Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 946

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Electrical and Computer Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

946 Determination of Water Pollution and Water Quality with Decision Trees

Authors: Çiğdem Bakır, Mecit Yüzkat


With the increasing emphasis on water quality worldwide, the search for and expanding market for new and intelligent monitoring systems has increased. The current method is the laboratory process, where samples are taken from bodies of water and tests are carried out in laboratories. This method is time consuming, waste of manpower and uneconomical. To solve this problem, we used machine learning methods to detect water pollution in our study. We created decision trees with the Orange3 software we used in our study and tried to determine all the factors that cause water pollution. An automatic prediction model based on water quality was developed by taking many model inputs such as water temperature, pH, transparency, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, ammonia nitrogen with machine learning methods. The proposed approach consists of three stages: preprocessing of the data used, feature detection and classification. We tried to determine the success of our study with different accuracy metrics and the results. We presented it comparatively. In addition, we achieved approximately 98% success with the decision tree.

Keywords: decision tree, water quality, water pollution, machine learning

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945 Comparison of Parallel CUDA and OpenMP Implementations of Memetic Algorithms for Solving Optimization Problems

Authors: Jason Digalakis, John Cotronis


Memetic algorithms (MAs) are useful for solving optimization problems. It is quite difficult to search the search space of the optimization problem with large dimensions. There is a challenge to use all the cores of the system. In this study, a sequential implementation of the memetic algorithm is converted into a concurrent version, which is executed on the cores of both CPU and GPU. For this reason, CUDA and OpenMP libraries are operated on the parallel algorithm to make a concurrent execution on CPU and GPU, respectively. The aim of this study is to compare CPU and GPU implementation of the memetic algorithm. For this purpose, fourteen benchmark functions are selected as test problems. The obtained results indicate that our approach leads to speedups up to five thousand times higher compared to one CPU thread while maintaining a reasonable results quality. This clearly shows that GPUs have the potential to acceleration of MAs and allow them to solve much more complex tasks.

Keywords: memetic algorithm, CUDA, GPU-based memetic algorithm, open multi processing, multimodal functions, unimodal functions, non-linear optimization problems

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944 IOT Based Automated Production and Control System for Clean Water Filtration Through Solar Energy Operated by Submersible Water Pump

Authors: Musse Mohamud Ahmed, Tina Linda Achilles, Mohammad Kamrul Hasan


Deterioration of mother nature is evident these days with the clear danger of human catastrophe emanating from greenhouses (GHG) with increasing CO₂ emissions to the environment. PV technology can help to reduce the dependency on fossil fuels, decreasing air pollution and slowing down the rate of global warming. Likewise, drinking water is one of the most important elements for human survival so that people in this world can consume drinkable water. On the other hand, the most appropriate technology is also necessary to relate the application of renewable energy and the provision of water resources. The objective of this paper is to propose, develop and design the production of clean water supply to rural communities using appropriate technology such as the Internet of Things (IOT). Additionally, the Application of new cheapest technology has been proposed, designed, and developed to automate, control, and produce clean drinkable water using solar energy and reciprocally by minimizing the natural characteristics of solar sources intermittences during less presence of the sun itself with the inclusion of battery storage facilities. The paper presents the development of a critical automated control system for solar energy power output optimization using several new techniques. A water pumping system is developed to supply clean water with the application of IOT and solar energy. This system effectively provides a clean water supply to remote and off-grid areas using Photovoltaics (PV). The focus of this work is to design and develop a submersible solar water pumping system that applies an IOT implementation. Thus, along with IOT, this system has been executed and programmed using Arduino Software, an integrated development environment (IDE), proteus, Matlab, and C++ programming language. Very good results have been achieved, and extensive customer satisfaction has also been carried out. The mechanism of this system is that it pumps water from a water reservoir that is powered up by solar energy, and clean water production was also incorporated using a filtration system through the submersible solar water pumping system. The filtering system is an additional application platform that is intended to provide a clean water supply to any household living in this world, as the system is generic and that be used anywhere.

