Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1026

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Electrical and Computer Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

1026 Study on Relevance Between Electrical Tree Growth and Partial Discharges in Epoxy Resin Materials

Authors: Chien-Kuo Chang, You-Syuan Wu, Min-Chiu Wu, Chun-Wei Wang


Epoxy resin is widely used in the insulation of high-voltage equipment such as transformers and insulating bushings due to its good electrical insulation properties. However, manufacturing defects will cause unpredictable accidents. Therefore, it is an important issue to determine the insulation state of equipment by measuring partial discharges. In this study, the needle-plane electrode structure was used to test the epoxy resin electrical treeing insulation deterioration phenomenon. During the test, we measured the partial discharge signal and then used the signal as the input data of the insulation status assessment system, which was developed in the past research. The experimental samples were made of transparent epoxy resin to facilitate the observation of changes, and were made in the distance of 1 cm and 1.5 cm of 5 sets. During the experiment, a magnifying glass with a total magnification of 2 times is set up to enlarge the picture and a time-lapse camera is used to record the changes of the experimental samples. In the experiment, we found that the electrical treeing phenomenon of the epoxy resin insulation deterioration process can be divided into several stages: initial dark tree, filamentary tree, reverse tree, and insulation breakdown, and simply observed each stage of electrical treeing. After substituting the partial discharge signal into the insulation status assessment system, it can be found that most experimental samples were assessed into the attention period in the middle of the test and into the risky period in the middle and late of the test. Compared to the attention period signal to the recorded film, there was no obvious correlation currently, but compared to the risky period signal, we can see that the experimental sample deformed due to the temperature rise caused by the larger and more frequent discharge. Besides, we also try to collect data about different types of PD by mixing high dielectric constant materials and changing the interior constitution of the sample. Recording data like PDIV、PDEV、RPDIV, the data that recorded can improve performance of various algorithm models.

Keywords: partial discharge, insulation deterioration, epoxy resin, electrical treeing

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1025 Analytical Modeling of Drain Current for DNA Biomolecule Detection in Double-Gate Tunnel Field-Effect Transistor Biosensor

Authors: Ashwani Kumar


Abstract- This study presents an analytical modeling approach for analyzing the drain current behavior in Tunnel Field-Effect Transistor (TFET) biosensors used for the detection of DNA biomolecules. The proposed model focuses on elucidating the relationship between the drain current and the presence of DNA biomolecules, taking into account the impact of various device parameters and biomolecule characteristics. Through comprehensive analysis, the model offers insights into the underlying mechanisms governing the sensing performance of TFET biosensors, aiding in the optimization of device design and operation. A non-local tunneling model is incorporated with other essential models to accurately trace the simulation and modeled data. An experimental validation of the model is provided, demonstrating its efficacy in accurately predicting the drain current response to DNA biomolecule detection. The sensitivity attained from the analytical model is compared and contrasted with the ongoing research work in this area.

Keywords: biosensor, double-gate TFET, DNA detection, drain current modeling, sensitivity

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1024 A Double Epilayer PSGT Trench Power MOSFETs for Low to Medium Voltage Power Applications

Authors: Alok Kumar Kamal, Vinod Kumar


The trench gate MOSFET has shown itself as the most appropriate power device for low to medium voltage power applications due to its lowest possible ON resistance among all power semiconductor devices. In this research work a double-epilayer PSGT structure using a thin layer of N+ polysilicon as gate material. The total ON-state resistance (RON) of UMOSFET can be reduced by optimizing the epilayer thickness. The optimized structure of Double-Epilayer exhibits a 25.8% reduction in the ON-state resistance at Vgs=5V and improving the switching characteristics by reducing the Reverse transfer capacitance (Cgd) by 7.4%.

Keywords: Miller-capacitance, double-Epilayer;switching characteristics, power trench MOSFET (U-MOSFET), on-state resistance, blocking voltage

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1023 Secret Security Smart Lock Using Artificial Intelligence Hybrid Algorithm

Authors: Vahid Bayrami Rad


Ever since humans developed a collective way of life to the development of urbanization, the concern of security has always been considered one of the most important challenges of life. To protect property, locks have always been a practical tool. With the advancement of technology, the form of locks has changed from mechanical to electric. One of the most widely used fields of using artificial intelligence is its application in the technology of surveillance security systems. Currently, the technologies used in smart anti-theft door handles are one of the most potential fields for using artificial intelligence. Artificial intelligence has the possibility to learn, calculate, interpret and process by analyzing data with the help of algorithms and mathematical models and make smart decisions. We will use Arduino board to process data.

