Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 769

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Electrical and Computer Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

769 Comparison of Radiated Emissions in Offshore and Onshore Wind Turbine Towers

Authors: Sajeesh Sulaiman, Gomathisankar A., Aravind Devaraj, Aswin R., Vijay Kumar G., Rachana Raj

Abstract:

Wind turbines are the next big answer to the emerging and ever-growing demand for electricity, and this need is increasing day by day. These high mast structures, whether on land or on the sea, has also become one of the big sources of electromagnetic interferences (EMI) in the not so distant past. With the emergence of the AC-AC converter and drawing of large power cables through the wind turbine towers has made this clean and efficient source of renewable energy to become one of the culprits in creating electromagnetic interference. This paper will present the sources of such EMIs, a comparison of radiated emissions (both electric and magnetic field) patterns in wind turbine towers for both onshore and offshore wind turbines and close look into the IEC 61400-40 (new standard for EMC design on wind turbine). At present, offshore wind turbines are tested in onshore facilities. This paper will present the anomaly in results for offshore wind turbines when tested in onshore, which the existing standards and the upcoming standards have failed to address.

Keywords: emissions, electric field, magnetic field, wind turbine, tower, standards and regulations

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
768 Properties of Nanostructured MgB₂ Films Deposited by Magnetron Sputtering

Authors: T.A. Prikhna, A.V. Shaternik, V.E.Moshchil, M. Eisterer, V. E. Shaternik

Abstract:

The paper presents the results of studying the structure, phase composition, relief, and superconducting characteristics of oxygen-containing thin films of magnesium diboride (MgB₂) deposited on a dielectric substrate by magnetron sputtering of diboride-magnesium targets. The possibility of forming films of varying degrees of crystalline perfection and phase composition in the process of precipitation and annealing is shown, depending on the conditions of deposition and annealing. In the films, it is possible to realize various combinations of the Abrikosov vortex pinning centers (in the places of fluctuations of the critical temperature of the superconducting transition (T

Keywords: critical current density, diboride, superconducting thin films, upper critical field

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
767 Inverted Geometry Ceramic Insulators in High Voltage Direct Current Electron Guns for Accelerators

Authors: C. Hernandez-Garcia, P. Adderley, D. Bullard, J. Grames, M. A. Mamun, G. Palacios-Serrano, M. Poelker, M. Stutzman, R. Suleiman, Y. Wang, , S. Zhang

Abstract:

High-energy nuclear physics experiments performed at the Jefferson Lab (JLab) Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility require a beam of spin-polarized ps-long electron bunches. The electron beam is generated when a circularly polarized laser beam illuminates a GaAs semiconductor photocathode biased at hundreds of kV dc inside an ultra-high vacuum chamber. The photocathode is mounted on highly polished stainless steel electrodes electrically isolated by means of a conical-shape ceramic insulator that extends into the vacuum chamber, serving as the cathode electrode support structure. The assembly is known as a dc photogun, which has to simultaneously meet the following criteria: high voltage to manage space charge forces within the electron bunch, ultra-high vacuum conditions to preserve the photocathode quantum efficiency, no field emission to prevent gas load when field emitted electrons impact the vacuum chamber, and finally no voltage breakdown for robust operation. Over the past decade, JLab has tested and implemented the use of inverted geometry ceramic insulators connected to commercial high voltage cables to operate a photogun at 200kV dc with a 10 cm long insulator, and a larger version at 300kV dc with 20 cm long insulator. Plans to develop a third photogun operating at 400kV dc to meet the stringent requirements of the proposed International Linear Collider are underway at JLab, utilizing even larger inverted insulators. This contribution describes approaches that have been successful in solving challenging problems related to breakdown and field emission, such as triple-point junction screening electrodes, mechanical polishing to achieve mirror-like surface finish and high voltage conditioning procedures with Kr gas to extinguish field emission.

Keywords: electron guns, high voltage techniques, insulators, vacuum insulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
766 Effect of Supply Frequency on Pre-Breakdown and Breakdown Phenomena in Unbridged Vacuum Gaps

Authors: T.C. Balachandra, Habibuddin Shaik

Abstract:

This paper presents experimental results leading towards a better understanding of pre-breakdown and breakdown behavior of vacuum gaps under variable frequency alternating excitations. The frequency variation is in the range of 30 to 300 Hz in steps of 10 Hz for a fixed gap spacing of 0.5 mm. The results indicate that the pre-breakdown currents show an inverse relation with the breakdown voltage in general though erratic behavior was observed over a certain range of frequencies. A breakdown voltage peak was observed at 130 Hz. This was pronounced when the electrode pair was of stainless steel and less pronounced when copper and aluminum electrodes were used. The experimental results are explained based on F-N emission, I-F emission, and also thermal interaction due to quasi-continuous shower of anode micro-particles. Further, it is speculated that the ostensible cause for time delay between voltage and current peaks is due to the presence of neutral molecules in the gap.

Keywords: anode hot-spots, F-N emission, I-F emission, microparticle, neutral molecules, pre-breakdown conduction, vacuum breakdown

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
765 Design-Analysis and Optimization of 10 MW Permanent Magnet Surface Mounted Off-Shore Wind Generator

Authors: Mamidi Ramakrishna Rao, Jagdish Mamidi

Abstract:

With advancing technology, the market environment for wind power generation systems has become highly competitive. The industry has been moving towards higher wind generator power ratings, in particular, off-shore generator ratings. Current off-shore wind turbine generators are in the power range of 10 to 12 MW. Unlike traditional induction motors, slow-speed permanent magnet surface mounted (PMSM) high-power generators are relatively challenging and designed differently. In this paper, PMSM generator design features have been discussed and analysed. The focus attention is on armature windings, harmonics, and permanent magnet. For the power ratings under consideration, the generator air-gap diameters are in the range of 8 to 10 meters, and active material weigh ~60 tons and above. Therefore, material weight becomes one of the critical parameters. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) technique is used for weight reduction and performance improvement. Four independent variables have been considered, which are air gap diameter, stack length, magnet thickness, and winding current density. To account for core and teeth saturation, preventing demagnetization effects due to short circuit armature currents, and maintaining minimum efficiency, suitable penalty functions have been applied. To check for performance satisfaction, a detailed analysis and 2D flux plotting are done for the optimized design.

