Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1340

Search results for: Automatic sentences modality recognition (ASMR)

1340 Sentence Modality Recognition in French based on Prosody

Authors: Pavel Král, Jana Klečková, Christophe Cerisara

Abstract:

This paper deals with automatic sentence modality recognition in French. In this work, only prosodic features are considered. The sentences are recognized according to the three following modalities: declarative, interrogative and exclamatory sentences. This information will be used to animate a talking head for deaf and hearing-impaired children. We first statistically study a real radio corpus in order to assess the feasibility of the automatic modeling of sentence types. Then, we test two sets of prosodic features as well as two different classifiers and their combination. We further focus our attention on questions recognition, as this modality is certainly the most important one for the target application.

Keywords: Automatic sentences modality recognition (ASMR), fundamental frequency (F0), energy, modal corpus, prosody.

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1339 SySRA: A System of a Continuous Speech Recognition in Arab Language

Authors: Samir Abdelhamid, Noureddine Bouguechal

Abstract:

We report in this paper the model adopted by our system of continuous speech recognition in Arab language SySRA and the results obtained until now. This system uses the database Arabdic-10 which is a corpus of word for the Arab language and which was manually segmented. Phonetic decoding is represented by an expert system where the knowledge base is translated in the form of production rules. This expert system transforms a vocal signal into a phonetic lattice. The higher level of the system takes care of the recognition of the lattice thus obtained by deferring it in the form of written sentences (orthographical Form). This level contains initially the lexical analyzer which is not other than the module of recognition. We subjected this analyzer to a set of spectrograms obtained by dictating a score of sentences in Arab language. The rate of recognition of these sentences is about 70% which is, to our knowledge, the best result for the recognition of the Arab language. The test set consists of twenty sentences from four speakers not having taken part in the training.

Keywords: Continuous speech recognition, lexical analyzer, phonetic decoding, phonetic lattice, vocal signal.

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1338 Possibilities, Challenges and the State of the Art of Automatic Speech Recognition in Air Traffic Control

Authors: Van Nhan Nguyen, Harald Holone

Abstract:

Over the past few years, a lot of research has been conducted to bring Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) into various areas of Air Traffic Control (ATC), such as air traffic control simulation and training, monitoring live operators for with the aim of safety improvements, air traffic controller workload measurement and conducting analysis on large quantities controller-pilot speech. Due to the high accuracy requirements of the ATC context and its unique challenges, automatic speech recognition has not been widely adopted in this field. With the aim of providing a good starting point for researchers who are interested bringing automatic speech recognition into ATC, this paper gives an overview of possibilities and challenges of applying automatic speech recognition in air traffic control. To provide this overview, we present an updated literature review of speech recognition technologies in general, as well as specific approaches relevant to the ATC context. Based on this literature review, criteria for selecting speech recognition approaches for the ATC domain are presented, and remaining challenges and possible solutions are discussed.

Keywords: Automatic Speech Recognition, ASR, Air Traffic Control, ATC.

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1337 Object Recognition Approach Based on Generalized Hough Transform and Color Distribution Serving in Generating Arabic Sentences

Authors: Nada Farhani, Naim Terbeh, Mounir Zrigui

Abstract:

The recognition of the objects contained in images has always presented a challenge in the field of research because of several difficulties that the researcher can envisage because of the variability of shape, position, contrast of objects, etc. In this paper, we will be interested in the recognition of objects. The classical Hough Transform (HT) presented a tool for detecting straight line segments in images. The technique of HT has been generalized (GHT) for the detection of arbitrary forms. With GHT, the forms sought are not necessarily defined analytically but rather by a particular silhouette. For more precision, we proposed to combine the results from the GHT with the results from a calculation of similarity between the histograms and the spatiograms of the images. The main purpose of our work is to use the concepts from recognition to generate sentences in Arabic that summarize the content of the image.

Keywords: Recognition of shape, generalized hough transformation, histogram, Spatiogram, learning.

