Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3642

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Economics and Management Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

3642 Terrorism, Insurgency, and State Repression in Middle East and North Africa Countries

Authors: Christophe Muller, Pierre Pecher

Abstract:

Violent conflicts between ethno-religious organizations and states have shaped the development of many countries. The literature misses the heterogeneity and the latency of state-organization relationships by focusing on special cases, or aggregate country level or short-term views. Using a meso-approach, that preserves some of this heterogeneity and allows for latent responses, we investigate the dynamic violent relationships between the organizations of discriminated groups and the governments in Middle-Eastern and North African countries. Our estimated panel data dynamic models over 112 organizations and 25 years, including with heterogeneous responses, reveal dampened cycles of retaliatory violence when considering insurgencies. Such cycles are absent with terrorism, which is more likely to occur after an insurgency. Finally, substantial inertia of these violent strategies emerge from these data, especially for insurgencies. Duration and selection analyses confirm these patterns. The results suggest two policy paths: breaking the vicious retaliatory circles and preventing initial violence break up.

Keywords: terrorism, insurgency, cycles of violence, conflict strategies

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3641 Physician Burnout Rates Based on Specialty in Urban Hospitals of Vancouver-Canada during the COVID-19 Pandemic

Authors: Farhad Ghaseminejad, Anita Palepu, Peter Dodek, Amy Salmon, Heather Leitch, Diane Lacaille, Andrea Townson, Vishal Agreed, Kira Rich, Emilia Rydz, Debbie Rosenbaum, Nadia Khan

Abstract:

Introduction: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the proportion of physicians experiencing burnout increased significantly, and this can lead to worse patient care and greater physician attrition which places greater strain on the healthcare system. Whether the prevalence of burnout and desire to quit differs by physician specialty is unknown. We sought to determine the prevalence of burnout, its components, work-life conflict, and desire to quit a position among physicians from different specialties working at two urban hospitals in Vancouver, Canada. Understanding differences in burnout prevalence, work-life conflict, and risk of quitting allow for the strategic allocation of resources to groups where interventions are most needed. Methods: We distributed an online version of the 22-item Maslach Burnout Inventory© (MBI) - Human Services Survey for Medical Personnel to 498 physicians who worked at two urban hospitals in Vancouver, Canada, from August to October 2021. The survey was administered online using the Qualtrics survey platform (Qualtrics, Provo, Utah). Participants were able to complete the survey through both web and mobile-based modalities. Results: The survey response rate was 42% (209/498). Most respondents reported experiencing burnout (68.5%). Prevalence of burnout was 36.5% in radiology, 55.6% in anesthesia, 66.7% in general surgery, 71.4% in emergency medicine, 75% in laboratory medicine, 76.5% in internal medicine, 76.9% in orthopedics, 80% in psychiatry, 90.9% in obstetrics and gynecology and 50% in other specialties. There were no significant differences among specialties or between specialties that provided direct care for patients with COVID-19 and those that did not. Physicians in surgical specialties were more likely to report work-life conflict than those in non-surgical specialties (66.7% [34/51]) vs. 35.9% [46/128] (p=0.012)). Women physicians reported significantly higher rates of work-life conflict compared with men (p=0.04). Almost one-quarter of physicians in non-surgical and surgical specialties seriously considered quitting their position. 13.3% (17/128) and 17.6% (9/51) of physicians reported having quit a position in non-surgical and surgical specialties, respectively. No significant statistical difference was observed between specialties in quitting or its consideration in multivariate analyses. Conclusion: During the global pandemic, physician burnout was high across physician specialties, irrespective of whether they provided direct care to COVID-19 patients. These outcomes demonstrate the widespread impact of the pandemic on physicians and the need for more attention and allocation of resources to support physicians across all specialties.

Keywords: burnout, COVID-19 pandemic, quality of care, physician specialties

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3640 Purchasing Decision-Making in Supply Chain Management: A Bibliometric Analysis

Authors: Ahlem Dhahri, Waleed Omri, Audrey Becuwe, Abdelwahed Omri

Abstract:

In industrial processes, decision-making ranges across different scales, from process control to supply chain management. The purchasing decision-making process in the supply chain is presently gaining more attention as a critical contributor to the company's strategic success. Given the scarcity of thorough summaries in the prior studies, this bibliometric analysis aims to adopt a meticulous approach to achieve quantitative knowledge on the constantly evolving subject of purchasing decision-making in supply chain management. Through bibliometric analysis, we examine a sample of 358 peer-reviewed articles from the Scopus database. VOSviewer and Gephi software were employed to analyze, combine, and visualize the data. Data analytic techniques, including citation network, page-rank analysis, co-citation, and publication trends, have been used to identify influential works and outline the discipline's intellectual structure. The outcomes of this descriptive analysis highlight the most prominent articles, authors, journals, and countries based on their citations and publications. The findings from the research illustrate an increase in the number of publications, exhibiting a slightly growing trend in this field. Co-citation analysis coupled with content analysis of the most cited articles identified five research themes mentioned as follows integrating sustainability into the supplier selection process, supplier selection under disruption risks assessment and mitigation strategies, Fuzzy MCDM approaches for supplier evaluation and selection, purchasing decision in vendor problems, decision-making techniques in supplier selection and order lot sizing problems. With the help of a graphic timeline, this exhaustive map of the field illustrates a visual representation of the evolution of publications that demonstrate a gradual shift from research interest in vendor selection problems to integrating sustainability in the supplier selection process. These clusters offer insights into a wide variety of purchasing methods and conceptual frameworks that have emerged; however, they have not been validated empirically. The findings suggest that future research would emerge with a greater depth of practical and empirical analysis to enrich the theories. These outcomes provide a powerful road map for further study in this area.