Keywords: arduino board, artificial intelligence, image processing, solenoid lock

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1022 Technique for Online Condition Monitoring of Surge Arresters

Authors: Anil S. Khopkar, Kartik S. Pandya


Overvoltage in power systems is a phenomenon that cannot be avoided. However, it can be controlled to a certain extent. Power system equipment is to be protected against overvoltage to avoid system failure. Metal Oxide Surge Arresters (MOSA) are connected to the system for the protection of the power system against overvoltages. The MOSA will behave as an insulator under normal working conditions, where it offers a conductive path under voltage conditions. MOSA consists of zinc oxide elements (ZnO Blocks), which have non-linear V-I characteristics. ZnO blocks are connected in series and fitted in ceramic or polymer housing. This degrades due to the aging effect under continuous operation. Degradation of zinc oxide elements increases the leakage current flowing from the surge arresters. This Increased leakage current results in the increased temperature of the surge arrester, which further decreases the resistance of zinc oxide elements. As a result, leakage current increases, which again increases the temperature of a MOSA. This creates thermal runaway conditions for MOSA. Once it reaches the thermal runaway condition, it cannot return to normal working conditions. This condition is a primary cause of premature failure of surge arresters, as MOSA constitutes a core protective device for electrical power systems against transients. It contributes significantly to the reliable operation of the power system network. Hence, the condition monitoring of surge arresters should be done at periodic intervals. Online and Offline condition monitoring techniques are available for surge arresters. Offline condition monitoring techniques are not very popular as they require removing surge arresters from the system, which requires system shutdown. Hence, online condition monitoring techniques are very popular. This paper presents the evaluation technique for the surge arrester condition based on the leakage current analysis. Maximum amplitude of total leakage current (IT), Maximum amplitude of fundamental resistive leakage current (IR) and maximum amplitude of third harmonic resistive leakage current (I3rd) have been analyzed as indicators for surge arrester condition monitoring.

Keywords: metal oxide surge arrester (MOSA), over voltage, total leakage current, resistive leakage current

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1021 Phase Shifter with Frequency Adaptive Control Circuit

Authors: Hussein Shaman


This study introduces an innovative design for an RF phase shifter that can maintain a consistent phase shift across a broad spectrum of frequencies. The proposed design integrates an adaptive control system into a reflective-type phase shifter, typically showing frequency-related variations. Adjusting the DC voltage according to the frequency ensures a more reliable phase shift across the frequency span of operation. In contrast, conventional frequency-dependent reflective-type phase shifters may exhibit significant fluctuations in phase shifts exceeding 60 degrees in the same bandwidth. The proposed phase shifter is configured to deliver a 90-degree operation with an expected deviation of around 15 degrees. The fabrication of the phase shifter and adaptive control circuit has been verified through experimentation, with the measured outcomes aligning with the simulation results.

Keywords: phase shifter, adaptive control, varactors, electronic circuits.

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1020 High-Speed Electrical Drives and Applications: A Review

Authors: Vaishnavi Patil, K. M. Kurundkar


Electrical Drives play a vital role in industry development and applications. Drives have an inevitable part in the needs of various fields such as industry, commercial, and domestic applications. The development of material technology, Power Electronics devices, and accompanying applications led to the focus of industry and researchers on high-speed electrical drives. Numerous articles charted the applications of electrical machines and various converters for high-speed applications. The choice depends on the application under study. This paper goals to highlight high-speed applications, main challenges, and some applications of electrical drives in the field.

Keywords: high-speed, electrical machines, drives, applications

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1019 Magnetic Levitation Control: A Comparative Analysis of Two-Position and Tuned PID Methods Using Arduino Microcontrollers

Authors: Charles Anthony S. Santillan, Jude Noel P. Jarina, Patricia Mae A. Cuevas, Julito B. Añora Jr.


The research examines the effectiveness of Two-Position and Tuned PID controllers in magnetic levitation systems. Magnetic levitation, a crucial technology in diverse industries, depends on meticulous control mechanisms for stability and performance. The study seeks to compare these two control strategies to ascertain their efficacy in practical applications. The paper explores the theoretical foundations of the controllers, presents an experimental methodology emphasizing setup and installation, and examines the results about stability, response time, and susceptibility to disturbances. By interpreting and discussing the findings, the research provides valuable perspectives on the practical ramifications of utilizing Two-Position and Tuned PID controllers in magnetic levitation systems. The conclusion encapsulates significant outcomes and proposes avenues for future research, thereby contributing to the progress of control strategies in magnetic levitation technology.

Keywords: arduino, comparative analysis, magnetic levitation, tuned PID controller, two-position controller

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1018 Modelling and Detecting the Demagnetization Fault in the Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine Using the Current Signature Analysis

Authors: Yassa Nacera, Badji Abderrezak, Saidoune Abdelmalek, Houassine Hamza


Several kinds of faults can occur in a permanent magnet synchronous machine (PMSM) systems: bearing faults, electrically short/open faults, eccentricity faults, and demagnetization faults. Demagnetization fault means that the strengths of permanent magnets (PM) in PMSM decrease, and it causes low output torque, which is undesirable for EVs. The fault is caused by physical damage, high-temperature stress, inverse magnetic field, and aging. Motor current signature analysis (MCSA) is a conventional motor fault detection method based on the extraction of signal features from stator current. a simulation model of the PMSM under partial demagnetization and uniform demagnetization fault was established, and different degrees of demagnetization fault were simulated. The harmonic analyses using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) show that the fault diagnosis method based on the harmonic wave analysis is only suitable for partial demagnetization fault of the PMSM and does not apply to uniform demagnetization fault of the PMSM.

