Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 871

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Electrical and Computer Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

871 Internet of Things based AquaSwach Water Purifier

Authors: Karthiyayini J., Arpita Chowdary Vantipalli, Darshana Sailu Tanti, Malvika Ravi Kudari, Krtin Kannan


This paper is propelled from the generally existing undertaking of the smart water quality management, which addresses an IoT (Internet of things) based brilliant water quality observing (SWQM) framework which we call it AquaSwach that guides in the ceaseless estimation of water conditions dependent on five actual boundaries i.e., temperature, pH, electric conductivity and turbidity properties and water virtue estimation each time you drink water. Six sensors relate to Arduino-Mega in a discrete way to detect the water parameters. Extracted data from the sensors are transmitted to a desktop application developed in the NET platform and compared with the WHO (World Health Organization) standard values.

Keywords: AquaSwach, IoT, WHO, water quality

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870 NB-IoT: Status and Outlook of 5G Prospects of Intelligent Program in Supply Chain Management

Authors: S. Sreeparnesh Sharma, Sathish Kumar Ravichandran


The research's relevance is based on the notion that the contemporary economy evolves swiftly. In response to consumer demands and technological progress: Robotic systems, Digital technologies, IT, Industrial automation, AR and VR technologies etc. These characteristics are referred to as the Digital Economy or Industry 4.0. It raises consumer expectations for service level and timely delivery, which adds a whole slew of requirements to Supply Chain Management (SCM). The 5G development has been meticulously planned, with a series of simultaneous releases moving at a breakneck pace. Nonetheless, even for seasoned wireless experts, 5G may be confounding due to the jumble of terminology, the confusion of wireless standards with wireless technologies, and the relentless media hoopla around 5G. Narrowband internet of things (NB-IoT) is a relatively new technology with the broader network coverage. The proposed solution on the impact of 5G on NB-IoT demonstrates the true value enhancer with its ultra-low-cost, easy implementation, interoperability with various networks, low energy consumption, and intelligent data analysis feature is ideal for temperature-sensitive end-to-end supply chain monitoring. This article discusses the status and outlook of 5G issues confronting the SCM industry, defines NB-IoT in SCM, and discovers that NB-IoT-based SCM sits in the center of customer IoT and industrial IoT. The paper's contents are relevant to the role of 5G and Internet of Things applications in SCM.

Keywords: narrow band internet of things, 5G, supply chain management, industry 4.0, networks, internet of things

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869 A Low Power and High-Speed Conditional-Precharge Sense Amplifier Based Flip-Flop Using Single Ended Latch

Authors: Guo-Ming Sung, Ramavath Naga Raju Naik


This paper presents a low power, high speed, sense-amplifier based flip-flop (SAFF). The flip-flop’s power con-sumption and delay are greatly reduced by employing a new conditionally precharge sense-amplifier stage and a single-ended latch stage. Glitch-free and contention-free latch operation is achieved by using a conditional cut-off strategy. The design uses fewer transistors, has a lower clock load, and has a simple structure, all of which contribute to a near-zero setup time. When compared to previous flip-flop structures proposed for similar input/output conditions, this design’s performance and overall PDP have improved. The post layout simulation of the circuit uses 2.91µW of power and has a delay of 65.82 ps. Overall, the power-delay product has seen some enhancements. Cadence Virtuoso Designing tool with CMOS 90nm technology are used for all designs.

Keywords: high-speed, low-power, flip-flop, sense-amplifier

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868 Lockit: A Logic Locking Automation Software

Authors: Nemanja Kajtez, Yue Zhan, Basel Halak


The significant rise in the cost of manufacturing of nanoscale integrated circuits (IC) has led the majority of IC design companies to outsource the fabrication of their products to other companies, often located in different countries. This multinational nature of the hardware supply chain has led to a host of security threats, including IP piracy, IC overproduction, and Trojan insertion. To combat that, researchers have proposed logic locking techniques to protect the intellectual properties of the design and increase the difficulty of malicious modification of its functionality. However, the adoption of logic locking approaches is rather slow due to the lack of the integration with IC production process and the lack of efficacy of existing algorithms. This work automates the logic locking process by developing software using Python that performs the locking on a gate-level netlist and can be integrated with the existing digital synthesis tools. Analysis of the latest logic locking algorithms has demonstrated that the SFLL-HD algorithm is one of the most secure and versatile in trading-off levels of protection against different types of attacks and was thus selected for implementation. The presented tool can also be expanded to incorporate the latest locking mechanisms to keep up with the fast-paced development in this field. The paper also presents a case study to demonstrate the functionality of the tool and how it could be used to explore the design space and compare different locking solutions. The source code of this tool is available freely from (

