Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3374

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Economics and Management Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

3374 Technological Enhancements in Supply Chain Management Post COVID-19

Authors: Miran Ismail

Abstract:

COVID-19 has caused widespread disruption in all economical sectors and industries around the world. The COVID-19 lockdown measures have resulted in production halts, restrictions on persons and goods movement, border closures, logistical constraints, and a slowdown in trade and economic activity. The main subject of this paper is to leverage technology to manage the supply chain effectively and efficiently through the usage of artificial intelligence. The research methodology is based on empirical data collected through a questionnaire survey. One of the approaches utilized is a case study of industrial organizations that face obstacles such as high operational costs, large inventory levels, a lack of well-established supplier relationships, human behavior, and system issues. The main contribution of this research to the body of knowledge is the empirical insights and on supply chain sustainability performance measurement. The results provide guidelines for the selection of advanced technologies to support supply chain processes and for the design of sustainable performance measurement systems.

Keywords: information technology, artificial intelligence, supply chain management, industrial organizations

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3373 Enhancing Warehousing Operation In Cold Supply Chain Through The Use Of IOT And Lifi Technologies

Authors: Sarah El-Gamal, Ahmed Abdel Aziz, Rogina mahmoud, Passent Hossam, Dalia Hilal, Eman Ayman, Hana Haytham, Omar Khamis

Abstract:

Several concerns fall upon the supply chain, especially the cold supply chain. According to the literature, the main challenges in the cold supply chain are the distribution and storage phases. In this research, researchers focused on the storage area, which contains several activities such as the picking activity that faces a lot of obstacles and challenges The implementation of IoT solutions enables businesses to monitor the temperature of food items, which is perhaps the most critical parameter in cold chains. Therefore, researchers proposed a practical solution that would help in eliminating the problems related to ineffective picking for products, especially fish and seafood products, by using IoT technology, most notably LiFi technology. Thus, guaranteeing sufficient picking, reducing waste, and consequently lowering costs. A prototype was specially designed and examined. This research is a single case study research. Two methods of data collection were used; observation and semi-structured interviews. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with managers and decision maker at Carrefour Alexandria to validate the problem and the proposed practical solution using IoTandLiFi technology. A total of three interviews were conducted. As a result, a SWOT analysis was achieved in order to highlight all the strengths and weaknesses of using the recommended Lifi solution in the picking process. According to the investigations, it was found that the use of IoT and LiFi technology is cost effective, efficient, and reduces human errors, minimize the percentage of product waste and thus save money and cost. Thus, increasing customer satisfaction and profits gained.

Keywords: cold supply chain, picking process, temperature control, IOT, warehousing, LIFI

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3372 Evaluation Of A Start Up Business Strategy In Movie Industry: Case Study Of Visinema

Authors: Stacia E. H. Sitohang, S.Mn., Socrates RudySirait, Ph.D.

Abstract:

The first movie theater in Indonesia was established in December 1900. The movie industry started with international movie penetration. After a while, local movie producers started to rise and created local Indonesian movies. The industry is growing through ups and downs in Indonesia. In 2008, Visinema was founded in Jakarta, Indonesia, by AnggaDwimasSasongko, one of the most respected movie director in Indonesia. After getting achievements and recognition, Visinema chose to grow the company horizontally as opposed to only grow vertically and gain another similar achievement. Visinemachose to build the ecosystem that enables them to obtain many more opportunities and generatebusiness sustainability. The company proceed as an agile company. They created several business subsidiaries to support the company’s Intellectual Property (IP) development. This research was done through interview with the key persons in the company and questionnaire to get market insights regarding Visinema. The is able to transform their IP that initially started from movies to different kinds of business model. Interestingly, Angga chose to use the start up approach to create Visinema. In 2019, the company successfully gained Series A funding from Intudo Ventures and got other various investment schemes to support the business. In early 2020, Covid-19 pandemic negatively impacted many industries in Indonesia, especially the entertainment and leisure businesses. Fortunately, Visinema did not face any significant problem regarding survival during the pandemic, there were nolay-offs nor work hour reductions. Instead, they were thinking of much bigger opportunities and problems. While other companies suffer during the pandemic, Visinema created the first focused Transactional Video On Demand (TVOD) in Indonesia named Bioskop Online. The platform was created to keep the company innovating and adapting with the new online market as the result of the Covid-19 pandemic. Other than a digital platform, Visinemainvested heavily in animation to target kids and family business. They believed that penetrating the technology and animation market is going to be the biggest opportunity in Visinema’s road map. Besides huge opportunities, Visinema is also facing problems. The first is company brand positioning. Angga, as the founder, felt the need to detach his name from the brand image of Visinema to create system sustainability and scalability. Second, the company has to create a strategy to refocus in a particular business area to maintain and improve the competitive advantages. The third problem, IP piracy is a huge structural problem in Indonesia, the company considers IP thieves as their biggest competitors as opposed to other production company. As the recommendation, we suggest a set of branding and management strategy to detach the founder’s name from Visinema’s brand and improve the competitive advantages. We also suggest Visinema invest in system building to prevent IP piracy in the entertainment industry, which later can be another business subsidiary of Visinema.

