Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4056

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Economics and Management Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

4056 Safeguarding the Cloud: The Crucial Role of Technical Project Managers in Security Management for Cloud Environments

Authors: Samuel Owoade, Zainab Idowu, Idris Ajibade, Abel Uzoka

Abstract:

Cloud computing adoption continues to soar, with 83% of enterprise workloads estimated to be in the cloud by 2022. However, this rapid migration raises security concerns, needing strong security management solutions to safeguard sensitive data and essential applications. This paper investigates the critical role of technical project managers in orchestrating security management initiatives for cloud environments, evaluating their responsibilities, challenges, and best practices for assuring the resilience and integrity of cloud infrastructures. Drawing from a comprehensive review of industry reports and interviews with cloud security experts, this research highlights the multifaceted landscape of security management in cloud environments. Despite the rapid adoption of cloud services, only 25% of organizations have matured their cloud security practices, indicating a pressing need for effective management strategies. This paper proposes a strategy framework adapted to the demands of technical project managers, outlining the important components of effective cloud security management. Notably, 76% of firms identify misconfiguration as a major source of cloud security incidents, underlining the significance of proactive risk assessment and constant monitoring. Furthermore, the study emphasizes the importance of technical project managers in facilitating cross-functional collaboration, bridging the gap between cybersecurity professionals, cloud architects, compliance officers, and IT operations teams. With 68% of firms seeing difficulties integrating security policies into their cloud systems, effective communication and collaboration are critical to success. Case studies from industry leaders illustrate the practical use of security management projects in cloud settings. These examples demonstrate the importance of technical project managers in using their expertise to address obstacles and generate meaningful outcomes, with 92% of firms reporting improved security practices after implementing proactive security management tactics. In conclusion, this research underscores the critical role of technical project managers in safeguarding cloud environments against evolving threats. By embracing their role as guardians of the cloud realm, project managers can mitigate risks, optimize resource utilization, and uphold the trust and integrity of cloud infrastructures in an era of digital transformation.

Keywords: cloud security, security management, technical project management, cybersecurity, cloud infrastructure, risk management, compliance

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4055 Mapping the Potential and Development Strategy of Digital Economy in Indonesia

Authors: Jordan Putra Cahyono, Tiara Ayu Kusumaningtyas, Mohtar Rasyid

Abstract:

This article aims to map the potential and strategy of digital economy develop-ment in Indonesia by using literature study and secondary data analysis. In the Indonesian context, the digital economy is attracting attention, especially amid the COVID-19 pandemic, which has brought substantial changes in economic activi-ties. This research aims to provide new insights into the potential and develop-ment strategies of the digital economy in Indonesia. This article also evaluates the effectiveness and efficiency of digital economic development strategies imple-mented in Indonesia. A literature review concluded that Indonesia has great po-tential to develop the digital economy with favorable conditions, including a large population, improved ICT infrastructure, and relatively liberalized regulations. Using qualitative and quantitative approaches, this research covers the subject of the potential and strategies for developing a digital economy in Indonesia. This article presents the research results, which are then discussed in the context of the potential and strategy of digital economy development in Indonesia. This article is expected to contribute to understanding Indonesia's digital economy and stimulate further discussion to formulate a robust development strategy and appropriate regulatory framework.

Keywords: indonesia's digital economy, ICT infrastructure, development strategy, potential

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4054 Anomaly Detection in Financial Markets Using Tucker Decomposition

Authors: Salma Krafessi

Abstract:

The financial markets have a multifaceted, intricate environment, and enormous volumes of data are produced every day. To find investment possibilities, possible fraudulent activity, and market oddities, accurate anomaly identification in this data is essential. Conventional methods for detecting anomalies frequently fail to capture the complex organization of financial data. In order to improve the identification of abnormalities in financial time series data, this study presents Tucker Decomposition as a reliable multi-way analysis approach. We start by gathering closing prices for the S&P 500 index across a number of decades. The information is converted to a three-dimensional tensor format, which contains internal characteristics and temporal sequences in a sliding window structure. The tensor is then broken down using Tucker Decomposition into a core tensor and matching factor matrices, allowing latent patterns and relationships in the data to be captured. A possible sign of abnormalities is the reconstruction error from Tucker's Decomposition. We are able to identify large deviations that indicate unusual behavior by setting a statistical threshold. A thorough examination that contrasts the Tucker-based method with traditional anomaly detection approaches validates our methodology. The outcomes demonstrate the superiority of Tucker's Decomposition in identifying intricate and subtle abnormalities that are otherwise missed. This work opens the door for more research into multi-way data analysis approaches across a range of disciplines and emphasizes the value of tensor-based methods in financial analysis.