Keywords: permanent magnet, diagnosis, demagnetization, modelling

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1017 Education-based, Graphical User Interface Design for Analyzing Phase Winding Inter-Turn Faults in Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors

Authors: Emir Alaca, Hasbi Apaydin, Rohullah Rahmatullah, Necibe Fusun Oyman Serteller


In recent years, Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors (PMSMs) have found extensive applications in various industrial sectors, including electric vehicles, wind turbines, and robotics, due to their high performance and low losses. Accurate mathematical modeling of PMSMs is crucial for advanced studies in electric machines. To enhance the effectiveness of graduate-level education, incorporating virtual or real experiments becomes essential to reinforce acquired knowledge. Virtual laboratories have gained popularity as cost-effective alternatives to physical testing, mitigating the risks associated with electrical machine experiments. This study presents a MATLAB-based Graphical User Interface (GUI) for PMSMs. The GUI offers a visual interface that allows users to observe variations in motor outputs corresponding to different input parameters. It enables users to explore healthy motor conditions and the effects of short-circuit faults in the one-phase winding. Additionally, the interface includes menus through which users can access equivalent circuits related to the motor and gain hands-on experience with the mathematical equations used in synchronous motor calculations. The primary objective of this paper is to enhance the learning experience of graduate and doctoral students by providing a GUI-based approach in laboratory studies. This interactive platform empowers students to examine and analyze motor outputs by manipulating input parameters, facilitating a deeper understanding of PMSM operation and control.

Keywords: magnet synchronous motor, mathematical modelling, education tools, winding inter-turn fault

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1016 Advancing Power Network Maintenance: The Development and Implementation of a Robotic Cable Splicing Machine

Authors: Ali Asmari, Alex Symington, Htaik Than, Austin Caradonna, John Senft


This paper presents the collaborative effort between ULC Technologies and Con Edison in developing a groundbreaking robotic cable splicing machine. The focus is on the machine's design, which integrates advanced robotics and automation to enhance safety and efficiency in power network maintenance. The paper details the operational steps of the machine, including cable grounding, cutting, and removal of different insulation layers, and discusses its novel technological approach. The significant benefits over traditional methods, such as improved worker safety and reduced outage times, are highlighted based on the field data collected during the validation phase of the project. The paper also explores the future potential and scalability of this technology, emphasizing its role in transforming the landscape of power network maintenance.

Keywords: cable splicing machine, power network maintenance, electric distribution, electric transmission, medium voltage cable

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1015 Optical Properties of TlInSe₂<AU> Si̇ngle Crystals

Authors: Gulshan Mammadova


This paper presents the results of studying the surface microrelief in 2D and 3D models and analyzing the spectroscopy of a three-junction TlInSe₂ crystal. Analysis of the results obtained showed that with a change in the composition of the TlInSe₂ crystal, sharp changes occur in the microrelief of its surface. An X-ray optical diffraction analysis of the TlInSe₂ crystal was experimentally carried out. Based on ellipsometric data, optical functions were determined - the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric permittivity of crystals, the coefficients of optical absorption and reflection, the dependence of energy losses and electric field power on the effective density, the spectral dependences of the real (σᵣ) and imaginary (σᵢ) parts, optical electrical conductivity were experimentally studied. The fluorescence spectra of the ternary compound TlInSe₂ were isolated and analyzed when excited by light with a wavelength of 532 nm. X-ray studies of TlInSe₂ showed that this phase crystallizes into tetragonal systems. Ellipsometric measurements showed that the real (ε₁) and imaginary (ε₂) parts of the dielectric constant are components of the dielectric constant tensor of the uniaxial joints under consideration and do not depend on the angle. Analysis of the dependence of the real and imaginary parts of the refractive index of the TlInSe₂ crystal on photon energy showed that the nature of the change in the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant does not differ significantly. When analyzing the spectral dependences of the real (σr) and imaginary (σi) parts of the optical electrical conductivity, it was noticed that the real part of the optical electrical conductivity increases exponentially in the energy range 0.894-3.505 eV. In the energy range of 0.654-2.91 eV, the imaginary part of the optical electrical conductivity increases linearly, reaches a maximum value, and decreases at an energy of 2.91 eV. At 3.6 eV, an inversion of the imaginary part of the optical electrical conductivity of the TlInSe₂ compound is observed. From the graphs of the effective power density versus electric field energy losses, it is known that the effective power density increases significantly in the energy range of 0.805–3.52 eV. The fluorescence spectrum of the ternary compound TlInSe₂ upon excitation with light with a wavelength of 532 nm has been studied and it has been established that this phase has luminescent properties.