Keywords: business ecosystem, agile, sustainability, scalability, start Up, intellectual property, digital platform

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3371 Adopting a Stakeholder Perspective to Profile Successful Sustainable Circular Business Approaches: A Single Case Study

Authors: Charleen von Kolpinski, Karina Cagarman, Alina Blaute

Abstract:

The circular economy concept is often framed by politicians, scientists and practitioners as being the solution to sustainability problems of our times. However, the focus of these discussions and publications is very often set on environmental and economic aspects. In contrast, the social dimension of sustainability has been neglected and only a few recent and mostly conceptual studies targeted the inclusion of social aspects and the SDGs into circular economy research. All stakeholders of this new circular system have to be included to represent a truly sustainable solution to all the environmental, economic and social challenges caused by the linear economic system. Hence, this empirical research aims to analyse, next to the environmental and economic dimension, also explicitly the social dimension of a sustainable circular business model. This inductive and explorative approach applies the single case study method. A multi-stakeholder view is adopted to shed light on social aspects of the circular business model. Different stakeholder views, tensions between stakeholders and conflicts of interest are detected. In semi-structured interviews with different stakeholders of the company, this study compares the different stakeholder views to profile the success factors of its business model in terms of sustainability implementation and to detect its shortcomings. These findings result in the development of propositions which cover different social aspects of sustainable circular business model implementation. This study is an answer to calls for future empirical research about the social dimension of the circular economy and contributes to sustainable business model thinking in entrepreneurial contexts of the circular economy. It helps identifying all relevant stakeholders and their needs to successfully and inclusively implement a sustainable circular business model. The method of a single case study has some limitations by nature as it only covers one enterprise with its special business model. Therefore, more empirical studies are needed to research sustainable circular business models from multiple stakeholder perspectives, in different countries and industries. Future research can build upon the developed propositions of this study and develop hypotheses to be tested.

Keywords: circular economy, single case study, social dimension, sustainable circular business model

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3370 Calendar Anomalies in Islamic Frontier Markets

Authors: Aslam Faheem, Hunjra Ahmed Imran, Tayachi Tahar, Verhoeven Peter, Tariq Yasir

Abstract:

We investigate the evidence of three risk-adjusted calendar anomalies in eight frontier markets. Our sample consists of the daily closing prices of their stock indices for the period of January 2006 to September 2019. We categorize the data with respect to day-of-the-week, Lunar calendar and Islamic calendar. Using Morgan Stanley Capital International (MSCI) eight Markets Index as our proxy of the market portfolio, most of the frontier markets tested exhibit calendar seasonality. We confirm that systematic risk varies with respect to day-of-the-week, Lunar months and Islamic months. After consideration of time-varying risk and applying Bonferroni correction, few frontier markets exhibit profitable investment opportunities from calendar return anomalies for active investment managers.

Keywords: asset pricing, frontier markets, market efficiency, Islamic calendar effects, Islamic stock markets

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3369 The Importance of Entrepreneurship for National Economy: Evaluation of Developed and Least Developed Countries

Authors: Adnan Celik

Abstract:

Entrepreneurs are people who attempt to do a business and do not hesitate to do so. They are involved in the production of economic goods and services through factors of production. They also find the financial resources necessary for production and the markets where the production will be evaluated. After all, they create economic values. The main function of the entrepreneur in contemporary societies is to realize innovations. From this point, the power of the modern entrepreneur is based on her/his capacity to innovate and transform his innovations into tangible commercial products. In this context, the concept of an entrepreneur is used to mean the person or persons who constantly innovate. Successful entrepreneurs take on the role of the locomotive in the development of their countries. They support economic development with their activities. In addition to production and marketing activities, it also has important contributions to employment. Along with the development of the country, they also try to make the income distribution more balanced. Especially developed country entrepreneurs intensely perform the following functions; “to produce new goods and services or to increase the quality and quality of known goods and services; ability to develop and apply new production methods; establishing new organizations in the industry; reach new markets; to find new sources from which raw materials and similar materials can be obtained”. Entrepreneurs who fully implement business functions are easier to achieve economic efficiency. Thus, they provide great advantages to the business and the national economy. Successful entrepreneurs are people who make money by creating economic values. These revenues are; on the one hand, it is distributed to individuals in the business as wages, premiums, or dividends; It is also used in the growth of companies. Thus, employees, managers, entrepreneurs and the whole country can benefit greatly. In the least developed countries, the guiding effect of traditional value patterns on individuals' attitudes and behaviors varies depending on the socio-economic characteristics of individuals. It is normal for an entrepreneur with a low level of education, who was brought up in a traditional structure, to behave in accordance with traditional value patterns. In fact, this is the primary problem of all countries in the development effort. The solution to this problem will be possible by giving the necessary importance to the social dimension as well as the technical dimension of development. This study mainly focuses on the importance of entrepreneurship for the national economy. This issue has been handled separately in terms of developed and least developed countries. As a result of the study, entrepreneurship suggestions were made, especially to least developed countries, with the goal of national economy and development.