Keywords: tucker decomposition, financial markets, financial engineering, artificial intelligence, decomposition models

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4053 Self-Organizing Maps for Credit Card Fraud Detection and Visualization

Authors: Peng, Chun-Yi, Chen, Wei-Hsuan, Ueng, Shyh-Kuang

Abstract:

This study focuses on the application of self-organizing maps (SOM) technology in analyzing credit card transaction data, aiming to enhance the accuracy and efficiency of fraud detection. Som, as an artificial neural network, is particularly suited for pattern recognition and data classification, making it highly effective for the complex and variable nature of credit card transaction data. By analyzing transaction characteristics with SOM, the research identifies abnormal transaction patterns that could indicate potentially fraudulent activities. Moreover, this study has developed a specialized visualization tool to intuitively present the relationships between SOM analysis outcomes and transaction data, aiding financial institution personnel in quickly identifying and responding to potential fraud, thereby reducing financial losses. Additionally, the research explores the integration of SOM technology with composite intelligent system technologies (including finite state machines, fuzzy logic, and decision trees) to further improve fraud detection accuracy. This multimodal approach provides a comprehensive perspective for identifying and understanding various types of fraud within credit card transactions. In summary, by integrating SOM technology with visualization tools and composite intelligent system technologies, this research offers a more effective method of fraud detection for the financial industry, not only enhancing detection accuracy but also deepening the overall understanding of fraudulent activities.

Keywords: self-organizing map technology, fraud detection, information visualization, data analysis, composite intelligent system technologies, decision support technologies

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4052 The Impact of Artificial Intelligence on Marketing Principles and Targets

Authors: Felib Ayman Shawky Salem

Abstract:

Experiential marketing means an unforgettable experience that remains deeply anchored in the customer's memory. Furthermore, customer satisfaction is defined as the emotional response to the experiences provided that relate to specific products or services purchased. Therefore, experiential marketing activities can influence the level of customer satisfaction and loyalty. In this context, the study aims to examine the relationship between experiential marketing, customer satisfaction and loyalty of beauty products in Konya. The results of this study showed that experiential marketing is an important indicator of customer satisfaction and loyalty and that experiential marketing has a significant positive impact on customer satisfaction and loyalty.

Keywords: sponsorship, marketing communication theories, marketing communication tools internet, marketing, tourism, tourism management corporate responsibility, employee organizational performance, internal marketing, internal customer experiential marketing, customer satisfaction, customer loyalty, social sciences.

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4051 Human Development and Entrepreneurship: Examining the Sources of Freedom and Unfreedom in the Realization of Entrepreneurship in Iran

Authors: Iman Shabanzadeh

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to understand the lived experience of private sector entrepreneurs in facing the sources of freedom and unfreedom and benefiting from opportunities and basic capabilities in the process of realizing entrepreneurial ability in order to get closer to the macro situation of the narrative of human development in Iranian society. Therefore, the main question of the present research is to figure out what sources of freedom and social opportunities and unfreedom entrepreneurs in Iran's society benefit from the process of transforming their potential entrepreneurial abilities into entrepreneurial and business enterprises. In terms of methodology, the current research method will be thematic analysis in the form of semi-structured interviews with entrepreneurs active in small and medium-sized enterprises in Tehran, whose process of establishing and expanding their entrepreneurial activity has been in the last two decades. By examining the possibilities and refusals of advancing these people in the three stages of 'Idea creation and desire for entrepreneurship’, ‘Starting and creating a business’, and finally, ‘Continuing and expanding the business’, the findings of the research show the impact of five main resources for people to realize their potential talents, from the stage of creating an idea to expanding their business. These sources include' family institution,’ ‘education institution,’ ‘social norms and beliefs,’ ‘government and market,’ and ‘personality components of the entrepreneur.’ Finally, the findings are reported in three levels of basic themes (fifteen items), organizing themes (five items), and comprehensive themes (one item) and in the form of a theme network.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, human development, capability, sources of freedom

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4050 The Impact of Technology on Computer Systems and Technology

Authors: Bishoy Abouelsoud Saad Amin

Abstract:

This paper examines the use of computer and its related health hazard among computer users in South-Western zone of Nigeria. Two hundred and eighteen (218) computer users constituted the population used to evaluate association between posture, extensive computer use and related health hazard. The instruments for the study are a questionnaire on demographics, lifestyle, body features and work ability index while mean rating, standard deviation and t test were used for data analysis. Identified health related hazard include damages to the eyesight, bad posture, arthritis, musculoskeletal disorders, headache, stress and so on. The results showed that factors such as work demand, posture, closeness to computer screen and excessive working hours on computers constitute health hazards in both old and young computer users of various gender. It is therefore recommended that total number of hours spent with computer should be monitored and controlled.

Keywords: computer game, metaphor, middle school students, virtual environments computer auditing, risk, measures to prevent, information management computer-related health hazard, musculoskeletal disorders, computer usage, work ability index

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4049 The Impact of Small-Scale Irrigation on the Income of Rural Households and Determinants of Its Adoption: Evidence from Dehana Woreda, Ethiopia

Authors: Wondmnew Derebe Yohannis

Abstract:

Farming irrigation plays a crucial role in rural development strategies, impacting both annual household income and livelihood. This research aims to evaluate the factors influencing irrigation participation and assess the impact of small-scale irrigation on rural households' annual income. The study collected data from 287 farmers in the Dahana district of northern Ethiopia. The research investigates the driving forces behind farmers' decisions to adopt small-scale irrigation and its effect on annual income gain. The findings reveal that several factors positively influence the probability of adoption, including access to credit, cultivated land size, livestock holding, extension contact, and the education level of the household head. Conversely, the distance to local markets and water schemes negatively affects the likelihood of adoption. To understand the differences in annual income between farm households that adopted irrigation and those that did not, a simultaneous equations model with endogenous switching regression is estimated. This accounts for the heterogeneity in the adoption decision and unobservable characteristics of farmers and their farms. The analysis compares the expected income gain under actual and counterfactual scenarios, considering whether the farm household adopted irrigation or not. The study reveals that the group of farm households that adopted irrigation has distinct characteristics compared to those that did not adopt it. Furthermore, the research demonstrates that the adoption of irrigation practices leads to an increase in annual income. Interestingly, the impact of small-scale irrigation on annual income is greater for the farm households that actually adopted irrigation compared to those in the counterfactual scenario where they did not adopt. Based on the findings, the researcher concludes that small-scale irrigation is a practical solution for meeting household financial needs in the study area. It is recommended that investments in small-scale irrigation continue to further improve the livelihoods of rural farming communities by enhancing annual income gains.

