Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Search results for: Baharullah Khattak

14 Field Application of Trichoderma Harzianum for Biological Control of Root-Knot Nematodes in Summer Tomatoes

Authors: Baharullah Khattak, Saifullah

Abstract:

To study the efficacy of the selected Trichoderma isolates, field trials were conducted in the root-knot nematode-infested areas of Dargai and Swat, Pakistan. Four isolates of T. harzianum viz, Th-1, Th-2, Th-9 and Th-15 were tested against root knot nematodes on summer tomatoes under field conditions. The T. harzianum isolates, grown on wheat grains substrate, were applied @ 8 g plant-1, either alone or in different combinations. Root weight of tomato plants was reduced Th-9 as compared to 26.37 g in untreated control. Isolate Th-1 was found to enhance shoot and root lengths to the maximum levels of 78.76 cm and 19.59 cm, respectively. Tomato shoot weight was significantly increased (65.36g) in Th-1-treated plots as compared to 49.66 g in control. Maximum (156) number of flowers plant-1 and highest (48.18%) fruit set plant-1 was observed in Th-1 treated plots, while there were 87 flowers and 35.50% fruit set in the untreated control. Maximum fruit weight (70.97 g) plant-1 and highest (17.99 t ha-1) marketable yield were recorded in the treatments where T. harzianum isolate Th-1 was used, in comparison to 51.33 g tomato fruit weight and 9.90 t ha-1 yield was noted in the control plots. It was observed that T. harzianum isolates significantly reduced the nematode populations. The fungus enhanced plant growth and yield in all the treated plots. Jabban isolate (Th-1) was found as the most effective in nematode suppression followed by Shamozai (Th-9) isolate. It was concluded from the present findings that T. harzianum has a potential bio control capability against root-knot nematodes.

Keywords: Biological Control, root-knot nematode, Trichoderma harzianum, meloidogyne

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13 Developing Norms for Sit and Reach Test in the Local Environment of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Authors: Hazratullah Khattak, Abdul Waheed Mughal, Inamullah Khattak

Abstract:

This study is envisaged as vital contribution as it intends to develop norms for the Sit and Reach Test in the Local Environment of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan, for the age group between 12-14 years which will be used to measure the flexibility level of early adolescents (12-14 years). Sit and Reach test was applied on 2000 volunteers, 400 subjects from each selected district (Five (5) Districts, Peshawar, Nowshera, Karak, Dera Ismail Khan and Swat (20% percent of the total 25 districts) using convenient sampling technique. The population for this study is comprised of all the early adolescents aging 12-14 years (Age Mean 13 + 0.63, Height 154 + 046, Weight 46 + 7.17, BMI 19 + 1.45) representing various public and private sectors educational institutions of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. As for as the norms developed for Sit and Reach test, the score below 6.8 inches comes in the category of poor, 6.9 to 9.6 inches (below Average), 9.7 to 10.8 inches (Average), 10.9 to 13 inches (Above average) and above 13 inches score is considered as Excellent.

Keywords: norms, Fitness, Flexibility, sit and reach

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12 A Piebald Cladistic Portray of Mitochondrial DNA Control Region Haplogroups in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Authors: Shahzad Bhatti, M. Aslamkhan, Sana Abbas, Marcella Attimonelli, Hikmet Hakan Aydin, Erica Martinha Silva de Souza

Abstract:

Despite being situated at the crossroad of Asia, Pakistan has gained crucial importance because of its pivotal role in subsequent migratory events. To highlight the genetic footprints and to contribute an enigmatic picture of the relative population expansion pattern among four major Pashtun tribes in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa viz., Bangash, Khattak, Mahsuds and Orakzai, the complete mitochondrial control region of 100 Pashtun were analyzed. All Pashtun tribes studied here revealed high genetic diversity; that was comparable to the other Central Asian, Southeast Asian and European populations. The configuration of genetic variation and heterogeneity further unveiled through Multidimensional Scaling, Principal Component Analysis, and phylogenetic analysis. The results revealed that the Pashtun is a composite mosaic of West Eurasian ancestry of numerous geographic origin. They received substantial gene flow during different invasions and have a high element of the Western provenance. The most common haplogroups reported in this study are: South Asian haplogroup M (28%) and R (8%); whereas, West Asians haplogroups are present, albeit in high frequencies (67%) and widespread over all; HV (15%), U (17%), H (9%), J (8%), K (8%), W (4%), N (3%) and T (3%). Herein we linked the unexplored genetic connection between Ashkenazi Jews and Pashtun. The presence of specific haplotypes J1b (4%) and K1a1b1a (5%) point to a genetic connection of Jewish conglomeration with Khattak tribe. This was a result of an ancient genetic influx in the early Neolithic period that led to the formation of a diverse genetic substratum in present day Pashtun.