Keywords: IOT, PV SOLAR, automated submersible water pump, automated water filtration system

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943 Gaussian Particle Flow Bernoulli Filter for Single Target Tracking

Authors: Hyeongbok Kim, Lingling Zhao, Xiaohong Su, Junjie Wang


The Bernoulli filter is a precise Bayesian filter for single target tracking based on the random finite set theory. The standard Bernoulli filter often underestimates the number of targets. This study proposes a Gaussian particle flow (GPF) Bernoulli filter employing particle flow to migrate particles from prior to posterior positions to improve the performance of the standard Bernoulli filter. By employing the particle flow filter, the computational speed of the Bernoulli filters is significantly improved. In addition, the GPF Bernoulli filter provides a more accurate estimation compared with that of the standard Bernoulli filter. Simulation results confirm the improved tracking performance and computational speed in two- and three-dimensional scenarios compared with other algorithms.

Keywords: Bernoulli filter, particle filter, particle flow filter, random finite sets, target tracking

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942 Effects of Climatic Aging on the Performance of Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer (EPDM) Used in Power Cables Insulation

Authors: Djaffar Bouguedad, Sarah Tagzirt, Abdelouahab Mekhaldi, Issouf Fofana


This work is performed to better understand the weathering degradation of Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer (EPDM) properties used in medium voltage power cable insulation. The climatic aging time acted as a parameter to help design more efficient materials. The samples were exposed to extreme weathering for approximately six months in the city of Tizi-Ouzou in northern Algeria. The electrical and mechanical tests matrix include transverse resistivity, dielectric strength, dielectric constant, dielectric loss factor, as well as tensile strength and elongation at break. The results show that after this period of exposure to the weathering conditions, the transverse resistivity and elongation at break were significantly affected, while the other properties were only slightly affected. Exposure to weathering also caused changes in the color of the material. Stiffening of its surface led to an increase in surface cracks. The oxidation phenomenon, which is accompanied by chain scissions, would probably be responsible for these macroscopic signs of degradation. Since the obtained results showed that some properties were affected more than others, it is therefore desirable to extend the accelerated aging times, representative to the lifetime, and deduce the optimal time to achieve a consequent degradation of the studied material. More studies are therefore needed to predict the true behavior of this polymer in order to design a more efficient material. These anticipated tests will determine the service life of the material.

Keywords: chain scissions, climatic aging, electrical properties, EPDM, mechanical properties

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941 Development of Software Complex for the Digitalization of Enterprise Activities

Authors: G. T. Balakayeva, K. K. Nurlybayeva, M. B. Zhanuzakov


In the proposed work, the authors have developed software and designed a software architecture for the implementation of enterprise business processes. The proposed software has a multi-level architecture using a domain-specific tool. The developed architecture is a guarantor of the availability, reliability, and security of the system and the implementation of business processes, which are the basis for effective enterprise management. Automating business processes, automating the algorithmic stages of an enterprise, developing optimal algorithms for managing activities, controlling and monitoring, reducing risks, and improving results help organizations achieve strategic goals quickly and efficiently. The software proposed in this article has two possible types of connection to the enterprise information system: a desktop client and a web client. The desktop client application allows you to connect to the information system on the company's work computers via a local network with an appeal to the application server. Outside the enterprise, the user can work with the information system through a web browser, as a web client, with access to a web server. The developed software consists of several integrated modules that share resources and interact with each other through an API. The following technology stack was used during development: Node js, React js, MongoDB, ngnix, Cloud Technologies, and Python.

Keywords: software design, software architecture, algorithms, application, automation, integrated modules, technologies

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940 Current Characteristic of Water Electrolysis to Produce Hydrogen, Alkaline, and Acid Water

Authors: Ekki Kurniawan, Yusuf Nur Jayanto, Erna Sugesti, Efri Suhartono, Agus Ganda Permana, Jaspar Hasudungan, Jangkung Raharjo, Rintis Manfaati