Keywords: design automation, hardware security, IP piracy, logic locking

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867 On the Use of Machine Learning for Tamper Detection

Authors: Basel Halak, Christian Hall, Syed Abdul Father, Nelson Chow Wai Kit, Ruwaydah Widaad Raymode


The attack surface on computing devices is becoming very sophisticated, driven by the sheer increase of interconnected devices, reaching 50B in 2025, which makes it easier for adversaries to have direct access and perform well-known physical attacks. The impact of increased security vulnerability of electronic systems is exacerbated for devices that are part of the critical infrastructure or those used in military applications, where the likelihood of being targeted is very high. This continuously evolving landscape of security threats calls for a new generation of defense methods that are equally effective and adaptive. This paper proposes an intelligent defense mechanism to protect from physical tampering, it consists of a tamper detection system enhanced with machine learning capabilities, which allows it to recognize normal operating conditions, classify known physical attacks and identify new types of malicious behaviors. A prototype of the proposed system has been implemented, and its functionality has been successfully verified for two types of normal operating conditions and further four forms of physical attacks. In addition, a systematic threat modeling analysis and security validation was carried out, which indicated the proposed solution provides better protection against including information leakage, loss of data, and disruption of operation.

Keywords: anti-tamper, hardware, machine learning, physical security, embedded devices, ioT

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866 Recent Developments in the Internal Arc Test Standard IEC 62271-200 for Switchgear Assemblies

Authors: Rajaramamohanarao Chennu, S. Sudhakara Reddy, Gurudev T, Maroti


With the invent of recent available technology and cost optimization, the switchgear assemblies are becoming more compact and designed to operate at critical levels of thermal and dielectric stress. At the same time, the switchgear assemblies shall be designed for protection of persons, met in the event of internal arc for specified installation conditions, according to the latest available national/international standards. These standards are revising regularly for better product design and personal safety. The switchgear assemblies design shall be modified in accordance with the change in requirements in the latest edition of the standards. This paper presents the signifying changes brought in the latest edition of 62271-200:2021 and effect of these changes and the necessitated design improvements for meeting internal arc test requirements is presented by carrying out the internal arc testing experiments on the switchgear assemblies at High Power Laboratory, Central Power Research Institute, Bangalore, India.

Keywords: internal arc, switchgear assembly, high speed videography, IEC 62271-200

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865 A Survey on Important Factors of the Ethereum Network Performance

Authors: Ali Mohammad Mobaser Azad, Alireza Akhlaghinia


Blockchain is changing our world and launching a new generation of decentralized networks. Meanwhile, Blockchain-based networks like Ethereum have been created and they will facilitate these processes using tools like smart contracts. The Ethereum has fundamental structures, each of which affects the activity of the nodes. Our purpose in this paper is to review similar research and examine various components to demonstrate the performance of the Ethereum network and to do this, and we used the data published by the Ethereum Foundation in different time spots to examine the number of changes that determine the status of network performance. This will help other researchers understand better Ethereum in different situations.

Keywords: blockchain, ethereum, smart contract, decentralization consensus algorithm

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864 Variable Shunt Reactors for Reactive Power Compensation of HV Subsea Cables

Authors: Saeed A. AlGhamdi, Nabil Habli, Vinoj Somasanran


This paper presents an application of 230 kV Variable Shunt Reactors (VSR) used to compensate reactive power of dual 90 KM subsea cables. VSR integrates an on-load tap changer (OLTC) that adjusts reactive power compensation to maintain acceptable bus voltages under variable load profile and network configuration. An automatic voltage regulator (AVR) or a power management system (PMS) that allows VSR rating to be changed in discrete steps typically controls the OLTC. Typical regulation range start as minimum as 20% up to 100% and are available for systems up to 550kV. The regulation speed is normally in the order of seconds per step and approximately a minute from maximum to minimum rating. VSR can be bus or line connected depending on line/cable length and compensation requirements. The flexible reactive compensation ranges achieved by recent VSR technologies have enabled newer facilities design to deploy line connected VSR through either disconnect switches, which saves space and cost, or through circuit breakers. Lines with VSR are typically energized with lower taps (reduced reactive compensation) to minimize or remove the presence of delayed zero crossing.

