Search results for: vocational school.
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 535

Search results for: vocational school.

535 Adoption of iPads Paving the Way to Changes in the Knowledge Practices within a School of Vocational Teacher Education

Authors: Päivi Aarreniemi-Jokipelto, Merja Alanko-Turunen

Abstract:

The possibilities of mobile technology generate new demands for vocational teacher trainers to transform their approach to work and to incorporate its usage into their ordinary educational practice. This paper presents findings of a focus discussion group (FDG) session on the usage of iPads within a school of vocational teacher education (SoVTE). It aims to clarify how the teacher trainers are using iPads and what has changed in their work during the usage of iPads. The analytical framework bases on content analysis and expansive learning cycle. It was not only found what kind of a role iPads played in their daily practices but it brought also into attention how a cultural change regarding the usage of social media and mobile technology was desperately needed in the whole work community. Thus, the FGD was abducted for developing the knowledge practices of the community of the SoVTE.

Keywords: iPad, mobile learning, vocational teacher education.

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534 Changes in Vocational Teacher Training in Hungary: Challenges and Possibilities

Authors: A. Bacsa-Bán

Abstract:

The training of vocational education teachers in Hungary was a special training system before the Bologna system, but under the influence of the Bologna system, the structure and content of the training changed significantly. The training of vocational teachers, including engineering teacher and vocational trainers, is considerably different when compared to the training of public education teachers. This study aims to present these differences and peculiarities, problems, and issues of the training as well as to outline the possibilities of further development. During the study the following methods were implemented: empirical research among students and graduates of vocational teacher training, as well as analysis of the relevant literature. The study summarizes the research and theoretical results related to Vocational Education and Training (VET) teacher training over the past 15 years, with the aim of developing the training and mapping new directions in the field.

Keywords: Bologna system, vocational educators, vocational teachers, vocational teacher training.

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533 Vocational Teaching Method: A Conceptual Model in Teaching Automotive Practical Work

Authors: Adnan Ahmad, Yusri Kamin, Asnol Dahar Minghat, Mohd. Khir Nordin, Dayana Farzeha, Ahmad Nabil

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to identify the teaching method practices of the practical work subject in Vocational Secondary School. This study examined the practice of Vocational Teaching Method in Automotive Practical Work. The quantitative method used the sets of the questionnaire. 283 students and 63 teachers involved from ten VSS involved in this research. Research finding showed in conducting the introduction session teachers prefer used the demonstration method and questioning technique. While in deliver the content of practical task, teachers applied group monitoring and problem solving approach. To conclude the task of automotive practical work, teachers choose re-explain and report writing to make sure students really understand all the process of teaching. VTM-APW also involved the competency-based concept to embed in the model. Derived from factors investigated, research produced the combination of elements in teaching skills and vocational skills which could be used as the best teaching method in automotive practical work for school level. As conclusion this study has concluded that the VTM-APW model is able to apply in teaching to make an improvement with current practices in Vocational Secondary School. Hence, teachers are suggested to use this method to enhance student's knowledge in Automotive and teachers will deliver skills to the current and future workforce relevant with the required competency skilled in workplace.

Keywords: Vocational Teaching Method, Practical Task, Teacher Preferences, Student Preferences.

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532 The Analysis of Internet and Social Media Behaviors of the Students in the Higher School of Vocational and Technical Sciences

Authors: Mehmet Balci, Sakir Tasdemir, Mustafa Altin, Ozlem Bozok

Abstract:

Our globalizing world has become almost a small village and everyone can access any information at any time. Everyone lets each other know who does whatever in which place. We can learn which social events occur in which place in the world. From the perspective of education, the course notes that a lecturer use in lessons in a university in any state of America can be examined by a student studying in a city of Africa or the Far East. This dizzying communication we have mentioned happened thanks to fast developments in computer and internet technologies. While these developments occur in the world, Turkey that has a very large young population and whose electronic infrastructure rapidly improves has also been affected by these developments. Nowadays, mobile devices have become common and thus, it causes to increase data traffic in social networks. This study was carried out on students in the different age groups in Selcuk University Vocational School of Technical Sciences, the Department of Computer Technology. Students’ opinions about the use of internet and social media were obtained. The features such as using the Internet and social media skills, purposes, operating frequency, accessing facilities and tools, social life and effects on vocational education and so forth were explored. The positive effects and negative effects of both internet and social media use on the students in this department and findings are evaluated from different perspectives and results are obtained. In addition, relations and differences were found out statistically.