The purpose of this research is to study the current characteristic of the electrolysis of mineral water to produce hydrogen, alkaline water, and acid water. Alkaline and hydrogen water are believed to have health benefits. Alkaline water containing hydrogen can be an anti-oxidant that captures free radicals, which will increase the immune system. In Indonesia, there are two existing types of alkaline water producing equipment, but the installation is complicated, and the price is relatively expensive. The electrolysis process is slow (6-8 hours) since they are locally made using 311 VDC full bridge rectifier power supply. This paper intends to discuss how to make hydrogen and alkaline water by a simple portable mineral water ionizer. This is an electrolysis device that is easy to carry and able to separate ions of mineral water into acidic and alkaline water. With an electric field, positive ions will be attracted to the cathode, while negative ions will be attracted to the anode. The circuit equivalent can be depicted as RLC transient ciruit. The diode component ensures that the electrolytic current is direct current. Switch S divides the switching times t1, t2, and t3. In the first stage up to t1, the electrolytic current increases exponentially, as does the inductor charging current (L). The molecules in drinking water experience magnetic properties. The direction of the dipole ions, which are random in origin, will regularly flare with the direction of the electric field. In the second stage up to t2, the electrolytic current decreases exponentially, just like the charging current of a capacitor (C). In the 3rd stage, start t3 until it tends to be constant, as is the case with the current flowing through the resistor (R).

Keywords: current electrolysis, mineral water, ions, alkaline and acid waters, inductor, capacitor, resistor

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939 Mechanical Tension Control of Winding Systems for Paper Webs

Authors: Glaoui Hachemi


In this paper, a scheme based on multi-input multi output Fuzzy Sliding Mode control (MIMO-FSMC) for linear speed regulation of winding system is proposed. Once the uncoupled model of the winding system was obtained, a smooth control function with a threshold was selected to indicate how far away the case was from the sliding surface. nevertheless, this control function depends closely on the higher bound of the uncertainties, which generates overlap. So, this size has to be chosen with broad care to obtain high performances. Usually, the upper bound of uncertainties is difficult to know before motor operation, so, a Fuzzy Sliding Mode controller is investigated to resolve this problem, a simple Fuzzy inference mechanism is used to decrease the chattering phenomenon by simple adjustments. A simulation study is achieved and that the indicate fuzzy sliding mode controllers have great potential for use as an alternative to the conventional sliding mode control.

Keywords: Winding system, induction machine, Mechanical tension, Proportional-integral (PI), sliding mode control, Fuzzy logic

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938 Effect of CuO, Al₂O₃ and ZnO Nanoparticles on the Response Time for Natural Convection

Authors: Mefteh Bouhalleb


With the recent progress in nanotechnology, nanofluids have excellent potentiality in many modern engineering processes, particularly for solar systems such as concentrated solar power plants (CSP). In this context, a numerical simulation is performed to investigate laminar natural convection nanofluids in an inclined rectangular enclosure. Mass conservation, momentum, and energy equations are numerically solved by the finite volume element method using the SIMPLER algorithm for pressure-velocity coupling. In this work, we tested the acting factors on the system response time, such as the particle volume fraction of nanoparticles, particle material, particle size, an inclination angle of enclosure and Rayleigh number. The results show that the diameter of solid particles and Rayleigh number plays an important role in the system response time. The orientation angle of the cavity affects the system response time. A phenomenon of hysteresis appears when the system does not return to its initial state.

Keywords: nanofluid, nanoparticles, heat transfer, time response

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937 Web Data Scraping Technology Using Term Frequency Inverse Document Frequency to Enhance the Big Data Quality on Sentiment Analysis

Authors: Sangita Pokhrel, Nalinda Somasiri, Rebecca Jeyavadhanam, Swathi Ganesan


Tourism is a booming industry with huge future potential for global wealth and employment. There are countless data generated over social media sites every day, creating numerous opportunities to bring more insights to decision-makers. The integration of Big Data Technology into the tourism industry will allow companies to conclude where their customers have been and what they like. This information can then be used by businesses, such as those in charge of managing visitor centers or hotels, etc., and the tourist can get a clear idea of places before visiting. The technical perspective of natural language is processed by analysing the sentiment features of online reviews from tourists, and we then supply an enhanced long short-term memory (LSTM) framework for sentiment feature extraction of travel reviews. We have constructed a web review database using a crawler and web scraping technique for experimental validation to evaluate the effectiveness of our methodology. The text form of sentences was first classified through Vader and Roberta model to get the polarity of the reviews. In this paper, we have conducted study methods for feature extraction, such as Count Vectorization and TFIDF Vectorization, and implemented Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) classifier algorithm for the sentiment analysis to decide the tourist’s attitude towards the destinations is positive, negative, or simply neutral based on the review text that they posted online. The results demonstrated that from the CNN algorithm, after pre-processing and cleaning the dataset, we received an accuracy of 96.12% for the positive and negative sentiment analysis.