Keywords: power management, reactive power, subsea cables, variable shunt reactors

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863 Energy Management System with Temperature Rise Prevention on Hybrid Ships

Authors: Asser S. Abdelwahab, Nabil H. Abbasy, Ragi A. Hamdy


Marine shipping has now become one of the major worldwide contributors to pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. Hybrid ships technology based on multiple energy sources has taken a great scope of research to get rid of ship emissions and cut down fuel expenses. Insufficiency between power generated and the demand load to withstand the transient behavior on ships during severe climate conditions will lead to a blackout. Thus, an efficient energy management system (EMS) is a mandatory scope for achieving higher system efficiency while enhancing the lifetime of the onboard storage systems is another salient EMS scope. Considering energy storage system conditions, both the battery state of charge (SOC) and temperature represent important parameters to prevent any malfunction of the storage system that eventually degrades the whole system. In this paper, a two battery packs ratio fuzzy logic control model is proposed. The overall aim is to control the charging/discharging current while including both the battery SOC and temperature in the energy management system. The full designs of the proposed controllers are described and simulated using Matlab. The results prove the successfulness of the proposed controller in stabilizing the system voltage during both loading and unloading while keeping the energy storage system in a healthy condition.

Keywords: energy storage system, power shipboard, hybrid ship, thermal runaway

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862 Advanced Electric Motor Design Using Hollow Conductors for Maximizing Power, Density and Degree of Efficiency

Authors: Michael Naderer, Manuel Hartong, Raad Al-Kinani


The use of hollow conductors is known in electric generators of large MW scale. The application of motors of small scale between 50 and 200kW is new. The latest results in the practical application and set up of machines show that the power density can be raised significantly and the common problem of derating of the motors is prevented. Furthermore, new design dimensions can be realised as continuous current densities up to 75A/mm² are achievable. This paper shows the results of the application of hollow conductors for a motor design used for automotive traction machines comparing common coolings with hollow conductor cooling.

Keywords: degree of efficiency, electric motor design, hollow conductors, power density

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861 Text Mining to Discover Design Features for Cybersecurity Tools: The Case of Password Management Systems

Authors: Yazan Alshboul


Username and password are the most common authentication approach used today in cybersecurity. Most people have more than one online account protected by passwords. Managing passwords is one of the daunting tasks for most people. Therefore, users may rely on password management systems PMS to help create, manage, retrieve, and store passwords. However, there is still a lack of relying on and using such systems to manage users’ passwords. This study aims to use a text mining approach to investigate the factors that influence users’ behavior to use PMSs, which leads to improving their security. This study adopts a text mining approach to uncover the design principles (features) of PMSs extracted from online users reviews and feedbacks to improve the adoption of PMSs. Specifically, our study used topic modeling to analyze users’ feedback by collecting and analyzing the reviews of nine password management systems. The results indicate the need to address principles and design features related to compatibility, security, ease of use, and customer care services.

Keywords: password, password management systems, PMS, design principles, software features authentication

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860 Smartphone-Based Human Activity Recognition by Machine Learning Methods

Authors: Yanting Cao, Kazumitsu Nawata


As smartphones upgrading, their software and hardware are getting smarter, so the smartphone-based human activity recognition will be described as more refined, complex, and detailed. In this context, we analyzed a set of experimental data obtained by observing and measuring 30 volunteers with six activities of daily living (ADL). Due to the large sample size, especially a 561-feature vector with time and frequency domain variables, cleaning these intractable features and training a proper model becomes extremely challenging. After a series of feature selection and parameters adjustment, a well-performed SVM classifier has been trained.

Keywords: smart sensors, human activity recognition, artificial intelligence, SVM

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859 Extremely Low-Frequency Magnetic Field; An Invisible Risk Association between High Power Transmission Lines and Childhood Leukemia and Adult Brain Cancer: Literature Review

Authors: Ali Azeem, Seung-Cheol Hong


This study focuses on the epidemiological association between childhood leukaemia & adult brain cancer to offer strong evidence that extremely low-frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF) produced from power lines caused cancer. It also gives a comprehensive literature review on epidemiological studies of ELF-MF risk associated with HVTL and childhood leukaemia & adult brain cancer. From the literature review, it is concluded that there is a weak association present between ELF-MF and childhood leukaemia. No consistent association was present between brain cancer and ELF-MF. This study is done on Scielo data and PubMed using the terms extremely low-frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF+cancer), adult brain cancer, high power transmission lines, etc., for the past 10 years.