Keywords: bibliometric analysis, citation analysis, co-citation, Gephi, network analysis, purchasing, SCM, VOSviewer

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3639 Access to Higher Education During Covid-19: Challenges and Key Success Factors

Authors: Samia Jamshed Nauman Majeed

Abstract:

Purpose: Globally, the pandemic of COVID -19 has created a massive distraction for educational reforms influencing learning options, education access, and outcomes of students in more than 190 countries which has carved marks in history. To explore the challenges and complications confronted by students and faculty members while ensuring access to online education, qualitative research was conducted. Methodology: For this purpose, a series of focus group discussions were conducted in different regions of Pakistan, which revealed interesting findings shared by Panelists, which include Vice-Chancellors, Rectors, and Deans of different private and public sector universities of Pakistan. The qualitative research aims to explore the challenges and success factors of online educations by students with diverse backgrounds of higher education institutions to maximize student educational outcomes. Findings: The findings revealed several challenges and opportunities when it comes to online education for students of higher education institutions. Simultaneously, the researchers discovered the key success factors necessary for online education. Lastly, the paper presents the research limitations and future research recommendations to streamline online education in a better way ensuring the students' success. Originality: The pandemic has forced the closure of social, business, and educational activities, which has drastically influence the quality of education with its subsequent impact on the economy. In response, numerous universities across the globe are forced to suspend their educational activities by closing the universities. Though online education has been adopted worldwide by the universities, which brought numerous issues for academia, particularly for underdeveloped countries, and Pakistani higher education reforms are no exception to this.

Keywords: online education, higher education institutions, COVID-19, challenges, key success factors

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3638 Enablers of Total Quality Management for Social Enterprises: A Study of UAE Social Organizations

Authors: Farhat Sultana

Abstract:

Originality: TQM principles are considered the tools to enhance organizational performance for most organizations. The paper contributes to the literature on the social enterprise because social organizations are still far behind in implementing TQM as compared to other private, public, and nonprofit organizations. Study design: The study is based on the data and information provided by two case studies and one focus group of social enterprises. Purpose: The purpose of the study is to get a deep understating of TQM implementation and to recognize the enablers of TQM in social enterprises that enhance the organizational performance of social enterprises located in UAE. Findings: As per the findings of the study, key enablers of Total Quality management in the case enterprises are leadership support, strategic approach for quality, continuous improvement, process improvement, employee empowerment and customer focus practices, though some inhibitors for TQM implementation such as managerial structure for quality assurance and performance appraisal mechanism are also pointed out by the study. Research limitations: The study findings are only based on two case studies and one focus group, which is not enough to generalize the findings to all social organizations. Practical Implications: Identified TQM enablers can help management to implement TQM successfully in social enterprises. Social implications: The study provides enabling path for Social enterprises to implement TQM to seek quality output to build a better society.

Keywords: TQM, social enterprise, enablers of TQM, UAE

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3637 Corporate Governance and Financial Performance: Evidence From Indonesian Islamic Banks

Authors: Ummu Salma Al Azizah, Herri Mulyono, Anisa Mauliata Suryana

Abstract:

The significance of corporate governance regarding to the agency problem have been transparent. This study examine the impact of corporate governance on the performance of Islamic banking in Indonesia. By using fixed effect model and added some control variable, the current study try to explore the correlation between the theoretical framework on corporate governance, such as agency theory and risk management theory. The bank performance (Return on Asset and Return on Equity) which are operational performance and financial performance. And Corporate governance based on Board size, CEO duality, Audit committee and Shariah supervisory board. The limitation of this study only focus on the Islamic banks performance from year 2015 to 2020. The study fill the gap in the literature by addressing the issue of corporate governance on Islamic banks performance in Indonesia.

Keywords: corporate governance, financial performance, islamic banks, listed companies, Indonesia

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3636 Using Blockchain Technology to Promote Sustainable Supply Chains: A Survey of Previous Studies

Authors: Saleh Abu Hashanah, Abirami Radhakrishnan, Dessa David

Abstract:

Sustainable practices in the supply chain have been an area of focus that require consideration of environmental, economic, and social sustainability practices. This paper aims to examine the use of blockchain as a disruptive technology to promote sustainable supply chains. Content analysis was used to analyze the uses of blockchain technology in sustainable supply chains. The results showed that blockchain technology features such as traceability, transparency, smart contracts, accountability, trust, immutability, anti-fraud, and decentralization promote sustainable supply chains. It is found that these features have impacted organizational efficiency in operations, transportation, and production, minimizing costs and reducing carbon emissions. In addition, blockchain technology has been found to elicit customer trust in the products.

