Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 809

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Electrical and Computer Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

809 A Timed and Colored Petri Nets for Modeling and Verify Cloud System Elasticity

Authors: Walid Louhichi, Mouhebeddine Berrima, Narjes Ben Rajed

Abstract:

Elasticity is the essential property of cloud computing. As the name suggests, it constitutes the ability of a cloud system to adjust resource provisioning in relation to fluctuating workload. There are two types of elasticity operations, vertical and horizontal. In this work, we are interested in horizontal scaling, which is ensured by two mechanisms; scaling in and scaling out. Following the sizing of the system, we can adopt scaling in in the event of over-supply and scaling out in the event of under-supply. In this paper, we propose a formal model, based on colored and temporized Petri nets, for the modeling of the duplication and the removal of a virtual machine from a server. This model is based on formal Petri Nets modeling language. The proposed models are edited, verified, and simulated with two examples implemented in CPNtools, which is a modeling tool for colored and timed Petri nets.

Keywords: Cloud Computing, Elasticity, Petri nets, elasticity controller, scaling in, scaling out

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808 A Socio-Technical Approach to Cyber-Risk Assessment

Authors: Kitty Kioskli, Nineta Polemi

Abstract:

Evaluating the levels of cyber-security risks within an enterprise is most important in protecting its information system, services and all its digital assets against security incidents (e.g. accidents, malicious acts, massive cyber-attacks). The existing risk assessment methodologies (e.g. eBIOS, OCTAVE, CRAMM, NIST-800) adopt a technical approach considering as attack factors only the capability, intention and target of the attacker, and not paying attention to the attacker’s psychological profile and personality traits. In this paper, a socio-technical approach is proposed in cyber risk assessment, in order to achieve more realistic risk estimates by considering the personality traits of the attackers. In particular, based upon principles from investigative psychology and behavioural science, a multi-dimensional, extended, quantifiable model for an attacker’s profile is developed, which becomes an additional factor in the cyber risk level calculation.

Keywords: cybersecurity, Human Factors, attacker, behavioural models, cyber risk assessment, investigative psychology, ISO27001, ISO27005

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807 Compensation of Cable Attenuation in Step Current Generators to Enable the Convolution Method for Calibration of Current Transducers

Authors: P. Treyer, M. Kujda, H. Urs

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to digitally compensate for the apparent discharge time constant of the coaxial cable so that the current step response is flat and can be used to calibrate current transducers using the convolution method. For proper use of convolution, the step response record length is required to be at least the same as the waveform duration to be evaluated. The current step generator based on the cable discharge is compared to the Blumlein generator. Moreover, the influence of each component of the system on the performance of the step is described, which allows building the appropriate measurement set-up. In the end, the calibration of current viewing resistors dedicated to high current impulse is computed.

Keywords: convolution, Blumlein generator, cable attenuation, current step generator

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806 Closed Form Solution for 4-D Potential Integrals for Arbitrary Coplanar Polygonal Surfaces

Authors: Damir Latypov

Abstract:

A closed-form solution for 4-D double surface integrals arising in boundary integrals equations of a potential theory is obtained for arbitrary coplanar polygonal surfaces. The solution method is based on the construction of exact differential forms followed by the application of Stokes' theorem for each surface integral. As a result, the 4-D double surface integral is reduced to a 2-D double line integral. By an appropriate change of variables, the integrand is transformed into a separable function of integration variables. The closed-form solutions to the corresponding 1-D integrals are readily available in the integration tables. Previously closed-form solutions were known only for the case of coincident triangle surfaces and coplanar rectangles. Solutions for these cases were obtained by surface-specific ad-hoc methods, while the present method is general. The method also works for non-polygonal surfaces. As an example, we compute in closed form the 4-D integral for the case of coincident surfaces in the shape of a circular disk. For an arbitrarily shaped surface, the proposed method provides an efficient quadrature rule. Extensions of the method for non-coplanar surfaces and other than 1/R integral kernels are also discussed.

Keywords: Integration, differential forms, boundary integral equations, stokes' theorem

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805 Design and Characterization of a CMOS Process Sensor Utilizing Vth Extractor Circuit

Authors: Rohana Musa, Yuzman Yusoff, Hanif Che Lah, Chia Chieu Yin

Abstract:

This paper presents the design and characterization of a low power Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) process sensor. The design is targeted for implementation using Silterra’s 180 nm CMOS process technology. The proposed process sensor employs a voltage threshold (Vth) extractor architecture for detection of variations in the fabrication process. The process sensor generates output voltages in the range of 401 mV (fast-fast corner) to 443 mV (slow-slow corner) at nominal condition. The power dissipation for this process sensor is 6.3 µW with a supply voltage of 1.8V with a silicon area of 190 µm X 60 µm. The preliminary result of this process sensor that was fabricated indicates a close resemblance between test and simulated results.

