton

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
234 Solvent-Free Synthesis of Sorbents for Removal of Oil Spills

Authors: Mohammad H. Al-Sayah, Khalid Jarrah, Soleiman Hisaindee

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Hydrophobic sorbents are usually used to remove oil spills from water surfaces. In this study, the hydrophilic fibers of natural cotton were chemically modified with a solvent-free process to modify them into hydrophobic fibers that can remove oil from water surfaces. The cellulose-based fibers of cotton were reacted with trichlorosilanes through gas-solid reaction in a dry chamber. Cotton fibers were exposed to vapors of four different chloroalkylsilanes at room temperature for 24 hours. The chlorosilanes were namely trichloromethylsilane, dichlorodimethyl silane, butyltrichlorosilane, and trichloro (3,3,3-trifluoropropyl) silane. The modified cotton fibers were characterized by IR-spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The degree of substitution for each of the grafted alkyl groups was in the range between 0.1 and 0.3 per glucose residue. As a result of sialylation, the cotton fibers became hydrophobic; this was reflected by water contact-angle measurements of the fibers which increased from zero for the unmodified cotton to above 100 degrees for the modified fibers. In addition, the adsorption capacity of the fibers for oil from water surfaces increased by about five times that of the unmodified cotton reaching 18 g oil/g of cotton modified by dimethyl substituted silyl ethers. The optimal fiber-oil contact time and temperature for adsorption were 10 mins at 25°C, respectively. Therefore, the efficacy of cotton fibers to remove oil spills from contaminated water surfaces was significantly enhanced by using a simple solvent-free and environment-friendly process.

Keywords: gas-solid silyl reaction, modified cellulose, solvent-free, oil pollution, cotton

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
233 Expression of Tissue Plasminogen Activator in Transgenic Tobacco Plants by Signal Peptides Targeting for Delivery to Apoplast, Endoplasmic Reticulum and Cytosol Spaces

Authors: Sadegh Lotfieblisofla, Arash Khodabakhshi

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Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) as a serine protease plays an important role in the fibrinolytic system and the dissolution of fibrin clots in human body. The production of this drug in plants such as tobacco could reduce its production costs. In this study, expression of tPA gene and protein targeting to different plant cell compartments, using various signal peptides has been investigated. For high level of expression, Kozak sequence was used after CaMV35S in the beginning of the gene. In order to design the final construction, Extensin, KDEL (amino acid sequence including Lys-Asp-Glu-Leu) and SP (γ-zein signal peptide coding sequence) were used as leader signals to conduct this protein into apoplast, endoplasmic reticulum and cytosol spaces, respectively. Cloned human tPA gene under the CaMV (Cauliflower mosaic virus) 35S promoter and NOS (Nopaline Synthase) terminator into pBI121 plasmid was transferred into tobacco explants by Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404. The presence and copy number of genes in transgenic tobacco was proved by Southern blotting. Enzymatic activity of the rt-PA protein in transgenic plants compared to non-transgenic plants was confirmed by Zymography assay. The presence and amount of rt-PA recombinant protein in plants was estimated by ELISA analysis on crude protein extract of transgenic tobacco using a specific antibody. The yield of recombinant tPA in transgenic tobacco for SP, KDEL, Extensin signals were counted 0.50, 0.68, 0.69 microgram per milligram of total soluble proteins.

Keywords: tPA, recombinant, transgenic, tobacco

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
232 Regenerated Cotton/Feather Keratin Composite Materials Prepared Using Ionic Liquids