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1336 Face Recognition: A Literature Review

Authors: A. S. Tolba, A.H. El-Baz, A.A. El-Harby

Abstract:

The task of face recognition has been actively researched in recent years. This paper provides an up-to-date review of major human face recognition research. We first present an overview of face recognition and its applications. Then, a literature review of the most recent face recognition techniques is presented. Description and limitations of face databases which are used to test the performance of these face recognition algorithms are given. A brief summary of the face recognition vendor test (FRVT) 2002, a large scale evaluation of automatic face recognition technology, and its conclusions are also given. Finally, we give a summary of the research results.

Keywords: Combined classifiers, face recognition, graph matching, neural networks.

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1335 The Performance Improvement of Automatic Modulation Recognition Using Simple Feature Manipulation, Analysis of the HOS, and Voted Decision

Authors: Heroe Wijanto, Sugihartono, Suhartono Tjondronegoro, Kuspriyanto

Abstract:

The use of High Order Statistics (HOS) analysis is expected to provide so many candidates of features that can be selected for pattern recognition. More candidates of the feature can be extracted using simple manipulation through a specific mathematical function prior to the HOS analysis. Feature extraction method using HOS analysis combined with Difference to the Nth-Power manipulation has been examined in application for Automatic Modulation Recognition (AMR) to perform scheme recognition of three digital modulation signal, i.e. QPSK-16QAM-64QAM in the AWGN transmission channel. The simulation results is reported when the analysis of HOS up to order-12 and the manipulation of Difference to the Nth-Power up to N = 4. The obtained accuracy rate of AMR using the method of Simple Decision obtained 90% in SNR > 10 dB in its classifier, while using the method of Voted Decision is 96% in SNR > 2 dB.

Keywords: modulation, automatic modulation recognition, feature analysis, feature manipulation.

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1334 Automatic Recognition of Emotionally Coloured Speech

Authors: Theologos Athanaselis, Stelios Bakamidis, Ioannis Dologlou

Abstract:

Emotion in speech is an issue that has been attracting the interest of the speech community for many years, both in the context of speech synthesis as well as in automatic speech recognition (ASR). In spite of the remarkable recent progress in Large Vocabulary Recognition (LVR), it is still far behind the ultimate goal of recognising free conversational speech uttered by any speaker in any environment. Current experimental tests prove that using state of the art large vocabulary recognition systems the error rate increases substantially when applied to spontaneous/emotional speech. This paper shows that recognition rate for emotionally coloured speech can be improved by using a language model based on increased representation of emotional utterances.

Keywords: Statistical language model, N-grams, emotionallycoloured speech

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1333 A System of Automatic Speech Recognition based on the Technique of Temporal Retiming

Authors: Samir Abdelhamid, Noureddine Bouguechal

Abstract:

We report in this paper the procedure of a system of automatic speech recognition based on techniques of the dynamic programming. The technique of temporal retiming is a technique used to synchronize between two forms to compare. We will see how this technique is adapted to the field of the automatic speech recognition. We will expose, in a first place, the theory of the function of retiming which is used to compare and to adjust an unknown form with a whole of forms of reference constituting the vocabulary of the application. Then we will give, in the second place, the various algorithms necessary to their implementation on machine. The algorithms which we will present were tested on part of the corpus of words in Arab language Arabdic-10 [4] and gave whole satisfaction. These algorithms are effective insofar as we apply them to the small ones or average vocabularies.

Keywords: Continuous speech recognition, temporal retiming, phonetic decoding, algorithms, vocal signal, dynamic programming.

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1332 Automatic Recognition of an Unknown and Time-Varying Number of Simultaneous Environmental Sound Sources

Authors: S. Ntalampiras, I. Potamitis, N. Fakotakis, S. Kouzoupis

Abstract:

The present work faces the problem of automatic enumeration and recognition of an unknown and time-varying number of environmental sound sources while using a single microphone. The assumption that is made is that the sound recorded is a realization of sound sources belonging to a group of audio classes which is known a-priori. We describe two variations of the same principle which is to calculate the distance between the current unknown audio frame and all possible combinations of the classes that are assumed to span the soundscene. We concentrate on categorizing environmental sound sources, such as birds, insects etc. in the task of monitoring the biodiversity of a specific habitat.

Keywords: automatic recognition of multiple sound sources, enumeration of sound sources, computational ecology.