Keywords: childhood leukaemia, high voltage transmission lines, acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, power lines

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858 Power Angle Control Strategy of Virtual Synchronous Machine: A Novel Approach to Control Virtual Synchronous Machine

Authors: Shishir Lamichhane, Saurav Dulal, Bibek Gautam, Madan Thapa Magar, Indraman Tamrakar


Renewable energies such as wind turbines and solar photovoltaic have gained significance as a result of global environmental pollution and energy crises. These sources of energy are converted into electrical energy and delivered to end-users through the utility system. As a result of the widespread use of power electronics-based grid-interfacing technologies to accommodate renewable sources of energy, the prevalence of converters has expanded as well. As a result, the power system's rotating inertia is decreasing, endangering the utility grid's stability. The use of Virtual Synchronous Machine (VSM) technology has been proposed to overcome the grid stability problem due to low rotating inertia. The grid-connected inverter used in VSM can be controlled to emulate inertia, which replicates the external features of a synchronous generator. As a result, the rotating inertia is increased to support the power system's stability. A power angle control strategy is proposed in this paper and its model is simulated in MATLAB/Simulink to study the effects of parameter disturbances on the active power and frequency for a VSM. The system consists of a synchronous generator, which is modeled in such a way that the frequency drops to an unacceptable region during transient conditions due to a lack of inertia when VSM is not used. Then, the suggested model incorporating VSM emulates rotating inertia, injecting a controllable amount of energy into the grid during frequency transients to enhance transient stability.

Keywords: damping constant, inertia–constant, ROCOF, transient stability, distributed sources

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857 A Sensor Placement Methodology for Chemical Plants

Authors: Omid Ataei Nia, Karim Salahshoor


In this paper, a new precise and reliable sensor network methodology is introduced for unit processes and operations using the Constriction Coefficient Particle Swarm Optimization (CPSO) method. CPSO is introduced as a new search engine for optimal sensor network design purposes. Furthermore, a Square Root Unscented Kalman Filter (SRUKF) algorithm is employed as a new data reconciliation technique to enhance the stability and accuracy of the filter. The proposed design procedure incorporates precision, cost, observability, reliability together with importance-of-variables (IVs) as a novel measure in Instrumentation Criteria (IC). To the best of our knowledge, no comprehensive approach has yet been proposed in the literature to take into account the importance of variables in the sensor network design procedure. In this paper, specific weight is assigned to each sensor, measuring a process variable in the sensor network to indicate the importance of that variable over the others to cater to the ultimate sensor network application requirements. A set of distinct scenarios has been conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed methodology in a simulated Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) as a highly nonlinear process plant benchmark. The obtained results reveal the efficacy of the proposed method, leading to significant improvement in accuracy with respect to other alternative sensor network design approaches and securing the definite allocation of sensors to the most important process variables in sensor network design as a novel achievement.

Keywords: constriction coefficient PSO, importance of variable, MRMSE, reliability, sensor network design, square root unscented Kalman filter

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856 Blockchain in Saudi E-Government: A Systematic Literature Review

Authors: Haitham Assiri, Priyadarsi Nanda


The world is gradually entering the fourth industrial revolution. E-Government services are scaling government operations across the globe. However, as promising as an e-Government system would be, it is also susceptible to malicious attacks if not properly secured. This study found out that, in Saudi Arabia, the e-Government website, Yesser is vulnerable to external attacks. Obviously, this can lead to a breach of data integrity and privacy. In this paper, a Systematic Literature Review was conducted to explore possible ways the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia can take necessary measures to strengthen its e-Government system using Blockchain. Blockchain is one of the emerging technologies shaping the world through its applications in finance, elections, healthcare, etc. It secures systems and brings more transparency. A total of 28 papers were selected for this SLR, and 19 of the papers significantly showed that blockchain could enhance the security and privacy of Saudi’s e-government system. Other papers also concluded that blockchain is effective, albeit with the integration of other technologies like IoT, AI and big data. These papers have been analysed to sieve out the findings and set the stage for future research into the subject.

Keywords: blockchain, data integrity, e-government, security threats

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855 Together - A Decentralized Application Connects Ideas and Investors

Authors: Chandragiri Nagadeep, M. V. V. S. Durga, Sadu Mahikshith


Future generation is depended on new ideas and innovations that develops the country economical growth and technology standards so, Startups plays an important role in satisfying above goals. Startups includes support which is given by investing into it by investors but, single digit investors can’t keep supporting one startup and lot of security problems occurs while transferring large funds to startup’s bank account. Targeting security and most supportive funding, TogEther solves these issues by providing a platform where “Crowd Funding” is available in a decentralized way such that funding is done with digital currency called cryptocurrency where transactions are done in a secured way using “Block Chain Technology”. Not only Funding but also Ideas along with their documents can be presented and hosted with help of IPFS (Inter Planetary File System).