Keywords: Computer technologies, internet use, social network, higher vocational school.

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531 Teaching Contemporary Power Distribution and Industrial Networks in Higher Education Vocational Studies

Authors: Rade M. Ciric

Abstract:

The paper shows the development and implementation of the syllabus of the subject 'Distribution and Industrial Networks', attended by the vocational specialist Year 4 students of the Electric Power Engineering study programme at the Higher Education Technical School of Vocational Studies in Novi Sad. The aim of the subject is to equip students with the knowledge necessary for planning, exploitation and management of distributive and industrial electric power networks in an open electricity market environment. The results of the evaluation of educational outcomes on the subject are presented and discussed.

Keywords: Engineering education, power distribution network, syllabus implementation, outcome evaluation.

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530 A Case Study on Vocational Teachers’ Perceptions on Their Linguistically and Culturally Responsive Teaching

Authors: Kirsi Korkealehto

Abstract:

In Finland the transformation from homogenous culture into multicultural one as a result of heavy immigration has been rapid in the recent decades. As multilingualism and multiculturalism are growing features in our society, teachers in all educational levels need to be competent for encounters with students from diverse cultural backgrounds. Consequently, also the number of multicultural and multilingual vocational school students has increased which has not been taken into consideration in teacher education enough. To bridge this gap between teachers’ competences and the requirements of the contemporary school world, Finnish Ministry of Culture and Education established the DivEd-project. The aim of the project is to prepare all teachers to work in the linguistically and culturally diverse world they live in, to develop and increase culturally sustaining and linguistically responsive pedagogy in Finland, increase awareness among Teacher Educators working with preservice teachers and to increase awareness and provide specific strategies to in-service teachers. The partners in the nationwide project are 6 universities and 2 universities of applied sciences. In this research, the linguistically and culturally sustainable teaching practices developed within the DivEd-project are tested in practice. This research aims to explore vocational teachers’ perceptions of these multilingualism and multilingual educational practices. The participants of this study are vocational teachers in of different fields. The data were collected by individual, face-to-face interviews. The data analysis was conducted through content analysis. The findings indicate that the vocational teachers experience that they lack knowledge on linguistically and culturally responsive pedagogy. Moreover, they regard themselves in some extent incompetent in incorporating multilingually and multiculturally sustainable pedagogy in everyday teaching work. Therefore, they feel they need more training pertaining multicultural and multilingual knowledge, competences and suitable pedagogical methods for teaching students from diverse linguistic and cultural backgrounds.

Keywords: Multicultural, multilingual, teacher competences, vocational school.

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529 Rubric in Vocational Education

Authors: Azmanirah Ab Rahman, Jamil Ahmad, Ruhizan Muhammad Yasin

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Rubric is a very important tool for teachers and students for a variety of purposes. Teachers use the rubric for evaluating student work while students use rubrics for self-assessment. Therefore, this paper was emphasized scoring rubric as a scoring tool for teachers in an environment of Competency Based Education and Training (CBET) in Malaysia Vocational College. A total of three teachers in the fields of electrical and electronics engineering were interviewed to identify how the use of rubrics practiced since vocational transformation implemented in 2012. Overall holistic rubric used to determine the performance of students in the skills area.

Keywords: Rubric, Vocational Education.

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528 Validation of the Career Motivation Scale among Chinese University and Vocational College Teachers

Authors: Wei Zhang, Lifen Zhao

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The present study aims to translate and validate the Career Motivation Scale among Chinese University and vocational college teachers. Exploratory factor analysis supported a three-factor structure that was consistent with the original structure of career motivation: career insight, career identity, and career resilience. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that a second-order three-factor model with correlated measurement errors best fit the data. Configural, metric, and scalar invariance models were tested, demonstrating that the Chinese version of the Career Motivation Scale did not differ across groups of school type, educational level, and working years in current institutions. The concurrent validity of the Chinese Career Motivation Scale was confirmed by its significant correlations with work engagement, career adaptability, career satisfaction, job crafting, and intention to quit. The results of the study indicated that the Chinese Career Motivation Scale was a valid and reliable measure of career motivation among university and vocational college teachers in China.