Keywords: counter vectorization, convolutional neural network, crawler, data technology, long short-term memory, web scraping, sentiment analysis

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936 A Nonlinear Approach for System Identification of a Li-Ion Battery Based on a Non-Linear Autoregressive Exogenous Model

Authors: Meriem Mossaddek, El Mehdi Laadissi, El Mehdi Loualid, Chouaib Ennawaoui, Sohaib Bouzaid, Abdelowahed Hajjaji


An electrochemical system is a subset of mechatronic systems that includes a wide variety of batteries and nickel-cadmium, lead-acid batteries, and lithium-ion. Those structures have several non-linear behaviors and uncertainties in their running range. This paper studies an effective technique for modeling Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) batteries using a Nonlinear Auto-Regressive model with exogenous input (NARX). The Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is trained to employ the data collected from the battery testing process. The proposed model is implemented on a Li-Ion battery cell. Simulation of this model in MATLAB shows good accuracy of the proposed model.

Keywords: lithium-ion battery, neural network, energy storage, battery model, nonlinear models

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935 Design and Construction of Vehicle Tracking System with Global Positioning System/Global System for Mobile Communication Technology

Authors: Bala Adamu Malami


The necessity of low-cost electronic vehicle/car security designed in coordination with other security measures is always there in our society to reduce the risk of vehicle intrusion. Keeping this problem in mind, we are designing an automatic GPS system which is technology to build an integrated and fully customized vehicle to detect the movement of the vehicle and also serve as a security system at a reasonable cost. Users can locate the vehicle's position via GPS by using the Google Maps application to show vehicle coordinates on a smartphone. The tracking system uses a Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) modem for communication between the mobile station and the microcontroller to send and receive commands. Further design can be improved to capture the vehicle movement range and alert the vehicle owner when the vehicle is out of range.

Keywords: electronic, GPS, GSM modem, communication, vehicle

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934 Flexible Design of Triboelectric Nanogenerators for Efficient Vibration Energy Harvesting

Authors: Meriam Khelifa


In recent years, many studies have focused on the harvesting of the vibrations energy to produce electrical energy using contact separation (CS) triboelectric nanogenerators (TENG). The simplest design for a TENG consists of a capacitor comprising a single moving electrode. The conversion efficiency of vibration energy into electrical energy can, in principle, reach 100%. But to actually achieve this objective, it is necessary to optimize the parameters of the TENG, such as the dielectric constant and the thickness of the insulator, the load resistance, etc. In particular, the use of a switch which is actioned at optimal times within the TENG cycle is essential. Using numerical modeling and experimental design, we applied a methodology to find the TENG parameters which optimize the energy transfer efficiency (ETE) to almost 100% for any vibration frequency and amplitude. The rather simple design of a TENG is promising as an environment friendly device. It opens the doors for harvesting acoustic vibrations from the environment and to design effective protection against environmental noise.

Keywords: vibrations, CS TENG, efficiency, design of experiments

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933 Functional Instruction Set Simulator of a Neural Network IP with Native Brain Float-16 Generator

Authors: Debajyoti Mukherjee, Arathy B. S., Arpita Sahu, Saranga P. Pogula


A functional model to mimic the functional correctness of a neural network compute accelerator IP is very crucial for design validation. Neural network workloads are based on a Brain Floating Point (BF-16) data type. The major challenge we were facing was the incompatibility of GCC compilers to the BF-16 datatype, which we addressed with a native BF-16 generator integrated into our functional model. Moreover, working with big GEMM (General Matrix Multiplication) or SpMM (Sparse Matrix Multiplication) Work Loads (Dense or Sparse) and debugging the failures related to data integrity is highly painstaking. In this paper, we are addressing the quality challenge of such a complex neural network accelerator design by proposing a functional model-based scoreboard or software model using SystemC. The proposed functional model executes the assembly code based on the ISA of the processor IP, decodes all instructions, and executes as expected to be done by the DUT. The said model would give a lot of visibility and debug capability in the DUT, bringing up micro-steps of execution.