Keywords: blockchain, ethereum, web3, reactjs, interplanetary file system, funding

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854 Estimation of Fourier Coefficients of Flux Density for Surface Mounted Permanent Magnet (SMPM) Generators by Direct Search Optimization

Authors: Ramakrishna Rao Mamidi


It is essential for Surface Mounted Permanent Magnet (SMPM) generators to determine the performance prediction and analyze the magnet’s air gap flux density wave shape. The flux density wave shape is neither a pure sine wave or square wave nor a combination. This is due to the variation of air gap reluctance between the stator and permanent magnets. The stator slot openings and the number of slots make the wave shape highly complicated. To reduce the complexity of analysis, approximations are made to the wave shape using Fourier analysis. In contrast to the traditional integration method, the Fourier coefficients, an and bn, are obtained by direct search method optimization. The wave shape with optimized coefficients gives a wave shape close to the desired wave shape. Harmonics amplitudes are worked out and compared with initial values. It can be concluded that the direct search method can be used for estimating Fourier coefficients for irregular wave shapes.

Keywords: direct search, flux plot, fourier analysis, permanent magnets

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853 Applying Biosensors’ Electromyography Signals through an Artificial Neural Network to Control a Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

Authors: Mylena McCoggle, Shyra Wilson, Andrea Rivera, Rocio Alba-Flores


This work introduces the use of EMGs (electromyography) from muscle sensors to develop an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) for pattern recognition to control a small unmanned aerial vehicle. The objective of this endeavor exhibits interfacing drone applications beyond manual control directly. MyoWare Muscle sensor contains three EMG electrodes (dual and single type) used to collect signals from the posterior (extensor) and anterior (flexor) forearm and the bicep. Collection of raw voltages from each sensor were connected to an Arduino Uno and a data processing algorithm was developed with the purpose of interpreting the voltage signals given when performing flexing, resting, and motion of the arm. Each sensor collected eight values over a two-second period for the duration of one minute, per assessment. During each two-second interval, the movements were alternating between a resting reference class and an active motion class, resulting in controlling the motion of the drone with left and right movements. This paper further investigated adding up to three sensors to differentiate between hand gestures to control the principal motions of the drone (left, right, up, and land). The hand gestures chosen to execute these movements were: a resting position, a thumbs up, a hand swipe right motion, and a flexing position. The MATLAB software was utilized to collect, process, and analyze the signals from the sensors. The protocol (machine learning tool) was used to classify the hand gestures. To generate the input vector to the ANN, the mean, root means squared, and standard deviation was processed for every two-second interval of the hand gestures. The neuromuscular information was then trained using an artificial neural network with one hidden layer of 10 neurons to categorize the four targets, one for each hand gesture. Once the machine learning training was completed, the resulting network interpreted the processed inputs and returned the probabilities of each class. Based on the resultant probability of the application process, once an output was greater or equal to 80% of matching a specific target class, the drone would perform the motion expected. Afterward, each movement was sent from the computer to the drone through a Wi-Fi network connection. These procedures have been successfully tested and integrated into trial flights, where the drone has responded successfully in real-time to predefined command inputs with the machine learning algorithm through the MyoWare sensor interface. The full paper will describe in detail the database of the hand gestures, the details of the ANN architecture, and confusion matrices results.

Keywords: artificial neural network, biosensors, electromyography, machine learning, MyoWare muscle sensors, Arduino

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852 Multiperson Drone Control with Seamless Pilot Switching Using Onboard Camera and Openpose Real-Time Keypoint Detection

Authors: Evan Lowhorn, Rocio Alba-Flores


Traditional classification Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) attempt to classify an image in its entirety. This becomes problematic when trying to perform classification with a drone’s camera in real-time due to unpredictable backgrounds. Object detectors with bounding boxes can be used to isolate individuals and other items, but the original backgrounds remain within these boxes. These basic detectors have been regularly used to determine what type of object an item is, such as “person” or “dog.” Recent advancement in computer vision, particularly with human imaging, is keypoint detection. Human keypoint detection goes beyond bounding boxes to fully isolate humans and plot points, or Regions of Interest (ROI), on their bodies within an image. ROIs can include shoulders, elbows, knees, heads, etc. These points can then be related to each other and used in deep learning methods such as pose estimation. For drone control based on human motions, poses, or signals using the onboard camera, it is important to have a simple method for pilot identification among multiple individuals while also giving the pilot fine control options for the drone. To achieve this, the OpenPose keypoint detection network was used with body and hand keypoint detection enabled. OpenPose supports the ability to combine multiple keypoint detection methods in real-time with a single network. Body keypoint detection allows simple poses to act as the pilot identifier. The hand keypoint detection with ROIs for each finger can then offer a greater variety of signal options for the pilot once identified. For this work, the individual must raise their non-control arm to be identified as the operator and send commands with the hand on their other arm. The drone ignores all other individuals in the onboard camera feed until the current operator lowers their non-control arm. When another individual wish to operate the drone, they simply raise their arm once the current operator relinquishes control, and then they can begin controlling the drone with their other hand. This is all performed mid-flight with no landing or script editing required. When using a desktop with a discrete NVIDIA GPU, the drone’s 2.4 GHz Wi-Fi connection combined with OpenPose restrictions to only body and hand allows this control method to perform as intended while maintaining the responsiveness required for practical use.