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1331 Examining the Value of Attribute Scores for Author-Supplied Keyphrases in Automatic Keyphrase Extraction

Authors: Vicky Min-How Lim, Siew Fan Wong, Tong Ming Lim

Abstract:

Automatic keyphrase extraction is useful in efficiently locating specific documents in online databases. While several techniques have been introduced over the years, improvement on accuracy rate is minimal. This research examines attribute scores for author-supplied keyphrases to better understand how the scores affect the accuracy rate of automatic keyphrase extraction. Five attributes are chosen for examination: Term Frequency, First Occurrence, Last Occurrence, Phrase Position in Sentences, and Term Cohesion Degree. The results show that First Occurrence is the most reliable attribute. Term Frequency, Last Occurrence and Term Cohesion Degree display a wide range of variation but are still usable with suggested tweaks. Only Phrase Position in Sentences shows a totally unpredictable pattern. The results imply that the commonly used ranking approach which directly extracts top ranked potential phrases from candidate keyphrase list as the keyphrases may not be reliable.

Keywords: Accuracy, Attribute Score, Author-supplied keyphrases, Automatic keyphrase extraction.

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1330 OCR/ICR Text Recognition Using ABBYY FineReader as an Example Text

Authors: A. R. Bagirzade, A. Sh. Najafova, S. M. Yessirkepova, E. S. Albert

Abstract:

This article describes a text recognition method based on Optical Character Recognition (OCR). The features of the OCR method were examined using the ABBYY FineReader program. It describes automatic text recognition in images. OCR is necessary because optical input devices can only transmit raster graphics as a result. Text recognition describes the task of recognizing letters shown as such, to identify and assign them an assigned numerical value in accordance with the usual text encoding (ASCII, Unicode). The peculiarity of this study conducted by the authors using the example of the ABBYY FineReader, was confirmed and shown in practice, the improvement of digital text recognition platforms developed by Electronic Publication.

Keywords: ABBYY FineReader system, algorithm symbol recognition, OCR/ICR techniques, recognition technologies.

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1329 Using Teager Energy Cepstrum and HMM distancesin Automatic Speech Recognition and Analysis of Unvoiced Speech

Authors: Panikos Heracleous

Abstract:

In this study, the use of silicon NAM (Non-Audible Murmur) microphone in automatic speech recognition is presented. NAM microphones are special acoustic sensors, which are attached behind the talker-s ear and can capture not only normal (audible) speech, but also very quietly uttered speech (non-audible murmur). As a result, NAM microphones can be applied in automatic speech recognition systems when privacy is desired in human-machine communication. Moreover, NAM microphones show robustness against noise and they might be used in special systems (speech recognition, speech conversion etc.) for sound-impaired people. Using a small amount of training data and adaptation approaches, 93.9% word accuracy was achieved for a 20k Japanese vocabulary dictation task. Non-audible murmur recognition in noisy environments is also investigated. In this study, further analysis of the NAM speech has been made using distance measures between hidden Markov model (HMM) pairs. It has been shown the reduced spectral space of NAM speech using a metric distance, however the location of the different phonemes of NAM are similar to the location of the phonemes of normal speech, and the NAM sounds are well discriminated. Promising results in using nonlinear features are also introduced, especially under noisy conditions.

Keywords: Speech recognition, unvoiced speech, nonlinear features, HMM distance measures

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1328 Automatic Vehicle Identification by Plate Recognition

Authors: Serkan Ozbay, Ergun Ercelebi

Abstract:

Automatic Vehicle Identification (AVI) has many applications in traffic systems (highway electronic toll collection, red light violation enforcement, border and customs checkpoints, etc.). License Plate Recognition is an effective form of AVI systems. In this study, a smart and simple algorithm is presented for vehicle-s license plate recognition system. The proposed algorithm consists of three major parts: Extraction of plate region, segmentation of characters and recognition of plate characters. For extracting the plate region, edge detection algorithms and smearing algorithms are used. In segmentation part, smearing algorithms, filtering and some morphological algorithms are used. And finally statistical based template matching is used for recognition of plate characters. The performance of the proposed algorithm has been tested on real images. Based on the experimental results, we noted that our algorithm shows superior performance in car license plate recognition.