Keywords: Career motivation scale, Chinese university and vocational college teachers, measurement invariance, validation.

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527 Effect of Organizational Resources on Improving Independency of People with Severe Disabilities: Vocational Rehabilitation Facilities in South Korea

Authors: Soungwan Kim

Abstract:

This paper discusses an analysis of how the characteristics of resources at vocational rehabilitation facilities for the disabled affect the improvement of independency skills among people with severe disabilities. The analysis results indicate that more internal financial resources and more connections to local communities among network resources had greater effects on improving the independency of people with severe disabilities. Based on this result, this paper presents strategies for mobilizing resources to improve the independency of people with severe disabilities at vocational rehabilitation facilities.

Keywords: Vocational rehabilitation facility for people with disabilities, types of resources, independency, network resources.

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526 Factors of Vocational Identity for Social Welfare University Students in Japan

Authors: J. Sakano, Y. Yajima, W. Ono, Y. Yamazaki, S. Sasahara, Y. Tomotsune, Y. Ohi, S. Suzuki, A. Seki, I. Matsuzaki

Abstract:

The study aimed to verify a hypothesis that a sense of fulfillment in student life and perceived stress in training in the facilities could affect vocational identity among social welfare university students, in order to acquire implications for enhancing the vocational consciousness. A questionnaire survey was conducted with 388 third- and fourth-year students of training course for certified social workers in three universities in A prefecture in Japan. The questionnaire was returned by 338 students, and 288 responses (85.2%) were valid and used for the analysis. As a SEM result, the hypothesized model proved to be fit to the data. Path coefficient of sense of fulfillment of student life to vocational identity was statistically positive. Path coefficient of training stress to vocational identity was statistically negative.

Keywords: Training stress, Physical health, Sense of fulfillment of student life, structural equation modeling (SEM)

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525 The Role of Gender and Age on Students- Perceptions towards Online Education Case Study: Sakarya University, Vocational High School

Authors: Fahme Dabaj, Havva Başak

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to find out and analyze the role of gender and age on the perceptions of students to the distant online program offered by Vocational High School in Sakarya University. The research is based on a questionnaire as a mean of data collection method to find out the role of age and gender on the student-s perceptions toward online education, and the study progressed through finding relationships between the variables used in the data collection instrument. The findings of the analysis revealed that although the students registered to the online program by will, they preferred the traditional face-to-face education due to the difficulty of the nonverbal communication, their incompetence of using the technology required, and their belief in traditional face-toface learning more than online education. Regarding gender, the results showed that the female students have a better perception of the online education as opposed to the male students. Regarding age, the results showed that the older the students are the more is their preference towards attending face-toface classes.

Keywords: Distance education, online education, interneteducation, student perceptions.

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524 Vocational Skills, Recognition of Prior Learning and Technology: The Future of Higher Education

Authors: Shankar Subramanian Iyer

Abstract:

The vocational education, enhanced by technology and Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) is going to be the main ingredient of the future of education. This is coming from the various issues of the current educational system like cost, time, type of course, type of curriculum, unemployment, to name the major reasons. Most millennials like to perform and learn rather than learning how to perform. This is the essence of vocational education be it any field from cooking, painting, plumbing to modern technologies using computers. Even a more theoretical course like entrepreneurship can be taught as to be an entrepreneur and learn about its nuances. The best way to learn accountancy is actually keeping accounts for a small business or grocer and learn the ropes of accountancy and finance. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between vocational skills, RPL and new technologies with future employability. This study implies that individual's knowledge and skills are essential aspects to be emphasized in future education and to give credit for prior experience for future employability. Virtual reality can be used to stimulate workplace situations for vocational learning for fields like hospitality, medical emergencies, healthcare, draughtsman ship, building inspection, quantity surveying, estimation, to name a few. All disruptions in future education, especially vocational education, are going to be technology driven with the advent of AI, ML, IoT, VR, VI etc. Vocational education not only helps institutes cut costs drastically, but allows all students to have hands-on experiences, rather than to be observers. The earlier experiential learning theory and the recent theory of knowledge and skills-based learning modified and applied to the vocational education and development of skills is the proposed contribution of this paper. Apart from secondary research study on major scholarly articles, books, primary research using interviews, questionnaire surveys have been used to validate and test the reliability of the suggested model using Partial Least Square- Structural Equation Method (PLS-SEM), the factors being assimilated using an existing literature review. Major findings have been that there exists high relationship between the vocational skills, RPL, new technology to the future employability through mediation of future employability skills.