Keywords: entrepreneur, entrepreneurship, national economy, entrepreneurship in developed and least developed countries

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3368 Hiding Power of the Scent in Marketing and New Marketing Strategy: The Scent Marketing

Authors: Shahram Keshavarzi

Abstract:

Today, getting good service, having a good time, and leaving the company with good feelings are importanttforbothcustomers and businesses. It has been observed that when customersareexposedtopleasantsmells, their visit times increase by 26%, and theyvisittheaislesfor 3 times longer. Byusingtheeffect of scents on people, it is toensurethatcustomersshopmore, benefit from the service and be satisfied. Intoday'sresearch, visual memory can be 40% effective after a period of 4 months, whileolfactorymemory is 60% moreeffectiveevenafter 1 year. The purpose of the research is thehiddenandeffectivepower of skepticism in the behavior of consumersandtheeffectivestrategy of modern marketing. Special scentsdirectlyaffecttheincrease in sales by influencing the customer's-decision mechanism in purchasing products.

Keywords: modern marketing strategy, scent, scent marketing, consumer behavior

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3367 Leadership of People with Physical Disabilities in Virtual Teams

Authors: Fatemeh Jafari Hemmat Abadi

Abstract:

Through empathy, caring, and nurturing, benevolent leaders can help people with disabilities overcome the stigma of disability and smile at their work environment and work. The main purpose of our research is to examine the performance of people with physical disabilities in virtual teams across geographical, cultural and linguistic barriers around the world. Our results show the relationship between benevolent leadership and the three components of well-being among administrative staff, disability including perceived discrimination, job satisfaction and the need for improvement. The two factors identified for productivity are pervasive team attitudes in the team and proper leadership by the team leader.

Keywords: benevolent leadership, virtual teams, group attitudes pervasive, climate including disability

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3366 Managing Virtual Teams in a Pandemic

Authors: M. Jafari Toosy, A. Zamani

Abstract:

This article, considering the result of pandemics at the international level and all activities and projects performed virtually and the need for resource management and virtual teams in this period identifies the components of virtual management after searching the available resources. Exploration of virtual management in the pandemic era is explored in 10 international articles. The results of research with this method and according to the tasks and topics related to management knowledge and definition of virtual teams can be divided into topics such as planning, decision making, control, organization, leadership, attention to growth and capability, resources and facilities, Communication, creativity, innovation and security. In order to explain the nature of virtual management, a definition of virtual management was provided.

Keywords: management, virtual, virtual team management, pandemic, team

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3365 Investor Psychology, Housing Prices, and Stock Market Response to Policy Decisions During the Covid-19 Recession in the United States

Authors: Ly Nguyen, Vidit Munshi

Abstract:

During the Covid-19 recession, the United States government has implemented several instruments to mitigate the impacts and revitalize the economy. This paper explores the effects of the various government policy decisions on stock returns, housing prices, and investor psychology during the pandemic in the United States. A numerous previous literature studies on this subject, yet very few focus on the context similar to what we are currently experiencing. Our monthly data covering the period from January 2019 through July 2021 were collected from Datastream. Utilizing the VAR model, we document a dynamic relationship between the market and policy actions throughout the period. In particular, the movements of Unemployment, Stock returns, and Housing prices are strongly sensitive to changes in government policies. Our results also indicate that changes in production level, stock returns, and interest rates decisions influence how investors perceived future market risk and expectations. We do not find any significant nexus between monetary and fiscal policy. Our findings imply that information on government policy and stock market performance provide useful feedback to one another in order to make better decisions in the current and future pandemic. Understanding how the market responds to a shift in government practices has important implications for authorities in implementing policy to avoid assets bubbles and market overreactions. The paper also provides useful implications for investors in evaluating the effectiveness of different policies and diversifying portfolios to minimize systematic risk and maximize returns.

Keywords: Covid-19 recession, United States, government policies, investor psychology, housing prices, stock market returns

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3364 Impact of Firm Location and Organizational Structure on Receipt and Effectiveness of Social Assistance

Authors: Nalanda Matia, Julia Zhao, Amber Jaycocks, Divya Sinha

Abstract:

Social assistance programs for businesses are intended to improve their survival and growth in the face of catastrophic events like the COVID-19 pandemic. However, that goal remains unfulfilled when the mostwantingbusinesses fail to participate in such programs. Reasons for non-participation can include lack of information, inability to cope with applications and program compliance, as well as some programs’ non-entitlement status. Some of these factors may be associated with the organizational and locational characteristics of these businesses. This research investigates these organizational and locational factorsthat determine receipt and effectiveness of social assistance among the firms that receive it. of A sample of firms from the universe of 3 rounds of Small Business Administration backed Paycheck Protection Program recipient and similarly profiled non recipient businesses are used to analyze this question. Initial results show firm organizational factors like size and spatial factors like broadband coverage at firm location impact application for and subsequent receipt of assistance for digitally administered programs. Further, Line of business and wage structure of recipients’ impact effectiveness of the assistance dollars.