Keywords: small-scale irrigation, income, rural farm households, endogenous switching regression, user, non-user

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4048 The Relationship Between Hourly Compensation and Unemployment Rate Using the Panel Data Regression Analysis

Authors: S. K. Ashiquer Rahman

Abstract:

the paper concentrations on the importance of hourly compensation, emphasizing the significance of the unemployment rate. There are the two most important factors of a nation these are its unemployment rate and hourly compensation. These are not merely statistics but they have profound effects on individual, families, and the economy. They are inversely related to one another. When we consider the unemployment rate that will probably decline as hourly compensations in manufacturing rise. But when we reduced the unemployment rates and increased job prospects could result from higher compensation. That’s why, the increased hourly compensation in the manufacturing sector that could have a favorable effect on job changing issues. Moreover, the relationship between hourly compensation and unemployment is complex and influenced by broader economic factors. In this paper, we use panel data regression models to evaluate the expected link between hourly compensation and unemployment rate in order to determine the effect of hourly compensation on unemployment rate. We estimate the fixed effects model, evaluate the error components, and determine which model (the FEM or ECM) is better by pooling all 60 observations. We then analysis and review the data by comparing 3 several countries (United States, Canada and the United Kingdom) using panel data regression models. Finally, we provide result, analysis and a summary of the extensive research on how the hourly compensation effects on the unemployment rate. Additionally, this paper offers relevant and useful informational to help the government and academic community use an econometrics and social approach to lessen on the effect of the hourly compensation on Unemployment rate to eliminate the problem.

Keywords: hourly compensation, Unemployment rate, panel data regression models, dummy variables, random effects model, fixed effects model, the linear regression model

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4047 A Comparative Analysis of Innovation Maturity Models: Towards the Development of a Technology Management Maturity Model

Authors: Nikolett Deutsch, Éva Pintér, Péter Bagó, Miklós Hetényi

Abstract:

Strategic technology management has emerged and evolved parallelly with strategic management paradigms. It focuses on the opportunity for organizations operating mainly in technology-intensive industries to explore and exploit technological capabilities upon which competitive advantage can be obtained. As strategic technology management involves multifunction within an organization, requires broad and diversified knowledge, and must be developed and implemented with business objectives to enable a firm’s profitability and growth, excellence in strategic technology management provides unique opportunities for organizations in terms of building a successful future. Accordingly, a framework supporting the evaluation of the technological readiness level of management can significantly contribute to developing organizational competitiveness through a better understanding of strategic-level capabilities and deficiencies in operations. In the last decade, several innovation maturity assessment models have appeared and become designated management tools that can serve as references for future practical approaches expected to be used by corporate leaders, strategists, and technology managers to understand and manage technological capabilities and capacities. The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art innovation maturity frameworks, to investigate the critical lessons learned from their application, to identify the similarities and differences among the models, and identify the main aspects and elements valid for the field and critical functions of technology management. To this end, a systematic literature review was carried out considering the relevant papers and articles published in highly ranked international journals around the 27 most widely known innovation maturity models from four relevant digital sources. Key findings suggest that despite the diversity of the given models, there is still room for improvement regarding the common understanding of innovation typologies, the full coverage of innovation capabilities, and the generalist approach to the validation and practical applicability of the structure and content of the models. Furthermore, the paper proposes an initial structure by considering the maturity assessment of the technological capacities and capabilities - i.e., technology identification, technology selection, technology acquisition, technology exploitation, and technology protection - covered by strategic technology management.

Keywords: innovation capabilities, innovation maturity models, technology audit, technology management, technology management maturity models

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4046 Analysis of Digital Transformation in Banking: The Hungarian Case

Authors: Éva Pintér, Péter Bagó, Nikolett Deutsch, Miklós Hetényi

Abstract:

The process of digital transformation has a profound influence on all sectors of the worldwide economy and the business environment. The influence of blockchain technology can be observed in the digital economy and e-government, rendering it an essential element of a nation's growth strategy. The banking industry is experiencing significant expansion and development of financial technology firms. Utilizing developing technologies such as artificial intelligence (AI), machine learning (ML), and big data (BD), these entrants are offering more streamlined financial solutions, promptly addressing client demands, and presenting a challenge to incumbent institutions. The advantages of digital transformation are evident in the corporate realm, and firms that resist its adoption put their survival at risk. The advent of digital technologies has revolutionized the business environment, streamlining processes and creating opportunities for enhanced communication and collaboration. Thanks to the aid of digital technologies, businesses can now swiftly and effortlessly retrieve vast quantities of information, all the while accelerating the process of creating new and improved products and services. Big data analytics is generally recognized as a transformative force in business, considered the fourth paradigm of science, and seen as the next frontier for innovation, competition, and productivity. Big data, an emerging technology that is shaping the future of the banking sector, offers numerous advantages to banks. It enables them to effectively track consumer behavior and make informed decisions, thereby enhancing their operational efficiency. Banks may embrace big data technologies to promptly and efficiently identify fraud, as well as gain insights into client preferences, which can then be leveraged to create better-tailored products and services. Moreover, the utilization of big data technology empowers banks to develop more intelligent and streamlined models for accurately recognizing and focusing on the suitable clientele with pertinent offers. There is a scarcity of research on big data analytics in the banking industry, with the majority of existing studies only examining the advantages and prospects associated with big data. Although big data technologies are crucial, there is a dearth of empirical evidence about the role of big data analytics (BDA) capabilities in bank performance. This research addresses a gap in the existing literature by introducing a model that combines the resource-based view (RBV), the technical organization environment framework (TOE), and dynamic capability theory (DC). This study investigates the influence of Big Data Analytics (BDA) utilization on the performance of market and risk management. This is supported by a comparative examination of Hungarian mobile banking services.

Keywords: big data, digital transformation, dynamic capabilities, mobile banking

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4045 Navigating Top Management Team Characteristics for Ambidexterity in Small and Medium-Sized African Businesses: The Key to Unlocking Success

Authors: Rumbidzai Sipiwe Zimvumi

Abstract:

The study aimed to identify the top management team attributes for ambidexterity in small and medium-sized enterprises by utilizing the upper echelons theory. The conventional opinion holds that an organization's ability to pursue both exploitative and explorative innovation methods at the same time is reflected in its ambidexterity. Top-level managers are critical to this matrix because they forecast and explain strategic choices that guarantee success by improving organizational performance. Since the focus of the study was on the unique characteristics of Top Management Teams (TMTs) that can facilitate ambidexterity, the primary goal was to comprehend how TMTs in SMEs can better manage ambidexterity. The study used document analysis to collect information on ambidexterity and TMT traits. Finding, choosing, assessing, and synthesizing data from peer-reviewed publications allowed for the review and evaluation of papers. The fact that SMEs will perform better if they can achieve a balance between exploration and exploitation cannot be overstated. Unfortunately, exploitation is the main priority for most SMEs. The results showed that some of the noteworthy TMT traits that support ambidexterity in SMEs are age diversity, shared responsibility, leadership impact, psychological safety, and self-confidence. It has been shown that most SMEs confront significant obstacles in recruiting people, including formalizing their management and assembling executive teams with seniority. Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are often held by families or people who neglect to keep their personal lives apart from the firm, which eliminates the opportunity for management and staff to take the initiative. This helps to explain why exploitative strategies, which preserve present success, are used rather than explorative strategies, which open up new economic opportunities and dimensions. It is evident that psychological safety deteriorates, and creativity is hindered in the process. The study makes the case that TMTs who are motivated to become ambidextrous can exist. According to the report, small- and medium-sized business owners should value the opinions of all parties involved and provide their managers and regular staff the freedom to think creatively and in a safe environment. TMTs who experience psychological safety are more likely to be inventive, creative, and productive. A team's collective perception that it is acceptable to take chances, voice opinions and concerns, ask questions, and own up to mistakes without fear of unfavourable outcomes is known as team psychological safety. Thus, traits like age diversity, leadership influence, learning agility, psychological safety, and self-assurance are critical to the success of SMEs. As a solution to ensuring ambidexterity is attained, the study suggests a clear separation of ownership and control, the adoption of technology to stimulate creativity, team spirit and excitement, shared accountability, and good management of diversity. Among the suggestions for the SME's success are resource allocation and important collaborations.

Keywords: navigating, ambidexterity, top management team, small to medium enterprise

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4044 Islamic Finance and Trade Promotion in the African Continental Free Trade Area: An Exploratory Study

Authors: Shehu Usman Rano Aliyu

Abstract:

Despite the significance of finance as a major trade lubricant, evidence in the literature alludes to its scarcity and increasing cost, especially in developing countries, and even then, with small and medium-scale enterprises worst affected. The creation of the African Continental Free Trade Area (AFCFTA) in 2018, an organ of the African Union (AU), was meant to serve as a beacon for deepening economic integration through the removal of trade barriers inhibiting intra-African trade and movement of persons, among others. Accordingly, this research explores the role Islamic trade finance (ITF) could play in spurring intra- and inter-African trade. The study employs a survey method and collects data using an online questionnaire administrator from 430 respondents across six countries: Egypt, Kenya, Malaysia, Morocco, Nigeria, and Saudi Arabia. The data was analyzed using non-parametric instruments. We find strong evidence that Shari’ah, legal and regulatory compliance issues of the ITF institutions rhythm with the internal, national, and international compliance requirements, equally as the unique instruments applied in ITF as well. In addition, ITF was found to be largely driven by global economic and political stability, socially responsible finance, ethical and moral considerations, risk-sharing, and resilience of the global Islamic finance industry. Further, SMEs, governments, and importers are the major beneficiary sectors. By and large, AfCFTA’s protocols rhythm with the principles of ITF and are hence suited for the proliferation of Islamic finance on the continent. And, while AML/KYC and BASEL requirements, compliance to AAOIFI and IFSB standards, paucity of Shari'ah experts, threats to global security, and increasing global economic uncertainty pose as major impediments, the future of ITF would be shaped by a greater need for institutional and policy support, global economic cum political stability, robust regulatory framework, and digital technology/fintech. The study calls for the licensing of more ITF institutions in the continent, participation of multilateral institutions in ITF, and harmonization of Shariah standards. Acknowledgment: The author is grateful to the African Export-Import Bank (Afreximbank) for fully funding the research under its 2022 Sabbatical Fellowship Programme. Other research papers are ‘Infrastructure deficit in Africa: Islamic finance as a gap-filler’ and ‘Macroeconomic impact of intra-African trade and migration on selected African Continental Free Trade Area (AFCFTA) member countries’ accomplished within the 2022 Fellowship Programme.