Keywords: Vocational education, vocational skills, competencies, modern technologies, Recognition of Prior Learning, RPL.

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523 Understanding Barriers to Sports Participation as a Means of Achieving Sustainable Development in Michael Otedola College of Primary Education

Authors: Osifeko Olalekan Remigious, Osifeko Christiana Osikorede, Folarin Bolanle Eunice, Olugbenga Adebola Shodiya

Abstract:

During these difficult economic times, nations are looking for ways to improve their finances, preserve the environment as well as the socio-political climate and educational institutions, which are needed to increase their economy and preserve their sustainable development. Sport is one of the ways through which sustainable development can be achieved. The purpose of this study was to examine and understanding barriers to participation in sport. A total of 1,025 students were purposively selected from five schools (School of Arts and Social Sciences, School of Languages, School of Education, School of Sciences and School of Vocational and Technical Education) in Michael Otedola College of Primary Education (MOCPED). A questionnaire, with a tested reliability coefficient of 0.71, was used for data collection. The collected data were subjected to the descriptive survey research design. The findings showed that sports facilities, funding and lecture schedules were significant barriers to sports participation. It was recommended that sports facilities be provided by the Lagos State government.

Keywords: MOCPED sports, sustainable development, sports participation, state government.

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522 A Social Cognitive Investigation in the Context of Vocational Training Performance of People with Disabilities

Authors: Majid A. AlSayari

Abstract:

The study reported here investigated social cognitive theory (SCT) in the context of Vocational Rehab (VR) for people with disabilities. The prime purpose was to increase knowledge of VR phenomena and make recommendations for improving VR services. The sample consisted of 242 persons with Spinal Cord Injuries (SCI) who completed questionnaires. A further 32 participants were Trainers. Analysis of questionnaire data was carried out using factor analysis, multiple regression analysis, and thematic analysis. The analysis suggested that, in motivational terms, and consistent with research carried out in other academic contexts, self-efficacy was the best predictor of VR performance. The author concludes that that VR self-efficacy predicted VR training performance.

Keywords: Social cognitive theory, vocational rehab, self-efficacy, proxy efficacy, people with disabilities.

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521 Curriculum and Sex-specific Differences in Academic Stress Arising from Perceived Expectations

Authors: Glenn M. Calaguas

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With the aim of knowing whether curriculum and sex differences exist in academic stress arising from perceived expectations, high school students were asked to respond to the Academic Expectations Stress Inventory (AESI). AESI is a nine-item inventory with two domains, namely: expectations of teachers/parents and expectations of self. Out of the 504 officially enrolled high school students in a state college, 469 responded to the inventory. Responses were analyzed using independent samples ttest. Significant differences were found between the mean scores of the respondents coming from the Science and the Vocational curriculum. The respondents from the Science curriculum consistently registered higher mean scores. Likewise, significant differences were found between the male and the female respondents. The female respondents consistently registered higher mean scores.

Keywords: academic stress, curriculum and sex differences, high school students, perceived expectations

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520 New Curriculum and New Challenges: What do School Administrators Really Do?

Authors: Zuhal Zeybekoglu Calıskan, Erkan Tabancali

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The aim of this qualitative case study is to examine how school principals perform their new roles and responsibilities defined in accordance with the new curriculum. Of ten primary schools that the new curriculum was piloted in Istanbul in school year of 2004-2005, one school was randomly selected as the sample of the study. The participants of the study were comprised of randomly-selected 26 teachers working in the case school. To collect data, an interview schedule was developed based on the new role definitions for school principals by the National Ministry of Education. Participants were interviewed on one-to-one basis in February and March 2007. Overall results showed that the school principal was perceived to be successful in terms of the application of the new curriculum in school. According to the majority of teachers, the principal has done his best to establish the infrastructure that is necessary for successful application of the new program. In addition to these, the principal was reported to adopt a collegial and participatory leadership style by creating a positive school atmosphere that enables the school community (teachers, parents and students) to involve school more than before. Keywordscase study, curriculum implementation, school principals and curriculum

Keywords: Case study, curriculum implementation, school principals and curriculum.