Keywords: optical properties, dielectric permittivity, real and imaginary dielectric permittivity, optical electrical conductivity

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1014 Performance Monitoring and Environmental Impact Analysis of a Photovoltaic Power Plant: A Numerical Modeling Approach

Authors: Zahzouh Zoubir


The widespread adoption of photovoltaic panel systems for global electricity generation is a prominent trend. Algeria, demonstrating steadfast commitment to strategic development and innovative projects for harnessing solar energy, emerges as a pioneering force in the field. Heat and radiation, being fundamental factors in any solar system, are currently subject to comprehensive studies aiming to discern their genuine impact on crucial elements within photovoltaic systems. This endeavor is particularly pertinent given that solar module performance is exclusively assessed under meticulously defined Standard Test Conditions (STC). Nevertheless, when deployed outdoors, solar modules exhibit efficiencies distinct from those observed under STC due to the influence of diverse environmental factors. This discrepancy introduces ambiguity in performance determination, especially when surpassing test conditions. This article centers on the performance monitoring of an Algerian photovoltaic project, specifically the Oued El Keberite power (OKP) plant boasting a 15 megawatt capacity, situated in the town of Souk Ahras in eastern Algeria. The study elucidates the behavior of a subfield within this facility throughout the year, encompassing various conditions beyond the STC framework. To ensure the optimal efficiency of solar panels, this study integrates crucial factors, drawing on an authentic technical sheet from the measurement station of the OKP photovoltaic plant. Numerical modeling and simulation of a sub-field of the photovoltaic station were conducted using MATLAB Simulink. The findings underscore how radiation intensity and temperature, whether low or high, impact the short-circuit current, open-circuit voltage; fill factor, and overall efficiency of the photovoltaic system.

Keywords: performance monitoring, photovoltaic system, numerical modeling, radiation intensity

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1013 Real-Time Mine Safety System with the Internet of Things

Authors: Şakir Bingöl, Bayram İslamoğlu, Ebubekir Furkan Tepeli, Fatih Mehmet Karakule, Fatih Küçük, Merve Sena Arpacık, Mustafa Taha Kabar, Muhammet Metin Molak, Osman Emre Turan, Ömer Faruk Yesir, Sıla İnanır


This study introduces an IoT-based real-time safety system for mining, addressing global safety challenges. The wearable device, seamlessly integrated into miners' jackets, employs LoRa technology for communication and offers real-time monitoring of vital health and environmental data. Unique features include an LCD panel for immediate information display and sound-based location tracking for emergency response. The methodology involves sensor integration, data transmission, and ethical testing. Validation confirms the system's effectiveness in diverse mining scenarios. The study calls for ongoing research to adapt the system to different mining contexts, emphasizing its potential to significantly enhance safety standards in the industry.

Keywords: mining safety, internet of things, wearable technology, LoRa, RFID tracking, real-time safety system, safety alerts, safety measures

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1012 Enhancing the Piezoelectric, Thermal, and Structural Properties of the PVDF-HFP/PZT/GO Composite for Improved Mechanical Energy Harvesting

Authors: Salesabil Labihi, Adil Eddiai, Mounir El Achaby, Mounir Meddad, Omar Cherkaoui, M’hammed Mazroui


Piezoelectric materials provide a promising renewable energy source by converting mechanical energy into electrical energy through pressure and vibration. This study focuses on improving the conversion performance of poly (vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) by incorporating graphene oxide (GO) and lead zirconate titanate (PZT). The dispersion of PZT and GO within the PVDF-HFP matrix was found to be homogeneous, resulting in high piezoelectric performance with an increase in the β-phase content. The thermal stability of the PVDF-HFP polymer also improved with the addition of PZT/GO. However, as the percentage of PZT/GO increased, the young's modulus of the composite decreased significantly. The developed composite demonstrated promising performance as a potential candidate for energy harvesting applications.

Keywords: energy harvesting, mechanical conversion, piezoelectric composite, solvent casting method

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1011 Speed Control of Brushless DC Motor Using PI Controller in MATLAB Simulink

Authors: Do Chi Thanh, Dang Ngoc Huy


Nowadays, there are more and more variable speed drive systems in small-scale and large-scale applications such as the electric vehicle industry, household appliances, medical equipment, and other industrial fields led to the development of BLDC (Brushless DC) motors. BLDC drive has many advantages, such as higher efficiency, better speed torque characteristics, high power density, and low maintenance cost compared to other conventional motors. Most BLDC motors use a proportional-integral (PI) controller and a pulse width modulation (PWM) scheme for speed control. This article describes the simulation model of BLDC motor drive control with the help of MATLAB - SIMULINK simulation software. The built simulation model includes a BLDC motor dynamic block, Hall sensor signal generation block, inverter converter block, and PI controller.