Keywords: offshore wind generator, PMSM, PSO optimization, design optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
764 Network Based Speed Synchronization Control for Multi-Motor via Consensus Theory

Authors: Liqin Zhang, Liang Yan

Abstract:

This paper addresses the speed synchronization control problem for a network-based multi-motor system from the perspective of cluster consensus theory. Each motor is considered as a single agent connected through fixed and undirected network. This paper presents an improved control protocol from three aspects. First, for the purpose of improving both tracking and synchronization performance, this paper presents a distributed leader-following method. The improved control protocol takes the importance of each motor’s speed into consideration, and all motors are divided into different groups according to speed weights. Specifically, by using control parameters optimization, the synchronization error and tracking error can be regulated and decoupled to some extent. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed strategy. In practical engineering, the simplified models are unrealistic, such as single-integrator and double-integrator. And previous algorithms require the acceleration information of the leader available to all followers if the leader has a varying velocity, which is also difficult to realize. Therefore, the method focuses on an observer-based variable structure algorithm for consensus tracking, which gets rid of the leader acceleration. The presented scheme optimizes synchronization performance, as well as provides satisfactory robustness. What’s more, the existing algorithms can obtain a stable synchronous system; however, the obtained stable system may encounter some disturbances that may destroy the synchronization. Focus on this challenging technological problem, a state-dependent-switching approach is introduced. In the presence of unmeasured angular speed and unknown failures, this paper investigates a distributed fault-tolerant consensus tracking algorithm for a group non-identical motors. The failures are modeled by nonlinear functions, and the sliding mode observer is designed to estimate the angular speed and nonlinear failures. The convergence and stability of the given multi-motor system are proved. Simulation results have shown that all followers asymptotically converge to a consistent state when one follower fails to follow the virtual leader during a large enough disturbance, which illustrates the good performance of synchronization control accuracy.

Keywords: consensus control, distributed follow, fault-tolerant control, multi-motor system, speed synchronization

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
763 A Ku/K Band Power Amplifier for Wireless Communication and Radar Systems

Authors: Meng-Jie Hsiao, Cam Nguyen

Abstract:

Wide-band devices in Ku band (12-18 GHz) and K band (18-27 GHz) have received significant attention for high-data-rate communications and high-resolution sensing. Especially, devices operating around 24 GHz is attractive due to the 24-GHz unlicensed applications. One of the most important components in RF systems is power amplifier (PA). Various PAs have been developed in the Ku and K bands on GaAs, InP, and silicon (Si) processes. Although the PAs using GaAs or InP process could have better power handling and efficiency than those realized on Si, it is very hard to integrate the entire system on the same substrate for GaAs or InP. Si, on the other hand, facilitates single-chip systems. Hence, good PAs on Si substrate are desirable. Especially, Si-based PA having good linearity is necessary for next generation communication protocols implemented on Si. We report a 16.5 to 25.5 GHz Si-based PA having flat saturated power of 19.5 ± 1.5 dBm, output 1-dB power compression (OP1dB) of 16.5 ± 1.5 dBm, and 15-23 % power added efficiency (PAE). The PA consists of a drive amplifier, two main amplifiers, and lump-element Wilkinson power divider and combiner designed and fabricated in TowerJazz 0.18µm SiGe BiCMOS process having unity power gain frequency (fMAX) of more than 250 GHz. The PA is realized as a cascode amplifier implementing both heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) and n-channel metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor (NMOS) devices for gain, frequency response, and linearity consideration. Particularly, a body-floating technique is utilized for the NMOS devices to improve the voltage swing and eliminate parasitic capacitances. The developed PA has measured flat gain of 20 ± 1.5 dB across 16.5-25.5 GHz. At 24 GHz, the saturated power, OP1dB, and maximum PAE are 20.8 dBm, 18.1 dBm, and 23%, respectively. Its high performance makes it attractive for use in Ku/K-band, especially 24 GHz, communication and radar systems. This paper was made possible by NPRP grant # 6-241-2-102 from the Qatar National Research Fund (a member of Qatar Foundation). The statements made herein are solely the responsibility of the authors.

Keywords: power amplifiers, amplifiers, communication systems, radar systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
762 A Review of HVDC Modular Multilevel Converters Subjected to DC and AC Faults

Authors: Jude Inwumoh, Adam P. R. Taylor, Kosala Gunawardane

Abstract:

Modular multilevel converters (MMC) exhibit a highly scalable and modular characteristic with good voltage/power expansion, fault tolerance capability, low output harmonic content, good redundancy, and a flexible front-end configuration. Fault detection, location, and isolation, as well as maintaining fault ride-through (FRT), are major challenges to MMC reliability and power supply sustainability. Different papers have been reviewed to seek the best MMC configuration with fault capability. DC faults are the most common fault, while the probability that AC fault occurs in a modular multilevel converter (MCC) is low; though, AC faults consequence are severe. This paper reviews several MMC topologies and modulation techniques in tackling faults. These fault control strategies are compared based on cost, complexity, controllability, and power loss. A meshed network of half-bridge (HB) MMC topology was optimal in rendering fault ride through than any other MMC topologies but only when combined with DC circuit breakers (CBS), AC CBS, and fault current limiters (FCL).

Keywords: MMC-HVDC, DC faults, fault current limiters, control scheme

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
761 Improvement of the 3D Finite Element Analysis of High Voltage Power Transformer Defects in Time Domain

Authors: M. Rashid Hussain, Shady S. Refaat

Abstract:

The high voltage power transformer is the most essential part of the electrical power utilities. Reliability on the transformers is the utmost concern, and any failure of the transformers can lead to catastrophic losses in electric power utility. The causes of transformer failure include insulation failure by partial discharge, core and tank failure, cooling unit failure, current transformer failure, etc. For the study of power transformer defects, finite element analysis (FEA) can provide valuable information on the severity of defects. FEA provides a more accurate representation of complex geometries because they consider thermal, electrical, and environmental influences on the insulation models to obtain basic characteristics of the insulation system during normal and partial discharge conditions. The purpose of this paper is the time domain analysis of defects 3D model of high voltage power transformer using FEA to study the electric field distribution at different points on the defects.