Keywords: ISA, neural network, Brain Float-16, DUT

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932 Novel Formal Verification Based Coverage Augmentation Technique

Authors: Surinder Sood, Debajyoti Mukherjee


Formal verification techniques have become widely popular in pre-silicon verification as an alternate to constrain random simulation based techniques. This paper proposed a novel formal verification-based coverage augmentation technique in verifying complex RTL functional verification faster. The proposed approach relies on augmenting coverage analysis coming from simulation and formal verification. Besides this, the functional qualification framework not only helps in improving the coverage at a faster pace but also aids in maturing and qualifying the formal verification infrastructure. The proposed technique has helped to achieve faster verification sign-off, resulting in faster time-to-market. The design picked had a complex control and data path and had many configurable options to meet multiple specification needs. The flow is generic, and tool independent, thereby leveraging across the projects and design will be much easier

Keywords: COI (cone of influence), coverage, formal verification, fault injection

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931 Preference Aggregation and Mechanism Design in the Smart Grid

Authors: Zaid Jamal Saeed Almahmoud


Smart Grid is the vision of the future power system that combines advanced monitoring and communication technologies to provide energy in a smart, efficient, and user-friendly manner. This proposal considers a demand response model in the Smart Grid based on utility maximization. Given a set of consumers with conflicting preferences in terms of consumption and a utility company that aims to minimize the peak demand and match demand to supply, we study the problem of aggregating these preferences while modelling the problem as a game. We also investigate whether an equilibrium can be reached to maximize the social benefit. Based on such equilibrium, we propose a dynamic pricing heuristic that computes the equilibrium and sets the prices accordingly. The developed approach was analysed theoretically and evaluated experimentally using real appliances data. The results show that our proposed approach achieves a substantial reduction in the overall energy consumption.

Keywords: heuristics, smart grid, aggregation, mechanism design, equilibrium

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930 Heuristics for Optimizing Power Consumption in the Smart Grid

Authors: Zaid Jamal Saeed Almahmoud


Our increasing reliance on electricity, with inefficient consumption trends, has resulted in several economical and environmental threats. These threats include wasting billions of dollars, draining limited resources, and elevating the impact of climate change. As a solution, the smart grid is emerging as the future power grid, with smart techniques to optimize power consumption and electricity generation. Minimizing the peak power consumption under a fixed delay requirement is a significant problem in the smart grid. In addition, matching demand to supply is a key requirement for the success of the future electricity. In this work, we consider the problem of minimizing the peak demand under appliances constraints by scheduling power jobs with uniform release dates and deadlines. As the problem is known to be NP-Hard, we propose two versions of a heuristic algorithm for solving this problem. Our theoretical analysis and experimental results show that our proposed heuristics outperform existing methods by providing a better approximation to the optimal solution. In addition, we consider dynamic pricing methods to minimize the peak load and match demand to supply in the smart grid. Our contribution is the proposal of generic, as well as customized pricing heuristics to minimize the peak demand and match demand with supply. In addition, we propose optimal pricing algorithms that can be used when the maximum deadline period of the power jobs is relatively small. Finally, we provide theoretical analysis and conduct several experiments to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithms.

Keywords: heuristics, optimization, smart grid, peak demand, power supply

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929 Replacing an Old PFN System with a Solid State Modulator without Changing the Klystron Transformer

Authors: Klas Elmquist, Anders Larsson


Until the year 2000, almost all short pulse modulators in the accelerator world were made with the pulse forming network (PFN) technique. The pulse forming network systems have since then been replaced with solid state modulators that have better efficiency, better stability, and lower cost of ownership, and they are much smaller. In this paper, it is shown that it is possible to replace a pulse forming network system with a solid-state system without changing the klystron tank and the klystron transformer. The solid-state modulator uses semiconductors switching at 1 kV level. A first pulse transformer transforms the voltage up to 10 kV. The 10 kV pulse is finally fed into the original transformer that is placed under the klystron. A flatness of 0.8 percent and stability of 100 PPM is achieved. The test is done with a CPI 8262 type of klystron. It is also shown that it is possible to run such a system with long cables between the transformers. When using this technique, it will be possible to keep original sub-systems like filament systems, vacuum systems, focusing solenoid systems, and cooling systems for the klystron. This will substantially reduce the cost of an upgrade and prolong the life of the klystron system.