Keywords: CMOS process sensor, PVT sensor, threshold extractor circuit, Vth extractor circuit

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804 Revised Tower Earthing Design in High-Voltage Transmission Network for High-Frequency Lightning Condition

Authors: Azwadi Mohamad, Pauzi Yahaya, Nadiah Hudi

Abstract:

Earthing system for high-voltage transmission tower is designed to protect the working personnel and equipments, and to maintain the quality of supply during fault. The existing earthing system for transmission towers in TNB’s system is purposely designed for normal power frequency (low-frequency) fault conditions that take into account the step and touch voltages. This earthing design is found to be inapt for lightning (transient) condition to a certain extent, which involves a high-frequency domain. The current earthing practice of laying the electrodes radially in straight 60 m horizontal lines under the ground, in order to achieve the specified impedance value of less than 10 Ω, was deemed ineffective in reducing the high-frequency impedance. This paper introduces a new earthing design that produces low impedance value at the high-frequency domain, without compromising the performance of low-frequency impedance. The performances of this new earthing design, as well as the existing design, are simulated for various soil resistivity values at varying frequency. The proposed concentrated earthing design is found to possess low TFR value at both low and high-frequency. A good earthing design should have a fine balance between compact and radial electrodes under the ground.

Keywords: Lightning, high-frequency, Earthing Design, tower footing impedance

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803 Effectiveness of Earthing System in Vertical Configurations

Authors: Shahriman Yunus, Abidin Suratman, Normiza Mohd Nor, Marinah Othman

Abstract:

This paper presents the measurement and simulation results by Finite Element Method (FEM) for earth resistance (RDC) for interconnected vertical ground rod configurations. The soil resistivity was measured using the Wenner four-pin method, and RDC was measured using the Fall of Potential (FOP) method, as outlined in the standard. Genetic Algorithm (GA) is employed to interpret the soil resistivity to that of a 2- layer soil model. The same soil resistivity data that was obtained by Wenner four-pin method is used in FEM for simulation. So far, very few FEM simulation works can be found in the literature, where FEM is being used for verification with other published work obtained by computational method. This paper compares the results of RDC obtained by FEM simulation with the real measurement at field site, which has never been attempted before to the authors' best knowledge. A good agreement was seen for RDC obtained by measurements and FEM. This shows that FEM is a reliable software to be used for design of earthing systems. It is also found that the parallel rod system has a better performance compared to a similar setup using a grid layout.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithm, Finite Element Method, earthing system, earth electrodes, earth resistances

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802 The Effect of Mgo and Rubber Nanofillers on Electrical Treeing Characteristic of XLPE Based Nanocomposites

Authors: Tashia Marie Anthony, Huzainie Shafi Abd Halim, Nur Amira nor Arifin, Mohd Ruzlin Mokhtar

Abstract:

Cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) material is being used as the cable insulation for the past decades due to its higher working temperature of 90 ˚C and some other advantages. However, the use of XLPE as an insulating material for underground distribution cables may have subjected to the unforeseeable weather and uncontrollable environmental condition. These unfavorable condition when combine with high electric field may lead to the initiation and growth of water tree in XLPE insulation. There are several studies on numerous nanofillers incorporate into polymer matrix to hinder the growth of tree propagation. Hence, in this study aims to investigate the effect of MgO and rubber nanofillers at different concentration on the electrical tree of XLPE. The nanofillers and XLPE were mixed and later extruded. After extrusion, the material were then fabricated into the desired shape for experimental purposes. The result shows that the electrical tree propagation of XLPE filled with optimize concentration of nanofillers were much slower compared to pure XLPE. In this paper, the effect of nanofillers towards electrical treeing characteristic will be discussed.