Keywords: public economics, economics of social assistance, firm organizational structure, survival analysis

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3363 The Challenges Faced in Learning English as a Second Language in Sri Lanka: A Case Study of Ordinary Level Students in Kurunegala District

Authors: H. L. M. Fawzan

Abstract:

Undoubtedly, learning English as a second language (ESL) is considered a challenging task. It is more difficult for students in far-away districts when compared with the students in the capital cities, where learning resources are easily available and where the environment is conducive to learning. Thus, this study is an analysis of the challenges faced by learners in learning English as the second language within kurunegala district in Sri Lanka. Even though various efforts have been taken by the Sri Lankan Educationalists for improving the situation of English language teaching for the past few decades, a disappointing situation still exist in the achievements of English learning among Sri Lankan students. So, it is necessary to explore real reasons behind the poor achievements of the students in the English Language. It is also an attempt to highlight what can be done to improve the situation significantly. Kurunegala is far away from the capital city of Sri Lanka and is a densely populated district. In the year 2020, state university admission was 45.87% from the Kurunegala district (Department of Examinations). The researcher strived to examine some of the likely challenges faced when teaching English in secondary schools in Kurunegala. The data was collected using a questionnaire from 35 students from schools within the Kurunegala education division. The result of the study reveals that students were highly motivated to learn English for their prospects and expectations such as local and international communication, academic advancement, and employment prospects.

Keywords: english, teaching, Kurunegala, Sri Lanka, challenges

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3362 The Capital Expenditure Reputation from Investor Perspective: A Signal of Better Future Performance

Authors: Juniarti, Agus Arianto Toly

Abstract:

This study aims to examine the effect of capital expenditure on the investors’ responses. The respondents were companies with the best stock performance in each sector in 2017. The observation period is 2017 to 2019. Top 10 companies in each sector with the best stock performance in companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange were selected. The main variables are a growth signal which is proxied by growth in capital spending and capital expenditure, and risk and investor response, which is proxied by CAR. Financial performance as measured by ROA is a control variable in this study. The results showed that the signal of growth as measured by capital expenditures responded positively by the market, the risk moderates this influence, companies with high risk will be responded negatively by investors and vice versa. This finding corrects previous findings that only looked at the signal aspect of growth, without linking it to risk. In addition, these findings reinforce the argument that investors buy the future of the company, not a momentary financial performance. This can be seen from the absence of ROA influence on investor response. This study found that companies need to manage risk appropriately, because the risk aspect of the company is a crucial factor for investors. High risks will eliminate the benefits of strategic decisions in this case in the form of capital expenditures.

Keywords: capital expenditure, growth signals, investor response, risk

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3361 The Characteristics of the Chairman of Board of Directors That Are Associated with Better Levels of Performance

Authors: Abilio Pires Zacarias

Abstract:

Analyzing company boards of directors is a relevant and timely topic. As the representative of shareholders, the board is the most senior management body of this type of company. Therefore, ascertaining the best kind of candidates to nominate, namely the most appropriate characteristics for leading the board to achieve better levels of performance, is certainly of great interest. The companies selected for this study were the 1,000 largest non-financial companies and the 100 largest financial companies in Portugal according to the Instituto Nacional de Estatística for 2010. The information stemmed from a questionnaire addressed to the person in charge of daily company management and then processed through STATA 17 with the multivariate analysis of variables - MANOVA. The study may correspondingly report that the vast majority of boards in the sample operate a dual leadership structure. By in terms of its prevalence, unitary leadership represents only a minority. Agency theory and stewardship theory postulate different characteristics for the ideal chairman but neither receive confirmation from our results. On the other hand, our findings do validate the behavioral theory of firms (BToF), concluding that experience is associated with organizational performance. This study is also relevant due to its analysis of companies not listed on the financial markets not only because of their weighting in the economy but also because they remain only very poorly studied in this field and thus also correspondingly contributing to deepening the literature.

Keywords: agency theory, behavioral theory of the firm, board of directors, corporate governance, stewardship theory

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3360 Evaluation of Digital Marketing Strategies by Behavioral Economics

Authors: Sajjad Esmaeili Aghdam

Abstract:

Economics typically conceptualizes individual behavior as the consequence of external states, for example, budgets and prices (or respective beliefs) and choices. As the main goal, we focus on the influence of a range of Behavioral Economics factors on Strategies of Digital Marketing, evaluation of strategies and deformation of it into highly prospective marketing strategies. The different forms of behavioral prospects all lead to the succeeding two main results. First, the steadiness of the economic dynamics in a currency union be contingent fatefully on the level of economic incorporation. More economic incorporation leads to more steady economic dynamics. Electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) is “all casual communications focused at consumers through Internet-based technology connected to the usage or characteristics of specific properties and services or their venders.” eWOM can take many methods, the most significant one being online analyses. Writing this paper, 72 articles have been gathered, focusing on the title and the aim of the article from research search engines like Google Scholar, Web of Science, and PubMed. Recent research in strategic management and marketing proposes that markets should not be viewed as a given and deterministic setting, exogenous to the firm. Instead, firms are progressively abstracted as dynamic inventors of market prospects. The use of new technologies touches all spheres of the modern lifestyle. Social and economic life becomes unbearable without fast, applicable, first-class and fitting material. Psychology and economics (together known as behavioral economics) are two protruding disciplines underlying many theories in marketing. The wide marketing works papers consumers’ none balanced behavior even though behavioral biases might not continuously be steadily called or officially labeled.