Keywords: blockchain technology, sustainability, supply chains, economic sustainability, environmental sustainability, social sustainability

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3635 Impact of Sustainability Reporting on the Financial Performance of Deposit Money Banks (DMBs): Pre-Post Analysis of Integrating ESG Disclosure into Corporate Annual Reports

Authors: A. O. Talabi, B. J. Dayana

Abstract:

Purpose: The influence of sustainability reporting on Deposit Money Banks (DMBs)' financial performance both before and after mandated environmental, social, and governance (ESG) disclosure is examined in this article. Methodology: The top six strategically significant banks listed on the Nigerian Stock Exchange were used in the study. The two time periods used in the study were the pre-mandatory ESG reporting requirement era (2011–2015) and the post-mandatory ESG reporting requirement period (2016–2021). Findings: According to the findings, there was no discernible difference between the performance of DMBs in Nigeria before and after the requirement for ESG disclosure. In the pre-mandatory requirement time, sustainability reporting is a major predictor of financial metrics, but in the post-mandatory requirement period, there was no discernible change in financial performance. Practical implications: Market authorities ought to have unrestricted authority to impose severe fines for noncompliance and bring legal action against corporations that fail to disclose ESG. Originality: According to the literature, no previous research has investigated the impact of these considering two different periods.

Keywords: financial, performance, sustainability, reporting

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3634 Unequal Access to Primary Education in Ghana: Household Income Distribution Effects

Authors: Lawrence Ado-Kofie

Abstract:

Inequality in educational access between the poor and the non-poor has been a major policy concern across sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). This paper provides evidence of sources of inequality in primary education access and their evolution over time using concentration index composition methodology. It examines the impacts of Ghana’s pro-poor education policies/programmes and contributions of key sources of primary education inequalities and distinguishes between the effects of changes in inequalities and the impacts of the key determinants of primary education access inequalities in Ghana between 2005 and 2017. Overall, the results from concentration index decomposition models reveal that the differences in the impact of determinants on primary education access are greater than the inequality differences across income groups. This implies that for Ghanaian primary education policy, equitable distribution of educational opportunities is preferable to a redistribution of income.

Keywords: concentration index, Oaxaca decomposition, educational inequality, household income, Ghana

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3633 Evaluation of Environmental Disclosures on Financial Performance of Quoted Industrial Goods Manufacturing Sectors in Nigeria (2011 – 2020)

Authors: C. C. Chima, C. J. M. Anumaka

Abstract:

This study evaluates environmental disclosures on the financial performance of quoted industrial goods manufacturing sectors in Nigeria. The study employed experimental research design to establish the relationship that exists between the environmental disclosure index and financial performance indices (return on assets - ROA, return on equity - ROE, and earnings per share - EPS). A purposeful sampling technique was employed to select five industrial goods manufacturing sectors quoted on the Nigerian Stock Exchange. Secondary data covering the 2011 to 2020 financial years were extracted from annual reports of the study sectors using a content analysis method. The data are analyzed using SPSS, Version 23. Panel Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression method was employed in estimating the unknown parameters in the study’s regression model after conducting diagnostic and preliminary tests to ascertain that the data set are reliable and not misleading. Empirical results show that there is an insignificant negative relationship between the environmental disclosure index (EDI) and the performance indices (ROA, ROE, and EPS) of the industrial goods manufacturing sectors in Nigeria. The study recommends that: only relevant information which increases the performance indices should appear on the disclosure checklist; environmental disclosure practices should be country-specific; and company executives in Nigeria should increase and monitor the level of investment (resources, time, and energy) in order to ensure that environmental disclosure has a significant impact on financial performance.

Keywords: earnings per share, environmental disclosures, return on assets, return on equity

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3632 Bayesian Value at Risk Forecast Using Realized Conditional Autoregressive Expectiel Mdodel with an Application of Cryptocurrency

Authors: Niya Chen, Jennifer Chan

Abstract:

In the financial market, risk management helps to minimize potential loss and maximize profit. There are two ways to assess risks; the first way is to calculate the risk directly based on the volatility. The most common risk measurements are Value at Risk (VaR), sharp ratio, and beta. Alternatively, we could look at the quantile of the return to assess the risk. Popular return models such as GARCH and stochastic volatility (SV) focus on modeling the mean of the return distribution via capturing the volatility dynamics; however, the quantile/expectile method will give us an idea of the distribution with the extreme return value. It will allow us to forecast VaR using return which is direct information. The advantage of using these non-parametric methods is that it is not bounded by the distribution assumptions from the parametric method. But the difference between them is that expectile uses a second-order loss function while quantile regression uses a first-order loss function. We consider several quantile functions, different volatility measures, and estimates from some volatility models. To estimate the expectile of the model, we use Realized Conditional Autoregressive Expectile (CARE) model with the bayesian method to achieve this. We would like to see if our proposed models outperform existing models in cryptocurrency, and we will test it by using Bitcoin mainly as well as Ethereum.