Keywords: Polymer Nanocomposites, Nanofillers, electrical trees, XLPE

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801 Severity Index Level in Effectively Managing Medium Voltage Underground Power Cable

Authors: Mohd Ruzlin Mohd Mokhtar, Mohd Azraei Pangah Pa'at, Norhidayu Rameli, Tashia Marie Anthony, Huzainie Shafi Abd Halim

Abstract:

Partial Discharge (PD) diagnostic mapping testing is one of the main diagnostic testing techniques that are widely used in the field or onsite testing for underground power cable in medium voltage level. The existence of PD activities is an early indication of insulation weakness hence early detection of PD activities can be determined and provides an initial prediction on the condition of the cable. To effectively manage the results of PD Mapping test, it is important to have acceptable criteria to facilitate prioritization of mitigation action. Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) through Distribution Network (DN) division have developed PD severity model name Severity Index (SI) for offline PD mapping test since 2007 based on onsite test experience. However, this severity index recommendation action had never been revised since its establishment. At presence, PD measurements data have been extensively increased, hence the severity level indication and the effectiveness of the recommendation actions can be analyzed and verified again. Based on the new revision, the recommended action to be taken will be able to reflect the actual defect condition. Hence, will be accurately prioritizing preventive action plan and minimizing maintenance expenditure.

Keywords: Diagnostic Testing, Power Cable, partial discharge, medium voltage, severity index

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800 Technology of Gyro Orientation Measurement Unit (Gyro Omu) for Underground Utility Mapping Practice

Authors: Mohd Ruzlin Mohd Mokhtar

Abstract:

At present, most operators who are working on projects for utilities such as power, water, oil, gas, telecommunication and sewerage are using technologies e.g. Total station, Global Positioning System (GPS), Electromagnetic Locator (EML) and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) to perform underground utility mapping. With the increase in popularity of Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD) method among the local authorities and asset owners, most of newly installed underground utilities need to use the HDD method. HDD method is seen as simple and create not much disturbance to the public and traffic. Thus, it was the preferred utilities installation method in most of areas especially in urban areas. HDDs were installed much deeper than exiting utilities (some reports saying that HDD is averaging 5 meter in depth). However, this impacts the accuracy or ability of existing underground utility mapping technologies. In most of Malaysia underground soil condition, those technologies were limited to maximum of 3 meter depth. Thus, those utilities which were installed much deeper than 3 meter depth could not be detected by using existing detection tools. The accuracy and reliability of existing underground utility mapping technologies or work procedure were in doubt. Thus, a mitigation action plan is required. While installing new utility using Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD) method, a more accurate underground utility mapping can be achieved by using Gyro OMU compared to existing practice using e.g. EML and GPR. Gyro OMU is a method to accurately identify the location of HDD thus this mapping can be used or referred to avoid those cost of breakdown due to future HDD works which can be caused by inaccurate underground utility mapping.

Keywords: ground penetrating radar (GPR), Gyro Orientation Measurement Unit (Gyro OMU), Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD), Electromagnetic Locator (EML)

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799 Generation of Symmetric Key Using Randomness of Hash Function

Authors: Sai Charan Kamana, Harsha Vardhan Nakkina, B.R. Chandavarkar

Abstract:

In a highly secure and robust key generation process, a key role is played by randomness and random numbers when current real-world cryptosystems are observed. Most of the present-day cryptographic protocols depend upon the Random Number Generators (RNG), Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG). These protocols often use noisy channels such as Disk seek time, CPU temperature, Mouse pointer movement, Fan noise to obtain true random values. Despite being cost-effective, these noisy channels may need additional hardware devices to continuously communicate with them. On the other hand, Hash functions are Pseudo-Random (because of their requirements). So, they are a good replacement for these noisy channels and have low hardware requirements. This paper discusses, some of the key generation methodologies, and their drawbacks. This paper explains how hash functions can be used in key generation, how to combine Key Derivation Functions with hash functions.

Keywords: key derivation, hash based key derivation, password based key derivation, symmetric key derivation

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798 Updating Stochastic Hosting Capacity Algorithm for Voltage Optimization Programs and Interconnect Standards

Authors: Nicholas Burica, Nina Selak

Abstract:

The ADHCAT (Automated Distribution Hosting Capacity Assessment Tool) was designed to run Hosting Capacity Analysis on the ComEd system via a stochastic DER (Distributed Energy Resource) placement on multiple power flow simulations against a set of violation criteria. The violation criteria in the initial version of the tool captured a limited amount of issues that individual departments design against for DER interconnections. Enhancements were made to the tool to further align with individual department violation and operation criteria, as well as the addition of new modules for use for future load profile analysis. A reporting engine was created for future analytical use based on the simulations and observations in the tool.