Keywords: behavioral economics, digital marketing, marketing strategy, high impact strategies

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3359 Connecting Critical Macro-Finance to Theories of Capitalism

Authors: Vithul Kalki

Abstract:

The mainstream political economy failed to explain the nature and causes of systemic failures and thus to compare and comprehend how contemporary capitalist systems work. An alternative research framework of Critical Macro-Finance (CMF) is an attempt to collaborate political theory with post-Keynesian economics with an objective to find answers to unresolved questions that emerged since the international financial crisis and repeated failures of capital systems. This unorthodox approach brings out four main propositions, namely : (a) that the adoption of American financial practices has anchored financial globalization in market-based finance; (b) that global finance is a set of interconnected, hierarchical balance sheets, increasingly subject to time-critical liquidity; (c) that credit creation in market-based finance involves new forms of money; and (d) that market-based finance structurally requires a de-risking state capable both of protecting systemic liabilities and creating new investment opportunities. The ongoing discussion of CMF literature is yet to be tested or even fully framed. This qualitative paper will critically examine the CMF framework and will engage in discussions aiming to connect the CMF with theories of capitalism in a wider context to bring a holistic approach for analyzing contemporary financial capitalism.

Keywords: critical macro-finance, capitalism, financial system, comparative political economy

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3358 Building an Absurdist Approach to the Philosophy of Science: Combining Camus and Feyerabend

Authors: Robert Herold

Abstract:

This project aims to begin building out a new approach within the philosophy of science that is based around a combination of insights from Albert Camus and Paul Feyerabend. This approach is one that will be labeled an absurdist approach as it uses, for its foundation, the philosophy of the absurd as discussed by Camus. While Camus didn’t directly discuss the philosophy of science, nor did he offer his own views on the subject in any substantial way, that doesn’t mean that his work doesn’t have applications within the philosophy of science. In fact, as is argued throughout the piece, much of the work done by Paul Feyerabend stems from a similar metaphysical and epistemological foundation as Camus. This foundation is the notion of the absurd and the inability of us as humans to reach some sort of objective truth. In modern times both Camus and Feyerabend have been largely pushed to the wayside, though Feyerabend has undoubtedly received the most unfair treatment of the two, and this is something that serves to act more as a hindrance than anything else. Much of the claims and arguments made by both Camus and Feyerabend have not been truly refuted and have simply been pushed aside by pointing to supposed contradictions or inconsistencies. However, while it would be a monumental task to attempt to discuss all of this past work, perhaps it might be better to move beyond both Camus and Feyerabend and chart a new path. This is the overall goal of this paper. This research will demonstrate that not only are the philosophies of Camus and Feyerabend surprisingly similar and able to mesh well together, they also are able to form into something that is truly more than the sum of its parts. While the task of actually building out an approach is a monumental undertaking, the plan is to use this project as a jumping-off point. As such, this paper will start by examining some of the main claims made by both Camus and Feyerabend. Once this is done, then begin weaving them together and demonstrating where the links between the philosophies of both are. Then this study will end by building out the very begging foundations of the absurdist approach to the philosophy of science.

Keywords: philosophy, philosophy of science, albert camus, paul feyerabend

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3357 A Use Case-Oriented Performance Measurement Framework for AI and Big Data Solutions in the Banking Sector

Authors: Yassine Bouzouita, Oumaima Belghith, Cyrine Zitoun, Charles Bonneau

Abstract:

Performance measurement framework (PMF) is an essential tool in any organization to assess the performance of its processes. It guides businesses to stay on track with their objectives and benchmark themselves from the market. With the growing trend of the digital transformation of business processes, led by innovations in artificial intelligence (AI) & Big Data applications, developing a mature system capable of capturing the impact of digital solutions across different industries became a necessity. Based on the conducted research, no such system has been developed in academia nor the industry. In this context, this paper covers a variety of methodologies on performance measurement, overviews the major AI and big data applications in the banking sector, and covers an exhaustive list of relevant metrics. Consequently, this paper is of interest to both researchers and practitioners. From an academic perspective, it offers a comparative analysis of the reviewed performance measurement frameworks. From an industry perspective, it offers exhaustive research, from market leaders, of the major applications of AI and Big Data technologies, across the different departments of an organization. Moreover, it suggests a standardized classification model with a well-defined structure of intelligent digital solutions. The aforementioned classification is mapped to a centralized library that contains an indexed collection of potential metrics for each application. This library is arranged in a manner that facilitates the rapid search and retrieval of relevant metrics. This proposed framework is meant to guide professionals in identifying the most appropriate AI and big data applications that should be adopted. Furthermore, it will help them meet their business objectives through understanding the potential impact of such solutions on the entire organization.