Keywords: power transformer, finite element analysis, dielectric response, partial discharge, insulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
760 Modular 3D Environmental Development for Augmented Reality

Authors: Kevin William Taylor

Abstract:

This work used industry-standard practices and technologies as a foundation to explore current and future advancements in modularity for 3D environmental production. Covering environmental generation, and AI-assisted generation, this study investigated how these areas will shape the industries goal to achieve full immersion within augmented reality environments. This study will explore modular environmental construction techniques utilized in large scale 3D productions. This will include the reasoning behind this approach to production, the principles in the successful development, potential pitfalls, and different methodologies for successful implementation of practice in commercial and proprietary interactive engines. A focus will be on the role of the 3D artists in the future of environmental development, requiring adaptability to new approaches, as the field evolves in response to tandem technological advancements. Industry findings and projections theorize how these factors will impact the widespread utilization of augmented reality in daily life. This will continue to inform the direction of technology towards expansive interactive environments. It will change the tools and techniques utilized in the development of environments for game, film, and VFX. This study concludes that this technology will be the cornerstone for the creation of AI-driven AR that is able to fully theme our world, change how we see and engage with one another. This will impact the concept of a virtual self-identity that will be as prevalent as real-world identity. While this progression scares or even threaten some, it is safe to say that we are seeing the beginnings of a technological revolution that will surpass the impact that the smartphone had on modern society.

Keywords: virtual reality, augmented reality, training, 3D environments

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
759 A Perspective on Education to Support Industry 4.0: An Exploratory Study in the UK

Authors: Sin Ying Tan, Mohammed Alloghani, A. J. Aljaaf, Abir Hussain, Jamila Mustafina

Abstract:

Industry 4.0 is a term frequently used to describe the new upcoming industry era. Higher education institutions aim to prepare students to fulfil the future industry needs. Advancement of digital technology has paved the way for the evolution of education and technology. Evolution of education has proven its conservative nature and a high level of resistance to changes and transformation. The gap between the industry's needs and competencies offered generally by education is revealing the increasing need to find new educational models to face the future. The aim of this study was to identify the main issues faced by both universities and students in preparing the future workforce. From December 2018 to April 2019, a regional qualitative study was undertaken in Liverpool, United Kingdom (UK). Interviews were conducted with employers, faculty members and undergraduate students, and the results were analyzed using the open coding method. Four main issues had been identified, which are the characteristics of the future workforce, student's readiness to work, expectations on different roles played at the tertiary education level and awareness of the latest trends. The finding of this paper concluded that the employers and academic practitioners agree that their expectations on each other’s roles are different and in order to face the rapidly changing technology era, students should not only have the right skills, but they should also have the right attitude in learning. Therefore, the authors address this issue by proposing a learning framework known as 'ASK SUMA' framework as a guideline to support the students, academicians and employers in meeting the needs of 'Industry 4.0'. Furthermore, this technology era requires the employers, academic practitioners and students to work together in order to face the upcoming challenges and fast-changing technologies. It is also suggested that an interactive system should be provided as a platform to support the three different parties to play their roles.

Keywords: attitude, expectations, industry needs, knowledge, skills

Procedia PDF Downloads 2
758 Aliasing Free and Additive Error in Spectra for Alpha Stable Signals

Authors: R. Sabre

Abstract:

This work focuses on the symmetric alpha stable process with continuous time frequently used in modeling the signal with indefinitely growing variance, often observed with an unknown additive error. The objective of this paper is to estimate this error from discrete observations of the signal. For that, we propose a method based on the smoothing of the observations via Jackson polynomial kernel and taking into account the width of the interval where the spectral density is non-zero. This technique allows avoiding the “Aliasing phenomenon” encountered when the estimation is made from the discrete observations of a process with continuous time. We have studied the convergence rate of the estimator and have shown that the convergence rate improves in the case where the spectral density is zero at the origin. Thus, we set up an estimator of the additive error that can be subtracted for approaching the original signal without error.

Keywords: spectral density, stable processes, aliasing, non parametric

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
757 Dosimetric Evaluation of the Influence of Electromagnetic Fields on Semen Parameters and DNA Fragmentation of Human Sperm in Vivo - Pilot Study

Authors: Artur Wdowiak, Szymon Bakalczuk, Artur Mroczkowski, Małgorzata Zybała, Grzegorz Polak

Abstract:

The adverse influence of electromagnetic fields generated by wireless communication on male fertility has been proven in numerous scientific studies. The harmful effect of this technology on sperm parameters is explained by means of the oxidative stress concept. Previous studies have not, however, analyzed the individual exposure of a man to electromagnetic fields in real-time. Thanks to the use of dosimeters, we have attempted to assess the relationship between the individual exposure of a man to electromagnetic fields related to wireless connectivity and semen parameters. The study was conducted in 2018 among 100 men, who were divided into groups with confirmed fertility (n = 50) and diagnosed with infertility (n = 50). The participants of the study, 24 hours before sperm donation, were carrying ESM-140 Maschek dosimeters, measuring individual exposure to electromagnetic fields produced by Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) 900, GSM 1800, The Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS), Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications (DECT) and Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN). After the measurements, the computer analysis of semen was carried out, and sperm DNA fragmentation was manually examined. The obtained results were subject to statistical analysis. The study was approved by the bioethical commission. In both groups, there were positive statistically significant correlations between the intensity of exposure to GSM 1800 and the intensity of sperm DNA fragmentation (p = 0.000, r = 0.290). There were no statistically significant relationships between the exposure to particular frequencies generated by wireless communication and the parameters obtained as a result of computer analysis of semen. The study shows an adverse effect of the 1800 frequency on the sperm DNA structure. Obtained results represent the basis for continuing research on a larger number of volunteers and with longer dosimetric measurements of the future.