Keywords: Ethnicity, Pakistan, mtDNA haplogroups, control region, KPK

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11 Reliable Multicast Communication in Next Generation Networks

Authors: Muazzam Ali Khan Khattak

Abstract:

Next Generation Network is combination of different networks having different technologies. Due to mobile nature of nodes the movement of nodes occurs from one network to another network. Multicasting in such networks is still a hot issue of research because the user in today's world wants reliable communication wherever it lies. Due to heterogeneity of NGN it is very difficult to handle reliable multicast communication. In this paper we proposed an improved scheme for reliable multicast communication in next generation networks. Because multicast communication is very important to deliver same data packets to multiple receivers and minimize the network traffic. This new scheme will make the multicast communication in NGN more reliable and efficient.

Keywords: next generation networks, route request, IPT, NACK, ARQ, DTN

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10 Maximum Entropy Based Image Segmentation of Human Skin Lesion

Authors: Imran Khan, Abdus Salam, Sheema Shuja Khattak, Gule Saman

Abstract:

Image segmentation plays an important role in medical imaging applications. Therefore, accurate methods are needed for the successful segmentation of medical images for diagnosis and detection of various diseases. In this paper, we have used maximum entropy to achieve image segmentation. Maximum entropy has been calculated using Shannon, Renyi, and Tsallis entropies. This work has novelty based on the detection of skin lesion caused by the bite of a parasite called Sand Fly causing the disease is called Cutaneous Leishmaniasis.

Keywords: shannon, maximum entropy, Renyi, Tsallis entropy

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9 Selection of Appropriate Classification Technique for Lithological Mapping of Gali Jagir Area, Pakistan

Authors: Khunsa Fatima, Umar K. Khattak, Allah Bakhsh Kausar

Abstract:

Satellite images interpretation and analysis assist geologists by providing valuable information about geology and minerals of an area to be surveyed. A test site in Fatejang of district Attock has been studied using Landsat ETM+ and ASTER satellite images for lithological mapping. Five different supervised image classification techniques namely maximum likelihood, parallelepiped, minimum distance to mean, mahalanobis distance and spectral angle mapper have been performed on both satellite data images to find out the suitable classification technique for lithological mapping in the study area. Results of these five image classification techniques were compared with the geological map produced by Geological Survey of Pakistan. The result of maximum likelihood classification technique applied on ASTER satellite image has the highest correlation of 0.66 with the geological map. Field observations and XRD spectra of field samples also verified the results. A lithological map was then prepared based on the maximum likelihood classification of ASTER satellite image.

Keywords: Satellite, ASTER, Landsat-ETM+, image classification

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8 Model Based Fault Diagnostic Approach for Limit Switches

Authors: Zafar Mahmood, Surayya Naz, Nazir Shah Khattak

Abstract:

The degree of freedom relates to our capability to observe or model the energy paths within the system. Higher the number of energy paths being modeled leaves to us a higher degree of freedom, but increasing the time and modeling complexity rendering it useless for today’s world’s need for minimum time to market. Since the number of residuals that can be uniquely isolated are dependent on the number of independent outputs of the system, increasing the number of sensors required. The examples of discrete position sensors that may be used to form an array include limit switches, Hall effect sensors, optical sensors, magnetic sensors, etc. Their mechanical design can usually be tailored to fit in the transitional path of an STME in a variety of mechanical configurations. The case studies into multi-sensor system were carried out and actual data from sensors is used to test this generic framework. It is being investigated, how the proper modeling of limit switches as timing sensors, could lead to unified and neutral residual space while keeping the implementation cost reasonably low.