Keywords: AI and Big Data applications, impact assessment, metrics, performance measurement

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3356 Storage Assignment Strategies to Reduce Manual Picking Errors with an Emphasis on an Ageing Workforce

Authors: Heiko Diefenbach, Christoph H. Glock

Abstract:

Order picking, i.e., the order-based retrieval of items in a warehouse, is an important time- and cost-intensive process for many logistic systems. Despite the ongoing trend of automation, most order picking systems are still manual picker-to-parts systems, where human pickers walk through the warehouse to collect ordered items. Human work in warehouses is not free from errors, and order pickers may at times pick the wrong or the incorrect number of items. Errors can cause additional costs and significant correction efforts. Moreover, age might increase a person’s likelihood to make mistakes. Hence, the negative impact of picking errors might increase for an aging workforce currently witnessed in many regions globally. A significant amount of research has focused on making order picking systems more efficient. Among other factors, storage assignment, i.e., the assignment of items to storage locations (e.g., shelves) within the warehouse, has been subject to optimization. Usually, the objective is to assign items to storage locations such that order picking times are minimized. Surprisingly, there is a lack of research concerned with picking errors and respective prevention approaches. This paper hypothesize that the storage assignment of items can affect the probability of pick errors. For example, storing similar-looking items apart from one other might reduce confusion. Moreover, storing items that are hard to count or require a lot of counting at easy-to-access and easy-to-comprehend self heights might reduce the probability to pick the wrong number of items. Based on this hypothesis, the paper discusses how to incorporate error-prevention measures into mathematical models for storage assignment optimization. Various approaches with respective benefits and shortcomings are presented and mathematically modeled. To investigate the newly developed models further, they are compared to conventional storage assignment strategies in a computational study. The study specifically investigates how the importance of error prevention increases with pickers being more prone to errors due to age, for example. The results suggest that considering error-prevention measures for storage assignment can reduce error probabilities with only minor decreases in picking efficiency. The results might be especially relevant for an aging workforce.

Keywords: an aging workforce, error prevention, order picking, storage assignment

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3355 Good Advice Is Hard to Come By: A Cross-Cultural Perspective on Opposing Views and Entrepreneurial Passion

Authors: Marcel Hechler

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to understand the impact of entrepreneurs' receptiveness to opposing views on their entrepreneurial passion. Following a cross-cultural approach, we surveyed 1,228 entrepreneurs in seven developing and emerging countries. Besides a positive relationship between receptiveness to opposing views and harmonious passion for entrepreneurship, we found first evidence for a significant moderating effect of access to information reinforcing the positive main effect.

Keywords: harmonious passion, developing and emerging countries, self-determination theory, receptiveness to opposing views

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3354 Doing More with Less: Passion for Entrepreneurship in the Research-Constraint Contexts of Developing and Emerging Economies

Authors: Marcel Hechler

Abstract:

Since passion is considered one of the most important motivating factors for entrepreneurship, we examined the influence of the availability of resources and information on the emergence of a harmonious passion for entrepreneurship (HPE). Drawing on self-determination theory and a cross-cultural sample of 1,085 entrepreneurs from seven developing countries, we argue that the availability of resources and information increases an entrepreneur's autonomy and, thus, promotes the emergence of HPE.

Keywords: harmonious passion, access to resources and information, developing and emerging countries, self-determination theory

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3353 COVID-19 Pandemic and Disruptions in Nigeria’s Domestic Economic Activities: A Pre-post Empirical Investigation

Authors: Amaefule, Leonard Ifeanyi

Abstract:

The study evaluated the disruptions in Nigeria’s domestic economic activities occasioned by the COVID-19 pandemic: a pre and post-pandemic investigation approach. Domestic economic activities were measured with composite manufacturing purchasing managers index (PMI) and composite non-manufacturing PMI. Production and employment levels indices were proxies for composite manufacturing PMI, while business activities and employment level indices were proxies for non-manufacturing PMI. Data for these indices were sourced from monthly and quarterly publications of the Central Bank of Nigeria for periods covering fifteen (15) months before and 15 months after the outbreak of the virus in Nigeria. Test of equality of means was employed in establishing the significance of the difference of means between the pre and post-pandemic domestic economic activities. Results from the analysis indicated that a significant negative difference exists in each of the measures of domestic economic activities between the pre and post-pandemic periods. These findings, therefore, offer empirical evidence that the COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted domestic economic activities in Nigeria; thus, it exerts a negative influence on the measures of the nation’s domestic economic activities. The study thus recommended (among other things) that the Nigerian government should focus on policies that would enhance domestic production, employment and enhance business activities.

Keywords: COVID-19, domestic economic activities, composite manufacturing indices, composite non-manufacturing indices

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3352 Supply Chains Resilience within Machine-Made Rug Producers in Iran

Authors: Malihe Shahidan, Azin Madhi, Meisam Shahbaz

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In recent decades, the role of supply chains in sustaining businesses and establishing their superiority in the market has been under focus. The realization of the goals and strategies of a business enterprise is largely dependent on the cooperation of the chain, including suppliers, distributors, retailers, etc. Supply chains can potentially be disrupted by both internal and external factors. In this paper, resilience strategies have been identified and analyzed in three levels: sourcing, producing, and distributing by considering economic depression as a current risk factor for the machine-made rugs industry. In this study, semi-structured interviews for data gathering and thematic analysis for data analysis are applied. Supply chain data has been gathered from seven rug factories before and after the economic depression through semi-structured interviews. The identified strategies were derived from literature review and validated by collecting data from a group of eighteen industry and university experts, and the results were analyzed using statistical tests. Finally, the outsourcing of new products and products in the new market, the development and completion of the product portfolio, the flexibility in the composition and volume of products, the expansion of the market to price-sensitive, direct sales, and disintermediation have been determined as strategies affecting supply chain resilience of machine-made rugs' industry during an economic depression.