Keywords: modulator, solid-state, PFN-system, thyratron

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928 Influence of Thermal Ageing Time on Space Charge in Inhomogeneous Insulations of DC Cable Joints

Authors: Notingher Petru, Stancu Cristina, Taranu Lucian Viorel


This paper presents a study on the influence of the ageing time of bi-layer insulations (unaged and thermally aged) on the values of the accumulated volume and surface space charge and the distribution of the electric field (especially the residual field). The bi-layer samples were manufactured from XLPE and EPR or EPDM and were thermally aged up to 60 days at 120ºC. It is shown that a volume charge density accumulates in the bulk of the sample, more in the layer connected to the HV electrode, and that its variation depends on the ageing time. Space charge also accumulates at the interface between the two dielectric layers, with a negative polarity under applied voltage and becoming positive after de-energization, more as the sample is thermally aged. The variation of the average charge density value was also analyzed, and it was found that it increases with the ageing time and is up to 3 times higher in XLPE/EPDM than in XLPE/EPR samples. The space charge changes the distribution of the electric field under applied voltage, the field becoming locally up to 5-7 times more intense than its average value. Finally, it is shown that the increase of the ageing time leads to the increase of the values of the average density of the remaining space charge (and, respectively, of the remaining electric field) in all the samples, which remains at significant levels even after 600s.

Keywords: DC cable joints, XLPE / EPR insulation, XLPE / EPDM insulation, thermal ageing, space charge, electric field

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927 Using Heat-Mask in the Thermoforming Machine for Component Positioning in Thermoformed Electronics

Authors: Behnam Madadnia


For several years, 3D-shaped electronics have been rising, with many uses in home appliances, automotive, and manufacturing. One of the biggest challenges in the fabrication of 3D shape electronics, which are made by thermoforming, is repeatable and accurate component positioning, and typically there is no control over the final position of the component. This paper aims to address this issue and present a reliable approach for guiding the electronic components in the desired place during thermoforming. We have proposed a heat-control mask in the thermoforming machine to control the heating of the polymer, not allowing specific parts to be formable, which can assure the conductive traces' mechanical stability during thermoforming of the substrate. We have verified our approach's accuracy by applying our method on a real industrial semi-sphere mold for positioning 7 LEDs and one touch sensor. We measured the LEDs' position after thermoforming to prove the process's repeatability. The experiment results demonstrate that the proposed method is capable of positioning electronic components in thermoformed 3D electronics with high precision.

Keywords: 3D-shaped electronics, electronic components, thermoforming, component positioning

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926 A Literature Review on the Use of Mobile Applications to Help Develop Non-verbal Communication of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

Authors: Zeffate Najoua, Elhari Kaoutar


In this research paper, we will present a literature review about the use of mobile applications to help develop non-verbal communication of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). With the help of Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) also the introduction of modern mobile applications, it has now become possible to allow individuals with ASD who lack enough communication skills to interact with each other and eliminate the relational barrier. Some people with ASD refuse to use AAC devices in public due to the robotic voice generated by these devices. These; voices don’t, in most of time, fit their body or personality. So, the realization of a customable and natural voice generator system and the use of AAC mobile application could be considered as the appropriate solution to this serious handicap. Hence, the combination of these two ideas can allow to create a platform that would solve communication problem for disabled people with ASD.

Keywords: autism spectrum disorder, mobile applications, augmentative and alternative communication, natural voice generator system, literature review

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925 The Impact of Space Charges on the Electromechanical Constraints in HVDC Power Cable Containing Defects

Authors: H. Medoukali, B. Zegnini


Insulation techniques in high-voltage cables rely heavily on chemically synapsed polyethylene. The latter may contain manufacturing defects such as small cavities, for example. The presence of the cavity affects the distribution of the electric field at the level of the insulating layer; this change in the electric field is affected by the presence of different space charge densities within the insulating material. This study is carried out by performing simulations to determine the distribution of the electric field inside the insulator. The simulations are based on the creation of a two-dimensional model of a high-voltage cable of 154 kV using the COMSOL Multiphysics software. Each time we study the effect of changing the space charge density of on the electromechanical Constraints.