Keywords: dosimeter, electromagnetic field, semen parameters, wireless communication

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
756 Suitability of Alternative Insulating Fluid for Power Transformer: A Laboratory Investigation

Authors: S. N. Deepa, A. D. Srinivasan, K. T. Veeramanju, R. Sandeep Kumar, Ashwini Mathapati

Abstract:

Power transformer is a vital element in a power system as it continuously regulates power flow, maintaining good voltage regulation. The working of transformer much depends on the oil insulation, the oil insulation also decides the aging of transformer and hence its reliability. The mineral oil based liquid insulation is globally accepted for power transformer insulation; however it is potentially hazardous due to its non-biodegradability. In this work efficient alternative biodegradable insulating fluid is presented as a replacement to conventional mineral oil. Dielectric tests are performed as distinct alternating fluid to evaluate the suitability for transformer insulation. The selection of the distinct natural esters for an insulation system is carried out by the laboratory investigation of Breakdown voltage, Oxidation stability, Dissipation factor, Permittivity, Viscosity, Flash and Fire point. It is proposed to study and characterize the properties of natural esters to be used in power transformer. Therefore for the investigation of the dielectric behavior rice bran oil, sesame oil, and sunflower oil are considered for the study. The investigated results have been compared with the mineral oil to validate the dielectric behavior of natural esters.

Keywords: alternative insulating fluid, dielectric properties, natural esters, power transformers

Procedia PDF Downloads 5
755 Design of Wireless and Traceable Sensors for Internally Illuminated Photoreactors

Authors: Alexander Sutor, David Demetz

Abstract:

We present methods for developing wireless and traceable sensors for photobioreactors or photoreactors in general. The main focus of the application are reactors, which are wirelessly powered. We have presented methods for the wireless powering of photobioreactors and photocatalytic reactors before. Wireless powering for the internal illumination of those reactors is necessary due to the limited penetration depth of photons in those media. Therefore, we developed internal illumination via the so-called Wireless Light Emitters (WLE). We designed class-E amplifiers and field coils to produce an intermediate frequency electromagnetic field inside the reactor. The magnetic flux density was selected to be approximately B = 1mT in photoreactors and up to B = 3mT in photocatalytic reactors in order to achieve the UV-photon power density necessary for the photocatalytic reactions. The driving frequency is f = 176 kHz. We conducted experiments with a laboratory size photoreactor. The cultivation volume was 30 L containing up to 3000 WLEs. The maximum electric power input was more than 300W. In order to control the processes in those reactors, several sensors are necessary. In the case of photobioreactors for the cultivation of photosynthetic active microorganisms or cells, the quantities to be measured are, e.g., oxygen and carbon dioxide concentration, illumination, optical density, and temperature. In the case of photocatalytic reactors, this can also be pH-value, UV illumination, and other chemical concentrations. Classically, the sensors are installed in the reactors through a drill hole. This clearly has the drawback that the desired quantity can only be measured at one point inside the reactor, and the spatial distribution is unknown. Furthermore, holes are similar ways to access the interior of the reactor have to be installed. Here, we present methods to develop wireless sensor systems to overcome these problems. The floating sensors are wirelessly powered by the magnetic field mentioned above. The sensor signals are transmitted via on-off modulation among other methods which are being tested. The modulation frequency has located a factor of 1.3 above the excitation frequency in order to avoid interference by harmonics. Additionally, standard frequencies like 433 MHz are under consideration, as used by similar projects. The drawback of those high-frequency standard protocols is the high damping factor in electrically conducting media. The traceability of our floating sensors is another important aspect. This goal is reached by evaluating the received sensor signal amplitude with an array of receiving coils.

Keywords: wireless sensors, photoreactor, internal illumination, wireless power

Procedia PDF Downloads 2
754 A Leader-Follower Kinematic-Based Control System for a Cable-Driven Hyper-Redundant Manipulator

Authors: Abolfazl Zaraki, Yoshikatsu Hayashi, Harry Thorpe, Vincent Strong, Gisle-Andre Larsen, William Holderbaum

Abstract:

Thanks to the high maneuverability of the cable-driven hyper-redundant manipulators (HRMs), this class of robots has shown a superior capability in highly confined and unstructured space applications. Although the large number of degrees of freedom (DOF) of HRMs enhances the motion flexibility and the robot’s reachability range, it highly increases the complexity of the kinematic configuration which makes the kinematic control problem very challenging or even impossible to solve. This paper presents our current progress achieved on the development of a kinematic-based leader-follower control system which is designed to control not only the robot’s body posture but also to control the trajectory of the robot’s movement in a semi-autonomous manner (the human operator is retained in the robot’s control loop). To obtain the forward kinematic model, the coordinate frames are established by the classical Denavit–Hartenburg (D-H) convention for a hyper-redundant serial manipulator which has a controlled cables-driven mechanism. To solve the inverse kinematics of the robot, unlike the conventional methods, a leader-follower mechanism, based on the sequential inverse kinematic, is followed. Using this mechanism, the inverse kinematic problem is solved for all sequential joints starting from the head joint to the base joint of the robot. To verify the kinematic design and simulate the robot motion, the MATLAB robotic toolbox is used. The simulation result demonstrated the promising capability of the proposed leader-follower control system in controlling the robot motion and trajectory in our confined space application.

Keywords: hyper-redundant robots, kinematic analysis, semi-autonomous control, serial manipulators

Procedia PDF Downloads 9
753 Noise and Thermal Analyses of Memristor-Based Phase Locked Loop Integrated Circuit

Authors: Naheem Olakunle Adesina

Abstract:

The memristor is considered as one of the promising candidates for mamoelectronic engineering and applications. Owing to its high compatibility with CMOS, nanoscale size, and low power consumption, memristor has been employed in the design of commonly used circuits such as phase-locked loop (PLL). In this paper, we designed a memristor-based loop filter (LF) together with other components of PLL. Following this, we evaluated the noise-rejection feature of loop filter by comparing the noise levels of input and output signals of the filter. Our SPICE simulation results showed that memristor behaves like a linear resistor at high frequencies. The result also showed that loop filter blocks the high-frequency components from phase frequency detector so as to provide a stable control voltage to the voltage controlled oscillator (VCO). In addition, we examined the effects of temperature on the performance of the designed phase locked loop circuit. A critical temperature, where there is frequency drift of VCO as a result of variations in control voltage, is identified. In conclusion, the memristor is a suitable choice for nanoelectronic systems owing to a small area, low power consumption, dense nature, high switching speed, and endurance. The proposed memristor-based loop filter, together with other components of the phase locked loop, can be designed using memristive emulator and EDA tools in current CMOS technology and simulated.