Keywords: distribution, economic depression, machine-made rug, outsourcing, production, sourcing, supply chain, supply chain resilience

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3351 Need for Regional Focus for Smart and Sustainable Cities

Authors: Satinder Bhatia

Abstract:

Many nations have pursued the goal of creating smart cities. These cities receive additional funding for investment in various fields including technology that may create efficiencies and move both people and assets towards sustainable living. Given that our large cities continue to attract larger numbers of people, it may be logical to pursue this goal of creating higher and higher efficiencies in cities to generate a sustainable living for all. Too often, we have seen shortage of key resources like water, electricity, housing and other amenities such as schools, colleges and transport as more and more people crowd into our cities. Even though manufacturing of industrial goods has been pushed out of cities, they still remain the hub of services owing to the superior infrastructure of cities. But will the creation of smart cities not attract even more people requiring our cities to get smarter and smarter with time and thereby, put more and more pressure on our resources? Time has come to ask ourselves if this model in itself is a sustainable proposition. India had for long pursued the goal of developing backward regions with special focussed schemes. This study looks at the theoretical proposition of a renewed focus on development of backward areas from a regional perspective. Strengthening connectivity between developed and relatively less developed contiguous regions can transmit the benefits of developed areas more easily and give birth to sustainable projects for a two-way flow of talent, goods and services. This two-way flow at the regional level has high potential towards building and maintaining sustainable cities and nations.

Keywords: smart cities, regional disparity, regional development, sustainable living.

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3350 Time Series Analysis the Case of China and USA Trade Examining during Covid-19 Trade Enormity of Abnormal Pricing with the Exchange rate

Authors: Md. Mahadi Hasan Sany, Mumenunnessa Keya, Sharun Khushbu, Sheikh Abujar

Abstract:

Since the beginning of China's economic reform, trade between the U.S. and China has grown rapidly, and has increased since China's accession to the World Trade Organization in 2001. The US imports more than it exports from China, reducing the trade war between China and the U.S. for the 2019 trade deficit, but in 2020, the opposite happens. In international and U.S. trade, Washington launched a full-scale trade war against China in March 2016, which occurred a catastrophic epidemic. The main goal of our study is to measure and predict trade relations between China and the U.S., before and after the arrival of the COVID epidemic. The ML model uses different data as input but has no time dimension that is present in the time series models and is only able to predict the future from previously observed data. The LSTM (a well-known Recurrent Neural Network) model is applied as the best time series model for trading forecasting. We have been able to create a sustainable forecasting system in trade between China and the US by closely monitoring a dataset published by the State Website NZ Tatauranga Aotearoa from January 1, 2015, to April 30, 2021. Throughout the survey, we provided a 180-day forecast that outlined what would happen to trade between China and the US during COVID-19. In addition, we have illustrated that the LSTM model provides outstanding outcome in time series data analysis rather than RFR and SVR (e.g., both ML models). The study looks at how the current Covid outbreak affects China-US trade. As a comparative study, RMSE transmission rate is calculated for LSTM, RFR and SVR. From our time series analysis, it can be said that the LSTM model has given very favorable thoughts in terms of China-US trade on the future export situation.

Keywords: RFR, China-U.S. trade war, SVR, LSTM, deep learning, Covid-19, export value, forecasting, time series analysis

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3349 Relationships between Actors within Business Ecosystems That Adopt Circular Strategies: A Systematic Literature Review

Authors: Sophia Barquete, Adriana H. Trevisan, Janaina Mascarenhas

Abstract:

The circular economy (CE) aims at the cycling of resources through restorative and regenerative strategies. To achieve circularity, coordination of several actors who have different responsibilities is necessary. The interaction among multiple actors allows the connection between the CE and business ecosystem research fields. Although fundamental, the relationships between actors within an ecosystem to foster circularity are not deeply explored in the literature. The objective of this study was to identify the possibilities of cooperation, competition, or even coopetition among the members of business ecosystems that adopt circular strategies. In particular, the motivations that make these actors interact to achieve a circular economy were investigated. A systematic literature review was adopted to select business ecosystem cases that adopt circular strategies. As a result, several motivations were identified for actors to engage in relationships within ecosystems, such as sharing knowledge and infrastructure, developing products with a circular design, promoting reverse logistics, among others. The results suggest that partnerships between actors are, in fact, important for the implementation of circular strategies. In order to achieve a complete and circular solution, actors must be able to clearly understand their roles and relationships within the network so that they can establish new partnerships or reframe those already established.

Keywords: business ecosystem, circular economy, cooperation, coopetition, competition

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3348 Towards the Definition of Digital Leadership with Drawing the Big Picture and Identifying 20 Factors Relevant for the Understanding and Implementation of Digital Leadership

Authors: Denis Imhof, Stella Gatziu Grivas

Abstract:

Based on the identification of challenges and conditions of the digital age faced by organizations today and the existing contributions in the digital leadership literature, the authors propose a holistic definition of digital leadership which considers the four main areas: organizational-, employee-, self-, and strategic position leadership. Based on this definition, the main contribution of this paper is the identification of 20 digital leadership factors which are relevant for successful digital leadership and which do, on the one hand, side offers a deeper understanding of (the four main areas of) digital leadership, and on the other hand side offer guidance for the implementation and improvement of digital leadership capabilities for organizations facing the challenges and conditions of the digital age.