Keywords: expectile, CARE Model, CARR Model, quantile, cryptocurrency, Value at Risk

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3631 Predicting Returns Volatilities and Correlations of Stock Indices Using Multivariate Conditional Autoregressive Range and Return Models

Authors: Shay Kee Tan, Kok Haur Ng, Jennifer So-Kuen Chan

Abstract:

This paper extends the conditional autoregressive range (CARR) model to multivariate CARR (MCARR) model and further to the two-stage MCARR-return model to model and forecast volatilities, correlations and returns of multiple financial assets. The first stage model fits the scaled realised Parkinson volatility measures using individual series and their pairwise sums of indices to the MCARR model to obtain in-sample estimates and forecasts of volatilities for these individual and pairwise sum series. Then covariances are calculated to construct the fitted variance-covariance matrix of returns which are imputed into the stage-two return model to capture the heteroskedasticity of assets’ returns. We investigate different choices of mean functions to describe the volatility dynamics. Empirical applications are based on the Standard and Poor 500, Dow Jones Industrial Average and Dow Jones United States Financial Service Indices. Results show that the stage-one MCARR models using asymmetric mean functions give better in-sample model fits than those based on symmetric mean functions. They also provide better out-of-sample volatility forecasts than those using CARR models based on two robust loss functions with the scaled realised open-to-close volatility measure as the proxy for the unobserved true volatility. We also find that the stage-two return models with constant means and multivariate Student-t errors give better in-sample fits than the Baba, Engle, Kraft, and Kroner type of generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (BEKK-GARCH) models. The estimates and forecasts of value-at-risk (VaR) and conditional VaR based on the best MCARR-return models for each asset are provided and tested using Kupiec test to confirm the accuracy of the VaR forecasts.

Keywords: range-based volatility, correlation, multivariate CARR-return model, value-at-risk, conditional value-at-risk

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3630 Professional Women’s Career Development with Its Paradox of Marital and Childbearing Status in the China Context

Authors: Sha Lyu

Abstract:

Background: It is commonly believed that human capital is the organizational competitive advantage, explaining the reason why HR professionals need to prioritize the employees’ well-being at the forefront of their HR strategies. However, with the changing business environment, the phenomenon of downsizing firms has gradually emerged. Employees’ workloads are increasing, and they are required to “do more with less”. As a result, job insecurity among employees is progressively rising, particularly among professional women. They often struggle with balancing the role between job and family after they get married or have a child. With the growing job insecurity, in most cases, they are prone to doubt their work abilities and sometimes may leave their jobs if they fail to balance their work and family responsibilities. Moreover, the context of China presents more difficulties for professional women resulting from the issue of the three-child policy, traditional gender ideology, and unequal distribution of household duties. Purpose: The goal of this study is to model the relationship between professional women’s marital and childbearing status and their career development, helping them to balance their work and family roles, achieve higher individual well-being, and foster sustainable organizational development. In addition, the national context of China is pivotal for this research. This study will provide a systematic description of the challenges and opportunities that Chinese professional women face while pursuing their careers to further probe possible sustainable HR practices. Methods: This study will conduct a systematic literature review to develop a conceptual model of the relationship between professional women’s marital and childbearing status and their career development. A cross-sectional quantitative survey will follow to validate the conceptual model. Findings: The model will encompass the individual, organizational and contextual factors to provide a thorough picture of what and how the elements will influence the career development of professional women. It was discovered that the four main mediating elements -employability, perceived gender discrimination, social support, and work-family conflict-have an impact on professional women’s career development. Additionally, the relation between professional women’s marital status, childbearing status, and career development is moderated by person-job fit, career expectations, and organizational support. Implication: This study will provide a systematic account of observations on the potential barriers to Chinese professional women’s career development in China, aiming to understand how marital and childbearing status impact professional women’s career development. Based on that, this project is expected to provide a better understanding for organizations to design, deliver and implement HR practices that are most likely to enhance employees’ well-being and build a sustainable healthy workplace.

Keywords: career development, employee wellbeing, professional women, sustainable HRM, work-family balance

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3629 New Model of Immersive Experiential Branding for International Universities

Authors: Kakhaber Djakeli

Abstract:

For market leadership, iconic brands already start to establish their unique digital avatars into Metaverse and offer Non Fungible Tokens to their fans. Metaverse can be defined as an evolutionary step of Internet development. So if companies and brands use the internet, logically, they can find new solutions for them and their customers in Metaverse. Marketing and Management today must learn how to combine physical world activities with those either entitled as digital, virtual, and immersive. A “Phygital” Solution uniting physical and digital competitive activities of the company covering the questions about how to use virtual worlds for Brand Development and Non Fungible Tokens for more attractiveness soon will be most relevant question for Branding. Thinking comprehensively, we can entitle this type of branding as an Immersive one. As we see, the Immersive Brands give customers more mesmerizing feelings than traditional ones. Accordingly, the Branding can be divided by the company in its own understanding into two models: traditional and immersive. Immersive Branding being more directed to Sensorial challenges of Humans will be big job for International Universities in near future because they target the Generation - Z. To try to help those International Universities opening the door to the mesmerizing, immersive branding, the Marketing Research have been undertaken. The main goal of the study was to establish the model for Immersive Branding at International Universities and answer on many questions what logically arises in university life. The type of Delphi Surveys entitled as an Expert Studies was undertaken for one great mission, to help International Universities to open the opportunities to Phygital activities with reliable knowledge with Model of Immersive Branding. The Questionnaire sent to Experts of Education were covering professional type of questions from education to segmentation of customers, branding, attitude to students, and knowledge to Immersive Marketing. The research results being very interesting and encouraging enough to make author to establish the New Model of Immersive Experiential Branding for International Universities.