Keywords: Fast Fourier Transform, hysteresis curve, loop filter, memristor, noise, phase locked loop, voltage controlled oscillator

Procedia PDF Downloads 10
752 Transducers for Measuring Displacements of Rotating Blades in Turbomachines

Authors: Pavel Prochazka

Abstract:

The study deals with transducers for measuring vibration displacements of rotating blade tips in turbomachines. In order to prevent major accidents with extensive economic consequences, it shows an urgent need for every low-pressure steam turbine stage being equipped with modern non-contact measuring system providing information on blade loading, damage and residual lifetime under operation. The requirement of measuring vibration and static characteristics of steam turbine blades, therefore, calls for the development and operational verification of both new types of sensors and measuring principles and methods. The task is really demanding: to measure displacements of blade tips with a resolution of the order of 10 μm by speeds up to 750 m/s, humidity 100% and temperatures up to 200 °C. While in gas turbines are used primarily capacitive and optical transducers, these transducers cannot be used in steam turbines. The reason is moisture vapor, droplets of condensing water and dirt, which disable the function of sensors. Therefore, the most feasible approach was to focus on research of electromagnetic sensors featuring promising characteristics for given blade materials in a steam environment. Following types of sensors have been developed and both experimentally and theoretically studied in the Institute of Thermodynamics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic: eddy-current, Hall effect, inductive and magnetoresistive. Eddy-current transducers demand a small distance of 1 to 2 mm and change properties in the harsh environment of steam turbines. Hall effect sensors have relatively low sensitivity, high values of offset, drift, and especially noise. Induction sensors do not require any supply current and have a simple construction. The magnitude of the sensors output voltage is dependent on the velocity of the measured body and concurrently on the varying magnetic induction, and they cannot be used statically. Magnetoresistive sensors are formed by magnetoresistors arranged into a Wheatstone bridge. Supplying the sensor from a current source provides better linearity. The MR sensors can be used permanently for temperatures up to 200 °C at lower values of the supply current of about 1 mA. The frequency range of 0 to 300 kHz is by an order higher comparing to the Hall effect and induction sensors. The frequency band starts at zero frequency, which is very important because the sensors can be calibrated statically. The MR sensors feature high sensitivity and low noise. The symmetry of the bridge arrangement leads to a high common mode rejection ratio and suppressing disturbances, which is important, especially in industrial applications. The MR sensors feature high sensitivity, high common mode rejection ratio, and low noise, which is important, especially in industrial applications. Magnetoresistive transducers provide a range of excellent properties indicating their priority for displacement measurements of rotating blades in turbomachines.

Keywords: turbines, blade vibration, blade tip timing, non-contact sensors, magnetoresistive sensors

Procedia PDF Downloads 6
751 Electromagnetic Simulation Based on Drift and Diffusion Currents for Real-Time Systems

Authors: Alexander Norbach

Abstract:

The script in this paper describes the use of advanced simulation environment using electronic systems (Microcontroller, Operational Amplifiers, and FPGA). The simulation may be used for all dynamic systems with the diffusion and the ionisation behaviour also. By additionally required observer structure, the system works with parallel real-time simulation based on diffusion model and the state-space representation for other dynamics. The proposed deposited model may be used for electrodynamic effects, including ionising effects and eddy current distribution also. With the script and proposed method, it is possible to calculate the spatial distribution of the electromagnetic fields in real-time. For further purpose, the spatial temperature distribution may be used also. With upon system, the uncertainties, unknown initial states and disturbances may be determined. This provides the estimation of the more precise system states for the required system, and additionally, the estimation of the ionising disturbances that occur due to radiation effects. The results have shown that a system can be also developed and adopted specifically for space systems with the real-time calculation of the radiation effects only. Electronic systems can take damage caused by impacts with charged particle flux in space or radiation environment. In order to be able to react to these processes, it must be calculated within a shorter time that ionising radiation and dose is present. All available sensors shall be used to observe the spatial distributions. By measured value of size and known location of the sensors, the entire distribution can be calculated retroactively or more accurately. With the formation, the type of ionisation and the direct effect to the systems and thus possible prevent processes can be activated up to the shutdown. The results show possibilities to perform more qualitative and faster simulations independent of kind of systems space-systems and radiation environment also. The paper gives additionally an overview of the diffusion effects and their mechanisms. For the modelling and derivation of equations, the extended current equation is used. The size K represents the proposed charge density drifting vector. The extended diffusion equation was derived and shows the quantising character and has similar law like the Klein-Gordon equation. These kinds of PDE's (Partial Differential Equations) are analytically solvable by giving initial distribution conditions (Cauchy problem) and boundary conditions (Dirichlet boundary condition). For a simpler structure, a transfer function for B- and E- fields was analytically calculated. With known discretised responses g₁(k·Ts) and g₂(k·Ts), the electric current or voltage may be calculated using a convolution; g₁ is the direct function and g₂ is a recursive function. The analytical results are good enough for calculation of fields with diffusion effects. Within the scope of this work, a proposed model of the consideration of the electromagnetic diffusion effects of arbitrary current 'waveforms' has been developed. The advantage of the proposed calculation of diffusion is the real-time capability, which is not really possible with the FEM programs available today. It makes sense in the further course of research to use these methods and to investigate them thoroughly.