Authors: Rasike De Silva, Xungai Wang, Nolene Byrne

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We report on the blending of cotton and duck feather towards developing a new textile fibre. The cotton and duck feather were blended together by dissolving both components in an ionic liquid. Ionic liquids are designer solvents consisting entirely of ions with a melting point below 100˚C. Ionic liquids can be designed to have numerous and varied properties which include the ability to dissolve bio polymers. The dissolution of bio polymers such as cotton or wool generally requires very harsh acid or alkaline conditions and high temperatures. The ionic liquids which can dissolve bio polymers can be considered environmentally benign since they have negligible vapor pressure and can be recycled and reused. We have selected the cellulose dissolving and recyclable ionic liquid 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (AMIMCl) as the dissolving and blending solvent for the cotton and duck feather materials. We have casted films and wet spun fibres at varying cotton and duck feather compositions and characterized the material properties of these. We find that the addition of duck feather enhances the elasticity of regenerated cotton. The strain% at breakage of the regenerated film was increased from 4.2% to 11.63% with a 10% duck feather loading, while the corresponding stress at breakage reduced from 54.89 MPa to 47.16 MPa.

Keywords: textile materials, bio polymers, ionic liquids, duck feather

Procedia PDF Downloads 374
231 Influence of Chemical Treatment on Elastic Properties of the Band Cotton Crepe 100%

Authors: Bachir Chemani, Rachid Halfaoui, Madani Maalem

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The manufacturing technology of band cotton is very delicate and depends to choice of certain parameters such as torsion of warp yarn. The fabric elasticity is achieved without the use of any elastic material, chemical expansion, artificial or synthetic and it’s capable of creating pressures useful for therapeutic treatments.Before use, the band is subjected to treatments of specific preparation for obtaining certain elasticity, however, during its treatment, there are some regression parameters. The dependence of manufacturing parameters on the quality of the chemical treatment was confirmed. The aim of this work is to improve the properties of the fabric through the development of manufacturing technology appropriately. Finally for the treatment of the strip pancake 100% cotton, a treatment method is recommended.

Keywords: elastic, cotton, processing, torsion

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
230 Dyeing Cotton with Dyes Extracted from Eucalyptus and Mango Trees

Authors: Tamrat Tesfaye, Bruce Sithole, K. Shabaridharan

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The use of natural dyes to replace synthetic dyes has been advocated for to circumvent the environmental problems associated with synthetic dyes. This paper is a preliminary study on the use of natural dyes extracted from eucalyptus and mango trees. Dyes extracted from eucalyptus bark gave more colourized material than the dyes extracted from eucalyptus leaves and mango pills and leaves. Additionally, the extracts exhibited a deeper colour shade. Cotton fiber dyed using the same dye but with different mordants resulted in fabric that exhibited different colours. It appears that natural dyes from these plants could be effective dyes for use on cotton fabrics especially considering that the dyes exhibited excellent colour fastness.

Keywords: natural dyes, mango, eucalyptus, cotton, mordants, colour fastness

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
229 Combining Transcriptomics, Bioinformatics, Biosynthesis Networks and Chromatographic Analyses for Cotton Gossypium hirsutum L. Defense Volatiles Study

Authors: Ronald Villamar-Torres, Michael Staudt, Christopher Viot

Abstract:

Cotton Gossypium hirsutum L. is one of the most important industrial crops, producing the world leading natural textile fiber, but is very prone to arthropod attacks that reduce crop yield and quality. Cotton cultivation, therefore, makes an outstanding use of chemical pesticides. In reaction to herbivorous arthropods, cotton plants nevertheless show natural defense reactions, in particular through volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions. These natural defense mechanisms are nowadays underutilized but have a very high potential for cotton cultivation, and elucidating their genetic bases will help to improve their use. Simulating herbivory attacks by mechanical wounding of cotton plants in greenhouse, we studied by qPCR the changes in gene expression for genes of the terpenoids biosynthesis pathway. Differentially expressed genes corresponded to higher levels of the terpenoids biosynthesis pathway and not to enzymes synthesizing particular terpenoids. The genes were mapped on the G. hirsutum L. reference genome; their global relationships inside the general metabolic pathways and the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites were visualized with iPath2. The chromatographic profiles of VOCs emissions indicated first monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes emissions, dominantly four molecules known to be involved in plant reactions to arthropod attacks. As a result, the study permitted to identify potential key genes for the emission of volatile terpenoids by cotton plants in reaction to an arthropod attack, opening possibilities for molecular-assisted cotton breeding in benefit of smallholder cotton growers.