Keywords: branding, immersive marketing, students, university

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3628 A Psychosocial Impact of the Covid-19 Pandemic Among Frontline Workers and General Populations in Kathmandu

Authors: Nabin Prasad Joshi

Abstract:

A new variant of the coronavirus family found in the Wuhan city market of China is causing serious harm to human beings. After the WHO decided COVID-19 was a pandemic situation, everyone started to measure the prevention of infectious diseases according to WHO guidelines. It includes social distancing, isolation, quarantine, lockdown, sanitation, and masking, respectively. During this time, the researcher has observed the difficulties of cultivating the new normal in people in Nepal. People have perceived the single coronavirus differently; common populations and frontline workers have different perceptions of coronavirus. The researcher started to measure the psychosocial impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on frontline workers and general populations in Kathmandu valley. The total number of sample units for this research is 82; it includes 52 general populations and 30 frontline workers. These sample units are selected through convenient sampling and purposive sampling, respectively. This research is based on descriptive and exploratory design. DASS-21 of the Nepali version is a comprehensive data collection tool for depression, anxiety, and stress measurement in this research, and simultaneously the psychosocial checklist, key-informant interview, and case study have been done. Quantitative data are analyzed with the help of excel, and qualitative data are through thematic analysis. The study has shown that the occurrence of psychosocial issues among frontline workers is greater than in general populations. It is found that the informants with higher education status have greater psychosocial issues in comparison to low education status. In the context of a pandemic, family/friends’ support can function as a protective factor when at adequate levels.

Keywords: anxiety, depression, isolation, lockdown

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3627 Circular Economy Maturity Models: A Systematic Literature Review

Authors: Dennis Kreutzer, Sarah Müller-Abdelrazeq, Ingrid Isenhardt

Abstract:

Resource scarcity, energy transition and the planned climate neutrality pose enormous challenges for manufacturing companies. In order to achieve these goals and a holistic sustainable development, the European Union has listed the circular economy as part of the Circular Economy Action Plan. In addition to a reduction in resource consumption, reduced emissions of greenhouse gases and a reduced volume of waste, the principles of the circular economy also offer enormous economic potential for companies, such as the generation of new circular business models. However, many manufacturing companies, especially small and medium-sized enterprises, do not have the necessary capacity to plan their transformation. They need support and strategies on the path to circular transformation, because this change affects not only production but also the entire company. Maturity models offer an approach, as they enable companies to determine the current status of their transformation processes. In addition, companies can use the models to identify transformation strategies and thus promote the transformation process. While maturity models are established in other areas, e.g. IT or project management, only a few circular economy maturity models can be found in the scientific literature. The aim of this paper is to analyse the identified maturity models of the circular economy through a systematic literature review (SLR) and, besides other aspects, to check their completeness as well as their quality. Since the terms "maturity model" and "readiness model" are often used to assess the transformation process, this paper considers both types of models to provide a more comprehensive result. For this purpose, circular economy maturity models at the company (micro) level were identified from the literature, compared, and analysed with regard to their theoretical and methodological structure. A specific focus was placed, on the one hand, on the analysis of the business units considered in the respective models and, on the other hand, on the underlying metrics and indicators in order to determine the individual maturity level of the entire company. The results of the literature review show, for instance, a significant difference in the holism of their assessment framework. Only a few models include the entire company with supporting areas outside the value-creating core process, e.g. strategy and vision. Additionally, there are large differences in the number and type of indicators as well as their metrics. For example, most models often use subjective indicators and very few objective indicators in their surveys. It was also found that there are rarely well-founded thresholds between the levels. Based on the generated results, concrete ideas and proposals for a research agenda in the field of circular economy maturity models are made.

Keywords: maturity model, circular economy, transformation, metric, assessment

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3626 Investigating the Relationship Between Corporate Governance and Financial Performance Considering the Moderating Role of Opinion and Internal Control Weakness

Authors: Fatemeh Norouzi

Abstract:

Today, financial performance has become one of the important issues in accounting and auditing that companies and their managers have paid attention to this issue and for this reason to the variables that are influential in this field. One of the things that can affect financial performance is corporate governance, which is examined in this research, although some things such as issues related to auditing can also moderate this relationship; Therefore, this research has been conducted with the aim of investigating the relationship between corporate governance and financial performance with regard to the moderating role of feedback and internal control weakness. The research is practical in terms of purpose, and in terms of method, it has been done in a post-event descriptive manner, in which the data has been analyzed using stock market data. Data collection has been done by using stock exchange data which has been extracted from the website of the Iraqi Stock Exchange, the statistical population of this research is all the companies admitted to the Iraqi Stock Exchange. . The statistical sample in this research is considered from 2014 to 2021, which includes 34 companies. Four different models have been considered for the research hypotheses, which are eight hypotheses, in this research, the analysis has been done using EXCEL and STATA15 software. In this article, collinearity test, integration test ,determination of fixed effects and correlation matrix results, have been used. The research results showed that the first four hypotheses were rejected and the second four hypotheses were confirmed.