Keywords: AfCFTA, Islamic trade finance, Murabaha, letter of credit, forwarding

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4043 Sustainable Human Resource Management in the Hotel Industry: Assessing the Mediating Effect of Physiological Climate on Employee Performance

Authors: Mohammad Salameh Almasarweh

Abstract:

The primary aim of this research is to explore the mediating role of physiological climate in the relationship between green HRM practices (specifically, GHRM practices, GHRM recruitment, GHRM training, GHRM performance appraisal, and GHRM empowerment) and employee performance within the hotel industry. The study revealed that green HRM practices, encompassing green recruiting, green training, green performance evaluation, and green empowerment, exerted a statistically significant influence on employee performance. A quantitative method was employed for this research, focusing on hotel managers in Jordan as the study's population. Data were collected through a questionnaire distributed to a convenience sample of 300 managers from various hotels in Jordan. The results of the study align with prior research, supporting the notion that green HRM practices positively impact both employee performance and physiological climate. Furthermore, the findings of this study indicate that physiological climate acts as a mediating factor in the relationship between green HRM practices and employee performance in Jordanian hotels.

Keywords: GHRM practices, GHRM recruitment, GHRM training, GHRM performance appraisal, GHRM empowerment, employee’s performance, physiological climate

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4042 The Effect of Training and Development Practice on Employees’ Performance

Authors: Sifen Abreham

Abstract:

Employees are resources in organizations; as such, they need to be trained and developed properly to achieve an organization's goals and expectations. The initial development of the human resource management concept is based on the effective utilization of people to treat them as resources, leading to the realization of business strategies and organizational objectives. The study aimed to assess the effect of training and development practices on employee performance. The researcher used an explanatory research design, which helps to explain, understand, and predict the relationship between variables. To collect the data from the respondents, the study used probability sampling. From the probability, the researcher used stratified random sampling, which can branch off the entire population into homogenous groups. The result was analyzed and presented by using the statistical package for the social science (SPSS) version 26. The major finding of the study was that the training has an impact on employees' job performance to achieve organizational objectives. The district has a policy and procedure for training and development, but it doesn’t apply actively, and it’s not suitable for district-advised reform this policy and procedure and applied actively; the district gives training for the majority of its employees, but most of the time, the training is theoretical the district advised to use practical training method to see positive change, the district gives evaluation after the employees take training and development, but the result is not encouraging the district advised to assess employees skill gap and feel that gap, the district has a budget, but it’s not adequate the district advised to strengthen its financial ground.

Keywords: training, development, employees, performance, policy

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4041 Development of Scale in Evaluation of Effectiveness of Motivation of Divine Leadership

Authors: Parviz Abadi

Abstract:

Leadership is a key driver in organizational achievement. The research presented herein intends on providing the tools for assessing Divine Leadership, which imperative in quantitative evaluations of a leadership. The effectiveness of this leadership has never been examined. There are various tests that can be applied to this leadership, such as evaluation of it against follower motivation, or the impact it has on organizational success, etc. One of the common means of evaluation of a phenomenon is to conduct a quantitative study on the hypothesis related to the subject. The dimensions enacted in this leadership consisted of Humility, Integrity, Empowerment, Altruism, and Visionary. However, these elements of the construct of leadership are latent subjects and cannot easily be assessed. Therefore, it is necessary to develop tangible items that can relate to the construct. The study presented herein was conducted to develop the scales that were tangible and could have been applied in a quantitative study to assess this leadership. The study led to generating a detailed questionnaire, which consisted of 40 questions, that could be presented to participants in the survey.

Keywords: leadership, management, scale development, organizations

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4040 Product Development in Company

Authors: Giorgi Methodishvili, Iuliia Methodishvili

Abstract:

In this paper product development algorithm is used to determine the optimal management of financial resources in company. Aspects of financial management considered include put initial investment, examine all possible ways to solve the problem and the optimal rotation length of profit. The software of given problems is based using greedy algorithm. The obtained model and program maintenance enable us to define the optimal version of management of proper financial flows by using visual diagram on each level of investment.