Keywords: Distributed Energy Resources, Interconnect, hosting capacity, voltage optimization

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797 Optimization of a Flux Switching Permanent Magnet Machine Using Laminated Segmented Rotor

Authors: Seyedmilad Kazemisangdehi, Seyedmehdi Kazemisangdehi

Abstract:

Flux switching permanent magnet machines are considered for wide range of applications because of their outstanding merits including high torque/power densities, high efficiency, simple and robust rotor structure. Therefore, several topologies have been proposed like the PM exited flux switching machine, hybrid excited flux switching type, and so on. Recently, a novel laminated segmented rotor flux switching permanent magnet machine was introduced. It features flux barriers on rotor structure to enhance the performances of machine including torque ripple reduction and also torque and efficiency improvements at the same time. This is while, the design of barriers was not optimized by the authors. Therefore, in this paper three coefficients regarding the position of the barriers are considered for optimization. The effect of each coefficient on the performance of this machine is investigated by finite element method and finally an optimized design of flux barriers based on these three coefficients is proposed from different points of view including electromagnetic torque maximization and cogging torque/torque ripple minimization. At optimum design from maximum developed torque aspect, this machine generates 0.65 Nm torque higher than that of the not-optimized design with an almost 0.4 % improvement in efficiency.

Keywords: Optimization, Finite Element Analysis, FSPM, laminated segmented rotor flux switching permanent magnet machine

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796 Investigating the Factors Affecting Generalization of Deep Learning Models for Plant Disease Detection

Authors: Praveen S. Muthukumarana, Achala C. Aponso

Abstract:

A large percentage of global crop harvest is lost due to crop diseases. Timely identification and treatment of crop diseases is difficult in many developing nations due to insufficient trained professionals in the field of agriculture. Many crop diseases can be accurately diagnosed by visual symptoms. In the past decade, deep learning has been successfully utilized in domains such as healthcare but adoption in agriculture for plant disease detection is rare. The literature shows that models trained with popular datasets such as PlantVillage does not generalize well on real world images. This paper attempts to find out how to make plant disease identification models that generalize well with real world images.

Keywords: Agriculture, Deep learning, Plant disease diagnosis, convolutional neural network, plant disease classification, plant disease detection

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795 Distributed Energy System - Microgrid Integration of Hybrid Power Systems

Authors: Pedro Esteban

Abstract:

Planning a hybrid power system (HPS) that integrates renewable generation sources, non-renewable generation sources and energy storage, involves determining the capacity and size of various components to be used in the system to be able to supply reliable electricity to the connected load as required. Nowadays it is very common to integrate solar photovoltaic (PV) power plants for renewable generation as part of HPS. The solar PV system is usually balanced via a second form of generation (renewable such as wind power or using fossil fuels such as a diesel generator) or an energy storage system (such as a battery bank). Hybrid power systems can also provide other forms of power such as heat for some applications. Modern hybrid power systems combine power generation and energy storage technologies together with real-time energy management and innovative power quality and energy efficiency improvement functionalities. These systems help customers achieve targets for clean energy generation, they add flexibility to the electrical grid, and they optimize the installation by improving its power quality and energy efficiency.

Keywords: energy storage, ​Hybrid Power Systems, microgrids, grid code compliance

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794 Design and Simulation of Variable Air Volume Air Conditioning System Based on Improved Sliding Mode Control

Authors: Ahmad Irfan, Abbas Anser

Abstract:

The main purpose of the VAV (Variable Air Volume) in Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system is to reduce energy consumption and make the buildings comfortable for the occupants. For better performance of the air conditioning system, different control techniques have been developed. In this paper, an Improved Sliding Mode Control (ISMC), based on Power Rate Exponential Reaching Law (PRERL), has been implemented on a VAV air conditioning system. Through the proposed technique, fast response and robustness have been achieved. To verify the efficacy of ISMC, a comparison of the suggested control technique has been made with Exponential Reaching Law (ERL) based SMC. And secondly, chattering, which is unfavorable as it deteriorates the mechanical parts of the air conditioning system by the continuous movement of the mechanical parts and consequently it increases the energy loss in the air conditioning system, has been alleviated. MATLAB/SIMULINK results show the effectiveness of the utilized scheme, which ensures the enhancement of the energy efficiency of the VAV air conditioning system.