Keywords: brushless DC motor, BLDC, six-step inverter, PI speed

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1010 Testing Chat-GPT: An AI Application

Authors: Jana Ismail, Layla Fallatah, Maha Alshmaisi


ChatGPT, a cutting-edge language model built on the GPT-3.5 architecture, has garnered attention for its profound natural language processing capabilities, holding promise for transformative applications in customer service and content creation. This study delves into ChatGPT's architecture, aiming to comprehensively understand its strengths and potential limitations. Through systematic experiments across diverse domains, such as general knowledge and creative writing, we evaluated the model's coherence, context retention, and task-specific accuracy. While ChatGPT excels in generating human-like responses and demonstrates adaptability, occasional inaccuracies and sensitivity to input phrasing were observed. The study emphasizes the impact of prompt design on output quality, providing valuable insights for the nuanced deployment of ChatGPT in conversational AI and contributing to the ongoing discourse on the evolving landscape of natural language processing in artificial intelligence.

Keywords: artificial Inelegance, chatGPT, open AI, NLP

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1009 Air Breakdown Voltage Prediction in Post-arcing Conditions for Compact Circuit Breakers

Authors: Jing Nan


The air breakdown voltage in compact circuit breakers is a critical factor in the design and reliability of electrical distribution systems. This voltage determines the threshold at which the air insulation between conductors will fail or 'break down,' leading to an arc. This phenomenon is highly sensitive to the conditions within the breaker, such as the temperature and the distance between electrodes. Typically, air breakdown voltage models have been reliable for predicting failure under standard operational temperatures. However, in conditions post-arcing, where temperatures can soar above 2000K, these models face challenges due to the complex physics of ionization and electron behaviour at such high-energy states. Building upon the foundational understanding that the breakdown mechanism is initiated by free electrons and propelled by electric fields, which lead to ionization and, potentially, to avalanche or streamer formation, we acknowledge the complexity introduced by high-temperature environments. Recognizing the limitations of existing experimental data, a notable research gap exists in the accurate prediction of breakdown voltage at elevated temperatures, typically observed post-arcing, where temperatures exceed 2000K.To bridge this knowledge gap, we present a method that integrates gap distance and high-temperature effects into air breakdown voltage assessment. The proposed model is grounded in the physics of ionization, accounting for the dynamic behaviour of free electrons which, under intense electric fields at elevated temperatures, lead to thermal ionization and potentially reach the threshold for streamer formation as Meek's criterion. Employing the Saha equation, our model calculates equilibrium electron densities, adapting to the atmospheric pressure and the hot temperature regions indicative of post-arc temperature conditions. Our model is rigorously validated against established experimental data, demonstrating substantial improvements in predicting air breakdown voltage in the high-temperature regime. This work significantly improves the predictive power for air breakdown voltage under conditions that closely mimic operational stressors in compact circuit breakers. Looking ahead, the proposed methods are poised for further exploration in alternative insulating media, like SF6, enhancing the model's utility for a broader range of insulation technologies and contributing to the future of high-temperature electrical insulation research.

Keywords: air breakdown voltage, high-temperature insulation, compact circuit breakers, electrical discharge, saha equation

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1008 Enhancing Plant Throughput in Mineral Processing Through Multimodal Artificial Intelligence

Authors: Muhammad Bilal Shaikh


Mineral processing plants play a pivotal role in extracting valuable minerals from raw ores, contributing significantly to various industries. However, the optimization of plant throughput remains a complex challenge, necessitating innovative approaches for increased efficiency and productivity. This research paper investigates the application of Multimodal Artificial Intelligence (MAI) techniques to address this challenge, aiming to improve overall plant throughput in mineral processing operations. The integration of multimodal AI leverages a combination of diverse data sources, including sensor data, images, and textual information, to provide a holistic understanding of the complex processes involved in mineral extraction. The paper explores the synergies between various AI modalities, such as machine learning, computer vision, and natural language processing, to create a comprehensive and adaptive system for optimizing mineral processing plants. The primary focus of the research is on developing advanced predictive models that can accurately forecast various parameters affecting plant throughput. Utilizing historical process data, machine learning algorithms are trained to identify patterns, correlations, and dependencies within the intricate network of mineral processing operations. This enables real-time decision-making and process optimization, ultimately leading to enhanced plant throughput. Incorporating computer vision into the multimodal AI framework allows for the analysis of visual data from sensors and cameras positioned throughout the plant. This visual input aids in monitoring equipment conditions, identifying anomalies, and optimizing the flow of raw materials. The combination of machine learning and computer vision enables the creation of predictive maintenance strategies, reducing downtime and improving the overall reliability of mineral processing plants. Furthermore, the integration of natural language processing facilitates the extraction of valuable insights from unstructured textual data, such as maintenance logs, research papers, and operator reports. By understanding and analyzing this textual information, the multimodal AI system can identify trends, potential bottlenecks, and areas for improvement in plant operations. This comprehensive approach enables a more nuanced understanding of the factors influencing throughput and allows for targeted interventions. The research also explores the challenges associated with implementing multimodal AI in mineral processing plants, including data integration, model interpretability, and scalability. Addressing these challenges is crucial for the successful deployment of AI solutions in real-world industrial settings. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed multimodal AI framework, the research conducts case studies in collaboration with mineral processing plants. The results demonstrate tangible improvements in plant throughput, efficiency, and cost-effectiveness. The paper concludes with insights into the broader implications of implementing multimodal AI in mineral processing and its potential to revolutionize the industry by providing a robust, adaptive, and data-driven approach to optimizing plant operations. In summary, this research contributes to the evolving field of mineral processing by showcasing the transformative potential of multimodal artificial intelligence in enhancing plant throughput. The proposed framework offers a holistic solution that integrates machine learning, computer vision, and natural language processing to address the intricacies of mineral extraction processes, paving the way for a more efficient and sustainable future in the mineral processing industry.