Keywords: management, software, optimal, greedy algorithm, graph-diagram

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4039 Growth and Development of Membranes in Gas Sequestration

Authors: Sreevalli Bokka

Abstract:

The process of reducing the intensity of the carbon from a process or stream into the atmosphere is termed Decarbonization. Of the various technologies that are emerging to capture or reduce carbon intensity, membranes are emerging as a key player in separating carbon from a gas stream, such as industrial effluent air and others. Due to the advantage of high surface area and low flow resistance, fiber membranes are emerging widely for gas separation applications. A fiber membrane is a semipermeable barrier that is increasingly used for filtration and separation applications needing high packing density. A few of the many applications are in water desalination, medical applications, bioreactors, and gas separations applications. Only a few polymeric membranes were studied for fabricating fiber membranes such as cellulose acetate, Polysulfone, and Polyvinylidene fluoride. A few of the challenges of using fiber membranes are fouling and weak mechanical properties, leading to the breakage of membranes. In this work, the growth of fiber membranes and challenges for future developments in the filtration and gas separation applications are presented.

Keywords: membranes, filtration, separations, polymers, carbon capture

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4038 The Impact of Political Leadership on Cameroon’s Economic Development From 2000 to 2023

Authors: Okpu Enoh Ndip Nkongho

Abstract:

The type of political leadership in place impacts a state's economic development or underdevelopment directly and indirectly. One of the main challenges to Cameroon's economic development may be ineffective or misguided political leadership. The economy of the Cameroon state has declined significantly due to a number of factors, including a lack of effective and feasible economic policies, a reliance on crude oil that is excessive, tribal politics, the threat of insurgency, bribery, and corruption, violations of human rights, neglect of other sectors like science, technology, education, and transportation, and a careless attitude on the part of the administrators toward the general public. As a result, the standard of living has decreased, foreign exchange has decreased, and the value of the Cameroonian currency has depreciated. Therefore, from 2000 to 2023, this paper focused on the relationship between political leadership and economic development in Cameroon and offered suggestions for improving political leadership that will, in turn, lead to the country's economy getting back on track. The study employed a qualitative technique, with the framework for the investigation derived from the trait theory of leadership. According to the information provided above, the paper was able to conclude that there is a lack of cooperation between the three branches of government in Cameroon. This is shown in situations when one branch operates independently of the others and refuses to function as a backup when needed. The study recommended that the Executive collaborate closely with the National Assembly to speed action on some key legislation required to stimulate economic development. On the other hand, there is a need for more clarity and consistency in the government's policy orientation. There is no doubt that our current economic troubles are at least partially the result of a lack of economic policy leadership and confidence.

Keywords: politics, leadership, economic, development, Cameroon

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4037 The Effect of Artificial Intelligence on Marketing Distribution

Authors: Yousef Wageh Nagy Fahmy

Abstract:

Mobile phones are one of the direct marketing tools used to reach today's hard-to-reach consumers. Cell phones are very personal devices and you can have them with you anytime, anywhere. This offers marketers the opportunity to create personalized marketing messages and send them at the right time and place. The study examined consumer attitudes towards mobile marketing, particularly SMS marketing. Unlike similar studies, this study does not focus on young people, but includes consumers between the ages of 18 and 70 in the field study.The results showed that the majority of participants found SMS marketing disruptive. The biggest problems with SMS marketing are subscribing to message lists without the recipient's consent; large number of messages sent; and the irrelevance of message content

Keywords: direct marketing, mobile phones mobile marketing, sms advertising, marketing sponsorship, marketing communication theories, marketing communication tools

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4036 Innovation Inertia: Unfolding of the Activity Void in the Innovation Process

Authors: Sabrina Luthfa

Abstract:

The study examines the conditions that create discontinuation in the chain of activities, leading to activity void, thus generating uncertainties in the innovation process. With a qualitative research approach using in-depth interviewing of the key people behind the innovation process in four firms, this paper highlights how firms respond to activity void and create novelties. The findings suggest that activity void appeared when resources were unavailable due to the absence, weakness, and failure of potential actors who own, exchange, connect, and recombine crucial resources in interaction with other actors. Although activity void began due to resource void, it enabled alternative resource exploitation and recombination for its own elimination. As resources poured in, alternative activities took place; actors bridged new actors, and new paths were created for exploration. The article concludes that activity void is a paradox; this creates uncertainties but also creates paths for exploring opportunities.

Keywords: innovation inertia, uncertainty, activity void, activity chain

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4035 Corporate Social Responsibility, Media Visibility and Performance of Firms Listed on Nairobi Securities Exchange, Kenya

Authors: Anne Kariuki, Kellen Kiambati

Abstract:

The broad objective of this study was to establish the mediating effect of media visibility on the relationship between corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and the corporate performance of firms listed on the Nairobi Securities Exchange. The review of the literature provided conceptual and empirical gaps that formed the basis of the conceptual hypotheses. A survey questionnaire was distributed to the 50 heads of human resource departments in the different firms. A survey was conducted on fifty (50) companies listed on the Nairobi Securities Exchange. The study findings reported a significant relationship between CSR and non-financial performance and the mediating role of media visibility on the relationship between CSR and performance. The findings of the study support the signaling theory and stakeholder’s theory. Conclusively, CSR activities have an effect on media visibility, which in turn affects performance.