Keywords: Character recognizer, license plate recognition, plate region extraction, segmentation, smearing, template matching.

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1327 Automatic Number Plate Recognition System Based on Deep Learning

Authors: T. Damak, O. Kriaa, A. Baccar, M. A. Ben Ayed, N. Masmoudi

Abstract:

In the last few years, Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR) systems have become widely used in the safety, the security, and the commercial aspects. Forethought, several methods and techniques are computing to achieve the better levels in terms of accuracy and real time execution. This paper proposed a computer vision algorithm of Number Plate Localization (NPL) and Characters Segmentation (CS). In addition, it proposed an improved method in Optical Character Recognition (OCR) based on Deep Learning (DL) techniques. In order to identify the number of detected plate after NPL and CS steps, the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) algorithm is proposed. A DL model is developed using four convolution layers, two layers of Maxpooling, and six layers of fully connected. The model was trained by number image database on the Jetson TX2 NVIDIA target. The accuracy result has achieved 95.84%.

Keywords: Automatic number plate recognition, character segmentation, convolutional neural network, CNN, deep learning, number plate localization.

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1326 Investigation of Combined use of MFCC and LPC Features in Speech Recognition Systems

Authors: К. R. Aida–Zade, C. Ardil, S. S. Rustamov

Abstract:

Statement of the automatic speech recognition problem, the assignment of speech recognition and the application fields are shown in the paper. At the same time as Azerbaijan speech, the establishment principles of speech recognition system and the problems arising in the system are investigated. The computing algorithms of speech features, being the main part of speech recognition system, are analyzed. From this point of view, the determination algorithms of Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC) and Linear Predictive Coding (LPC) coefficients expressing the basic speech features are developed. Combined use of cepstrals of MFCC and LPC in speech recognition system is suggested to improve the reliability of speech recognition system. To this end, the recognition system is divided into MFCC and LPC-based recognition subsystems. The training and recognition processes are realized in both subsystems separately, and recognition system gets the decision being the same results of each subsystems. This results in decrease of error rate during recognition. The training and recognition processes are realized by artificial neural networks in the automatic speech recognition system. The neural networks are trained by the conjugate gradient method. In the paper the problems observed by the number of speech features at training the neural networks of MFCC and LPC-based speech recognition subsystems are investigated. The variety of results of neural networks trained from different initial points in training process is analyzed. Methodology of combined use of neural networks trained from different initial points in speech recognition system is suggested to improve the reliability of recognition system and increase the recognition quality, and obtained practical results are shown.

Keywords: Speech recognition, cepstral analysis, Voice activation detection algorithm, Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients, features of speech, Cepstral Mean Subtraction, neural networks, Linear Predictive Coding.

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1325 Automatic Landmark Selection Based on Feature Clustering for Visual Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Navigation

Authors: Paulo Fernando Silva Filho, Elcio Hideiti Shiguemori

Abstract:

The selection of specific landmarks for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicles’ Visual Navigation systems based on Automatic Landmark Recognition has significant influence on the precision of the system’s estimated position. At the same time, manual selection of the landmarks does not guarantee a high recognition rate, which would also result on a poor precision. This work aims to develop an automatic landmark selection that will take the image of the flight area and identify the best landmarks to be recognized by the Visual Navigation Landmark Recognition System. The criterion to select a landmark is based on features detected by ORB or AKAZE and edges information on each possible landmark. Results have shown that disposition of possible landmarks is quite different from the human perception.

Keywords: Clustering, edges, feature points, landmark selection, X-Means.

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1324 Recognition and Reconstruction of Partially Occluded Objects

Authors: Michela Lecca, Stefano Messelodi

Abstract:

A new automatic system for the recognition and re¬construction of resealed and/or rotated partially occluded objects is presented. The objects to be recognized are described by 2D views and each view is occluded by several half-planes. The whole object views and their visible parts (linear cuts) are then stored in a database. To establish if a region R of an input image represents an object possibly occluded, the system generates a set of linear cuts of R and compare them with the elements in the database. Each linear cut of R is associated to the most similar database linear cut. R is recognized as an instance of the object 0 if the majority of the linear cuts of R are associated to a linear cut of views of 0. In the case of recognition, the system reconstructs the occluded part of R and determines the scale factor and the orientation in the image plane of the recognized object view. The system has been tested on two different datasets of objects, showing good performance both in terms of recognition and reconstruction accuracy.