Keywords: Parameter Estimation, fault diagnostics, low-cost limit sensors, Single Throw Mechanical Equipment (STME), parity-space

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7 Islam, Forced Marriages and Pakistani Culture: An Analytical Overview

Authors: Arshad Munir, Naseem Akhter, Rozina Khattak

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The Islamic social and family system is very clear concerning will, choice, consent and negation of compulsion and force in human life. Marriage is not only a civil contract but also a religious and spiritual contract between spouse (man and woman), which allows them for each other to live gladly, joyfully and legally in the society. It is an immortal and perpetual association between man and woman, which is filled with sympathetic affection, kindness, compassion and security. Islam gives specific rights to parents and guardians to set up the marriage ceremony and get done it as a respectful family occasion, confer their blessing and advice for a life partner of their children. The rights of parents and guardians are summed up in the term of "Willayah”. Islam does not permit parents, guardians and other relatives to compel their children regarding the marriage of their choice, because the groom and the bride are the real parties of the contract. Therefore, their willingness is of prime importance in order to spend whole life with each other. The Holy Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) prohibits forcing a virgin to marriage without her permission, whether this is her father or someone else. The right of free consent to choose a life partner is the basic right for the human which is God (Allah) gifted. Unfortunately, forced marriage is a common practice in Pakistani society that has no link with Islam. This article is being written in the same context.

Keywords: Islam, Choice, Consent, Forced Marriage, Parents, spouse

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6 Soil-Geopolymer Mixtures for Pavement Base and Subbase Layers

Authors: Mohammad Khattak, Bikash Adhikari, Sambodh Adhikari

Abstract:

This research deals with the physical, microstructural, mechanical, and shrinkage characteristics of flyash-based soil-geopolymer mixtures. Medium and high plastic soils were obtained from local construction projects. Class F flyash was used with a mixture of sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide solution to develop soil-geopolymer mixtures. Several mixtures were compacted, cured at different curing conditions, and tested for unconfined compressive strength (UCS), linear shrinkage, and observed under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results of the study demonstrated that the soil-geopolymer mixtures fulfilled the UCS criteria of cement treated design (CTD) and cement stabilized design (CSD) as recommended by the department of transportation for pavement base and subbase layers. It was found that soil-geopolymer demonstrated either similar or better UCS and shrinkage characteristics relative to conventional soil-cement mixtures. The SEM analysis revealed that microstructure of soil-geopolymer mixtures exhibited development and steady growth of geopolymerization during the curing period. Based on mechanical, shrinkage, and microstructural characteristics it was suggested that the soil-geopolymer mixtures, has an immense potential to be used as pavement subgrade, subbase, and base layers.

Keywords: Microstructure, and morphology, Soil Stabilization, shrinkage, unconfined compressive strength, soil-geopolymer, pavement base

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5 Investigation of Water Absorption and Compressive Strength of Resin Coated Mortar

Authors: Yasir Ali, Zain Ul Abdin, Muhammad Wisal Khattak

Abstract:

Nowadays various advanced techniques are used to enhance the performance of materials in the field of construction engineering. Structures exposed to an aggressive, humid and hostile environment are experiencing severe negative impacts which lead to premature failure. Polyester resin is one of the advanced material used for improving performance of structural materials especially for repair/ refurbish purpose of structures and protection from contaminated environmental effect/ hazards. This study investigated the aptness of the polyester resin as coating agent on the mortar and assessed its performance in an ambient environment of Pakistan. Cubical specimens of mortar were fabricated. These specimens were tested for water absorption and compressive strength after one day and sixty days. These tests were performed under different exposure conditions (ambient environment and submerged in water). The specimens were coated with one, two and three layers and results were compared to control (no/ zero resin layer) specimens. Test results indicated that there is a significant decrease in water absorption of mortar coated with resin when compared to controlled specimens. The compressive strength test results revealed that resin coated specimen had higher strength when compared to controlled specimens. The results suggested that resin is a promising material and can be used effectively in structures which are exposed to high temperatures. The study would be helpful in improving performance of the structural material in a hazardous environment.

Keywords: Coating, mortar, ambient environment, polyester resin

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4 Laparoscopic Curative Resection for Right-Sided Colonic Tumours: Initial Experience from a Cancer Hospital of a Developing Country

Authors: Awais Naeem, Osama Shakeel, Aamir Ali Syed, Shahid Khattak

Abstract:

Introduction: Laparoscopic right hemicolectomy is an advanced cancer surgery in today's era. The aim of this study was to evaluate the surgical and initial oncological outcomes after curative, laparoscopic resection of right sided colonic tumors. Also to compare our results with those of previous randomized trials. Methods And Procedures: We retrospectively analyzed the medical record files of all the patients who presented to our hospital with the diagnosis of right sided colon carcinoma from January 2012 to December 2017 and underwent laparoscopic right hemicolectomy. Demographics, operative findings and histopathological reports were all recorded on a preformed data sheet. All the analysis was performed on SPSS 20. Results: Total of 48 patients were included. There were 37 male and 11 female patients with mean age of 49.7 (range from 25 – 82). Mean hospital stay was 8.25 ± 3.17 days. Blood loss was 80mls and operative mean time was 240 minutes. Eighteen patients had extended right hemicolectomy. Median length of the specimen retrieved was 31cm (range, 14-59cm). Mean size of tumor was 6.44cm + 2.53. Total number of lymph nodes removed was 20.5 + 8.3. All had R0 resection. Post-operatively 2 patients had pelvic collection and there was no 30 day mortality. In 33 patients there was T3 disease, 5 had T2 and 10 had T4 disease. There was distant recurrence in 4 patients with peritoneal metastasis in 3 and liver metastasis in 1 patient. Forty-six patients are still alive and 44 are disease free. The mean follow-up period was 25.31 (12 to 60) months. Conclusion: Our early experience with Laparascopic Right hemicolectomy as a safe and oncologically feasible surgical option. We attained comparable surgical results with curative intent.

Keywords: right hemicolectomy, right sided colonic tumors, laparoscopic, curative intent

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3 Effects of Changes in LULC on Hydrological Response in Upper Indus Basin

Authors: Ahmad Ammar, Umar Khan Khattak, Muhammad Majid

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Empirically based lumped hydrologic models have an extensive track record of use for various watershed managements and flood related studies. This study focuses on the impacts of LULC change for 10 year period on the discharge in watershed using lumped model HEC-HMS. The Indus above Tarbela region acts as a source of the main flood events in the middle and lower portions of Indus because of the amount of rainfall and topographic setting of the region. The discharge pattern of the region is influenced by the LULC associated with it. In this study the Landsat TM images were used to do LULC analysis of the watershed. Satellite daily precipitation TRMM data was used as input rainfall. The input variables for model building in HEC-HMS were then calculated based on the GIS data collected and pre-processed in HEC-GeoHMS. SCS-CN was used as transform model, SCS unit hydrograph method was used as loss model and Muskingum was used as routing model. For discharge simulation years 2000 and 2010 were taken. HEC-HMS was calibrated for the year 2000 and then validated for 2010.The performance of the model was assessed through calibration and validation process and resulted R2=0.92 during calibration and validation. Relative Bias for the years 2000 was -9% and for2010 was -14%. The result shows that in 10 years the impact of LULC change on discharge has been negligible in the study area overall. One reason is that, the proportion of built-up area in the watershed, which is the main causative factor of change in discharge, is less than 1% of the total area. However, locally, the impact of development was found significant in built up area of Mansehra city. The analysis was done on Mansehra city sub-watershed with an area of about 16 km2 and has more than 13% built up area in 2010. The results showed that with an increase of 40% built-up area in the city from 2000 to 2010 the discharge values increased about 33 percent, indicating the impact of LULC change on discharge value.

Keywords: LULC change, HEC-HMS, Indus Above Tarbela, SCS-CN

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2 Field Performance of Cement Treated Bases as a Reflective Crack Mitigation Technique for Flexible Pavements

Authors: Mohammad J. Khattak, Mohammad R. Bhuyan

Abstract:

Deterioration of flexible pavements due to crack reflection from its soil-cement base layer is a major concern around the globe. The service life of flexible pavement diminishes significantly because of the reflective cracks. Highway agencies are struggling for decades to prevent or mitigate these cracks in order to increase pavement service lives. The root cause of reflective cracks is the shrinkage crack which occurs in the soil-cement bases during the cement hydration process. The primary factor that causes the shrinkage is the cement content of the soil-cement mixture. With the increase of cement content, the soil-cement base gains strength and durability, which is necessary to withstand the traffic loads. But at the same time, higher cement content creates more shrinkage resulting in more reflective cracks in pavements. Historically, various states of USA have used the soil-cement bases for constructing flexile pavements. State of Louisiana (USA) had been using 8 to 10 percent of cement content to manufacture the soil-cement bases. Such traditional soil-cement bases yield 2.0 MPa (300 psi) 7-day compressive strength and are termed as cement stabilized design (CSD). As these CSD bases generate significant reflective cracks, another design of soil-cement base has been utilized by adding 4 to 6 percent of cement content called cement treated design (CTD), which yields 1.0 MPa (150 psi) 7-day compressive strength. The reduction of cement content in the CTD base is expected to minimize shrinkage cracks thus increasing pavement service lives. Hence, this research study evaluates the long-term field performance of CTD bases with respect to CSD bases used in flexible pavements. Pavement Management System of the state of Louisiana was utilized to select flexible pavement projects with CSD and CTD bases that had good historical record and time-series distress performance data. It should be noted that the state collects roughness and distress data for 1/10th mile section every 2-year period. In total, 120 CSD and CTD projects were analyzed in this research, where more than 145 miles (CTD) and 175 miles (CSD) of roadways data were accepted for performance evaluation and benefit-cost analyses. Here, the service life extension and area based on distress performance were considered as benefits. It was found that CTD bases increased 1 to 5 years of pavement service lives based on transverse cracking as compared to CSD bases. On the other hand, the service lives based on longitudinal and alligator cracking, rutting and roughness index remain the same. Hence, CTD bases provide some service life extension (2.6 years, on average) to the controlling distress; transverse cracking, but it was inexpensive due to its lesser cement content. Consequently, CTD bases become 20% more cost-effective than the traditional CSD bases, when both bases were compared by net benefit-cost ratio obtained from all distress types.