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519 Enhancing Sustainability Awareness through Social Learning Experiences on Campuses

Authors: Rashika Sharma

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The campuses at tertiary institutes can act as a social environment for peer to peer connections. However, socialization is not the only aspect that campuses provide. The campus can act as a learning environment that has often been termed as the campus curriculum. Many tertiary institutes have taken steps to make their campus a ‘green campus’ whereby initiatives have been taken to reduce their impact on the environment. However, as visible as these initiatives are, it is debatable whether these have any effect on students’ and their understanding of sustainable campus operations. Therefore, research was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of sustainable campus operations in raising students’ awareness of sustainability. Students at two vocational institutes participated in this interpretive research with data collected through surveys and focus groups. The findings indicated that majority of vocational education students remained oblivious of sustainability initiatives on campuses.

Keywords: Education for Sustainability, campus learning, social learning, vocational education.

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518 Music Aptitude and School Readiness in Indonesian Children

Authors: Diella Gracia Martauli

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This study investigated the relationship between music aptitude and school readiness in Indonesian children. Music aptitude is described as children’s music potential, whereas school readiness is defined as a condition in which a child is deemed ready to enter the formal education system. This study presents a hypothesis that music aptitude is correlated with school readiness. This is a correlational research study of 17 children aged 5-6 years old (M = 6.10, SD = 0.33) who were enrolled in a kindergarten school in Jakarta, Indonesia. Music aptitude scores were obtained from Primary Measures of Music Audiation, whereas School readiness scores were obtained from Bracken School Readiness Assessment Third Edition. The analysis of the data was performed using Pearson Correlation. The result found no correlation between music aptitude and school readiness (r = 0.196, p = 0.452). Discussions regarding the results, perspective from the measures and cultures are presented. Further study is recommended to establish links between music aptitude and school readiness.

Keywords: Bracken school readiness assessment, music aptitude, primary measures of music audiation, school readiness.

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517 Principal Role and School Structure

Authors: Behnaz Mohajeran, Alireza Ghaleei

Abstract:

This main purpose of the study reported here was to investigate the extent to which the form of school governance (particularly decision-making) had an impact upon the effectiveness of the school with reference to parental involvement, planning and budgeting, professional development of teachers, school facilities and resources, and student outcomes. Particular attention was given to decision-making within the governance arrangements. The study was based on four case studies of high schools in New South Wales, Australia including one government school, one independent Christian community school, one independent Catholic school, and one Catholic systemic school. The focus of the research was principals, teachers, parents, and students of four schools with varying governance structures. To gain a greater insight into the issues, the researchers collected information by questionnaire, semi-structured interview, and review of school key documents. This study found that it was not so much structure but the centrality of the school Principal and the way that the Principal perceived his/her roles in relation to others that impacted most on school governance.

Keywords: governance structure, principal role, schooleffectiveness, stakeholder involvement

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516 Is School Misbehavior a Decision? Implications for School Guidance

Authors: Rachel C. F. Sun

Abstract:

This study examined the predictive effects of moral competence, prosocial norms and positive behavior recognition on school misbehavior among Chinese junior secondary school students. Results of multiple regression analysis showed that students were more likely to misbehave in school when they had lower levels of moral competence and prosocial norms, and when they perceived their positive behavior being less likely recognized. Practical implications were discussed on how to guide students to make the right choices to behave appropriately in school. Implications for future research were also discussed.

Keywords: Moral competence, positive behavior recognition, prosocial norms, school misbehavior.

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515 A Proposal of Community based Facility Management Performance (CbFM) in the Education System of Batubara District in Indonesia

Authors: Amilia Hasbullah, Wan Zahari Wan Yussof, Maziah Ismail

Abstract:

The primary education system in Indonesia involved the community recognized as the school committee, to take a part in the process of achieving the quality of education via the school facility performance, the low level of school committee involvement in the education system has become the issue in the development of education and reflected to the quality of education. This paper will discuss the conceptual framework and methodology for the performance of school committees within the management of school facilities in Batubara district of Indonesia. The concepts of Community based Facility Management (CbFM) and Logometrix are used as a basis to measure the school committee performance in order to address the needs of quality school management. The data will be taken from questionnaires distributed for those who work and use school facilities spread over seven sub district of Batubara, Indonesia. The result of this study is expected to provide a guide for evaluating the performance of existing school committee in improving the quality of education in Indonesia.