Keywords: computer vision, drone control, keypoint detection, openpose

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851 Non-intrusive Hand Control of Drone Using an Inexpensive and Streamlined Convolutional Neural Network Approach

Authors: Evan Lowhorn, Rocio Alba-Flores


The purpose of this work is to develop a method for classifying hand signals and using the output in a drone control algorithm. To achieve this, methods based on Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) were applied. CNN's are a subset of deep learning, which allows grid-like inputs to be processed and passed through a neural network to be trained for classification. This type of neural network allows for classification via imaging, which is less intrusive than previous methods using biosensors, such as EMG sensors. Classification CNN's operate purely from the pixel values in an image; therefore they can be used without additional exteroceptive sensors. A development bench was constructed using a desktop computer connected to a high-definition webcam mounted on a scissor arm. This allowed the camera to be pointed downwards at the desk to provide a constant solid background for the dataset and a clear detection area for the user. A MATLAB script was created to automate dataset image capture at the development bench and save the images to the desktop. This allowed the user to create their own dataset of 12,000 images within three hours. These images were evenly distributed among seven classes. The defined classes include forward, backward, left, right, idle, and land. The drone has a popular flip function which was also included as an additional class. To simplify control, the corresponding hand signals chosen were the numerical hand signs for one through five for movements, a fist for land, and the universal “ok” sign for the flip command. Transfer learning with PyTorch (Python) was performed using a pre-trained 18-layer residual learning network (ResNet-18) to retrain the network for custom classification. An algorithm was created to interpret the classification and send encoded messages to a Ryze Tello drone over its 2.4 GHz Wi-Fi connection. The drone’s movements were performed in half-meter distance increments at a constant speed. When combined with the drone control algorithm, the classification performed as desired with negligible latency when compared to the delay in the drone’s movement commands.

Keywords: classification, computer vision, convolutional neural networks, drone control

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850 Comparative Analysis of Hybrid and Non-hybrid Cooled 185 KW High-Speed Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine for Air Suspension Blower

Authors: Usman Abubakar, Xiaoyuan Wang, Sayyed Haleem Shah, Sadiq Ur Rahman, Rabiu Saleh Zakariyya


High-speed Permanent magnet synchronous machine (HSPMSM) uses in different industrial applications like blowers, compressors as a result of its superb performance. Nevertheless, the over-temperature rise of both winding and PM is one of their substantial problem for a high-power HSPMSM, which affects its lifespan and performance. According to the literature, HSPMSM with a Hybrid cooling configuration has a much lower temperature rise than non-hybrid cooling. This paper presents the design 185kW, 26K rpm with two different cooling configurations, i.e., hybrid cooling configuration (forced air and housing spiral water jacket) and non-hybrid (forced air cooling assisted with winding’s potting material and sleeve’s material) to enhance the heat dissipation of winding and PM respectively. Firstly, the machine’s electromagnetic design is conducted by the finite element method to accurately account for machine losses. Then machine’s cooling configurations are introduced, and their effectiveness is validated by lumped parameter thermal network (LPTN). Investigation shows that using potting, sleeve materials to assist non-hybrid cooling configuration makes the machine’s winding and PM temperature closer to hybrid cooling configuration. Therefore, the machine with non-hybrid cooling is prototyped and tested due to its simplicity, lower energy consumption and can still maintain the lifespan and performance of the HSPMSM.

Keywords: airflow network, axial ventilation, high-speed PMSM, thermal network

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849 Dielectric Recovery Characteristics of High Voltage Gas Circuit Breakers Operating with CO₂ Mixture

Authors: Peng Lu, Branimir Radisavljevic, Martin Seeger, Daniel Over, Torsten Votteler, Bernardo Galletti


CO₂-based gas mixtures exhibit huge potential as the interruption medium for replacing SF₆ in high voltage switchgears. In this paper, the recovery characteristics of dielectric strength of CO₂-O₂ mixture in the post arc phase after the current zero are presented. As representative examples, the dielectric recovery curves under conditions of different gas filling pressures and short-circuit current amplitudes are presented. A series of dielectric recovery measurements suggests that the dielectric recovery rate is proportional to the mass flux of the blowing gas, and the dielectric strength recovers faster in the case of lower short circuit currents.