Keywords: HVAC, PID, feedback linearization, SMC, chattering, PRERL, VAV

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793 Cost Benefit Analysis: Evaluation among the Millimetre Wavebands and SHF Bands of Small Cell 5G Networks

Authors: Emanuel Teixeira, Anderson Ramos, Marisa Lourenco, Fernando J. Velez, Jon M. Peha

Abstract:

This article discusses the benefit cost analysis aspects of millimetre wavebands (mmWaves) and Super High Frequency (SHF). The devaluation along the distance of the carrier-to-noise-plus-interference ratio with the coverage distance is assessed by considering two different path loss models, the two-slope urban micro Line-of-Sight (UMiLoS) for the SHF band and the modified Friis propagation model, for frequencies above 24 GHz. The equivalent supported throughput is estimated at the 5.62, 28, 38, 60 and 73 GHz frequency bands and the influence of carrier-to-noise-plus-interference ratio in the radio and network optimization process is explored. Mostly owing to the lessening caused by the behaviour of the two-slope propagation model for SHF band, the supported throughput at this band is higher than at the millimetre wavebands only for the longest cell lengths. The benefit cost analysis of these pico-cellular networks was analysed for regular cellular topologies, by considering the unlicensed spectrum. For shortest distances, we can distinguish an optimal of the revenue in percentage terms for values of the cell length, R ≈ 10 m for the millimeter wavebands and for longest distances an optimal of the revenue can be observed at R ≈ 550 m for the 5.62 GHz. It is possible to observe that, for the 5.62 GHz band, the profit is slightly inferior than for millimetre wavebands, for the shortest Rs, and starts to increase for cell lengths approximately equal to the ratio between the break-point distance and the co-channel reuse factor, achieving a maximum for values of R approximately equal to 550 m.

Keywords: Cost Benefit Analysis, SINR, millimetre wavebands, SHF band

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792 Performance Enrichment of Deep Feed Forward Neural Network and Deep Belief Neural Networks for Fault Detection of Automobile Gearbox Using Vibration Signal

Authors: T. Praveenkumar, Kulpreet Singh, Divy Bhanpuriya, M. Saimurugan

Abstract:

This study analysed the classification accuracy for gearbox faults using Machine Learning Techniques. Gearboxes are widely used for mechanical power transmission in rotating machines. Its rotating components such as bearings, gears, and shafts tend to wear due to prolonged usage, causing fluctuating vibrations. Increasing the dependability of mechanical components like a gearbox is hampered by their sealed design, which makes visual inspection difficult. One way of detecting impending failure is to detect a change in the vibration signature. The current study proposes various machine learning algorithms, with aid of these vibration signals for obtaining the fault classification accuracy of an automotive 4-Speed synchromesh gearbox. Experimental data in the form of vibration signals were acquired from a 4-Speed synchromesh gearbox using Data Acquisition System (DAQs). Statistical features were extracted from the acquired vibration signal under various operating conditions. Then the extracted features were given as input to the algorithms for fault classification. Supervised Machine Learning algorithms such as Support Vector Machines (SVM) and unsupervised algorithms such as Deep Feed Forward Neural Network (DFFNN), Deep Belief Networks (DBN) algorithms are used for fault classification. The fusion of DBN & DFFNN classifiers were architected to further enhance the classification accuracy and to reduce the computational complexity. The fault classification accuracy for each algorithm was thoroughly studied, tabulated, and graphically analysed for fused and individual algorithms. In conclusion, the fusion of DBN and DFFNN algorithm yielded the better classification accuracy and was selected for fault detection due to its faster computational processing and greater efficiency.

Keywords: Fault diagnosis, DBN, vibration signal, deep belief networks, deep feed forward neural network, DFFNN, fusion of algorithm

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791 Design, Analysis and Construction of a 250vac 8amps Arc Welding Machine

Authors: Austin Ikechukwu Gbasouzor, Anthony Okechukwu Ifediniru, Isidore Uche Uju

Abstract:

This article is centered on the design, analysis, construction, and test of a locally made arc welding machine that operates on 250vac with 8 amp output taps ranging from 60vac to 250vac at a fixed frequency, which is of benefit to urban areas; while considering its cost-effectiveness, strength, portability, and mobility. The welding machine uses a power supply to create an electric arc between an electrode and the metal at the welding point. A current selector coil needed for current selection is connected to the primary winding. Electric power is supplied to the primary winding of its transformer and is transferred to the secondary winding by induction. The voltage and current output of the secondary winding are connected to the output terminal, which is used to carry out welding work. The output current of the machine ranges from 110amps for low current welding to 250amps for high current welding. The machine uses a step-down transformer configuration for stepping down the voltage in order to obtain a high current level for effective welding. The welder can adjust the output current within a certain range. This allows the welder to properly set the output current for the type of welding that is being performed. The constructed arc welding machine was tested by connecting the work piece to it. Since there was no shock or spark from the transformer’s laminated core and was successfully used to join metals, it confirmed and validated the design.