Keywords: corporate social responsibility, media visibility, corporate performance, non-financial performance

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4034 Understanding the Complexities of Consumer Financial Spinning

Authors: Olivier Mesly

Abstract:

This research presents a conceptual framework termed “Consumer Financial Spinning” (CFS) to analyze consumer behavior in the financial/economic markets. This phenomenon occurs when consumers of high-stakes financial products accumulate unsustainable debt, leading them to detach from their initial financial hierarchy of needs, wealth-related goals, and preferences regarding their household portfolio of assets. The daring actions of these consumers, forming a dark financial triangle, are characterized by three behaviors: overconfidence, the use of rationed rationality, and deceitfulness. We show that we can incorporate CFS into the traditional CAPM and Markovitz’ portfolio optimization models to create a framework that explains such market phenomena as the global financial crisis, highlighting the antecedents and consequences of ill-conceived speculation. Because this is a conceptual paper, there is no methodology with respect to ground studies. However, we apply modeling principles derived from the data percolation methodology, which contains tenets explicating how to structure concepts. A simulation test of the proposed framework is conducted; it demonstrates the conditions under which the relationship between expected returns and risk may deviate from linearity. The analysis and conceptual findings are particularly relevant both theoretically and pragmatically as they shed light on the psychological conditions that drive intense speculation, which can lead to market turmoil. Armed with such understanding, regulators are better equipped to propose solutions before the economic problems become out of control.

Keywords: consumer financial spinning, rationality, deceitfulness, overconfidence, CAPM

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4033 The Vicissitudes of Monetary Policy Rates and Macro-Economic Variables in the West African Monetary Zone

Authors: Jonathan Olusegun Famoroti, Mathew Ekundayo Rotimi, Mishelle Doorasamy

Abstract:

This study offers an empirical investigation into some selected macroeconomic drivers of the monetary policy rate in member countries of the West African Monetary Zone (WAMZ), considering both internal and external variables. We employed Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) to carry out the investigation between monetary policy and some macroeconomic variables in both the long-run and short-run relationship. The results suggest that the drivers of the policy rate in this zone, in the long run, include, among others, global oil price, exchange rate, inflation rate, and gross domestic product, while in the short run, federal fund rate, trade openness, exchange rate, inflation rate, and gross domestic product are core determinants of the policy rate. Therefore, in order to ensure long-run stability in the policy rate among the members’ states, these drivers should be given closer consideration so that the trajectory for effective structure can be designed and fused into the economic structure and policy frameworks accordingly.

Keywords: monetary policy rate, macroeconomic variables, WAMZ, ARDL

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4032 Impact of Modern Beehive on Income of Rural Households: Evidence from Bugina District of Northern Ethiopia

Authors: Wondmnew Derebe Yohannis

Abstract:

The enhanced utilization of modern beehives holds significant potential to enhance the livelihoods of smallholder farmers who heavily rely on mixed crop-livestock farming for their income. Recognizing this, the distribution of improved beehives has been implemented across various regions in Ethiopia, including the Bugina district. However, the precise impact of these improved beehives on farmers' income has received limited attention. To address this gap, this study aims to assess the influence of adopting upgraded beehives on rural households' income and asset accumulation. To conduct this research, survey data was gathered from a sample of 350 households selected through random sampling. The collected data was then analyzed using an econometric stochastic frontier model (ESRM) approach. The findings reveal that the adoption of improved beehives has resulted in higher annual income and asset growth for beekeepers. On average, those who adopted the improved beehives earned approximately 6,077 Ethiopian Birr (ETB) more than their counterparts who did not adopt these beehives. However, it is worth noting that the impact of adoption would have been even greater for non-adopters, as evidenced by the negative transitional heterogeneity effect of 1792 ETB. Furthermore, the analysis indicates that the decision to adopt or not adopt improved beehives was driven by individual self-selection. The adoption of improved beehives also led to an increase in fixed assets for households, establishing it as a viable strategy for poverty reduction. Overall, this study underscores the positive effect of adopting improved beehives on rural households' income and asset holdings, showcasing its potential to uplift smallholder farmers and serve as an alternative mechanism for reducing poverty.

Keywords: impact, adoption, endogenous switching regression, income, improved beehives

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4031 Investigating Income Diversification Strategies into Off-Farm Activities Among Rural Households in Ethiopia

Authors: Kibret Berhanu Getinet

Abstract:

Off-farm income diversification by farm rural households has gained the attention of researchers and policymakers due to the fact that agriculture failed to meet the needs of people in developing countries like Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to investigate income diversification strategies into off-farm activities among rural households in Hawassa Zuria Woreda, Sidama National Regional State, Ethiopia. The study used primary and secondary data sources for the primary data collection questionnaire employed as a data collection instrument. A multistage sampling technique was used to collect data from a total of 197 sample households from four kebeles of the study area. Descriptive statistics, as well as econometrics methods of data analysis, were employed. The descriptive statistics result indicates that the majority of sample rural households (68.53 %) have engaged in off-farm income diversification activities while the remaining 31.47% of households did not participate in the diversification in the study area. The choice of participants among the strategies indicates that 6.60% of respondents participated in off-farm wage employment, 30.46% participated in off-farm self-employment, and about 31.47% of them participated in both off-farm wage employment. The study revealed that the share of off-farm income in total annual earnings of households was about 48.457%, and thus, the off-farm diversification significantly contributes to the rural household income. Moreover, binary and multinomial logistic regression models were employed to identify factors that affect the participation and the choices of the off-farm income diversification strategies, respectively. The binary logit model result indicated that agro-ecological zone, education status of the households, available technical skills of the household, household saving, total livestock owned by the households, access to electricity, road access and being married of household head were significant and positively affected the chance of diversification in off-farm activities while the on-farm income of households is negatively affected the chance of diversification. Similarly, the multinomial logistic regression model estimate revealed that agroecological zone, on-farm income, available technical skills, household savings, and access to electricity are positively related and significantly influenced the household’s choice of employment into off-farm wage employment. The off-farm self-employment diversification choice is significantly influenced by on-farm income, available technical skills, household savings, total livestock owned, and access to electricity. Moreover, the result showed that the factors that affect the choice of farm households to engage in both off-farm wage and self-employment are ecological zone, education status, on-farm income, available technical skills, household own saving, market access, total livestock owned, access to electricity and road access. Thus, due attention should be given to addressing the demographic, socio-economic, and institutional constraints to strengthen off-farm income diversification strategies to improve the income of rural households.