Keywords: multimodal AI, computer vision, NLP, mineral processing, mining

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1007 Method for Improving ICESAT-2 ATL13 Altimetry Data Utility on Rivers

Authors: Yun Chen, Qihang Liu, Catherine Ticehurst, Chandrama Sarker, Fazlul Karim, Dave Penton, Ashmita Sengupta


The application of ICESAT-2 altimetry data in river hydrology critically depends on the accuracy of the mean water surface elevation (WSE) at a virtual station (VS) where satellite observations intersect with water. The ICESAT-2 track generates multiple VSs as it crosses the different water bodies. The difficulties are particularly pronounced in large river basins where there are many tributaries and meanders often adjacent to each other. One challenge is to split photon segments along a beam to accurately partition them to extract only the true representative water height for individual elements. As far as we can establish, there is no automated procedure to make this distinction. Earlier studies have relied on human intervention or river masks. Both approaches are unsatisfactory solutions where the number of intersections is large, and river width/extent changes over time. We describe here an automated approach called “auto-segmentation”. The accuracy of our method was assessed by comparison with river water level observations at 10 different stations on 37 different dates along the Lower Murray River, Australia. The congruence is very high and without detectable bias. In addition, we compared different outlier removal methods on the mean WSE calculation at VSs post the auto-segmentation process. All four outlier removal methods perform almost equally well with the same R2 value (0.998) and only subtle variations in RMSE (0.181–0.189m) and MAE (0.130–0.142m). Overall, the auto-segmentation method developed here is an effective and efficient approach to deriving accurate mean WSE at river VSs. It provides a much better way of facilitating the application of ICESAT-2 ATL13 altimetry to rivers compared to previously reported studies. Therefore, the findings of our study will make a significant contribution towards the retrieval of hydraulic parameters, such as water surface slope along the river, water depth at cross sections, and river channel bathymetry for calculating flow velocity and discharge from remotely sensed imagery at large spatial scales.

Keywords: lidar sensor, virtual station, cross section, mean water surface elevation, beam/track segmentation

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1006 Discrete Sliding Modes Regulator with Exponential Holder for Non-Linear Systems

Authors: G. Obregon-Pulido , G. C. Solis-Perales, J. A. Meda-Campaña


In this paper, we present a sliding mode controller in discrete time. The design of the controller is based on the theory of regulation for nonlinear systems. In the problem of disturbance rejection and/or output tracking, it is known that in discrete time, a controller that uses the zero-order holder only guarantees tracking at the sampling instances but not between instances. It is shown that using the so-called exponential holder, it is possible to guarantee asymptotic zero output tracking error, also between the sampling instant. For stabilizing the problem of close loop system we introduce the sliding mode approach relaxing the requirements of the existence of a linear stabilizing control law.

Keywords: regulation theory, sliding modes, discrete controller, ripple-free tracking

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1005 Performance Evaluation of Routing Protocol in Cognitive Radio with Multi Technological Environment

Authors: M. Yosra, A. Mohamed, T. Sami


Over the past few years, mobile communication technologies have seen significant evolution. This fact promoted the implementation of many systems in a multi-technological setting. From one system to another, the Quality of Service (QoS) provided to mobile consumers gets better. The growing number of normalized standards extends the available services for each consumer, moreover, most of the available radio frequencies have already been allocated, such as 3G, Wifi, Wimax, and LTE. A study by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) found that certain frequency bands are partially occupied in particular locations and times. So, the idea of Cognitive Radio (CR) is to share the spectrum between a primary user (PU) and a secondary user (SU). The main objective of this spectrum management is to achieve a maximum rate of exploitation of the radio spectrum. In general, the CR can greatly improve the quality of service (QoS) and improve the reliability of the link. The problem will reside in the possibility of proposing a technique to improve the reliability of the wireless link by using the CR with some routing protocols. However, users declared that the links were unreliable and that it was an incompatibility with QoS. In our case, we choose the QoS parameter "bandwidth" to perform a supervised classification. In this paper, we propose a comparative study between some routing protocols, taking into account the variation of different technologies on the existing spectral bandwidth like 3G, WIFI, WIMAX, and LTE. Due to the simulation results, we observe that LTE has significantly higher availability bandwidth compared with other technologies. The performance of the OLSR protocol is better than other on-demand routing protocols (DSR, AODV and DSDV), in LTE technology because of the proper receiving of packets, less packet drop and the throughput. Numerous simulations of routing protocols have been made using simulators such as NS3.