Keywords: community based facility management, School facility management, School committee performance.

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514 Measuring Creativity in Die Products for Technological Education

Authors: Ching-Yi Lee, Dyi-Cheng Chen, Bo-Yan Lai, Chin-Pin Chen

Abstract:

Creative design requires new approaches to assessment in vocational and technological education. To date, there has been little discussion on instruments used to evaluate dies produced by students in vocational and technological education. Developing a generic instrument has been very difficult due to the diversity of creative domains, the specificity of content, and the subjectivity involved in judgment. This paper presents an instrument for measuring the creativity in the design of products by expanding the Consensual Assessment Technique (CAT). The content-based scale was evaluated for content validity by 5 experts. The scale comprises 5 criteria: originality; practicability; precision; aesthetics; and exchangeability. Nine experts were invited to evaluate the dies produced by 38 college students who enrolled in a Product Design and Development course. To further explore the degree of rater agreement, inter-rater reliability was calculated for each dimension using Kendall's coefficient of concordance test. The inter-judge reliability scores achieved significance, with coefficients ranging from 0.53 to 0.71.

Keywords: Design education, die creative product, vocational and technological education, Consensual Assessment Technique (CAT).

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513 School Design and Energy Efficiency

Authors: B. Su

Abstract:

Auckland has a temperate climate with comfortable warm, dry summers and mild, wet winters. An Auckland school normally does not need air conditioning for cooling during the summer and only need heating during the winter. The space hating energy is the major portion of winter school energy consumption and the winter energy consumption is major portion of annual school energy consumption. School building thermal design should focus on the winter thermal performance for reducing the space heating energy. A number of Auckland schools- design data and energy consumption data are used for this study. This pilot study investigates the relationships between their energy consumption data and school building design data to improve future school design for energy efficiency.

Keywords: Building energy efficiency, building thermal performance, school building design, school energy consumption

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512 Primary School Principals in Turkey: Their Working Conditions and Professional Profiles

Authors: Ali I. Gumuseli

Abstract:

In order to achieve effective management, the professional and individual characteristics and qualifications of school principals and their system-oriented perception is very important. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct regular comprehensive studies into the profiles of school principals. The purpose of this study is to determine the perceptions of primary school principals about their working conditions and to present their professional profiles. The questionnaire was distributed to 1475 respondents and 1428 valid questionnaires were evaluated. The results of the research were discussed and compared to other similar studies.Keywordseducation, education management, primary school principal, principals profiles

Keywords: education, education management, primary school principal, principals profiles

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511 Issues in the User Interface Design of a Content Rich Vocational Training Application for Digitally Illiterate Users

Authors: Jamie Otelsberg, Nagarajan Akshay, Rao R. Bhavani

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This paper discusses our preliminary experiences in the design of a user interface of a computerized content-rich vocational training courseware meant for users with little or no computer experience. In targeting a growing population with limited access to skills training of any sort, we faced numerous challenges, including language and cultural differences, resource limits, gender boundaries and, in many cases, the simple lack of trainee motivation. With the size of the unskilled population increasing much more rapidly than the numbers of sufficiently skilled teachers, there is little choice but to develop teaching techniques that will take advantage of emerging computer-based training technologies. However, in striving to serve populations with minimal computer literacy, one must carefully design the user interface to accommodate their cultural, social, educational, motivational and other differences. Our work, which uses computer based and haptic simulation technologies to deliver training to these populations, has provided some useful insights on potential user interface design approaches.

Keywords: User interface design, digitally illiterate, vocational training, navigation issues, computer human interaction, human factors.

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510 Family Bonding and Self-Concept: An Indirect Effect Mediated by School Experiences among Students

Authors: Z. Ishak, F.P Chew

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School experiences, family bonding and self-concept had always been a crucial factor in influencing all aspects of a student-s development. The purpose of this study is to develop and to validate a priori model of self-concept among students. The study was tested empirically using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) to validate the structural model. To address these concerns, 1167 students were randomly selected and utilized the Cognitive Psycho-Social University of Malaya instrument (2009).Resulted demonstrated there is indirect effect from family bonding to self-concept through school experiences among secondary school students as a mediator. Besides school experiences, there is a direct effect from family bonding to self-concept and family bonding to school experiences among students.