Keywords: size of the board of directors, duality of the CEO, financial performance, internal control weakness

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3625 National Plans for Recovery and Resilience between National Recovery and EU Cohesion Objectives: Insights from European Countries

Authors: Arbolino Roberta, Boffardi Raffaele

Abstract:

Achieving the highest effectiveness for the National Plans for Recovery and Resilience (NPRR) while strengthening the objectives of cohesion and reduction of intra-EU unbalances is only possible by means of strategic, coordinated, and coherent policy planning. Therefore, the present research aims at assessing and quantifying the potential impact of NPRRs across the twenty-seven European Member States in terms of economic convergence, considering disaggregated data on industrial, construction, and service sectors. The first step of the research involves a performance analysis of the main macroeconomic indicators describing the trends of twenty-seven EU economies before the pandemic outbreak. Subsequently, in order to define the potential effect of the resources allocated, we perform an impact analysis of previous similar EU investment policies, estimating national-level sectoral elasticity associated with the expenditure of the 2007-2013 and 2014-2020 Cohesion programmes funds. These coefficients are then exploited to construct adjustment scenarios. Finally, convergence analysis is performed on the data used for constructing scenarios in order to understand whether the expenditure of funds might be useful to foster economic convergence besides driving recovery. The results of our analysis show that the allocation of resources largely mirrors the aims of the policy framework underlying the NPRR, thus reporting the largest investments in both those sectors most affected by the economic shock (services) and those considered fundamental for the digital and green transition. Notwithstanding an overall positive effect, large differences exist among European countries, while no convergence process seems to be activated or fostered by these interventions.

Keywords: NPRR, policy evaluation, cohesion policy, scenario Nalsysi

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3624 Supply Chain Management Strategies of the Private Residential Construction Sector in South Africa

Authors: R. Khoza, K. K. Govender

Abstract:

The aim of the study was to review and critically evaluate the supply chain management (SCM) strategies and challenges in the private residential construction sector in South Africa. The study was grounded in three theories, namely, theory of constraints, principal-agency theory, and stakeholder theory. A quantitative approach was used to survey 320 private residential construction companies which registered with the National Homebuilders Registration Council (NHBRC) within the Gauteng province. The data from 250 questionnaires returned were analysed using SPSS (Versions 23) and Smart PLS. It became evident that the SCM challenges included lack of trust between the supplier and the organization; lack of adoption of SCM system; lack of a sufficiently skilled SCM workforce; and poor implementation of contract management. The findings also indicate that there is a significant positive relationship between the performance of the private residential construction sector in South Africa and SCM challenges, SCM strategies and SCM processes. A framework is proposed comprising SCM practices and strategies of private residential construction sector in South Africa, which will enable them to enhance performance.

Keywords: management challenges, residential housing, South Africa, supply chain management

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3623 Maxwell’s Economic Demon Hypothesis and the Impossibility of Economic Convergence of Developing Economies

Authors: Firano Zakaria, Filali Adib Fatine

Abstract:

The issue f convergence in theoretical models (classical or Keynesian) has been widely discussed. The results of the work affirm that most countries are seeking to get as close as possible to a steady state in order to catch up with developed countries. In this paper, we have retested this question whether it is absolute or conditional. The results affirm that the degree of convergence of countries like Morocco is very low and income is still far from its equilibrium state. Moreover, the analysis of financial convergence, of the countries in our panel, states that the pace in this sector is more intense: countries are converging more rapidly in financial terms. The question arises as to why, with a fairly convergent financial system, growth does not respond, yet the financial system should facilitate this economic convergence. Our results confirm that the degree of information exchange between the financial system and the economic system did not change significantly between 1985 and 2017. This leads to the hypothesis that the financial system is failing to serve its role as a creator of information in developing countries despite all the reforms undertaken, thus making the existence of an economic demon in the Maxwell prevail.

Keywords: economic convergence, financial convergence, financial system, entropy

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3622 Hawkes Process-Based Reflexivity Analysis in the Cryptocurrency Market

Authors: Alev Atak

Abstract:

We study the endogeneity in the cryptocurrency market over the branching ratio of the Hawkes process and evaluate the movement of self-excitability in the financial markets. We consider a semi-parametric self-exciting point process regression model where the excitation function is assumed to be smooth and decreasing but otherwise unspecified, and the baseline intensity is assumed to be a linear function of the regressors. We apply the empirical analysis to the three largest crypto assets, i.e. Bitcoin - Ethereum - Ripple, and provide a comparison with other financial assets such as SP500, Gold, and the volatility index VIX observed from January 2015 to December 2020. The results depict variable and high levels of endogeneity in the basket of cryptocurrencies under investigation, underlining the evidence of a significant role of endogenous feedback mechanisms in the price formation process.

Keywords: hawkes process, cryptocurrency, endogeneity, reflexivity

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3621 Information Disclosure And Financial Sentiment Index Using a Machine Learning Approach

Authors: Alev Atak

Abstract:

In this paper, we aim to create a financial sentiment index by investigating the company’s voluntary information disclosures. We retrieve structured content from BIST 100 companies’ financial reports for the period 1998-2018 and extract relevant financial information for sentiment analysis through Natural Language Processing. We measure strategy-related disclosures and their cross-sectional variation and classify report content into generic sections using synonym lists divided into four main categories according to their liquidity risk profile, risk positions, intra-annual information, and exposure to risk. We use Word Error Rate and Cosin Similarity for comparing and measuring text similarity and derivation in sets of texts. In addition to performing text extraction, we will provide a range of text analysis options, such as the readability metrics, word counts using pre-determined lists (e.g., forward-looking, uncertainty, tone, etc.), and comparison with reference corpus (word, parts of speech and semantic level). Therefore, we create an adequate analytical tool and a financial dictionary to depict the importance of granular financial disclosure for investors to identify correctly the risk-taking behavior and hence make the aggregated effects traceable.