Keywords: advanced observer, electrodynamics, systems, diffusion, partial differential equations, solver

Procedia PDF Downloads 2
750 Measurement Technologies for Advanced Characterization of Magnetic Materials Used in Electric Drives and Automotive Applications

Authors: Lukasz Mierczak, Patrick Denke, Piotr Klimczyk, Stefan Siebert

Abstract:

Due to the high complexity of the magnetization in electrical machines and influence of the manufacturing processes on the magnetic properties of their components, the assessment and prediction of hysteresis and eddy current losses has remained a challenge. In the design process of electric motors and generators, the power losses of stators and rotors are calculated based on the material supplier’s data from standard magnetic measurements. This type of data does not include the additional loss from non-sinusoidal multi-harmonic motor excitation nor the detrimental effects of residual stress remaining in the motor laminations after manufacturing processes, such as punching, housing shrink fitting and winding. Moreover, in production, considerable attention is given to the measurements of mechanical dimensions of stator and rotor cores, whereas verification of their magnetic properties is typically neglected, which can lead to inconsistent efficiency of assembled motors. Therefore, to enable a comprehensive characterization of motor materials and components, Brockhaus Measurements developed a range of in-line and offline measurement technologies for testing their magnetic properties under actual motor operating conditions. Multiple sets of experimental data were obtained to evaluate the influence of various factors, such as elevated temperature, applied and residual stress, and arbitrary magnetization on the magnetic properties of different grades of non-oriented steel. Measured power loss for tested samples and stator cores varied significantly, by more than 100%, comparing to standard measurement conditions. Quantitative effects of each of the applied measurement were analyzed. This research and applied Brockhaus measurement methodologies emphasized the requirement for advanced characterization of magnetic materials used in electric drives and automotive applications.

Keywords: magnetic materials, measurement technologies, permanent magnets, stator and rotor cores

Procedia PDF Downloads 10
749 Combined Model Predictive Controller Technique for Enhancing NAO Gait Stabilization

Authors: Brahim Brahmi, Mohammed Hamza Laraki, Mohammad Habibur Rahman, Islam M. Rasedul, M. Assad Uz-Zaman

Abstract:

The humanoid robot, specifically the NAO robot must be able to provide a highly dynamic performance on the soccer field. Maintaining the balance of the humanoid robot during the required motion is considered as one of a challenging problems especially when the robot is subject to external disturbances, as contact with other robots. In this paper, a dynamic controller is proposed in order to ensure a robust walking (stabilization) and to improve the dynamic balance of the robot during its contact with the environment (external disturbances). The generation of the trajectory of the center of mass (CoM) is done by a model predictive controller (MPC) conjoined with zero moment point (ZMP) technique. Taking into account the properties of the rotational dynamics of the whole-body system, a modified previous control mixed with feedback control is employed to manage the angular momentum and the CoM’s acceleration, respectively. This latter is dedicated to provide a robust gait of the robot in the presence of the external disturbances. Simulation results are presented to show the feasibility of the proposed strategy.

Keywords: preview control, Nao robot, model predictive control

Procedia PDF Downloads 6
748 Electromagnetic Wave Propagation Equations in 2D by Finite Difference Method

Authors: N. Fusun Oyman Serteller

Abstract:

In this paper, the techniques to solve time dependent electromagnetic wave propagation equations based on the Finite Difference Method (FDM) are proposed by comparing the results with Finite Element Method (FEM) in 2D while discussing some special simulation examples.  Here, 2D dynamical wave equations for lossy media, even with a constant source, are discussed for establishing symbolic manipulation of wave propagation problems. The main objective of this contribution is to introduce a comparative study of two suitable numerical methods and to show that both methods can be applied effectively and efficiently to all types of wave propagation problems, both linear and nonlinear cases, by using symbolic computation. However, the results show that the FDM is more appropriate for solving the nonlinear cases in the symbolic solution. Furthermore, some specific complex domain examples of the comparison of electromagnetic waves equations are considered. Calculations are performed through Mathematica software by making some useful contribution to the programme and leveraging symbolic evaluations of FEM and FDM.

Keywords: finite difference method, finite element method, linear-nonlinear PDEs, symbolic computation, wave propagation equations

Procedia PDF Downloads 5
747 Load Forecasting in Short-Term Including Meteorological Variables for Balearic Islands Paper

Authors: Carolina Senabre, Sergio Valero, Miguel Lopez, Antonio Gabaldon

Abstract:

This paper presents a comprehensive survey of the short-term load forecasting (STLF). Since the behavior of consumers and producers continue changing as new technologies, it is an ongoing process, and moreover, new policies become available. The results of a research study for the Spanish Transport System Operator (REE) is presented in this paper. It is presented the improvement of the forecasting accuracy in the Balearic Islands considering the introduction of meteorological variables, such as temperature to reduce forecasting error. Variables analyzed for the forecasting in terms of overall accuracy are cloudiness, solar radiation, and wind velocity. It has also been analyzed the type of days to be considered in the research.

Keywords: short-term load forecasting, power demand, neural networks, load forecasting

Procedia PDF Downloads 8
746 Electronic Device Robustness against Electrostatic Discharges

Authors: Clara Oliver, Oibar Martinez

Abstract:

This paper is intended to reveal the severity of electrostatic discharge (ESD) effects in electronic and optoelectronic devices by performing sensitivity tests based on Human Body Model (HBM) standard. We explain here the HBM standard in detail together with the typical failure modes associated with electrostatic discharges. In addition, a prototype of electrostatic charge generator has been designed, fabricated, and verified to stress electronic devices, which features a compact high voltage source. This prototype is inexpensive and enables one to do a battery of pre-compliance tests aimed at detecting unexpected weaknesses to static discharges at the component level. Some tests with different devices were performed to illustrate the behavior of the proposed generator. A set of discharges was applied according to the HBM standard to commercially available bipolar transistors, complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor transistors and light emitting diodes. It is observed that high current and voltage ratings in electronic devices not necessarily provide a guarantee that the device will withstand high levels of electrostatic discharges. We have also compared the result obtained by performing the sensitivity tests based on HBM with a real discharge generated by a human. For this purpose, the charge accumulated in the person is monitored, and a direct discharge against the devices is generated by touching them. Every test has been performed under controlled relative humidity conditions. It is believed that this paper can be of interest for research teams involved in the development of electronic and optoelectronic devices which need to verify the reliability of their devices in terms of robustness to electrostatic discharges.