Keywords: DC current, AC current, transformer, welds, arc welding machine

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790 Deployment of Beyond 4G Wireless Communication Networks with Carrier Aggregation

Authors: Fernando J. Velez, Bahram Khan

Abstract:

With the growing demand for new blend of applications, the user's dependency on the internet is increasing day by day. Mobile internet users are giving more attention to their own experience, especially in terms of communication reliability, high data rate, and service stability on the move. This increase in the demand is causing saturation of existing radio frequency bands. To address these challenges, many researchers are finding the best approach, Carrier Aggregation (CA) is one of the newest innovations which seems to fulfil the demands of future spectrum, CA is one the most important feature for Long Term Evolution-Advanced. In direction to get the upcoming International Mobile Telecommunication Advanced (IMT-Advanced) mobile requirements 1 Gb/s peak data rate, the CA scheme is presented by 3GPP to sustain high data rate using widespread frequency bandwidth up to 100 MHz. Technical issues containing the aggregation structure, its implementation, deployment scenarios, control signal technique, and challenges for CA technique in LTE-Advanced, with consideration backward compatibility, are highlighted. Performance evaluation in macrocellular scenarios through a simulation approach shows the benefits of applying CA and low-complexity multi-band schedulers in service quality and system capacity enhancement. The enhanced multi-band scheduler is less complex than the general multi-band scheduler and performs better for cell radius, longer than 1800 m (and a PLR threshold of 2%).

Keywords: Scheduling, LTE-Advanced, carrier aggregation, component carrier

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789 High Frequency Memristor-Based BFSK and 8QAM Demodulators

Authors: Ahmed Khalil, Nahla Elazab, Mohamed Aboudina, Ghada Ibrahim, Hossam Fahmy

Abstract:

This paper presents the developed memristor based demodulators for eight circular Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) and Binary Frequency Shift Keying (BFSK) operating at relatively high frequency. In our implementations, the experimental-based ‘nonlinear’ dopant drift model is adopted along with the proposed circuits providing incorporation of all known non-idealities of practically realized memristor and gaining high operation frequency. The suggested designs leverage the distinctive characteristics of the memristor device, definitely, its changeable average memristance versus the frequency, phase and amplitude of the periodic excitation input. The proposed demodulators feature small integration area, low power consumption, and easy implementation. Moreover, the proposed QAM demodulator precludes the requirement for the carrier recovery circuits. In doing so, the designs were validated by transient simulations using the nonlinear dopant drift memristor model. The simulations results show high agreement with the theory presented.

Keywords: QAM, demodulator, BFSK, high frequency memristor applications, memristor based analog circuits, nonlinear dopant drift model

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788 The Role of Access Control Techniques in Creating a Safe Cyberspace for Children

Authors: Sara Muslat Alsahali, Nout Mohammed Alqahtani

Abstract:

Digital technology has changed the world, and with the increasing number of children accessing the Internet, it has now become an integral part of children's lives from their early years. With the rapid development of digital technology, the risks children face on the internet also evolve from cyberbullying to misuse, sexual exploitation, and abuse of their private information over the Internet. Digital technology, with its advantages and disadvantages, is now a fact of our life. Therefore, knowledge of how to reduce its risks and maximize its benefits will help shape the growth and future of a new generation of digital citizens. This paper will discuss access control techniques that help to create secure cyberspace where children can be safe without depriving them of their rights and freedom to use the internet and preventing them from its benefits. Also, it sheds light on its challenges and problems by classifying the methods of parental controlling into two possibilities asynchronous and synchronous techniques and choosing YouTube as a case study of access control techniques.

Keywords: Access control, Cyber Security, kids, parental monitoring

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787 Control the Flow of Big Data

Authors: Shizra Waris, Saleem Akhtar

Abstract:

Big data is a research area receiving attention from academia and IT communities. In the digital world, the amounts of data produced and stored have within a short period of time. Consequently this fast increasing rate of data has created many challenges. In this paper, we use functionalism and structuralism paradigms to analyze the genesis of big data applications and its current trends. This paper presents a complete discussion on state-of-the-art big data technologies based on group and stream data processing. Moreover, strengths and weaknesses of these technologies are analyzed. This study also covers big data analytics techniques, processing methods, some reported case studies from different vendor, several open research challenges and the chances brought about by big data. The similarities and differences of these techniques and technologies based on important limitations are also investigated. Emerging technologies are suggested as a solution for big data problems.