Keywords: Occluded Object Recognition, Shape Reconstruction, Automatic Self-Adaptive Systems, Linear Cut.

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1323 Combined Automatic Speech Recognition and Machine Translation in Business Correspondence Domain for English-Croatian

Authors: Sanja Seljan, Ivan Dunđer

Abstract:

The paper presents combined automatic speech recognition (ASR) of English and machine translation (MT) for English and Croatian and Croatian-English language pairs in the domain of business correspondence. The first part presents results of training the ASR commercial system on English data sets, enriched by error analysis. The second part presents results of machine translation performed by free online tool for English and Croatian and Croatian-English language pairs. Human evaluation in terms of usability is conducted and internal consistency calculated by Cronbach's alpha coefficient, enriched by error analysis. Automatic evaluation is performed by WER (Word Error Rate) and PER (Position-independent word Error Rate) metrics, followed by investigation of Pearson’s correlation with human evaluation.

Keywords: Automatic machine translation, integrated language technologies, quality evaluation, speech recognition.

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1322 A Novel Approach to Persian Online Hand Writing Recognition

Authors: Ramin Halavati, Mansour Jamzad, Mahdieh Soleymani

Abstract:

Persian (Farsi) script is totally cursive and each character is written in several different forms depending on its former and later characters in the word. These complexities make automatic handwriting recognition of Persian a very hard problem and there are few contributions trying to work it out. This paper presents a novel practical approach to online recognition of Persian handwriting which is based on representation of inputs and patterns with very simple visual features and comparison of these simple terms. This recognition approach is tested over a set of Persian words and the results have been quite acceptable when the possible words where unknown and they were almost all correct in cases that the words where chosen from a prespecified list.

Keywords: Image Processing, Pattern Recognition.

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1321 A Self Configuring System for Object Recognition in Color Images

Authors: Michela Lecca

Abstract:

System MEMORI automatically detects and recognizes rotated and/or rescaled versions of the objects of a database within digital color images with cluttered background. This task is accomplished by means of a region grouping algorithm guided by heuristic rules, whose parameters concern some geometrical properties and the recognition score of the database objects. This paper focuses on the strategies implemented in MEMORI for the estimation of the heuristic rule parameters. This estimation, being automatic, makes the system a highly user-friendly tool.

Keywords: Automatic object recognition, clustering, content based image retrieval system, image segmentation, region adjacency graph, region grouping.

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1320 Object Recognition in Color Images by the Self Configuring System MEMORI

Authors: Michela Lecca

Abstract:

System MEMORI automatically detects and recognizes rotated and/or rescaled versions of the objects of a database within digital color images with cluttered background. This task is accomplished by means of a region grouping algorithm guided by heuristic rules, whose parameters concern some geometrical properties and the recognition score of the database objects. This paper focuses on the strategies implemented in MEMORI for the estimation of the heuristic rule parameters. This estimation, being automatic, makes the system a self configuring and highly user-friendly tool.

Keywords: Automatic Object Recognition, Clustering, Contentbased Image Retrieval System, Image Segmentation, Region Adjacency Graph, Region Grouping.

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1319 Automatic Music Score Recognition System Using Digital Image Processing

Authors: Yuan-Hsiang Chang, Zhong-Xian Peng, Li-Der Jeng

Abstract:

Music has always been an integral part of human’s daily lives. But, for the most people, reading musical score and turning it into melody is not easy. This study aims to develop an Automatic music score recognition system using digital image processing, which can be used to read and analyze musical score images automatically. The technical approaches included: (1) staff region segmentation; (2) image preprocessing; (3) note recognition; and (4) accidental and rest recognition. Digital image processing techniques (e.g., horizontal /vertical projections, connected component labeling, morphological processing, template matching, etc.) were applied according to musical notes, accidents, and rests in staff notations. Preliminary results showed that our system could achieve detection and recognition rates of 96.3% and 91.7%, respectively. In conclusion, we presented an effective automated musical score recognition system that could be integrated in a system with a media player to play music/songs given input images of musical score. Ultimately, this system could also be incorporated in applications for mobile devices as a learning tool, such that a music player could learn to play music/songs.