Keywords: cognitive radio, multi technology, network simulator (NS3), routing protocol

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1004 Creative Applications for Socially Assistive Robots to Support Mental Health: A Patient-Centered Feasibility Study

Authors: Andreas Kornmaaler Hansen, Carlos Gomez Cubero, Elizabeth Jochum


The use of the arts in therapy and rehabilitation is well established, and there is growing recognition of the value of the arts for improving health and well-being across diverse populations. Combining arts with socially assistive robots is a relatively under-explored research area. This paper presents the results of a feasibility study conducted within an existing arts and health program to scope the possibility of combining visual arts with socially assistive robots to promote mental health and well-being. Using a participatory research design with participant-led perspectives, we present the results of our feasibility study with a collaborative drawing robot among an adult population with mild to severe mental illness. We identify key methodological challenges and advantages of working with participatory and human-centered approaches. Based on the results of three pilot workshops with participants and lay health workers, we outline suggestions for authentic engagement with real stakeholders toward the development of socially assistive robots in community health contexts. Working closely with a patient population at all levels of the research process is key for developing tools and interventions that center patient experience and priorities while minimizing the risks of alienating patients and communities.

Keywords: arts and health, visual art, health promotion, mental health, collaborative robots, creativity, socially assistive robots

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1003 Wireless Information Transfer Management and Case Study of a Fire Alarm System in a Residential Building

Authors: Mohsen Azarmjoo, Mehdi Mehdizadeh Koupaei, Maryam Mehdizadeh Koupaei, Asghar Mahdlouei Azar


The increasing prevalence of wireless networks in our daily lives has made them indispensable. The aim of this research is to investigate the management of information transfer in wireless networks and the integration of renewable solar energy resources in a residential building. The focus is on the transmission of electricity and information through wireless networks, as well as the utilization of sensors and wireless fire alarm systems. The research employs a descriptive approach to examine the transmission of electricity and information on a wireless network with electric and optical telephone lines. It also investigates the transmission of signals from sensors and wireless fire alarm systems via radio waves. The methodology includes a detailed analysis of security, comfort conditions, and costs related to the utilization of wireless networks and renewable solar energy resources. The study reveals that it is feasible to transmit electricity on a network cable using two pairs of network cables without the need for separate power cabling. Additionally, the integration of renewable solar energy systems in residential buildings can reduce dependence on traditional energy carriers. The use of sensors and wireless remote information processing can enhance the safety and efficiency of energy usage in buildings and the surrounding spaces.

Keywords: renewable energy, intelligentization, wireless sensors, fire alarm system

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1002 Simulation of Performance and Layout Optimization of Solar Collectors with AVR Microcontroller to Achieve Desired Conditions

Authors: Mohsen Azarmjoo, Navid Sharifi, Zahra Alikhani Koopaei


This article aims to conserve energy and optimize the performance of solar water heaters using modern modeling systems. In this study, a large-scale solar water heater is modeled using an AVR microcontroller, which is a digital processor from the AVR microcontroller family. This mechatronic system will be used to analyze the performance and design of solar collectors, with the ultimate goal of improving the efficiency of the system being used. The findings of this research provide insights into optimizing the performance of solar water heaters. By manipulating the arrangement of solar panels and controlling the water flow through them using the AVR microcontroller, researchers can identify the optimal configurations and operational protocols to achieve the desired temperature and flow conditions. These findings can contribute to the development of more efficient and sustainable heating and cooling systems. This article investigates the optimization of solar water heater performance. It examines the impact of solar panel layout on system efficiency and explores methods of controlling water flow to achieve the desired temperature and flow conditions. The results of this research contribute to the development of more sustainable heating and cooling systems that rely on renewable energy sources.

Keywords: energy conservation, solar water heaters, solar cooling, simulation, mechatronics

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1001 Multi-Agent Approach for Monitoring and Control of Biotechnological Processes

Authors: Ivanka Valova


This paper is aimed at using a multi-agent approach to monitor and diagnose a biotechnological system in order to validate certain control actions depending on the process development and the operating conditions. A multi-agent system is defined as a network of interacting software modules that collectively solve complex tasks. Remote monitoring and control of biotechnological processes is a necessity when automated and reliable systems operating with no interruption of certain activities are required. The advantage of our approach is in its flexibility, modularity and the possibility of improving by acquiring functionalities through the integration of artificial intelligence.