Keywords: service life, reflective cracking, cement treated base, cement stabilized base, flexible pavement

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1 Mechanical and Durability Characteristics of Roller Compacted Geopolymer Concrete Using Recycled Concrete Aggregate

Authors: Syfur Rahman, Mohammad J. Khattak

Abstract:

Every year a huge quantity of recycling concrete aggregate (RCA) is generated in the United States of America. Utilization of RCA can solve the storage problem, prevent environmental pollution, and reduce the construction cost. However, due to the overall low strength and durability characteristics of RCA, its usages are limited to a certain area like a landfill, low strength base material, replacement of a few percentages of virgin aggregates in Portland cement concrete, etc. This study focuses on the improvement of the strength and durability characteristics of RCA by introducing the concept of roller-compacted geopolymer concrete. In this research, developed roller-compacted geopolymer concrete (RCGPC) and roller-compacted cement concrete (RCC) mixtures containing 100% recycled concrete aggregate were evaluated and compared. Several selected RCGPC mixtures were investigated to find out the effect of mixture variables, including sodium hydroxide (NaOH) molar concentration, sodium silicate (Na₂SiO₃), to sodium hydroxide (NaOH) ratio on the strength, stiffness and durability characteristics of the developed RCGPC. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium silicate (Na₂SiO₃) were mixed in different ratios to synthesize the alkali activator. American Concrete Pavement Association (ACPA) recommended RCC gradation was used with a maximum nominal aggregate size of 19 mm with a 4% fine particle passing 0.075 mm sieve. The mixtures were made using NaOH molar concentration of 8M and 10M along with, Na₂SiO₃ to NaOH ratio of 0 and 1 by mass and 15% class F fly ash. Optimum alkali content and moisture content were determined for each RCGPC and RCC mixtures, respectively, using modified proctor test. Compressive strength, semi-circular bending beam strength, and dynamic modulus test were conducted to evaluate the mechanistic characteristics of both mixtures. To determine the optimum curing conditions for RCGPC, effects of different curing temperature and curing duration on compressive strength were also studied. Sulphate attack and freeze-thaw tests were also carried out to assess the durability properties of the developed mixtures. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used for morphology and microstructure analysis. From the optimum moisture content results, it was found that RCGPC has high alkali content, which was mainly due to the high absorption capacity of RCA. It was found that the mixtures with Na₂SiO₃ to NaOH ratio of 1 yielded about 60% higher compressive strength than the ratio of 0. Further, the mixtures using 10M NaOH concentrations and alkali ratio of 1 produced about 28 MPa of compressive strength, which was around 33% higher than 8M NaOH mixtures. Similar results were obtained for elastic and dynamic modulus of the mixtures. On the other hand, the semi-circular bending beam strength remained the same for both 8 and 10 molar NaOH geopolymer mixtures. Formation of new geopolymeric compounds and chemical bonds in the newly formed novel RCGPC mixtures were also discovered using XRD analysis. The results of mechanical and durability testing further revealed that RCGPC performed similarly to that of RCC mixtures. Based on the results of mechanical and durability testing, the developed RCGPC mixtures using 100% recycled concrete could be used as a cost-effective solution for the construction of pavement structures.

Keywords: fly ash, Geopolymer Concrete, Concrete Pavement, recycled concrete aggregate, roller compacted concrete

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