Keywords: Computer, Big Data, Industry, it community

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786 Leveraging Li-Fi to Enhance Security and Performance of Medical Devices

Authors: David Coleman, Trevor Kroeger, Hayden Williams, Edward Holzinger, Brian Haberman

Abstract:

The network connectivity of medical devices is increasing at a rapid rate. Many medical devices, such as vital sign monitors, share information via wireless or wired connections. However, these connectivity options suffer from a variety of well-known limitations. Wireless connectivity, especially in the unlicensed radio frequency bands, can be disrupted. Such disruption could be due to benign reasons, such as a crowded spectrum, or to malicious intent. While wired connections are less susceptible to interference, they inhibit the mobility of the medical devices, which could be critical in a variety of scenarios. This work explores the application of Light Fidelity (Li-Fi) communication to enhance the security, performance, and mobility of medical devices in connected healthcare scenarios. A simple bridge for connected devices serves as an avenue to connect traditional medical devices to the Li-Fi network. This bridge was utilized to conduct bandwidth tests on a small Li-Fi network installed into a Mock-ICU setting with a backend enterprise network similar to that of a hospital. Mobile and stationary tests were conducted to replicate various different situations that might occur within a hospital setting. Results show that in room Li-Fi connectivity provides reasonable bandwidth and latency within a hospital like setting.

Keywords: Security, Medical devices, hospital, Light Fidelity, Li-Fi

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785 Lightning Protection Design Applied to Sustainable Development

Authors: T. Nowicki, Sylvain Fauveaux

Abstract:

Lightning protection is nowadays applied worldwide since the advent of international standards. Lightning protection is widely justified by the casualties and damages involved. As a matter of fact, the lightning business is constantly growing as more and more sensible areas need to be protected. However, the worldwide demand of copper materiel is increasing as well, its price too. Furthermore, the most frequently used method of protection is consuming a lot of copper. The copper production is also consuming a large amount of natural and power resources, not to mention the ecologic balance.

Keywords: Sustainable Development, Natural Resources Management, lightning protection, ESEAT, NF C 17-102

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784 Safety Risks of Gaseous Toxic Compounds Released from Li Batteries

Authors: Jan Karl, Ondřej Suchý, Eliška Fišerová, František Skácel

Abstract:

The evolving electromobility and all the electronics also bring an increase of danger with used Li-batteries. Li-batteries have been used in many industries, and currently many types of the batteries are available. Batteries have different compositions that affect their behavior. In the field of Li-battery safety, there are some areas of little discussion, such as extinguishing of fires caused by Li-batteries as well as toxicity of gaseous compounds released from Li batteries, transport or storage. Technical Institute of Fire Protection, which is a part of Fire Brigades of the Czech Republic, is dealing with the safety of Li batteries. That is the reason why we are dealing with toxicity of gaseous compounds released under conditions of fire, mechanical damage, overcharging and other emergencies that may occur. This is necessary for protection of intervening of fire brigade units, people in the vicinity and other envirnomental consequences. In this work, different types of batteries (Li-ion, Li-Po, LTO, LFP) with different kind of damage were tested, and the toxicity and total amount of released gases were studied. These values were evaluated according to their environmental hazard. FTIR spectroscopy was used for the evaluation of toxicity. We used a FTIR gas cell for continuous measurement. The total amount of released gases was determined by collecting the total gas phase through the absorbers and then determining the toxicants absorbed into the solutions. Based on the obtained results, it is possible to determine the protective equipment necessary for the event of an emergency with a Li-battery, to define the environmental load and the immediate danger in an emergency.