Keywords: COMSOL multiphysics, electric field, HVDC, microcavities, space charges, XLPE

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924 Diagnostic of Breakdown in High Voltage Bushing Power Transformer 500 kV Cirata Substation

Authors: Andika Bagaskara, Andhika Rizki Pratama, Lalu Arya Repatmaja, Septhian Ditaputra Raharja


The power transformer is one of the critical things in system transmission. Regular testing of the power transformer is very important to maintain the reliability of the power. One of the causes of the failure of the transformer is the breakdown of insulation caused by the presence of voids in the equipment that is electrified. As a result of the voids that occur in this power transformer equipment, it can cause partial discharge. Several methods were used to determine the occurrence of damage to the power transformer equipment, such as Sweep Frequency Response Analysis (SFRA) and Tan Delta. In Inter Bus Transformer (IBT) 500/150 kV Cirata Extra High Voltage (EHV) Substation, a breakdown occurred in the T-phase tertiary bushing. From the lessons learned in this case, a complete electrical test was carried out. From the results of the complete electrical test, there was a suspicion of deterioration in the post-breakdown SFRA results. After overhaul and inspection, traces of voids were found on the tertiary bushing, which indicated a breakdown in the tertiary bushing of the IBT 500/150kV Cirata Substation transformer.

Keywords: void, bushing, SFRA, Tan Delta

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923 Effects of Smartphone Social Applications on Elderly People’s Quality of Life

Authors: Seyed Ebrahim Hosseini, Shahbaz Pervez


As people go through aging, maintenance and improvement of the quality of life become more important for them. To know the role of smartphone technology and communications applications on quality of life, a sample group of old people living in Dar-Iran was selected for a quasi-experimental study. The participants were registered senior inhabitants from public health centers in Dar, Iran in 2022. The number of participants was 39. Participants were randomly categorized into intervention and control groups. A validated Persian version of the Control, Autonomy, Self-realisation, Pleasure scale (CASP-19) scale questionnaire was provided for them which answers were used for the quality of life assessment. The paired t-test between pre-and post-test (t= -8.45, p<.00), post-and follow-up-test (t= -2.12, p=.01), and pre-test and the follow-up test (t= -8.27, p<.00) in the intervention group revealed a considerable mean difference. Based on the results of paired t-test for the control group, this was not significant between pre-test and post-test (t= 1.26, p=.15), post-test and follow-up test (t= .33, p=.67) and pre-test and follow-up test (t= 1.85, p=.08) for quality of life. Considering the educational training associated with it, this study aimed at helping families and aging field practitioners to understand the essentiality of modern communication technology teaching in promoting a greater life quality of the elderly’s community.

Keywords: Iranian elderly, quality of life, smartphone, social applications, CASP-19

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922 Low-Cost Fog Edge Computing for Smart Power Management and Home Automation

Authors: Belkacem Benadda, Adil Benabdellah, Boutheyna Souna


The Internet of Things (IoT) is an unprecedented creation. Electronics objects are now able to interact, share, respond and adapt to their environment on a much larger basis. Actual spread of these modern means of connectivity and solutions with high data volume exchange are affecting our ways of life. Accommodation is becoming an intelligent living space, not only suited to the people circumstances and desires, but also to systems constraints to make daily life simpler, cheaper, increase possibilities and achieve a higher level of services and luxury. In this paper we are as Internet access, teleworking, consumption monitoring, information search, etc.). This paper addresses the design and integration of a smart home, it also purposes an IoT solution that allows smart power consumption based on measurements from power-grid and deep learning analysis.

Keywords: array sensors, IoT, power grid, FPGA, embedded

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921 Multimodal Characterization of Emotion within Multimedia Space

Authors: Dayo Samuel Banjo, Connice Trimmingham, Niloofar Yousefi, Nitin Agarwal


Technological advancement and its omnipresent connection have pushed humans past the boundaries and limitations of a computer screen, physical state, or geographical location. It has provided a depth of avenues that facilitate human-computer interaction that was once inconceivable such as audio and body language detection. Given the complex modularities of emotions, it becomes vital to study human-computer interaction, as it is the commencement of a thorough understanding of the emotional state of users and, in the context of social networks, the producers of multimodal information. This study first acknowledges the accuracy of classification found within multimodal emotion detection systems compared to unimodal solutions. Second, it explores the characterization of multimedia content produced based on their emotions and the coherence of emotion in different modalities by utilizing deep learning models to classify emotion across different modalities.