Keywords: off-farm, incoem, diversification, logit model

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4030 Unconventional Explorers: Gen Z Travelers Redefining The Travel Experience

Authors: M. Panidou, F. Kilipiris, E. Christou, K. Alexandris

Abstract:

This study intends to investigate the travel preferences of Generation Z (born between 1996 and 2012), focusing on their inclination towards unique and unconventional travel experiences, prioritization of authentic cultural immersion and local experiences over traditional tourist attractions, and their value for flexibility and spontaneity in travel plans. By examining these aspects, the research aims to provide insights into the preferences and behaviors of Generation Z travelers, contributing to a better understanding of their travel choices and informing the tourism industry in catering to their needs and desires. Secondary data was gathered from academic literature industry reports in order to offer a thorough study of the topic. The quantitative method was used, and primary data was collected through an online questionnaire. One hundred Greek people between the ages of eighteen and twenty-seven were the study's sample. SPSS software was used to assist in the analysis of the data. The findings of the research showed that Gen Z are attracted to unusual and distinctive travel experiences, prioritizing genuine cultural immersion over typical tourist attractions, and they highly value flexibility in their travel decision-making. This research contributes to a deeper understanding of how Gen Z travelers are reshaping the travel industry. Travel companies, marketers, and destination management organizations will find the findings useful in adjusting their products to suit this influential demographic's changing demands and preferences.

Keywords: cultural immersion, flexibility, generation Z, travel preferences, unique experiences.

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4029 A Cohort and Empirical Based Multivariate Mortality Model

Authors: Jeffrey Tzu-Hao Tsai, Yi-Shan Wong

Abstract:

This article proposes a cohort-age-period (CAP) model to characterize multi-population mortality processes using cohort, age, and period variables. Distinct from the factor-based Lee-Carter-type decomposition mortality model, this approach is empirically based and includes the age, period, and cohort variables into the equation system. The model not only provides a fruitful intuition for explaining multivariate mortality change rates but also has a better performance in forecasting future patterns. Using the US and the UK mortality data and performing ten-year out-of-sample tests, our approach shows smaller mean square errors in both countries compared to the models in the literature.

Keywords: longevity risk, stochastic mortality model, multivariate mortality rate, risk management

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4028 Lean and Six Sigma in the Freight Railway Supplier Base in South Africa: Factors Leading to Their Application

Authors: Hilda Kundai Chikwanda, Lawrence Thabo Mokhadi

Abstract:

The study aimed to review the factors that lead the freight railway suppliers base in South Africa (SA) to apply the Lean and Six Sigma (L&SS) methodologies. A thorough review of the factors that lead organisations, in the different industries, to implement these methodologies was done. L&SS applications were found to be prominent in the automotive industry. In particular, the railway industry in SA and the region were reviewed in terms of challenges in capturing the freight logistics market and growing market share. Qualitative methods have been used to collect primary data and descriptive statistics was used to calculate, describe, and summarize collected research data. The results show that external factors have a greater influence on the implementation of L&SS. The study drew inferences between freight railway supplier base and the application of Lean and Six Sigma (L&SS) methodologies in the SA context. It identified challenges that leads the SA freight railway to lose market share to road freight users. It further observes and recommends that L&SS methodologies are the ideal strategy required to implement a turnaround in the trajectory of freight railways as a competitive freight transport solution.

Keywords: production, methodology, manufacturing, lean, six sigma

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4027 Spanish University Governance Reporting

Authors: Agustin Baidez, Yolanda Ramirez

Abstract:

There is currently a growing interest in the improvement of university governance and the disclosure of information on governance processes as an essential part of the transparency and accountability of universities. This paper aims to examine the extent and quality of voluntary corporate governance disclosure by public Spanish universities on their websites in relation to information need of stakeholders. The results of this study show that Spanish university stakeholders attach great importance to the disclosure of specific information on aspects of corporate governance. However, the quality of disclosed information on university governance in public Spanish universities websites is in the middle level. In order to satisfy the information needs of university stakeholders, Spanish universities can be recommended to focus on reporting higher quality information on university autonomy in financing, autonomy in management, autonomy regarding student selection and assessment, degree of consanguinity of executive directors, report on assigned public funding based on results, and management reports.

Keywords: university, governance, transparency, stakeholders

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