Keywords: Toxicity, FTIR spectroscopy, Li-battery, gaseous toxic compounds

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783 An Algorithm for Preventing the Irregular Operation Modes of the Drive Synchronous Motor Providing the Ore Grinding

Authors: Baghdasaryan Marinka

Abstract:

The current scientific and engineering interest concerning the problems of preventing the emergency manifestations of drive synchronous motors, ensuring the ore grinding technological process has been justified. The analysis of the known works devoted to the abnormal operation modes of synchronous motors and possibilities of protection against them, has shown that their application is inexpedient for preventing the impermissible displays arising in the electrical drive synchronous motors ensuring the ore-grinding process. The main energy and technological factors affecting the technical condition of synchronous motors are evaluated. An algorithm for preventing the irregular operation modes of the electrical drive synchronous motor applied in the ore-grinding technological process has been developed and proposed for further application which gives an opportunity to provide smart solutions, ensuring the safe operation of the drive synchronous motor by a comprehensive consideration of the energy and technological factors.

Keywords: Algorithm, Synchronous Motor, electric drive, abnormal operating mode, energy factor, technological factor

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782 Non-Contact Characterization of Standard Liquids Using Waveguide at 12.4 to18 Ghz Frequency Span

Authors: Kasra Khorsand-Kazemi, Bianca Vizcaino, Mandeep Chhajer Jain, Maryam Moradpour

Abstract:

This work presents an approach to characterize a non- contact microwave sensor using waveguides for different standard liquids such as ethanol, methanol and 2-propanol (Isopropyl Alcohol). Wideband waveguides operating between 12.4GHz to 18 GHz form the core of the sensing structure. Waveguides are sensitive to changes in conductivity of the sample under test (SUT), making them an ideal tool to characterize different polar liquids. As conductivity of the sample under test increase, the loss tangent of the material increase, thereby decreasing the S21 (dB) response of the waveguide. Among all the standard liquids measured, methanol exhibits the highest conductivity and 2-Propanol exhibits the lowest. The cutoff frequency measured for ethanol, 2-propanol, and methanol are 10.28 GHz, 10.32 GHz, and 10.38 GHz respectively. The measured results can be correlated with the loss tangent results of the standard liquid measured using the dielectric probe. This conclusively enables us to characterize different liquids using waveguides expanding the potential future applications in domains ranging from water quality management to bio-medical, chemistry and agriculture.

Keywords: non-contact sensing, waveguides, Microwave sensors, Standard liquids characterization

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781 Design a Small-Scale Irrigation Wind-Powered Water Pump Using a Savonius Type VAWT

Authors: Getnet Ayele Kebede, Tasew Tadiwose Zewdie

Abstract:

In this study, a novel design of a wind-powered water pump for small-scale irrigation application by using the Savonius wind turbine of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine(VAWT) with 2 blades has been used. Calculations have been made on the energy available in the wind and an energy analysis was then performed to see what wind speed is required for the system to work. The rotor has a radius of 0.53 m giving a swept area of 1.27 m2 and this gives a solidity of 0.5, which is the minimum theoretical optimum value for wind turbine. The average extracted torque of the wind turbine is 0.922 Nm and Tip speed ratio is one this shows, the tips are moving at equal the speed of the wind and by 2 rotating of blades. This is sufficient to sustain the desired flow rate of (0.3125X 10-3) m3 per second with a maximum head of 10m and the expected working is 4hr/day, and also overcome other barriers to motion such as friction. Based on this novel design, we are able to achieve a cost-effective solution and simultaneously effective in self-starting under low wind speeds and it can catch the wind from all directions.

Keywords: Savonius wind turbine, vertical axis wind turbine, water pump, Small-scale irrigation

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780 A Comparative Study of Global Power Grids and Global Fossil Energy Pipelines Using GIS Technology

Authors: Wenhao Wang, Xinzhi Xu, Limin Feng, Wei Cong

Abstract:

This paper comprehensively investigates current development status of global power grids and fossil energy pipelines (oil and natural gas), proposes a standard visual platform of global power and fossil energy based on Geographic Information System (GIS) technology. In this visual platform, a series of systematic visual models is proposed with global spatial data, systematic energy and power parameters. Under this visual platform, the current Global Power Grids Map and Global Fossil Energy Pipelines Map are plotted within more than 140 countries and regions across the world. Using the multi-scale fusion data processing and modeling methods, the world’s global fossil energy pipelines and power grids information system basic database is established, which provides important data supporting global fossil energy and electricity research. Finally, through the systematic and comparative study of global fossil energy pipelines and global power grids, the general status of global fossil energy and electricity development are reviewed, and energy transition in key areas are evaluated and analyzed. Through the comparison analysis of fossil energy and clean energy, the direction of relevant research is pointed out for clean development and energy transition.

Keywords: Power Systems, Geographic Information System, Fossil energy, Energy Transition

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