Keywords: financial sentiment, machine learning, information disclosure, risk

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3620 Economic and Financial Crime, Forensic Accounting and Sustainable Developments Goals (SDGs). Bibliometric Analysis

Authors: Monica Violeta Achim, Sorin Nicolae Borlea

Abstract:

This aim of this work is to stress the needs for enhancing the role of forensic accounting in fighting economic and financial crime, in the context of the new international regulation movements in this area enhanced by the International Federation of Accountants (IFAC). Corruption, money laundering, tax evasion and other frauds significant hamper the economic growth and human development and, ultimately, the UN Sustainable Development Goals. The present paper also stresses the role of good governance in fighting the frauds, in order to achieve the most suitable sustainable development of the society. In this view, we made a bibliometric systematic review on forensic accounting and its contribution towards fraud detection and prevention and theirs relationship with good governance and Sustainable Developments Goals (SDGs). In this view, two powerful bibliometric visual software tools, VosViewer and CiteSpace are used in order to analyze published papers identifies in Scopus and Web of Science databases over the time. Our findings reveal the main red flags identified in literature as used tools by forensic accounting, the evolution in time of the interest of the topic, the distribution in space among world countries and connectivity with patterns of a good governance. Visual designs and scientific maps are useful to show these findings, in a visual way. Our findings are useful for managers and policy makers to provide important avenues that may help in reaching the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, adopted by all United Nations Member States in 2015, in the area of using forensic accounting in preventing frauds.

Keywords: forensic accounting, frauds, red flags, SDGs

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3619 Cultivation of High-value Patent from the Perspective of Knowledge Diffusion: A Case Study of the Power Semiconductor Field

Authors: Lin Qing

Abstract:

Objective/Significance: The cultivation of high-value patents is the focus and difficulty of patent work, which is of great significance to the construction of a powerful country with intellectual property rights. This work should not only pay attention to the existing patent applications but also start from the pre-application to explore the high-value technical solutions as the core of high-value patents. Methods/processes: Comply with the principle of scientific and technological knowledge diffusion, this study studies the top academic conference papers and their cited patent applications, taking the power semiconductor field as an example, using facts date show the feasibility and rationality of mining technology solutions from high-quality research results to foster high-value patents, stating the actual benefits of these achievements to the industry, giving patent protection suggestions for Chinese applicants comparative with field situation. Results/Conclusion: The research shows that the quality of citation applications of ISPSD papers is significantly higher than the average field level, and the ability of Chinese applicants to use patent protection-related achievements needs to be improved. This study provides a practical and highly targeted reference idea for patent administrators and researchers and also makes a positive exploration of the practice of the spirit of breaking the five rules.

Keywords: high-value patents cultivation, technical solutions, knowledge diffusion, top academic conference papers, Intellectual Property information analysis

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3618 Banking Performance and Political Economy: Using ARDL Model

Authors: Marwen Ghouil, Jamel Eddine Mkadmi

Abstract:

Banking performance is the pillar and goal of all banking activity and its impact on economic policy. First, researchers defined the principles for assessing and modeling bank performance, and then theories and models explaining bank performance were developed. The importance of credit as a means of financing businesses in most developing countries has led to questions about the effects of financial liberalisation on increased banking competition. In Tunisia, as in many other countries, the liberalization of financial services in general and of banks' activities has not ceased to evolve. The objective of this paper is to examine the determinants of banking performance for 8 Tunisian banks and their impact on economic policy during the Arab Spring. We used cointegration analysis and the ARDL Panel model, explaining using total assets, bank credits, guarantees, and bank size as performance drivers. The correlation analysis shows that there is a positive correlation relationship between total assets, bank credits, guarantees, and bank size and bank performance. Long-term empirical results show that bank loans, guarantees, bank size, and total assets have a positive and significant impact on bank performance. This means that bank credits, guarantees, bank size, and total assets are very important determinants of bank performance in Tunisia.

Keywords: bank performance, economic policy, finance, economic

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3617 Determinants of Access to Finance to All Enterprise

Authors: Dilang Thouk Tharjiath

Abstract:

This study seeks to examine determinants of access to finance: the case of micro and small enterprises in bonga town. It identifies the sector as the key to unlocking the economic potentials of the country. For the achievement of the objective of the study simple random and stratified sampling has been used to select 179 respondents, primary and secondary data were used, primary data were collected through face to face interview and preparing questionnaire and secondary data were collected through reviewing firms record and reports, quantitative research approach were used and the data obtained were analyzed using descriptive research design. Access to finance is one of the key obstacles of MSE’s not only when starting the business project but also when operating. Identifying the major determinants of access to finance is therefore quite crucial. Based on descriptive result the financiers specially formal financiers tend to grant credit easily for enterprises which are located near to town, having operators with higher educational level, experienced and with a positive attitudes towards or fulfill their lending procedures, and a firm having collateralized asset, prepare business plan, maintain accounting practice ,large and old enough. Finally the study recommended that As Educational level of entrepreneurs has significant effect on access to credit from bank and the managers or owners education level is low in Bonga town the concerned bodies of both the government and non-governmental institutions in collaboration with Bonga town MSE development office are recommended to create awareness and facilitate the provision of additional training for those with lower educational level.