Keywords: Connected component labeling, image processing, morphological processing, optical musical recognition.

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1318 Automatic Lip Contour Tracking and Visual Character Recognition for Computerized Lip Reading

Authors: Harshit Mehrotra, Gaurav Agrawal, M.C. Srivastava

Abstract:

Computerized lip reading has been one of the most actively researched areas of computer vision in recent past because of its crime fighting potential and invariance to acoustic environment. However, several factors like fast speech, bad pronunciation, poor illumination, movement of face, moustaches and beards make lip reading difficult. In present work, we propose a solution for automatic lip contour tracking and recognizing letters of English language spoken by speakers using the information available from lip movements. Level set method is used for tracking lip contour using a contour velocity model and a feature vector of lip movements is then obtained. Character recognition is performed using modified k nearest neighbor algorithm which assigns more weight to nearer neighbors. The proposed system has been found to have accuracy of 73.3% for character recognition with speaker lip movements as the only input and without using any speech recognition system in parallel. The approach used in this work is found to significantly solve the purpose of lip reading when size of database is small.

Keywords: Contour Velocity Model, Lip Contour Tracking, LipReading, Visual Character Recognition.

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1317 Hybrid Modeling Algorithm for Continuous Tamil Speech Recognition

Authors: M. Kalamani, S. Valarmathy, M. Krishnamoorthi

Abstract:

In this paper, Fuzzy C-Means clustering with Expectation Maximization-Gaussian Mixture Model based hybrid modeling algorithm is proposed for Continuous Tamil Speech Recognition. The speech sentences from various speakers are used for training and testing phase and objective measures are between the proposed and existing Continuous Speech Recognition algorithms. From the simulated results, it is observed that the proposed algorithm improves the recognition accuracy and F-measure up to 3% as compared to that of the existing algorithms for the speech signal from various speakers. In addition, it reduces the Word Error Rate, Error Rate and Error up to 4% as compared to that of the existing algorithms. In all aspects, the proposed hybrid modeling for Tamil speech recognition provides the significant improvements for speechto- text conversion in various applications.

Keywords: Speech Segmentation, Feature Extraction, Clustering, HMM, EM-GMM, CSR.

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1316 The Effects of an Information Delivery Modality on Psychology of E-learning Students

Authors: Eunil Park, Angel P. del Pobil

Abstract:

Does a communication modality matter in delivering e-learning information? With the recent growth of broadcasting systems, media technologies and e-learning contents, various systems with different communication modalities have been introduced. In accordance with these trends, this study examines the effects of the information delivery modality on psychology of students. Findings from an experiment indicated that the delivering information which includes a video modality elicited higher degrees of credibility, quality, representativeness of content, and perceived suitability for delivering information than those of auditory information. However, there is no difference between content liking and attitude. The Implications of the findings and the limitations are discussed.

Keywords: Communication modality, e-learning, multimodality, students.

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1315 Word Recognition and Learning based on Associative Memories and Hidden Markov Models

Authors: Zöhre Kara Kayikci, Günther Palm

Abstract:

A word recognition architecture based on a network of neural associative memories and hidden Markov models has been developed. The input stream, composed of subword-units like wordinternal triphones consisting of diphones and triphones, is provided to the network of neural associative memories by hidden Markov models. The word recognition network derives words from this input stream. The architecture has the ability to handle ambiguities on subword-unit level and is also able to add new words to the vocabulary during performance. The architecture is implemented to perform the word recognition task in a language processing system for understanding simple command sentences like “bot show apple".

Keywords: Hebbian learning, hidden Markov models, neuralassociative memories, word recognition.