Keywords: Confirmatory Factor Analysis, self-concept, family bonding, and school experience

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509 The Link between Distributed Leadership and Educational Outcomes: An Overview of Research

Authors: Maria Eliophotou Menon

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School leadership is commonly considered to have a significant influence on school effectiveness and improvement. Effective school leaders are expected to successfully introduce and support change and innovation at the school unit. Despite an abundance of studies on educational leadership, very few studies have provided evidence on the link between leadership models, and specific educational and school outcomes. This is true of a popular contemporary approach to leadership, namely, distributed leadership. The paper provides an overview of research findings on the effect of distributed leadership on educational outcomes. The theoretical basis for this approach to leadership is presented, with reference to methodological and research limitations. The paper discusses research findings and draws their implications for educational research on school leadership.

Keywords: Distributed leadership, educational outcomes, leadership research.

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508 A Study on the Circumstances Affecting Elementary School Students in Their Familyand School Lives and Their Consequential Emotions

Authors: Osman Samancı, Ramazan Kaya

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The purpose of this study is to determine the circumstances affecting elementary school students in their family and school lives and what kind of emotions children may feel because of these circumstances. The study was carried out according to the survey model. Four Turkish elementary schools provided 123 fourth grade students for participation in the study. The study-s data were collected by using worksheets for the activity titled “Important Days in Our Lives", which was part of the Elementary School Social Sciences Course 4th Grade Education Program. Data analysis was carried out according to the content analysis technique used in qualitative research. The study detected that circumstances of their family and school lives caused children to feel emotions such as happiness, sadness, anger, fear and jealousy. The circumstances and the emotions caused by these circumstances were analyzed according to gender and interpreted by presenting them with their frequencies.

Keywords: Elementary school students, emotional development, family and school, social development.

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507 A Comparative Cross-sectional Study of Religious Behavior in High School and University Students

Authors: Bahram Esmaeili, Hossein Hosseini, Mohammad Sharifi Bohloli, Hamid Reza Imani Far, Sohrab Sadeghi

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The purpose of this study was to investigate the religious behavior of students in high school and universality in Lamerd , a town in the south of Iran, with respect to increase in their level of education and age. The participants were 450 high school and university students in all levels from first year of junior high school to the senior university students who were chosen through multistage cluster sampling method and their religious behavior was studied. Through the revised questionnaire by Nezar Alany from the University of Bahrain (r = 0/797), the religious behavior of the subjects were analyzed. Results showed that students in high school in religious behavior were superior to the students of university (003/0>p) and there was a decline of religious behavior in junior high school third year students to second students of the same school (042/0>p). More important is that the decrease in religious behavior was associated with increase in educational levels (017/0>p) and age (043/0>p).

Keywords: Academic achievement, education level, religion

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506 An Investigation into the Role of School Social Workers and Psychologists with Children Experiencing Special Educational Needs in Libya

Authors: Abdelbasit Gadour

Abstract:

This study explores the function of schools’ psychosocial services within Libyan mainstream schools in relation to children’s special educational needs (SEN). This is with the aim to examine the role of school social workers and psychologists in the assessment procedure of children with SEN. A semi-structured interview was used in this study, with 21 professionals working in the schools’ psychosocial services, of whom 13 were school social workers (SSWs) and eight were school psychologists (SPs). The results of the interviews with SSWs and SPs provided insights into how SEN children are identified, assessed, and dealt with by school professionals. It appears from the results that what constitutes a problem has not changed significantly, and the link between learning difficulties and behavioural difficulties is also evident from this study. Children with behaviour difficulties are more likely to be referred to school psychosocial services than children with learning difficulties. Yet, it is not clear from the interviews with SSWs and SPs whether children are excluded merely because of their behaviour problems. Instead, they would surely be expelled from the school if they failed academically. Furthermore, the interviews with SSWs and SPs yield a rather unusual source accountable for children’s SEN; school-related difficulties were a major factor in which almost all participants attributed children’s learning and behaviour problems to teachers’ deficiencies, followed by school lack of resources.

Keywords: Special education, school, social workers, psychologist.

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