Keywords: affective computing, deep learning, emotion recognition, multimodal

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920 Filter for the Measurement of Supraharmonics in Distribution Networks

Authors: Sivaraman Karthikeyan


Due to rapidly developing power electronics devices and technologies such as power line communication or self-commutating converters, voltage and current distortion, as well as interferences, have increased in the frequency range of 2 kHz to 150 kHz; there is an urgent need for regulation of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) standards in this frequency range. Measuring or testing compliance with emission and immunity limitations necessitates the use of precise, repeatable measuring methods. Appropriate filters to minimize the fundamental component and its harmonics below 2 kHz in the measuring signal would improve the measurement accuracy in this frequency range leading to better analysis. This paper discusses filter suggestions in the current measurement standard and proposes an infinite impulse response (IIR) filter design that is optimized for a low number of poles, strong fundamental damping, and high accuracy above 2 kHz. The new filter’s transfer function is delivered as a result. An analog implementation is derived from the overall design.

Keywords: supraharmonics, 2 kHz, 150 kHz, filter, analog filter

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919 Static and Dynamic Tailings Dam Monitoring with Accelerometers

Authors: Cristiana Ortigão, Antonio Couto, Thiago Gabriel


In the wake of Samarco Fundão’s failure in 2015 followed by Vale’s Brumadinho disaster in 2019, the Brazilian National Mining Agency started a comprehensive dam safety programmed to rank dam safety risks and establish monitoring and analysis procedures. This paper focuses on the use of accelerometers for static and dynamic applications. Static applications may employ tiltmeters, as an example shown later in this paper. Dynamic monitoring of a structure with accelerometers yields its dynamic signature and this technique has also been successfully used in Brazil and this paper gives an example of tailings dam.

Keywords: instrumentation, dynamic, monitoring, tailings, dams, tiltmeters, automation

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918 Heat-Induced Uncertainty of Industrial Computed Tomography Measuring a Stainless Steel Cylinder

Authors: Verena M. Moock, Darien E. Arce Chávez, Mariana M. Espejel González, Leopoldo Ruíz-Huerta, Crescencio García-Segundo


Uncertainty analysis in industrial computed tomography is commonly related to metrological trace tools, which offer precision measurements of external part features. Unfortunately, there is no such reference tool for internal measurements to profit from the unique imaging potential of X-rays. Uncertainty approximations for computed tomography are still based on general aspects of the industrial machine and do not adapt to acquisition parameters or part characteristics. The present study investigates the impact of the acquisition time on the dimensional uncertainty measuring a stainless steel cylinder with a circular tomography scan. The authors develop the figure difference method for X-ray radiography to evaluate the volumetric differences introduced within the projected absorption maps of the metal workpiece. The dimensional uncertainty is dominantly influenced by photon energy dissipated as heat causing the thermal expansion of the metal, as monitored by an infrared camera within the industrial tomograph. With the proposed methodology, we are able to show evolving temperature differences throughout the tomography acquisition. This is an early study showing that the number of projections in computer tomography induces dimensional error due to energy absorption. The error magnitude would depend on the thermal properties of the sample and the acquisition parameters by placing apparent non-uniform unwanted volumetric expansion. We introduce infrared imaging for the experimental display of metrological uncertainty in a particular metal part of symmetric geometry. We assess that the current results are of fundamental value to reach the balance between the number of projections and uncertainty tolerance when performing analysis with X-ray dimensional exploration in precision measurements with industrial tomography.

Keywords: computed tomography, digital metrology, infrared imaging, thermal expansion

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917 Photovoltaic Maximum Power-Point Tracking Using Artificial Neural Network

Authors: Abdelazziz Aouiche, El Moundher Aouiche, Mouhamed Salah Soudani


Renewable energy sources now significantly contribute to the replacement of traditional fossil fuel energy sources. One of the most potent types of renewable energy that has developed quickly in recent years is photovoltaic energy. We all know that solar energy, which is sustainable and non-depleting, is the best knowledge form of energy that we have at our disposal. Due to changing weather conditions, the primary drawback of conventional solar PV cells is their inability to track their maximum power point. In this study, we apply artificial neural networks (ANN) to automatically track and measure the maximum power point (MPP) of solar panels. In MATLAB, the complete system is simulated, and the results are adjusted for the external environment. The results are better performance than traditional MPPT methods and the results demonstrate the advantages of using neural networks in solar PV systems.

Keywords: modeling, photovoltaic panel, artificial neural networks, maximum power point tracking

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