Keywords: CO₂ mixture, high voltage circuit breakers, dielectric recovery rate, short-circuit current, mass flux

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848 Modification Encryption Time and Permutation in Advanced Encryption Standard Algorithm

Authors: Dalal N. Hammod, Ekhlas K. Gbashi


Today, cryptography is used in many applications to achieve high security in data transmission and in real-time communications. AES has long gained global acceptance and is used for securing sensitive data in various industries but has suffered from slow processing and take a large time to transfer data. This paper suggests a method to enhance Advance Encryption Standard (AES) Algorithm based on time and permutation. The suggested method (MAES) is based on modifying the SubByte and ShiftRrows in the encryption part and modification the InvSubByte and InvShiftRows in the decryption part. After the implementation of the proposal and testing the results, the Modified AES achieved good results in accomplishing the communication with high performance criteria in terms of randomness, encryption time, storage space, and avalanche effects. The proposed method has good randomness to ciphertext because this method passed NIST statistical tests against attacks; also, (MAES) reduced the encryption time by (10 %) than the time of the original AES; therefore, the modified AES is faster than the original AES. Also, the proposed method showed good results in memory utilization where the value is (54.36) for the MAES, but the value for the original AES is (66.23). Also, the avalanche effects used for calculating diffusion property are (52.08%) for the modified AES and (51.82%) percentage for the original AES.

Keywords: modified AES, randomness test, encryption time, avalanche effects

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847 Arc Flash Analysis: Technique to Mitigate Fire Incidents in Substations

Authors: M.H. Saeed, M. Rasool, M.A. Jawed


Arc Flash Analysis has been a subject of great interest since the electrical fire incidents have been reduced to a great extent after the implementation of arc flash study at different sites. An Arc flash in substations is caused by short circuits over the air or other melted conductors and small shrapnel. Arc flash incidents result in the majority of deaths in substations worldwide. Engro Fertilizers Limited (EFERT) site having a mix of vintage non-internal arc rated and modern arc rated switchgears, carried out an arc flash study of the whole site in accordance with NFPA70E standard. The results not only included optimizing site protection coordination settings but also included marking of Shock and Arc flash protection boundaries in all switchgear rooms. Work permit procedures upgradation is also done in accordance with this study to ensure proper arc rated PPEs and arc flash boundaries protocols are fully observed and followed. With the new safety, protocols working on electrical equipment will be much safer than ever before.

Keywords: Arc flash, non-internal arc rated, protection coordination, shock boundary

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846 Separation of Composites for Recycling: Measurement of Electrostatic Charge of Carbon and Glass Fiber Particles

Authors: J. Thirunavukkarasu, M. Poulet, T. Turner, S. Pickering


Composite waste from manufacturing can consist of different fiber materials, including blends of different fiber. Commercially, the recycling of composite waste is currently limited to carbon fiber waste and recycling glass fiber waste is currently not economically viable due to the low cost of virgin glass fiber and the reduced mechanical properties of the recovered fibers. For this reason, the recycling of hybrid fiber materials, where carbon fiber is combined with a proportion of glass fiber, cannot be processed economically. Therefore, a separation method is required to remove the glass fiber materials during the recycling process. An electrostatic separation method is chosen for this work because of the significant difference between carbon and glass fiber electrical properties. In this study, an experimental rig has been developed to measure the electrostatic charge achievable as the materials are passed through a tube. A range of particle lengths (80-100 µm, 6 mm and 12 mm), surface state conditions (0%SA, 2%SA and 6%SA), and several tube wall materials have been studied. A polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) tube and recycled without sizing agent was identified as the most suitable parameters for the electrical separation method. It was also found that shorter fiber lengths helped to encourage particle flow and attain higher charge values. These findings can be used to develop a separation process to enable the cost-effective recycling of hybrid fiber composite waste.

Keywords: electrostatic charging, hybrid fiber composites, recycling, short fiber composites

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845 Design and Implementation of Remote Control Application for Elderly People Who Live Alone

Authors: Cristina Nieves Perdomo Delgado


The study consists of the design and use of an application for cell phones called “Me Cuido” that consists of remote control of elderly people who live alone with their families. The objective of the study is to analyze the usability of the application by 40-year-olds using the Questionnaire for User Interaction Satisfaction (QUIS) method. The results highlight that the application has a design adapted to the elderly and that it is easy to use and understand.

Keywords: design, assistive technology, elderly people, independence

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844 Stability Analysis of DC Microgrid with Varying Supercapacitor Operating Voltages

Authors: Annie B. V., Anu A. G., Harikumar R.