Keywords: credit, entrepreneur, enterprise, manager

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3616 Macroeconomic Effects and Dynamics of Natural Disaster Damages: Evidence from SETX on the Resiliency Hypothesis

Authors: Agim Kukelii, Gevorg Sargsyan

Abstract:

This study, focusing on the base regional area (county level), estimates the effect of natural disaster damages on aggregate personal income, aggregate wages, wages per worker, aggregate employment, and aggregate income transfer. The study further estimates the dynamics of personal income, employment, and wages under natural disaster shocks. Southeast Texas, located at the center of Golf Coast, is hit by meteorological and hydrological caused natural disasters yearly. On average, there are more than four natural disasters per year that cane an estimated damage average of 2.2% of real personal income. The study uses the panel data method to estimate the average effect of natural disasters on the area’s economy (personal income, wages, employment, and income transfer). It also uses Panel Vector Autoregressive (PVAR) model to study the dynamics of macroeconomic variables under natural disaster shocks. The study finds that the average effect of natural disasters is positive for personal income and income transfer and is negative for wages and employment. The PVAR and the impulse response function estimates reveal that natural disaster shocks cause a decrease in personal income, employment, and wages. However, the economy’s variables bounce back after three years. The novelty of this study rests on several aspects. First, this is the first study to investigate the effects of natural disasters on macroeconomic variables at a regional level. Second, the study uses direct measures of natural disaster damages. Third, the study estimates that the time that the local economy takes to absorb the natural disaster damages shocks is three years. This is a relatively good reaction to the local economy, therefore, adding to the “resiliency” hypothesis. The study has several implications for policymakers, businesses, and households. First, this study serves to increase the awareness of local stakeholders that natural disaster damages do worsen, macroeconomic variables, such as personal income, employment, and wages beyond the immediate damages to residential and commercial properties, physical infrastructure, and discomfort in daily lives. Second, the study estimates that these effects linger on the economy on average for three years, which would require policymakers to factor in the time area need to be on focus.

Keywords: natural disaster damages, macroeconomics effects, PVAR, panel data

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3615 The Role of Entrepreneurship Education in Developing the Entrepreneurial Passion: A Gender Comparative Study

Authors: Rabeeya Raoof, Abrar Ul-Haq, Muhammad Arshad

Abstract:

The current study is trying to explain the relationship between entrepreneurial education and entrepreneurial passion. This study introduces multiple mechanisms by which entrepreneurial education may induce entrepreneurial passion in business graduates. With the help of expectancy theory, we proposed that entrepreneurial education develops entrepreneurial passion through the mediation of desirability and feasibility. Furthermore, desirability is also influencing feasibility. Therefore, desirability and feasibility may also play their role as double mediators in the relationship between entrepreneurial education and passion. The role of gender has become very vital in entrepreneurship studies. Therefore, we also incorporated the role of gender as a moderator while studying the indirect effect of entrepreneurial education on entrepreneurial passion via desirability and feasibility. We proposed that entrepreneurial education may influence the passion of male individuals primarily through feasibility. On the other hand, entrepreneurial education may impact on the entrepreneurial passion of female individuals primarily through the mediation of desirability. Learning orientation may increase the direct effect of entrepreneurial education on entrepreneurial passion.

Keywords: entrepreneurial passion, perceived desirability, perceived feasibility, entrepreneurial intention

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3614 The Origins of Inflation in Tunisia

Authors: Narimen Rdhaounia Mohamed Kouni

Abstract:

Our aim in this paper is to identify the origins of inflation in Tunisia on the period from 1988 to 2018. In order to estimate the model, an ARDL methodology is used. We studied also the effect of informal economy on inflation. Indeed, we estimated the size of the informal economy in Tunisia based on Gutmann method. The results showed that there are three main origins of inflation. In fact, the first origin is the fiscal policy adopted by Tunisia, particularly after revolution. The second origin is the increase of monetary variables. Finally, informal economy played an important role in inflation.

Keywords: inflation, consumer price index, informal, gutmann method, ARDL model

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3613 The Effect of Taxes on Development: An Albanian Case

Authors: Mergleda Hodo

Abstract:

All national governments aim to achieve economic equilibrium to build sustainable welfare, political stability, and economic equilibrium. There are various instruments to stimulate economic development and growth and achieve macroeconomic objectives. After the collapse of the political and economic system in the 1990s, some countries faced the complex challenge of economic development. This study aims to determine, based on empirical research, whether and to what extent tax revenue has an impact on the economic development of Albania. Furthermore, it gives an overview of the ways in which high tax burdens on the western Balkan countries have negatively affected foreign investment and reduced economic growth. This analysis is important for these selected countries, as the financial system has changed significantly over the years and has been affected significantly by a period of economic transition. The analysis is performed based on secondary data possessed by the World Bank and the central bank of each participating country between 2005 and 2018. The research findings indicate that tax policy affects, to a significant extent, the economic development of Albania. An efficient tax system is when individuals are willing to pay tax liability which will help in improving the economic well-being of a country.

Keywords: tax, development, economic growth, tax revenue

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