Keywords: human body model, electrostatic discharge, sensitivity tests, static charge monitoring

Procedia PDF Downloads 5
745 European Electromagnetic Compatibility Directive Applied to Astronomical Observatories

Authors: Oibar Martinez, Clara Oliver

Abstract:

The Cherenkov Telescope Array Project (CTA) aims to build two different observatories of Cherenkov Telescopes, located in Cerro del Paranal, Chile, and La Palma, Spain. These facilities are used in this paper as a case study to investigate how to apply standard Directives on Electromagnetic Compatibility to astronomical observatories. Cherenkov Telescopes are able to provide valuable information from both Galactic and Extragalactic sources by measuring Cherenkov radiation, which is produced by particles which travel faster than light in the atmosphere. The construction requirements demand compliance with the European Electromagnetic Compatibility Directive. The largest telescopes of these observatories, called Large Scale Telescopes (LSTs), are high precision instruments with advanced photomultipliers able to detect the faint sub-nanosecond blue light pulses produced by Cherenkov Radiation. They have a 23-meter parabolic reflective surface. This surface focuses the radiation on a camera composed of an array of high-speed photosensors which are highly sensitive to the radio spectrum pollution. The camera has a field of view of about 4.5 degrees and has been designed for maximum compactness and lowest weight, cost and power consumption. Each pixel incorporates a photo-sensor able to discriminate single photons and the corresponding readout electronics. The first LST is already commissioned and intends to be operated as a service to Scientific Community. Because of this, it must comply with a series of reliability and functional requirements and must have a Conformité Européen (CE) marking. This demands compliance with Directive 2014/30/EU on electromagnetic compatibility. The main difficulty of accomplishing this goal resides on the fact that Conformité Européen marking setups and procedures were implemented for industrial products, whereas no clear protocols have been defined for scientific installations. In this paper, we aim to give an answer to the question on how the directive should be applied to our installation to guarantee the fulfillment of all the requirements and the proper functioning of the telescope itself. Experts in Optics and Electromagnetism were both needed to make these kinds of decisions and match tests which were designed to be made over the equipment of limited dimensions on large scientific plants. An analysis of the elements and configurations most likely to be affected by external interferences and those that are most likely to cause the maximum disturbances was also performed. Obtaining the Conformité Européen mark requires knowing what the harmonized standards are and how the elaboration of the specific requirement is defined. For this type of large installations, one needs to adapt and develop the tests to be carried out. In addition, throughout this process, certification entities and notified bodies play a key role in preparing and agreeing the required technical documentation. We have focused our attention mostly on the technical aspects of each point. We believe that this contribution will be of interest for other scientists involved in applying industrial quality assurance standards to large scientific plant.

Keywords: CE marking, electromagnetic compatibility, european directive, scientific installations

Procedia PDF Downloads 2
744 Dispersion Effects in Waves Reflected by Lossy Conductors: The Optics vs. Electromagnetics Approach

Authors: Oibar Martinez, Clara Oliver, Jose Miguel Miranda

Abstract:

The study of dispersion phenomena in electromagnetic waves reflected by conductors at infrared and lower frequencies is a topic which finds a number of applications. We aim to explain in this work what are the most relevant ones and how this phenomenon is modeled from both optics and electromagnetics points of view. We also explain here how the amplitude of an electromagnetic wave reflected by a lossy conductor could depend on both the frequency of the incident wave, as well as on the electrical properties of the conductor, and we illustrate this phenomenon with a practical example. The mathematical analysis made by a specialist in electromagnetics or a microwave engineer is apparently very different from the one made by a specialist in optics. We show here how both approaches lead to the same physical result and what are the key concepts which enable one to understand that despite the differences in the equations the solution to the problem happens to be the same. Our study starts with an analysis made by using the complex refractive index and the reflectance parameter. We show how this reflectance has a dependence with the square root of the frequency when the reflecting material is a good conductor, and the frequency of the wave is low enough. Then we analyze the same problem with a less known approach, which is based on the reflection coefficient of the electric field, a parameter that is most commonly used in electromagnetics and microwave engineering. In summary, this paper presents a mathematical study illustrated with a worked example which unifies the modeling of dispersion effects made by specialists in optics and the one made by specialists in electromagnetics. The main finding of this work is that it is possible to reproduce the dependence of the Fresnel reflectance with frequency from the intrinsic impedance of the reflecting media.

Keywords: dispersion, electromagnetic waves, microwaves, optics

Procedia PDF Downloads 6
743 Design and Development of Tandem Dynamometer for Testing and Validation of Motor Performance Parameters

Authors: Vedansh More, Lalatendu Bal, Ronak Panchal, Atharva Kulkarni

Abstract:

The project aims at developing a cost-effective test bench capable of testing and validating the complete powertrain package of an electric vehicle. Emrax 228 high voltage synchronous motor was selected as the prime mover for study. A tandem type dynamometer comprising of two loading methods; inertial, using standard inertia rollers and absorptive, using a separately excited DC generator with resistive coils was developed. The absorptive loading of the prime mover was achieved by implementing a converter circuit through which duty of the input field voltage level was controlled. This control was efficacious in changing the magnetic flux and hence the generated voltage which was ultimately dropped across resistive coils assembled in a load bank with all parallel configuration. The prime mover and loading elements were connected via a chain drive with a 2:1 reduction ratio which allows flexibility in placement of components and a relaxed rating of the DC generator. The development will aid in determination of essential characteristics like torque-RPM, power-RPM, torque factor, RPM factor, heat loads of devices and battery pack state of charge efficiency but also provides a significant financial advantage over existing versions of dynamometers with its cost-effective solution.