Keywords: biosynthesis pathways, cotton, mechanisms of plant defense, terpenoids, volatile organic compounds

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228 Investigating the Need to Align with and Adapt Sustainability of Cotton

Authors: Girija Jha

Abstract:

This paper investigates the need of cotton to integrate sustainability. The methodology used in the paper is to do secondary research to find out the various environmental implications of cotton as textile material across its life cycle and try to look at ways and possibilities of minimizing its ecological footprint. Cotton is called ‘The Fabric of Our Lives’. History is replete with examples where this fabric used to be more than a fabric of lives. It used to be a miracle fabric, a symbol India’s pride and social Movement of Swaraj, Gandhijee’s clarion call to self reliance. Cotton is grown in more than 90 countries across the globe on 2.5 percent of the world's arable land in countries like China, India, United States, etc. accounting for almost three fourth of global production. But cotton as a raw material has come under the scanner of sustainability experts because of myriad reasons a few have been discussed here. It may take more than 20,000 liters of water to produce 1kg of cotton. Cotton harvest is primarily done from irrigated land which leads to Salinization and depletion of local water reservoirs, e.g., Drying up of Aral Sea. Cotton is cultivated on 2.4% of total world’s crop land but accounts for 24% usage of insecticide and shares the blame of 11% usage of pesticides leading to health hazards and having an alarmingly dangerous impact on the ecosystem. One of the possible solutions to these problems as proposed was GM, Genetically Modified cotton crop. However, use of GM cotton is still debatable and has many ethical issues. The practice of mass production and increasing consumerism and especially fast fashion has been major culprits to disrupt this delicate balance. Disposable fashion or fast fashion is on the rise and cotton being one of the major choices adds on to the problem. Denims – made of cotton and have a strong fashion statement and the washes being an integral part of their creation they share a lot of blame. These are just a few problems listed. Today Sustainability is the need of the hour and it is inevitable to incorporate have major changes in the way we cultivate and process cotton to make it a sustainable choice. The answer lies in adopting minimalism and boycotting fast fashion, in using Khadi, in saying no to washed denims and using selvedge denims or using better methods of finishing the washed out fabric so that the environment does not bleed blue. Truly, the answer lies in integrating state of art technology with age old sustainable practices so that the synergy of the two may help us come out of the vicious circle.

Keywords: cotton, sustainability, denim, Khadi

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227 A Study of Resin-Dye Fixation on Dyeing Properties of Cotton Fabrics Using Melamine Based Resins and a Reactive Dye

Authors: Nurudeen Ayeni, Kasali Bello, Ovi Abayeh

Abstract:

Study of the effect of dye–resin complexation on the degree of dye absorption were carried out using Procion Blue MX-R to dye cotton fabric in the presence hexamethylol melamine (MR 6) and its phosphate derivative (MPR 4) for resination. The highest degree of dye exhaustion was obtained at 400 C for 1 hour with the resinated fabric showing more affinity for the dye than the ordinary fiber. Improved fastness properties was recorded which show a relatively higher stability of dye–resin–cellulose network formed.

Keywords: cotton fabric, reactive dye, dyeing, resination

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
226 Yield Enhancement and Reduced Nutrient Removal by Weeds in Winter Irrigated Cotton Using Potassium Salt Based Glyphosate

Authors: N. Viji, K. Siddeswaran

Abstract:

Field experiment was conducted at Eastern Block farm, Department of Farm Management, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore during winter season of 2011-2012 to evaluate potassium salt based glyphosate (Roundup Crop Shield 460 SL) with and without intercultural operations on seed cotton yield and weed nutrient removal in irrigated cotton. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with treatments replicated thrice. The treatments consisted of POE glyphosate (Roundup Crop Shield 460 SL) at 1350 (T1), 1800 (T2), 2250 (T3) g a.e. ha-1, 1800 g a.e. ha-1 + IC (T4), PE pendimethalin at 750 g a.i. ha-1 + IC (T5), HW at 35 and 70 DAS + IC (T6), HWW at 35 and 70 DAS + IC (T7), PWW at 35 and 70 DAS + IC (T8), HW at 25 and 45 DAS (T9) and Unweeded control (T10). Among the weed management methods, decreased nutrient removal by weeds were observed with POE glyphosate at 1800 g a.e. ha-1 + IC which was comparable with PE pendimethalin at 750 g a.i. ha-1 + IC. Higher seed cotton yield was obtained with POE glyphosate at 1800 g a.e. ha-1 at 35 and 70 DAS with + IC at 45 and 55 DAS which was comparable with PE pendimethalin at 750 g a.i. ha-1 + IC at 45 and 55 DAS. Comparing treatments without intercultural operation, intercultural operation carried out treatments performed better and recorded more seed cotton yield.

Keywords: cotton, weed, glyphosate, nutrient

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225 Recycling of Post-Industrial Cotton Wastes: Quality and Rotor Spinning of Reclaimed Fibers

Authors: Béchir Wanassi, Béchir Azzouz, Taher Halimi, Mohamed Ben Hassen

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Mechanical recycling of post-industrial cotton yarn wastes, as well as the effects of passage number on the properties of reclaimed fibers, have been investigated. A new Modified Fiber Quality Index (MFQI) and Spinning Consistency Index (MSCI) for the characterization of the quality are presented. This index gives the real potential of spinnability according to its physical properties. The best quality of reclaimed fibers (after 7th passage) was used to produce rotor yarns. 100% recycling cotton yarns were produced in open-end spinning system with different rotor speed (i.e. 65000, 70000, and 80000 rpm), opening roller speed (i.e. 7700, 8200, and 8700 rpm) and twist factor (i.e. 137, 165, and 183). The effects of spinning parameters were investigated to evaluate a 100% recycling cotton yarns quality (TQI, hairiness, thin places, and thick places) using DOE method.

Keywords: cotton wastes, DOE, mechanical recycling, rotor spinning

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224 Dyeing of Polyester/Cotton Blends with Reverse-Micelle Encapsulated High Energy Disperse/Reactive Dye Mixture

Authors: Chi-Wai Kan, Yanming Wang, Alan Yiu-Lun Tang, Cheng-Hao Lee Lee

Abstract:

Dyeing of polyester/cotton blend fabrics in various polyester/cotton percentages (32/68, 40/60 and 65/35) was investigated using (poly(ethylene glycol), PEG) based reverse-micelle. High energy disperse dyes and warm type reactive dyes were encapsulated and applied on polyester/cotton blend fabrics in a one bath one step dyeing process. Comparison of reverse micellar-based and aqueous-based (water-based) dyeing was conducted in terms of colour reflectance. Experimental findings revealed that the colour shade of the dyed fabrics in reverse micellar non-aqueous dyeing system at a lower dyeing temperature of 98°C is slightly lighter than that of conventional aqueous dyeing system in two-step process (130oC for disperse dyeing and 70°C for reactive dyeing). The exhaustion of dye in polyester-cotton blend fabrics, in terms of colour reflectance, were found to be highly fluctuated at dyeing temperature of 98°C.

Keywords: one-bath dyeing, polyester/cotton blends, disperse/reactive dyes, reverse micelle

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223 Effect of a Reactive Dye-Resin Complex on Dyeing Properties of Cotton Fabrics

Authors: Nurudeen Afolami Ayeni, Kasali Adewale Bello

Abstract:

Study of the effect of dye-resin complexation on the degree of dye absorption were carried out using Procion Blue MX-R to dye cotton fabric in the presence hexamethylol melamine (MR6) and its phosphate derivative (MPR4) for resination. The highest degree of dye exhaustion was obtained at 400C for 1 hour with the resinated fabric showing more affinity for the dye than the ordinary fibre. Improved fastness properties was recorded which show a relatively higher stability of dye-resin complex formed in the fibre.

Keywords: affinity, cotton, dyeing, reactive dye, resination

Procedia PDF Downloads 181