Keywords: multi-agent approach, artificial intelligence, biotechnological processes, anaerobic biodegradation

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1000 Optimizing Telehealth Internet of Things Integration: A Sustainable Approach through Fog and Cloud Computing Platforms for Energy Efficiency

Authors: Yunyong Guo, Sudhakar Ganti, Bryan Guo


The swift proliferation of telehealth Internet of Things (IoT) devices has sparked concerns regarding energy consumption and the need for streamlined data processing. This paper presents an energy-efficient model that integrates telehealth IoT devices into a platform based on fog and cloud computing. This integrated system provides a sustainable and robust solution to address the challenges. Our model strategically utilizes fog computing as a localized data processing layer and leverages cloud computing for resource-intensive tasks, resulting in a significant reduction in overall energy consumption. The incorporation of adaptive energy-saving strategies further enhances the efficiency of our approach. Simulation analysis validates the effectiveness of our model in improving energy efficiency for telehealth IoT systems, particularly when integrated with localized fog nodes and both private and public cloud infrastructures. Subsequent research endeavors will concentrate on refining the energy-saving model, exploring additional functional enhancements, and assessing its broader applicability across various healthcare and industry sectors.

Keywords: energy-efficient, fog computing, IoT, telehealth

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999 In-Context Meta Learning for Automatic Designing Pretext Tasks for Self-Supervised Image Analysis

Authors: Toktam Khatibi


Self-supervised learning (SSL) includes machine learning models that are trained on one aspect and/or one part of the input to learn other aspects and/or part of it. SSL models are divided into two different categories, including pre-text task-based models and contrastive learning ones. Pre-text tasks are some auxiliary tasks learning pseudo-labels, and the trained models are further fine-tuned for downstream tasks. However, one important disadvantage of SSL using pre-text task solving is defining an appropriate pre-text task for each image dataset with a variety of image modalities. Therefore, it is required to design an appropriate pretext task automatically for each dataset and each downstream task. To the best of our knowledge, the automatic designing of pretext tasks for image analysis has not been considered yet. In this paper, we present a framework based on In-context learning that describes each task based on its input and output data using a pre-trained image transformer. Our proposed method combines the input image and its learned description for optimizing the pre-text task design and its hyper-parameters using Meta-learning models. The representations learned from the pre-text tasks are fine-tuned for solving the downstream tasks. We demonstrate that our proposed framework outperforms the compared ones on unseen tasks and image modalities in addition to its superior performance for previously known tasks and datasets.

Keywords: in-context learning (ICL), meta learning, self-supervised learning (SSL), vision-language domain, transformers

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998 An Evaluation of Neural Network Efficacies for Image Recognition on Edge-AI Computer Vision Platform

Authors: Jie Zhao, Meng Su


Image recognition, as one of the most critical technologies in computer vision, works to help machine-like robotics understand a scene, that is, if deployed appropriately, will trigger the revolution in remote sensing and industry automation. With the developments of AI technologies, there are many prevailing and sophisticated neural networks as technologies developed for image recognition. However, computer vision platforms as hardware, supporting neural networks for image recognition, as crucial as the neural network technologies, need to be more congruently addressed as the research subjects. In contrast, different computer vision platforms are deterministic to leverage the performance of different neural networks for recognition. In this paper, three different computer vision platforms – Jetson Nano(with 4GB), a standalone laptop(with RTX 3000s, using CUDA), and Google Colab (web-based, using GPU) are explored and four prominent neural network architectures (including AlexNet, VGG(16/19), GoogleNet, and ResNet(18/34/50)), are investigated. In the context of pairwise usage between different computer vision platforms and distinctive neural networks, with the merits of recognition accuracy and time efficiency, the performances are evaluated. In the case study using public imageNets, our findings provide a nuanced perspective on optimizing image recognition tasks across Edge-AI platforms, offering guidance on selecting appropriate neural network structures to maximize performance under hardware constraints.

Keywords: alexNet, VGG, googleNet, resNet, Jetson nano, CUDA, COCO-NET, cifar10, imageNet large scale visual recognition challenge (ILSVRC), google colab

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997 Software Development to Empowering Digital Libraries with Effortless Digital Cataloging and Access

Authors: Abdul Basit Kiani


The software for the digital library system is a cutting-edge solution designed to revolutionize the way libraries manage and provide access to their vast collections of digital content. This advanced software leverages the power of technology to offer a seamless and user-friendly experience for both library staff and patrons. By implementing this software, libraries can efficiently organize, store, and retrieve digital resources, including e-books, audiobooks, journals, articles, and multimedia content. Its intuitive interface allows library staff to effortlessly manage cataloging, metadata extraction, and content enrichment, ensuring accurate and comprehensive access to digital materials. For patrons, the software offers a personalized and immersive digital library experience. They can easily browse the digital catalog, search for specific items, and explore related content through intelligent recommendation algorithms. The software also facilitates seamless borrowing, lending, and preservation of digital items, enabling users to access their favorite resources anytime, anywhere, on multiple devices. With robust security features, the software ensures the protection of intellectual property rights and enforces access controls to safeguard sensitive content. Integration with external authentication systems and user management tools streamlines the library's administration processes, while advanced analytics provide valuable insights into patron behavior and content usage. Overall, this software for the digital library system empowers libraries to embrace the digital era, offering enhanced access, convenience, and discoverability of their vast collections. It paves the way for a more inclusive and engaging library experience, catering to the evolving needs of tech-savvy patrons.

Keywords: software development, empowering digital libraries, digital cataloging and access, management system

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