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1314 Using Different Aspects of the Signings for Appearance-based Sign Language Recognition

Authors: Morteza Zahedi, Philippe Dreuw, Thomas Deselaers, Hermann Ney

Abstract:

Sign language is used by the deaf and hard of hearing people for communication. Automatic sign language recognition is a challenging research area since sign language often is the only way of communication for the deaf people. Sign language includes different components of visual actions made by the signer using the hands, the face, and the torso, to convey his/her meaning. To use different aspects of signs, we combine the different groups of features which have been extracted from the image frames recorded directly by a stationary camera. We combine the features in two levels by employing three techniques. At the feature level, an early feature combination can be performed by concatenating and weighting different feature groups, or by concatenating feature groups over time and using LDA to choose the most discriminant elements. At the model level, a late fusion of differently trained models can be carried out by a log-linear model combination. In this paper, we investigate these three combination techniques in an automatic sign language recognition system and show that the recognition rate can be significantly improved.

Keywords: American sign language, appearance-based features, Feature combination, Sign language recognition

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1313 Improved Feature Extraction Technique for Handling Occlusion in Automatic Facial Expression Recognition

Authors: Khadijat T. Bamigbade, Olufade F. W. Onifade

Abstract:

The field of automatic facial expression analysis has been an active research area in the last two decades. Its vast applicability in various domains has drawn so much attention into developing techniques and dataset that mirror real life scenarios. Many techniques such as Local Binary Patterns and its variants (CLBP, LBP-TOP) and lately, deep learning techniques, have been used for facial expression recognition. However, the problem of occlusion has not been sufficiently handled, making their results not applicable in real life situations. This paper develops a simple, yet highly efficient method tagged Local Binary Pattern-Histogram of Gradient (LBP-HOG) with occlusion detection in face image, using a multi-class SVM for Action Unit and in turn expression recognition. Our method was evaluated on three publicly available datasets which are JAFFE, CK, SFEW. Experimental results showed that our approach performed considerably well when compared with state-of-the-art algorithms and gave insight to occlusion detection as a key step to handling expression in wild.

Keywords: Automatic facial expression analysis, local binary pattern, LBP-HOG, occlusion detection.

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1312 On Developing an Automatic Speech Recognition System for Standard Arabic Language

Authors: R. Walha, F. Drira, H. El-Abed, A. M. Alimi

Abstract:

The Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) applied to Arabic language is a challenging task. This is mainly related to the language specificities which make the researchers facing multiple difficulties such as the insufficient linguistic resources and the very limited number of available transcribed Arabic speech corpora. In this paper, we are interested in the development of a HMM-based ASR system for Standard Arabic (SA) language. Our fundamental research goal is to select the most appropriate acoustic parameters describing each audio frame, acoustic models and speech recognition unit. To achieve this purpose, we analyze the effect of varying frame windowing (size and period), acoustic parameter number resulting from features extraction methods traditionally used in ASR, speech recognition unit, Gaussian number per HMM state and number of embedded re-estimations of the Baum-Welch Algorithm. To evaluate the proposed ASR system, a multi-speaker SA connected-digits corpus is collected, transcribed and used throughout all experiments. A further evaluation is conducted on a speaker-independent continue SA speech corpus. The phonemes recognition rate is 94.02% which is relatively high when comparing it with another ASR system evaluated on the same corpus.

Keywords: ASR, HMM, acoustical analysis, acoustic modeling, Standard Arabic language

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1311 Improved Weighted Matching for Speaker Recognition

Authors: Ozan Mut, Mehmet Göktürk

Abstract:

Matching algorithms have significant importance in speaker recognition. Feature vectors of the unknown utterance are compared to feature vectors of the modeled speakers as a last step in speaker recognition. A similarity score is found for every model in the speaker database. Depending on the type of speaker recognition, these scores are used to determine the author of unknown speech samples. For speaker verification, similarity score is tested against a predefined threshold and either acceptance or rejection result is obtained. In the case of speaker identification, the result depends on whether the identification is open set or closed set. In closed set identification, the model that yields the best similarity score is accepted. In open set identification, the best score is tested against a threshold, so there is one more possible output satisfying the condition that the speaker is not one of the registered speakers in existing database. This paper focuses on closed set speaker identification using a modified version of a well known matching algorithm. The results of new matching algorithm indicated better performance on YOHO international speaker recognition database.

Keywords: Automatic Speaker Recognition, Voice Recognition, Pattern Recognition, Digital Audio Signal Processing.

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