Keywords: digital leadership, organizational leadership, employee leadership, self-leadership, strategic position leadership, big picture, digital leadership areas, digital leadership factors, challenges, conditions, digital age, digital economy, digitalization, digital transformation

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3347 Digital Curriculum Preservation Planning, Actions, and Challenges

Authors: Misook Ahn

Abstract:

This study examined the Digital Curriculum Repository (DCR) project initiated at Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center (DLIFLC). The purpose of the DCR is to build a centralized curriculum infrastructure, preserve all curriculum materials, and provide academic service to users (faculty, students, or other agencies). The DCR collection includes core language curriculum materials developed by each language school—foreign language textbooks, language survival kits, and audio files currently in or not in use at the schools. All core curriculum materials with audio and video files have been coded, collected, and preserved at the DCR. The DCR website was designed with MS SharePoint for easy accessibility by the DLIFLC’s faculty and students. All metadata for the collected curriculum materials have been input by language, code, year, book type, level, user, version, and current status (in use/not in use). The study documents digital curriculum preservation planning, actions, and challenges, including collecting, coding, collaborating, designing DCR SharePoint, and policymaking. DCR Survey data is also collected and analyzed for this research. Based on the finding, the study concludes that the mandatory policy for the DCR system and collaboration with school leadership are critical elements of a successful repository system. The sample collected items, metadata, and DCR SharePoint site are presented in the evaluation section.

Keywords: MS share point, digital preservation, repository, policy

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3346 Developing and Managing an Institutional Repository in a Nigerian University Library: The Futa Experience

Authors: Belau Olatunde Gbadamosi, Oluchi Okere

Abstract:

Spurred by the ease of access to and the cost-effectiveness of open-source software such as DSpace, EPrints, and Greenstone Digital Libraries for hosting digital content, many libraries have added institutional repositories (IRs) to their repertoire of digital assets. This paper adopts a qualitative approach based on focus group discussions and the system development life cycle model (SDLC) to describe the experience of Albert Ilemobade Library (the Federal University of Technology Akure, Nigeria (FUTA) in the development of their IR - FUTASpace. Peculiar challenges experienced in the course of the development and solutions adopted are also reported. This study will serve as a reference point to other institutions, particularly those operating in developing countries, which may be poorly funded.

Keywords: institutional repository, digital libraries, university libraries, DSpace

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3345 Bridging the Gap and Widening the Divide

Authors: LeratoDixon, Thorsten Chmura

Abstract:

This paper explores whether ethnic identity in Zimbabwe leads to discriminatory behaviour and the degree to which a norm-based intervention can shift this discriminatory behaviour. Social Identity Theory suggests that group identity can lead to favouritism towards the in-group and discriminatory behaviour towards the out-group. Agents yield higher utility from maintaining positive self-esteem by confirming with group behaviour. This paper focuses on the two majority ethnic groups in Zimbabwe – the Ndebele and Shona. Racial identities are synonymous with the language spoken. Zimbabwe’s history highlights how identity formation took place. As following independence, political parties became recognised as either Ndebele or Shona-speaking. It is against this backdrop that this study investigates the degree to which norm-based nudge can alter behaviour. This paper uses experimental methods to analyse discriminatory behaviour between two naturally occurring ethnic groups in Zimbabwe. In addition, we investigate if social norm-based interventions can shift discriminatory behaviour to understand if the divide between these two identity groups can be further divided or healed. Participants are randomly assigned into three groups to receive information regarding a social norm. We compare the effect of a proscriptive social norm-based intervention, stating what shouldn't be done and prescriptive social norms as interventions, stating what should be done. Specifically, participants are either shown the socially appropriate (Heal) norm, the socially inappropriateness (Divide) norm regarding interethnic marriages or no norm-based intervention. Following the random assignment into intervention groups, participants take part in the Trust Game. We conjecture that discrimination will shift in accordance with the prevailing social norm. Instead, we find evidence of interethnic discriminatory behaviour. We also find that trust increases when interacting with Ndebele, Shona and Zimbabwean participants following the Heal intervention. However, if the participant is Shona, the Heal intervention decreases trust toward in-groups and Zimbabwean co-players. On the other hand, if the participant is Shona, the Divide treatment significantly increases trust toward Ndebele participants. In summary, we find evidence that norm-based interventions significantly change behaviour. However, the prescriptive norm-based intervention (Heal) decreases trust toward the in-group, out-group and national identity group if the participant is Shona – therefore having an adverse effect. In contrast, the proscriptive Divide treatment increases trust if the participant is Shona towards Ndebele co-players. We conclude that norm-based interventions have a ‘rebound’ effect by altering behaviour in the opposite direction.

Keywords: discrimination, social identity, social norm-based intervention, zimbabwe

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