Keywords: absorptive load, chain drive, chordal action, DC generator, dynamometer, electric vehicle, inertia rollers, load bank, powertrain, pulse width modulation, reduction ratio, road load, testbench

Procedia PDF Downloads 9
742 Axial Flux Permanent Magnet Motor Design and Optimization by Using Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: Tugce Talay, Kadir Erkan

Abstract:

In this study, the necessary steps for the design of axial flow permanent magnet motors are shown. The design and analysis of the engine were carried out based on ANSYS Maxwell program. The design parameters of the ANSYS Maxwell program and the artificial neural network system were established in MATLAB and the most efficient design parameters were found with the trained neural network. The results of the Maxwell program and the results of the artificial neural networks are compared and optimal working design parameters are found. The most efficient design parameters were submitted to the ANSYS Maxwell 3D design and the cogging torque was examined and design studies were carried out to reduce the cogging torque.

Keywords: AFPM, ANSYS Maxwell, cogging torque, design optimisation, efficiency, NNTOOL

Procedia PDF Downloads 28
741 Wideband Performance Analysis of C-FDTD Based Algorithms in the Discretization Impoverishment of a Curved Surface

Authors: Lucas L. L. Fortes, Sandro T. M. Gonçalves

Abstract:

In this work, it is analyzed the wideband performance with the mesh discretization impoverishment of the Conformal Finite Difference Time-Domain (C-FDTD) approaches developed by Raj Mittra, Supriyo Dey and Wenhua Yu for the Finite Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method. These approaches are a simple and efficient way to optimize the scattering simulation of curved surfaces for Dielectric and Perfect Electric Conducting (PEC) structures in the FDTD method, since curved surfaces require dense meshes to reduce the error introduced due to the surface staircasing. Defined, on this work, as D-FDTD-Diel and D-FDTD-PEC, these approaches are well-known in the literature, but the improvement upon their application is not quantified broadly regarding wide frequency bands and poorly discretized meshes. Both approaches bring improvement of the accuracy of the simulation without requiring dense meshes, also making it possible to explore poorly discretized meshes which bring a reduction in simulation time and the computational expense while retaining a desired accuracy. However, their applications present limitations regarding the mesh impoverishment and the frequency range desired. Therefore, the goal of this work is to explore the approaches regarding both the wideband and mesh impoverishment performance to bring a wider insight over these aspects in FDTD applications. The D-FDTD-Diel approach consists in modifying the electric field update in the cells intersected by the dielectric surface, taking into account the amount of dielectric material within the mesh cells edges. By taking into account the intersections, the D-FDTD-Diel provides accuracy improvement at the cost of computational preprocessing, which is a fair trade-off, since the update modification is quite simple. Likewise, the D-FDTD-PEC approach consists in modifying the magnetic field update, taking into account the PEC curved surface intersections within the mesh cells and, considering a PEC structure in vacuum, the air portion that fills the intersected cells when updating the magnetic fields values. Also likewise to D-FDTD-Diel, the D-FDTD-PEC provides a better accuracy at the cost of computational preprocessing, although with a drawback of having to meet stability criterion requirements. The algorithms are formulated and applied to a PEC and a dielectric spherical scattering surface with meshes presenting different levels of discretization, with Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) as the dielectric, being a very common material in coaxial cables and connectors for radiofrequency (RF) and wideband application. The accuracy of the algorithms is quantified, showing the approaches wideband performance drop along with the mesh impoverishment. The benefits in computational efficiency, simulation time and accuracy are also shown and discussed, according to the frequency range desired, showing that poorly discretized mesh FDTD simulations can be exploited more efficiently, retaining the desired accuracy. The results obtained provided a broader insight over the limitations in the application of the C-FDTD approaches in poorly discretized and wide frequency band simulations for Dielectric and PEC curved surfaces, which are not clearly defined or detailed in the literature and are, therefore, a novelty. These approaches are also expected to be applied in the modeling of curved RF components for wideband and high-speed communication devices in future works.

Keywords: accuracy, computational efficiency, finite difference time-domain, mesh impoverishment

Procedia PDF Downloads 8
740 Analysis of Metamaterial Permeability on the Performance of Loosely Coupled Coils

Authors: Icaro V. Soares, Guilherme L. F. Brandao, Ursula D. C. Resende, Glaucio L. Siqueira

Abstract:

Electrical energy can be wirelessly transmitted through resonant coupled coils that operate in the near-field region. Once in this region, the field has evanescent character, the efficiency of Resonant Wireless Power Transfer (RWPT) systems decreases proportionally with the inverse cube of distance between the transmitter and receiver coils. The commercially available RWPT systems are restricted to short and mid-range applications in which the distance between coils is lesser or equal to the coil size. An alternative to overcome this limitation is applying metamaterial structures to enhance the coupling between coils, thus reducing the field decay along the distance between them. Metamaterials can be conceived as composite materials with periodic or non-periodic structure whose unconventional electromagnetic behaviour is due to its unit cell disposition and chemical composition. This new kind of material has been used in frequency selective surfaces, invisibility cloaks, leaky-wave antennas, among other applications. However, for RWPT it is mainly applied as superlenses which are lenses that can overcome the optical limitation and are made of left-handed media, that is, a medium with negative magnetic permeability and electric permittivity. As RWPT systems usually operate at wavelengths of hundreds of meters, the metamaterial unit cell size is much smaller than the wavelength. In this case, electric and magnetic field are decoupled, therefore the double negative condition for superlenses are not required and the negative magnetic permeability is enough to produce an artificial magnetic medium. In this work, the influence of the magnetic permeability of a metamaterial slab inserted between two loosely coupled coils is studied in order to find the condition that leads to the maximum transmission efficiency. The metamaterial used is formed by a subwavelength unit cell that consist of a capacitor-loaded split ring with an inner spiral that is designed and optimized using the software Computer Simulation Technology. The unit cell permeability is experimentally characterized by the ratio of the transmission parameters between coils measured with and without the presence of the metamaterial slab. Early measurements results show that the transmission coefficient at the resonant frequency after the inclusion of the metamaterial is about three times higher than with just the two coils, which confirms the enhancement that this structure brings to RWPT systems.

Keywords: electromagnetic lens, loosely coupled coils, magnetic permeability, metamaterials, resonant wireless power transfer, subwavelength unit cells

Procedia PDF Downloads 11