Microgrid (MG) is a self-governing miniature section of the power system. Nowadays the majority of loads and energy storage devices are inherently in DC form. This necessitates a greater scope of research in the various types of energy storage devices in DC microgrids. In a modern power system, DC microgrid is a manageable electric power system usually integrated with renewable energy sources (RESs) and DC loads with the help of power electronic converters. The stability of the DC microgrid mainly depends on the power imbalance. Power imbalance due to the presence of intermittent renewable energy resources (RERs) is supplied by energy storage devices. Battery, supercapacitor, flywheel, etc. are some of the commonly used energy storage devices. Owing to the high energy density provided by the batteries, this type of energy storage system is mainly utilized in all sorts of hybrid energy storage systems. To minimize the stability issues, a Supercapacitor (SC) is usually interfaced with the help of a bidirectional DC/DC converter. SC can exchange power during transient conditions due to its high power density. This paper analyses the stability issues of DC microgrids with hybrid energy storage systems (HESSs) arises from a reduction in SC operating voltage due to self-discharge. The stability of DC microgrid and power management is analyzed with different control strategies.

Keywords: DC microgrid, hybrid energy storage system (HESS), power management, small signal modeling, supercapacitor

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843 Commercial Winding for Superconducting Cables and Magnets

Authors: Glenn Auld Knierim


Automated robotic winding of high-temperature superconductors (HTS) addresses precision, efficiency, and reliability critical to the commercialization of products. Today’s HTS materials are mature and commercially promising but require manufacturing attention. In particular to the exaggerated rectangular cross-section (very thin by very wide), winding precision is critical to address the stress that can crack the fragile ceramic superconductor (SC) layer and destroy the SC properties. Damage potential is highest during peak operations, where winding stress magnifies operational stress. Another challenge is operational parameters such as magnetic field alignment affecting design performance. Winding process performance, including precision, capability for geometric complexity, and efficient repeatability, are required for commercial production of current HTS. Due to winding limitations, current HTS magnets focus on simple pancake configurations. HTS motors, generators, MRI/NMR, fusion, and other projects are awaiting robotic wound solenoid, planar, and spherical magnet configurations. As with conventional power cables, full transposition winding is required for long length alternating current (AC) and pulsed power cables. Robotic production is required for transposition, periodic swapping of cable conductors, and placing into precise positions, which allows power utility required minimized reactance. A full transposition SC cable, in theory, has no transmission length limits for AC and variable transient operation due to no resistance (a problem with conventional cables), negligible reactance (a problem for helical wound HTS cables), and no long length manufacturing issues (a problem with both stamped and twisted stacked HTS cables). The Infinity Physics team is solving manufacturing problems by developing automated manufacturing to produce the first-ever reliable and utility-grade commercial SC cables and magnets. Robotic winding machines combine mechanical and process design, specialized sense and observer, and state-of-the-art optimization and control sequencing to carefully manipulate individual fragile SCs, especially HTS, to shape previously unattainable, complex geometries with electrical geometry equivalent to commercially available conventional conductor devices.

Keywords: automated winding manufacturing, high temperature superconductor, magnet, power cable

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842 Milling Process of Rigid Flex Printed Circuit Board to Which Polyimide Covers the Whole Surface

Authors: Daniela Evtimovska, Ivana Srbinovska, Padraig O’Rourke


Kostal Macedonia has the challenge to mill a rigid-flex printed circuit board (PCB). The PCB elaborated in this paper is made of FR4 material covered with polyimide through the whole surface on the one side, including the tabs where PCBs need to be separated. After milling only 1.44 meters, the updraft routing tool isn’t effective and causes polyimide debris on all PCB cuts if it continues to mill with the same tool. Updraft routing tool is used for all another product in Kostal Macedonia, and it is changing after milling 60 meters. Changing the tool adds 80 seconds to the cycle time. One solution is using a laser-cut machine. Buying a laser-cut machine for cutting only one product doesn’t make financial sense. The focus is given to find an internal solution among the options under review to solve the issue with polyimide debris. In the paper, the design of the rigid-flex panel is described deeply. It is evaluated downdraft routing tool as a possible solution which could be used for the flex rigid panel as a specific product. It is done a comparison between updraft and down draft routing tools from a technical and financial aspect of view, taking into consideration the customer requirements for the rigid-flex PCB. The results show that using the downdraft routing tool is the best solution in this case. This tool is more expensive for 0.62 euros per piece than updraft. The downdraft routing tool needs to be changed after milling 43.44 meters in comparison with the updraft tool, which needs to be changed after milling only 1.44 meters. It is done analysis which actions should be taken in order further improvements and the possibility of maximum serving of downdraft routing tool.

Keywords: Kostal Macedonia, rigid flex PCB, polyimide, debris, milling process, up/down draft routing tool

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